Sample records for radio galaxy b2

  1. Associated HI Absorption in the = 3.4 Radio Galaxy B2 0902+ 343 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have made observations of the associated HI absorption of a high redshift radio galaxy 0902+34 at = 3.395 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope in the 323+1 MHz band. We find a narrow absorption line with a flux density of 11.5 mJy at a redshift of 3.397 consistent with that observed by Uson et al. (1991) ...

  2. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.


    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  3. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  4. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A


    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  5. The TANGO Project: Thorough ANalysis of radio-Galaxies Observations (United States)

    Ocaña Flaquer, Breezy; Leon Tanne, Stephane; Combes, Francoise; Lim, Jeremy


    We present a sample of radio galaxies selected only on the basis of radio continuum emission and we confirm that these galaxies have lower molecular gas mass than other elliptical galaxies with different selection criteria.

  6. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies. (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M


    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  7. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    'radio-quiet' AGN (Croton et al. 2006; Best & Heckman 2012). There is also evidence to suggest that galaxy mergers influence the radio-loudness of sources (Heckman et al. 1986; Deane et al. 2014). We know that galaxy mergers are an important phase of galaxy evolution (Schweizer 1982; Mihos & Hernquist. 1996; Cox et ...

  8. Gravitational wave astronomy with radio galaxy surveys (United States)

    Raccanelli, Alvise


    In the next decade, new astrophysical instruments will deliver the first large-scale maps of gravitational waves (GWs) and radio sources. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the possibility to combine them to provide new and complementary ways to study the Universe. Using simulated catalogues appropriate to the planned surveys, it is possible to predict measurements of the cross-correlation between radio sources and GW maps and the effects of a stochastic GW background on galaxy maps. Effects of GWs on the large-scale structure (LSS) of the Universe can be used to investigate the nature of the progenitors of merging black holes, the validity of Einstein's general relativity, models for dark energy and detect a stochastic background of GW. The results obtained show that the galaxy-GW cross-correlation can provide useful information in the near future, while the detection of tensor perturbation effects on the LSS will require instruments with capabilities beyond the currently planned next generation of radio arrays. Nevertheless, any information from the combination of galaxy surveys with the GW maps will help provide additional information for the newly born GW astronomy.

  9. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies Nectaria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies ...

  10. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies as they ...

  11. Coma cluster ultradiffuse galaxies are not standard radio galaxies (United States)

    Struble, Mitchell F.


    Matching members in the Coma cluster catalogue of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) from SUBARU imaging with a very deep radio continuum survey source catalogue of the cluster using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) within a rectangular region of ∼1.19 deg2 centred on the cluster core reveals matches consistent with random. An overlapping set of 470 UDGs and 696 VLA radio sources in this rectangular area finds 33 matches within a separation of 25 arcsec; dividing the sample into bins with separations bounded by 5, 10, 20 and 25 arcsec finds 1, 4, 17 and 11 matches. An analytical model estimate, based on the Poisson probability distribution, of the number of randomly expected matches within these same separation bounds is 1.7, 4.9, 19.4 and 14.2, each, respectively, consistent with the 95 per cent Poisson confidence intervals of the observed values. Dividing the data into five clustercentric annuli of 0.1° and into the four separation bins, finds the same result. This random match of UDGs with VLA sources implies that UDGs are not radio galaxies by the standard definition. Those VLA sources having integrated flux >1 mJy at 1.4 GHz in Miller, Hornschemeier and Mobasher without SDSS galaxy matches are consistent with the known surface density of background radio sources. We briefly explore the possibility that some unresolved VLA sources near UDGs could be young, compact, bright, supernova remnants of Type Ia events, possibly in the intracluster volume.

  12. On the morphological dichotomies observed in the powerful radio galaxies (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.


    We study environment and host galaxy properties of powerful radio galaxies with different radio morphologies from compact sources to very extended double lobed radio galaxies and with different optical spectra classified as high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode) radio galaxies. We use a complete sample of morphologically classified radio sources from [1] and perform three different analyses: i) we compare compact radio sources with the extended sources from the same class of excitation. ii) we compare HERGs with the LERGs using a combined sample of compact and extended sources. iii) we investigate the origin of different morphologies observed in the very extended powerful radio galaxies, historically classified as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) radio galaxies of type I and type II by comparing a sample of FRIs with the FRIIs from the same excitation class. We discuss the results and what causes the differences in each comparison. The role of host galaxy and the central super massive black hole, and the galaxy interactions are all investigated.

  13. Emission line imaging of 3CR quasars and radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hes, R; Barthel, PD; Fosbury, RAE

    Optical emission line images and spectra of sixteen 3CR powerful radio galaxies and quasars are presented. Extended line emission is detected in both radio galaxies and quasars. We show that line luminosities, derived from the spatially integrated [OII]lambda 3727 narrow emission line, are on

  14. Radio Galaxy Zoo: cosmological alignment of radio sources (United States)

    Contigiani, O.; de Gasperin, F.; Miley, G. K.; Rudnick, L.; Andernach, H.; Banfield, J. K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Shabala, S. S.; Wong, O. I.


    We study the mutual alignment of radio sources within two surveys, Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-centimetres (FIRST) and TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS). This is done by producing two position angle catalogues containing the preferential directions of respectively 30 059 and 11 674 extended sources distributed over more than 7000 and 17 000 deg2. The identification of the sources in the FIRST sample was performed in advance by volunteers of the Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) project, while for the TGSS sample it is the result of an automated process presented here. After taking into account systematic effects, marginal evidence of a local alignment on scales smaller than 2.5 deg is found in the FIRST sample. The probability of this happening by chance is found to be less than 2 per cent. Further study suggests that on scales up to 1.5 deg the alignment is maximal. For one third of the sources, the RGZ volunteers identified an optical counterpart. Assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology with Ω _m = 0.31, Ω _Λ = 0.69, we convert the maximum angular scale on which alignment is seen into a physical scale in the range [19, 38] Mpc h_{70}^{-1}. This result supports recent evidence reported by Taylor and Jagannathan of radio jet alignment in the 1.4 deg2 ELAIS N1 field observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The TGSS sample is found to be too sparsely populated to manifest a similar signal.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, A.; Cheung, C.


    Most radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, active galaxies that emit much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Within each radio galaxy, an AGN powers a pair of collimated jets of relativistic particles, forming a pair of giant lobes at the end of the jets and thus giving a characteristic double-lobed appearance. A particular class of radio galaxies has an “X”-or winged-shaped morphology: in these, two pairs of lobes appear to originate from the galactic center, producing a distinctive X-shape. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain the X-shape morphology: one being a realignment of the black hole within the AGN and the second positing that the radio jets are expanding into an asymmetric medium, causing backflow and producing secondary wings. By analyzing radio host galaxy shapes, the distribution of the stellar mass is compared to the differing model expectations regarding the distribution of the surrounding gas and stellar material about the AGN. Results show elliptical host galaxies with an orthogonal offset between the semi-major axis of the host galaxy and the secondary radio wings, which lends support to the hydrodynamical model. However, results also show circular host galaxies with radio wings, making the realignment scenario a more likely model to describe the formation of these X-shaped radio sources.

  16. Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source (United States)


    Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar elliptical galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories

  17. Host Galaxies of X-Shaped Radio Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmann, Alessondra; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC


    The majority of radiation from galaxies containing active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is emitted not by the stars composing the galaxy, but from an active source at the galactic center, most likely a supermassive black hole. Of particular interest are radio galaxies, the active galaxies emitting much of their radiation at radio wavelengths. Within each radio galaxy, an AGN powers a pair of collimated jets of relativistic particles, forming a pair of giant lobes at the end of the jets and thus giving a characteristic double-lobed appearance. A particular class of radio galaxies have an ''X''-shaped morphology: in these, two pairs of lobes appear to originate from the galactic center, producing a distinctive X-shape. Two main mechanisms have been proposed to explain the X-shape morphology: one being through the merger of a binary supermassive black hole system and the second being that the radio jets are expanding into an asymmetric medium. By analyzing radio host galaxy shapes, we probe the distribution of the stellar mass to compare the differing model expectations regarding the distribution of the surrounding gas and stellar material about the AGN.

  18. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  19. Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of turbulent ...

  20. Anomalous radio-loudness of Cygnus A and other powerful radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, PD; Arnaud, KA


    The nearby, extremely powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A stands out as having an atypically low far-infrared/radio luminosity ratio. It is demonstrated that in objects displaying such a low ratio the radio-loudness is anomalously high, which fact is connected to these objects inhabiting dense X-ray

  1. Fast radio burst tied to distant dwarf galaxy (Image 2)

    National Science Foundation


    Full Text Available Radio telescope at Arecibo only localized the fast radio burst to the area inside the two circles in this image, but the Very Large Array was able to pinpoint it as a dwarf galaxy within the square (shown at intersection of cross hairs in enlarged box)

  2. Radio brightening of FRB 150418 host galaxy candidate (United States)

    Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.


    Keane et al. (2016 Nature 530 453) reported a fading radio transient in the z=0.498 galaxy WISE J071634.59-190039.2 (WISE 0716-19; Williams & Berger, arxiv:1602.08434) that they associated with the fast radio burst FRB 150418.

  3. A Hidden Radio Halo in the Galaxy Cluster A1682?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High sensitivity observations of radio halos in galaxy clusters at frequencies ≤ 330 MHz are still relatively rare, and very little is known compared to the classical 1.4 GHz images. The few radio halos imaged down to 150–240 MHz show a considerable spread in size, morphology and spectral properties. All clusters ...

  4. The Double–Double Radio Galaxy 3C293

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of radio continuum observations at frequencies ranging from ∼ 150–5000 MHz of the misaligned double–double radio galaxy (DDRG) 3C293 (J1352+3126) using the GMRT and the VLA, and estimate the time-scale of interruption of jet activity to be less than ∼ 0.1 Myr.

  5. Rapidly growing black holes and host galaxies in the distant Universe from the Herschel Radio Galaxy Evolution Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Seymour, N.; Lehnert, M.; Barthel, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Ibar, E.; Galametz, A.; Haas, M.; Hatch, N.; Mullaney, J. R.; Nesvadba, N.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stern, D.; Wylezalek, D.


    We present results from a comprehensive survey of 70 radio galaxies at redshifts 1 2.5 are higher than the sSFR of typical star forming galaxies over the same redshift range, but are similar or perhaps lower than the galaxy population for radio galaxies at z<2.5. By comparing the sSFR and the

  6. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: disc-halo interactions in radio-selected star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Leslie, S. K.; Bryant, J. J.; Ho, I.-T.; Sadler, E. M.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Wong, O. I.; Brough, S.; Tescari, E.; Sweet, S. M.; Sharp, R.; Green, A. W.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.


    In this paper, we compare the radio emission at 1.4 GHz with optical outflow signatures of edge-on galaxies. We report observations of six edge-on star-forming galaxies in the Sydney-AAO Multiobject Integral-field spectrograph Galaxy Survey with 1.4 GHz luminosities >1 × 1021 W Hz-1. Extended minor axis optical emission is detected with enhanced [N II]/H α line ratios and velocity dispersions consistent with galactic winds in three of six galaxies. These galaxies may host outflows driven by a combination of thermal and cosmic ray processes. We find that galaxies with the strongest wind signatures have extended radio morphologies. Our results form a baseline for understanding the driving mechanisms of galactic winds.

  7. Very-long-baseline radio interferometry observations of low power radio galaxies. (United States)

    Giovannini, G; Cotton, W D; Feretti, L; Lara, L; Venturi, T; Marcaide, J M


    The parsec scale properties of low power radio galaxies are reviewed here, using the available data on 12 Fanaroff-Riley type I galaxies. The most frequent radio structure is an asymmetric parsec-scale morphology--i.e., core and one-sided jet. It is shared by 9 (possibly 10) of the 12 mapped radio galaxies. One (possibly 2) of the other galaxies has a two-sided jet emission. Two sources are known from published data to show a proper motion; we present here evidence for proper motion in two more galaxies. Therefore, in the present sample we have 4 radio galaxies with a measured proper motion. One of these has a very symmetric structure and therefore should be in the plane of the sky. The results discussed here are in agreement with the predictions of the unified scheme models. Moreover, the present data indicate that the parsec scale structure in low and high power radio galaxies is essentially the same. PMID:11607596

  8. A Radio Galaxy at z = 5.19 (United States)

    van Breugel, Wil; De Breuck, Carlos; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George


    We report the discovery of the most distant known active galactic nucleus, the radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 at z=5.19. The radio source was selected from a new sample of ultrasteep spectrum sources, has an extreme radio spectral index α1.4GHz365MHz=-1.63, and is identified at near-IR wavelengths with a very faint, K=21.3+/-0.3 object. Spectroscopic observations show a single emission line at λ~7530 Å, which we identify as Lyα. The K-band image, sampling rest-frame U band, shows a multicomponent, radio-aligned morphology, which is typical of lower-redshift radio galaxies. TN J0924-2201 extends the near-IR Hubble, or K-z, relation for powerful radio galaxies to z>5 and is consistent with models of massive galaxies forming at even higher redshifts. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Classifying Radio Galaxies with the Convolutional Neural Network (United States)

    Aniyan, A. K.; Thorat, K.


    We present the application of a deep machine learning technique to classify radio images of extended sources on a morphological basis using convolutional neural networks (CNN). In this study, we have taken the case of the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class of radio galaxies as well as radio galaxies with bent-tailed morphology. We have used archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA)—Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey and existing visually classified samples available in the literature to train a neural network for morphological classification of these categories of radio sources. Our training sample size for each of these categories is ˜200 sources, which has been augmented by rotated versions of the same. Our study shows that CNNs can classify images of the FRI and FRII and bent-tailed radio galaxies with high accuracy (maximum precision at 95%) using well-defined samples and a “fusion classifier,” which combines the results of binary classifications, while allowing for a mechanism to find sources with unusual morphologies. The individual precision is highest for bent-tailed radio galaxies at 95% and is 91% and 75% for the FRI and FRII classes, respectively, whereas the recall is highest for FRI and FRIIs at 91% each, while the bent-tailed class has a recall of 79%. These results show that our results are comparable to that of manual classification, while being much faster. Finally, we discuss the computational and data-related challenges associated with the morphological classification of radio galaxies with CNNs.

  10. Radio-optical galaxy shape correlations in the COSMOS field


    Tunbridge, Ben; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.


    We investigate the correlations in galaxy shapes between optical and radio wavelengths using archival observations of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. Cross-correlation studies between different wavebands will become increasingly important for precision cosmology as future large surveys may be dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors. In the case of weak lensing, galaxy shapes must be measured to extraordinary accuracy (shear systematics of <0.01 percent) in order ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We present radio maps of a collection of intermediate redshift quasars and radio galaxies mostly taken from the 3C and 4C catalogues. The sources were observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at one or more of the following frequencies: 15 GHz, 8.4 GHz or 1.4 GHz. Several basic source parameters axe

  12. Jet triggered Type Ia supernovae in radio-galaxies?


    Capetti, Alessandro


    We report the serendipitous discovery of a supernova (SN) in the nearby radio-galaxy 3C 78. Observations obtained with the STIS spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope show, at a distance of 0.54 arcsec (300 pc) from the galaxy nucleus, a second bright source, not present in previous images. As this source was fortuitously covered by the spectrograph slit its spectrum was obtained and it is characteristic of a Type Ia SN. This SN is closely aligned with the radio-jet of 3C 78. Analys...

  13. Radio Galaxy Zoo: discovery of a poor cluster through a giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy (United States)

    Banfield, J. K.; Andernach, H.; Kapińska, A. D.; Rudnick, L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Cotter, G.; Vaughan, S.; Jones, T. W.; Heywood, I.; Wing, J. D.; Wong, O. I.; Matorny, T.; Terentev, I. A.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Shabala, S. S.; Willett, K. W.


    We have discovered a previously unreported poor cluster of galaxies (RGZ-CL J0823.2+0333) through an unusual giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy found in the Radio Galaxy Zoo project. We obtained a spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.0897 for the E0-type host galaxy, 2MASX J08231289+0333016, leading to Mr = -22.6 and a 1.4 GHz radio luminosity density of L1.4 = 5.5 × 1024 W Hz-1. These radio and optical luminosities are typical for wide-angle tailed radio galaxies near the borderline between Fanaroff-Riley classes I and II. The projected largest angular size of ≈8 arcmin corresponds to 800 kpc and the full length of the source along the curved jets/trails is 1.1 Mpc in projection. X-ray data from the XMM-Newton archive yield an upper limit on the X-ray luminosity of the thermal emission surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 at 1.2-2.6 × 1043 erg s-1 for assumed intracluster medium temperatures of 1.0-5.0 keV. Our analysis of the environment surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 indicates that RGZ J082312.9+033301 lies within a poor cluster. The observed radio morphology suggests that (a) the host galaxy is moving at a significant velocity with respect to an ambient medium like that of at least a poor cluster, and that (b) the source may have had two ignition events of the active galactic nucleus with 107 yr in between. This reinforces the idea that an association between RGZ J082312.9+033301 and the newly discovered poor cluster exists.

  14. Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    and ESO 548-G 036 where the uncertainties are 25% and 30% respectively. 3. The radio and FIR emission from the Eridanus galaxies. A total of 72 Eridanus galaxies are detected in the IRAS survey, out of which 38 galaxies were detected in the NVSS. A total of 7 early type (E + S0s) galaxies are detected in radio, most of ...

  15. TANGO I: Interstellar medium in nearby radio galaxies. Molecular gas (United States)

    Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Leon, S.; Combes, F.; Lim, J.


    Context. Powerful radio-AGN are hosted by massive elliptical galaxies that are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless, gas is needed at their very center to feed the nuclear activity. Aims: We study the molecular gas properties (i.e., mass, kinematics, distribution, origin) of these objects, and compare them with results for other known samples. Methods: At the IRAM-30m telescope, we performed a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio continuum fluxes. Results: The main result of our survey is that the molecular gas content of these galaxies is very low compared to spiral or FIR-selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, including detections and upper limits, is 2.2 × 108 M⊙. When separated into FR-I and FR-II types, a difference in their H2 masses is found. The median value of FR-I galaxies is about 1.9 × 108 M⊙ and higher for FR-II galaxies, at about 4.5 × 108 M⊙. Which is probably entirely because of a Malmquist bias. Our results contrast with those of previous surveys, whose targets were mainly selected by means of their FIR emission, implying that we measure higher observed masses of molecular gas. Moreover, the shape of CO spectra suggest that a central molecular gas disk exists in 30% of these radio galaxies, a lower rate than in other active galaxy samples. Conclusions: We find a low level of molecular gas in our sample of radio-selected AGNs, indicating that galaxies do not need much molecular gas to host an AGN. The presence of a molecular gas disk in some galaxies and the wide range of molecular gas masses may be indicative of different origins for the gas, which we can not exclude at present (e.g., minor/major mergers, stellar mass loss, or accretion). Appendices and Figure 15 are only available in electronic form at

  16. A Radio Galaxy at z=5.19


    van Breugel, Wil; De Breuck, Carlos; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Dan; Rottgering, Huub; Miley, George


    We report the discovery of the most distant known AGN, the radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 at z = 5.19. The radio source was selected from a new sample of ultra-steep spectrum (USS) sources, has an extreme radio spectral index alpha_365MHz^1.4GHz = -1.63, and is identified at near-IR wavelengths with a very faint, K = 21.3 +- 0.3 object. Spectroscopic observations show a single emission line at lambda ~ 7530A, which we identify as Ly-alpha. The K-band image, sampling rest frame U-band, shows a mul...

  17. Neutrino Bursts from Fanaroff-Riley I Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.


    On the basis of existing observations (at the 4.5 \\sigma level) of TeV gamma-ray outbursts from the Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) radio galaxy Centaurus A, we estimate the accompanying neutrino flux in a scenario where both photons and neutrinos emerge from pion decay. We find a neutrino flux on Earth dF_{\

  18. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.


    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of zgeneration of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1-1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  19. Fast Outflows of Neutral Hydrogen in Radio Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, T. A.; Morganti, R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Tadhunter, C. N.


    Abstract: AGN activity is known to drive fast outflows of gas. We report the discovery of fast outflows of neutral gas with velocities over 1000 km/s in a number of radio galaxies. In the best studied object, 3C~293, the kinematical properties of the neutral and ionised outflows are similar,

  20. Is cold gas fuelling the radio galaxy NGC 315?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Peck, A. B.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van Moorsel, G.; Capetti, A.; Fanti, R.; Parma, P.; Ruiter de, H.R.


    We present WSRT, VLA and VLBI observations of the Hi absorption in the radio galaxy NGC 315. The main result is that two Hi absorbing systems are detected against the central region. In addition to the known highly redshifted, very narrow component, we detect relatively broad (FWZI similar to 150 km

  1. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.


    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  2. Galaxy Clusters Around z 1-2 Low Luminosity Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Castignani, Gianluca


    At variance with powerful radio galaxies Low Luminosity Radio Galaxies (LLRGs) are almost invariably found in clusters and often associated with the brightest cluster galaxies, at least at low-redshifts. In order to prove that this holds also at high-z we exploit a sample of 32 LLRGs at z 1-2 drawn from the COSMOS survey and search for Mpc-scale overdensities using photometric redshifts and our recently developed Poisson Probability Method. We find that 70% of the LLRGs reside in rich groups or (proto-)clusters. This fraction is higher than that found for powerful radio galaxies at similar redshifts and is in excellent agreement with results obtained at low redshifts. Independent confirmation of some of our cluster candidates is found in catalogs of clusters selected in X-rays or spectroscopically. Our strategy is unbiased with respect to colors and star formation history of cluster galaxies and represents a valuable alternative to conventional methods that search for clusters. We observed with the 30 m IRAM telescope two of our z = 1 LLRGs in clusters to search for molecular gas and set CO upper limits. Our clusters are optimal targets for mm observations with NOEMA and ALMA.

  3. (WAT) Radio Source Associated with the Galaxy PGC 1519010 NG ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 13, 2009 ... phology indicating that it is a cD type elliptical with a large stellar halo extended north–south. the nature of this radio source and its optical/X-ray environment. A Hubble constant of 70 km s. −1. Mpc. −1 is assumed. 2. PGC 1519010 – the host galaxy. PGC 1519010 is located ∼16 to the south of UGC 6614, ...

  4. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  5. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  6. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.


    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  7. Radio galaxies with a 'double-double morphology' : I. Analysis of the radio properties and evidence for interrupted activity in active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, AP; de Bruyn, AG; Rottgering, HJA; van der Laan, H; Kaiser, CR


    We present four Mpc-sized radio galaxies which consist of a pair of double-lobed radio sources, aligned along the same axis, and with a coinciding radio core. We call these peculiar radio sources 'double-double' radio galaxies (DDRGs) and propose a general definition of such sources: a

  8. Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Their Host Galaxies (United States)

    Eftekhari, T.; Berger, E.


    The first precise localization of a fast radio burst (FRB) sheds light on the nature of these mysterious bursts and the physical mechanisms that power them. Increasing the sample of FRBs with robust host galaxy associations is the key impetus behind ongoing and upcoming searches and facilities. Here, we quantify the robustness of FRB host galaxy associations as a function of localization area and galaxy apparent magnitude. We also explore the use of FRB dispersion measures to constrain the source redshift, thereby reducing the number of candidate hosts. We use these results to demonstrate that even in the absence of a unique association, a constraint can be placed on the maximum luminosity of a host galaxy as a function of localization and dispersion measure (DM). We find that localizations of ≲ 0.5\\text{'}\\text{'} are required for a chance coincidence probability of ≲ 1 % for dwarf galaxies at z≳ 0.1; if some hosts have luminosities of ∼ {L}\\ast , then localizations of up to ≈ 5\\prime\\prime may suffice at z∼ 0.1. Constraints on the redshift from the DM only marginally improve the association probability unless the DM is low, ≲ 400 pc cm‑3. This approach also relies on the determination of galaxy redshifts, which is challenging at z≳ 0.5 if the hosts are dwarf galaxies. Finally, interesting limits on the maximum host luminosity require localizations of ≲ 5\\prime\\prime at z≳ 0.1. Even a few such localizations will explain the nature of FRB progenitors, their possible diversity, and their use as cosmological tools.

  9. Discovery of giant radio galaxies from NVSS: radio and infrared properties (United States)

    Dabhade, Pratik; Gaikwad, Madhuri; Bagchi, Joydeep; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Sankhyayan, Shishir; Raychaudhury, Somak


    Giant radio galaxies (GRGs) are one of the largest astrophysical sources in the Universe with an overall projected linear size of ˜0.7 Mpc or more. The last six decades of radio astronomy research has led to the detection of thousands of radio galaxies. However, only ˜300 of them can be classified as GRGs. The reasons behind their large size and rarity are unknown. We carried out a systematic search for these radio giants and found a large sample of GRGs. In this paper, we report the discovery of 25 GRGs from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey, in the red-shift range z ˜ 0.07 to 0.67. Their physical sizes range from ˜0.8 Mpc to ˜4 Mpc. Eight of these GRGs have sizes ≥2 Mpc, which is a rarity. Here, for the first time, we investigate the mid-infrared (IR) properties of the optical hosts of the GRGs and classify them securely into various active galactic nuclei types using the WISE mid-IR colours. Using radio and IR data, four of the hosts of the GRGs were observed to be radio-loud quasars that extend up to 2 Mpc in radio size. These GRGs missed detection in earlier searches possibly because of their highly diffuse nature, low surface brightness and lack of optical data. The new GRGs are a significant addition to the existing sample. They will contribute to a better understanding of the physical properties of radio giants.

  10. Narrow head-tail radio galaxies at very high resolution (United States)

    Terni de Gregory, B.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.; Murgia, M.; Perley, R. A.; Vacca, V.


    Aims: Narrow-angle tailed (NAT) sources in clusters of galaxies can show on the large scale very narrow tails that are unresolved even at arcsecond resolution. These sources could therefore be classified as one-sided jets. The aim of this paper is to gain new insight into the structure of these sources, and establish whether they are genuine one-sided objects, or if they are two-sided sources. Methods: We observed a sample of apparently one-sided NAT sources at subarcsecond resolution to obtain detailed information on their structure in the nuclear regions of radio galaxies. Results: Most radio galaxies are found to show two-sided jets with sharp bends, and therefore the sources are similar to the more classical NATs, which are affected by strong projection effects. The reduced images (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  11. Large Host-galaxy Dispersion Measure of Fast Radio Bursts (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Luo, Rui; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Bing


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have excessive dispersion measures (DMs) and an all-sky distribution, which point toward an extragalactic or even a cosmological origin. We develop a method to extract the mean host galaxy DM ( ) and the characterized luminosity (L) of FRBs using the observed DM-flux data, based on the assumption of a narrow luminosity distribution. Applying Bayesian inference to the data of 21 FRBs, we derive a relatively large mean host DM, i.e., ˜ 270 {pc} {{cm}}-3 with a large dispersion. A relatively large DMHG of FRBs is also supported by the millisecond scattering times of some FRBs and the relatively small redshift z = 0.19273 of FRB 121102 (which gives {{DM}}{HG,{loc}}˜ 210 {pc} {{cm}}-3). The large host galaxy DM may be contributed by the interstellar medium (ISM) or a near-source plasma in the host galaxy. If it is contributed by the ISM, the type of the FRB host galaxies would not be Milky Way-like, consistent with the detected host of FRB 121102. We also discuss the possibility of having a near-source supernova remnant, pulsar wind nebula, or H ii region that gives a significant contribution to the observed DMHG.

  12. Circumnuclear gaseous kinematics and excitation of four local radio galaxies (United States)

    Couto, G. S.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Riffel, R. A.; Kharb, P.; Lena, D.; Schnorr-Müller, A.


    We present our results using optical integral field spectroscopy of four nearby (zGMOS in Gemini North and South telescopes. The field-of-view probes a circumnuclear region of ≍3.5"×5", with average spatial resolution of ≍0.6". In this presentation, we will resume our results for two galaxies of our sample, Arp 102B and Pictor A, which are already published (Couto et al. 2013, 2016), as well as discuss the preliminary results for the other two, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30. While these galaxies present different characteristics, like radio jet morphology, they display in common signatures of interactions or merger events.

  13. Cold gas & mergers: fundamental difference in HI properties of different types of radio galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, Bjorn; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; van Gorkom, Jacqueline


    We present results of a study of large-scale neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in nearby radio galaxies. We find that the early-type host galaxies of different types of radio sources (compact, FR-I and FR-II) appear to contain fundamentally different large-scale HI properties: enormous regular rotating

  14. Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... a few Myr of the onset of an intense star formation episode after being quiescent for at least a 100 Myr. The upper end of the radio luminosity distribution of the Eridanus galaxies (20cm ∼ 1022W Hz-1) is consistent with that of the field galaxies, other groups, and late-type galaxies in nearby clusters.

  15. VLBA Observations of Low Luminosity Flat Spectrum Radio Galaxies and BL Lac Objects: Polarisation Properties (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.; Marchã, M. J. M.

    We obtained two-epoch VLBA observations at 5 GHz of a list of radio galaxies drawn from the 200 mJy sample (Marcha et al. 1996). The objects selected for milli-arcsecond scale observations are classified, on the basis of their optical spectroscopic and polarimetric properties, as BL Lac objects, normal weak line radio galaxies, broad line radio galaxies, and transition objects (those with intermediate properties). We present preliminary results on the radio polarization properties, on the milli-arcsecond scale, of objects with different optical properties and discuss structural variations detected from the two epochs.

  16. Search and modelling of remnant radio galaxies in the LOFAR Lockman Hole field (United States)

    Brienza, M.; Godfrey, L.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Harwood, J.; Mahony, E. K.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Murgia, M.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shulevski, A.


    Context. The phase of radio galaxy evolution after the jets have switched off, often referred to as the remnant phase, is poorly understood and very few sources in this phase are known. Aims: In this work we present an extensive search for remnant radio galaxies in the Lockman Hole, a well-studied extragalactic field. We create mock catalogues of low-power radio galaxies based on Monte Carlo simulations to derive first-order predictions of the fraction of remnants in radio flux limited samples for comparison with our Lockman-Hole sample. Methods: Our search for remnant radio galaxies is based on LOFAR observations at 150 MHz combined with public survey data at higher frequencies. To enhance the selection process, and obtain a more complete picture of the remnant population, we use spectral criteria such as ultra-steep spectral index and high spectral curvature, and morphologre biased toward tinuum: galaxie ical criteria such as low radio core prominence and relaxed shapes to identify candidate remnant radio galaxies. Mock catalogues of radio galaxies are created based on existing spectral and dynamical evolution models combined with observed source properties. Results: We have identified 23 candidate remnant radio galaxies which cover a variety of morphologies and spectral characteristics. We suggest that these different properties are related to different stages of the remnant evolution. We find that ultra-steep spectrum remnants represent only a fraction of our remnant sample suggesting a very rapid luminosity evolution of the radio plasma. Results from mock catalogues demonstrate the importance of dynamical evolution in the remnant phase of low-power radio galaxies to obtain fractions of remnant sources consistent with our observations. Moreover, these results confirm that ultra-steep spectrum remnants represent only a small subset of the entire population ( 50%) when frequencies higher than 1400 MHz are not included in the selection process, and that they are

  17. Testing for Shock-heated X-Ray Gas around Compact Steep Spectrum Radio Galaxies (United States)

    O’Dea, C. P.; Worrall, D. M.; Tremblay, G. R.; Clarke, T. E.; Rothberg, B.; Baum, S. A.; Christiansen, K. P.; Mullarkey, C. A.; Noel-Storr, J.; Mittal, R.


    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray, Very Large Array (VLA) radio, and optical observations of three candidate compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies. CSS sources are of a galactic scale and are presumably driving a shock through the interstellar medium (ISM) of their host galaxy. B3 1445+410 is a low-excitation emission line CSS radio galaxy with possibly a hybrid Fanaroff–Riley FRI/II (or fat double) radio morphology. The Chandra observations reveal a point-like source that is well fit with a power law consistent with the emission from a Doppler boosted core. 3C 268.3 is a CSS broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) whose Chandra data are consistent spatially with a point source centered on the nucleus and spectrally with a double power-law model. PKS B1017–325 is a low-excitation emission line radio galaxy with a bent double radio morphology. While from our new spectroscopic redshift, PKS B1017‑325 falls outside the formal definition of a CSS, the XMM-Newton observations are consistent with ISM emission with either a contribution from hot shocked gas or non-thermal jet emission. We compile selected radio and X-ray properties of the nine bona fide CSS radio galaxies with X-ray detections so far. We find that two out of the nine show X-ray spectroscopic evidence for hot shocked gas. We note that the counts in the sources are low and that the properties of the two sources with evidence for hot shocked gas are typical of the other CSS radio galaxies. We suggest that hot shocked gas may be typical of CSS radio galaxies due to their propagation through their host galaxies.

  18. LOFAR discovery of an ultra-steep radio halo and giant head-tail radio galaxy in Abell 1132 (United States)

    Wilber, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Savini, F.; Shimwell, T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Rafferty, D.; Mechev, A. P.; Intema, H.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Clarke, A. O.; Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Brunetti, G.; Röttgering, H.; Mandal, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.


    Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations at 144 MHz have revealed large-scale radio sources in the unrelaxed galaxy cluster Abell 1132. The cluster hosts diffuse radio emission on scales of ∼650 kpc near the cluster centre and a head-tail (HT) radio galaxy, extending up to 1 Mpc, south of the cluster centre. The central diffuse radio emission is not seen in NRAO VLA FIRST Survey, Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, nor in C & D array VLA observations at 1.4 GHz, but is detected in our follow-up Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations at 325 MHz. Using LOFAR and GMRT data, we determine the spectral index of the central diffuse emission to be α = -1.75 ± 0.19 (S ∝ να). We classify this emission as an ultra-steep spectrum radio halo and discuss the possible implications for the physical origin of radio haloes. The HT radio galaxy shows narrow, collimated emission extending up to 1 Mpc and another 300 kpc of more diffuse, disturbed emission, giving a full projected linear size of 1.3 Mpc - classifying it as a giant radio galaxy (GRG) and making it the longest HT found to date. The head of the GRG coincides with an elliptical galaxy (SDSS J105851.01+564308.5) belonging to Abell 1132. In our LOFAR image, there appears to be a connection between the radio halo and the GRG. The turbulence that may have produced the halo may have also affected the tail of the GRG. In turn, the GRG may have provided seed electrons for the radio halo.

  19. Relics in galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies (United States)

    Kierdorf, M.; Beck, R.; Hoeft, M.; Klein, U.; van Weeren, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.


    Aims: We investigated the magnetic properties of radio relics located at the peripheries of galaxy clusters at high radio frequencies, where the emission is expected to be free of Faraday depolarization. The degree of polarization is a measure of the magnetic field compression and, hence, the Mach number. Polarization observations can also be used to confirm relic candidates. Methods: We observed three radio relics in galaxy clusters and one radio relic candidate at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz in total emission and linearly polarized emission with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. In addition, we observed one radio relic candidate in X-rays with the Chandra telescope. We derived maps of polarization angle, polarization degree, and Faraday rotation measures. Results: The radio spectra of the integrated emission below 8.35 GHz can be well fitted by single power laws for all four relics. The flat spectra (spectral indices of 0.9 and 1.0) for the so-called Sausage relic in cluster CIZA J2242+53 and the so-called Toothbrush relic in cluster 1RXS 06+42 indicate that models describing the origin of relics have to include effects beyond the assumptions of diffuse shock acceleration. The spectra of the radio relics in ZwCl 0008+52 and in Abell 1612 are steep, as expected from weak shocks (Mach number ≈2.4). Polarization observations of radio relics offer a method of measuring the strength and geometry of the shock front. We find polarization degrees of more than 50% in the two prominent Mpc-sized radio relics, the Sausage and the Toothbrush, which are among the highest percentages of linear polarization detected in any extragalactic radio source to date. This is remarkable because the large beam size of the Effelsberg single-dish telescope corresponds to linear extensions of about 300 kpc at 8.35 GHz at the distances of the relics. The high degree of polarization indicates that the magnetic field vectors are almost perfectly aligned along the relic structure, as expected for shock

  20. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations of the host galaxies of powerful radio sources : Does size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, WH; O'Dea, CP; Barthel, PD; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Lehnert, MD


    We present near-infrared J- and K-band imaging of a sample of powerful radio source host galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS2 camera. These sources have been selected on their double-lobed radio structure and include a wide range of projected radio source sizes. The largest projected

  1. LOFAR VLBI studies at 55 MHz of 4C 43.15, a z = 2.4 radio galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Deller, Adam T.; Röttgering, Huub; Miley, George; Varenius, Eskil; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Moldón, Javier; Jackson, Neal; Morganti, Raffaella; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Oonk, J. B. R.


    The correlation between radio spectral index and redshift has been exploited to discover high-redshift radio galaxies, but its underlying cause is unclear. It is crucial to characterize the particle acceleration and loss mechanisms in high-redshift radio galaxies to understand why their radio

  2. Particle content, radio-galaxy morphology and jet power: all radio-loud AGN are not equal (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, MJ


    Ongoing and future radio surveys aim to trace the evolution of black hole growth and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) throughout cosmic time; however, there remain major uncertainties in translating radio luminosity functions into a reliable assessment of the energy input as a function of galaxy and/or dark matter halo mass. A crucial and long-standing problem is the composition of the radio-lobe plasma that traces AGN jet activity. In this paper, we carry out a systematic comparison of the plasma conditions in Fanaroff & Riley class I and II radio galaxies to demonstrate conclusively that their internal composition is systematically different. This difference is best explained by the presence of an energetically dominant proton population in the FRI, but not the FRII radio galaxies. We show that, as expected from this systematic difference in particle content, radio morphology also affects the jet-power/radio-luminosity relationship, with FRII radio galaxies having a significantly lower ratio of jet power to radio luminosity than the FRI cluster radio sources used to derive jet-power scaling relations via X-ray cavity measurements. Finally we also demonstrate conclusively that lobe composition is unconnected to accretion mode (optical excitation class): the internal conditions of low- and high-excitation FRII radio lobes are indistinguishable. We conclude that inferences of population-wide AGN impact require careful assessment of the contribution of different jet sub-classes, particularly given the increased diversity of jet evolutionary states expected to be present in deep, low-frequency radio surveys such as the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey.

  3. Simulated relativistic particle transport and nonthermal emission in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical models of radio galaxies (United States)

    Tregillis, Ian Lee


    We present the first fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical radio galaxy jet models to include explicit acceleration and transport of nonthermal particles. These models allow us to study not only the dynamical behaviors of radio jets, but also the relationship between dynamics and the transport of relativistic electrons. The level of physical detail in the simulations is sufficiently high that we are able to compute extensive sets of “synthetic” radio and X-ray observations of our simulated radio galaxies. These are the first synthetic radio galaxy observations to be compatible with standard astronomical analysis procedures. This work is part of an ongoing effort to understand the dynamical and radiative behavior of radio galaxies. We analyze a suite of simulations of dynamically- identical radio galaxies, designed to help isolate the effects of various particle transport parameters. We find that the cartoon model for radio jets is insufficient for describing sources with strongly broken symmetry. Synchrotron radio surface brightness maps for dynamically-identical models can be markedly different, depending on the dominant transport parameters. Using synthetic observations, we perform two analyses that are commonly used to infer magnetic field values in radio galaxies, and compare the results to the actual simulation data. We find that the method of combining inverse-Compton X-ray and radio synchrotron data to infer field values generally works quite well. Minimum-energy arguments are not nearly as reliable and can be highly misleading. Reanalyzing the standard minimum-energy calculation, we find that serious attempts to use minimum energy must account for the presence of even mild spectral curvature. Synthetic observations are also used to perform an extensive polarimetry analysis of our simulated sources. Our simulations reproduce most of the salient polarization features of real radio galaxies, and very naturally give rise to a so-called

  4. High-energy neutrinos from FR0 radio-galaxies? (United States)

    Tavecchio, F.; Righi, C.; Capetti, A.; Grandi, P.; Ghisellini, G.


    The sources responsible for the emission of high-energy (≳ 100 TeV) neutrinos detected by IceCube are still unknown. Among the possible candidates, active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets are often examined, since the outflowing plasma seems to offer the ideal environment to accelerate the required parent high-energy cosmic rays. The non-detection of single point sources or - almost equivalently - the absence, in the IceCube events, of multiplets originating from the same sky position, constrains the cosmic density and the neutrino output of these sources, pointing to a numerous population of faint sources. Here we explore the possibility that FR0 radiogalaxies, the population of compact sources recently identified in large radio and optical surveys and representing the bulk of radio-loud AGN population, can represent suitable candidates for neutrino emission. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of a FR0 radiogalaxy recently associated to a γ-ray source detected by the Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi, we derive the physical parameters of its jet, in particular the power carried by it. We consider the possible mechanisms of neutrino production, concluding that pγ reactions in the jet between protons and ambient radiation is too inefficient to sustain the required output. We propose an alternative scenario, in which protons, accelerated in the jet, escape from it and diffuse in the host galaxy, producing neutrinos as a result of pp scattering with the interstellar gas, in strict analogy with the processes taking place in star-forming galaxies.

  5. Radio Loudness of AGNs: Host Galaxy Morphology and the Spin Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Sikora, M.; Lasota, J.-P.


    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness -- Eddington-ratio plane. We argue that these sequences mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that another parameter in addition to the accretion rate must play a role in determining the jet production efficiency in active galactic nuclei, and that this parameter is related to properties of the host galaxy. The revealed host-related radio dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. We argue that the huge difference between the radio-loudness reachable by AGNs in disc and elliptical galaxies can be explained by the scenario according to which the spin of a black hole determines the outflows power, and central black holes can reach large spins only in early type galaxies (following major mergers), and not (in a statistical sense) in spiral galaxies.

  6. The correlation between radio power and Mach number for radio relics in galaxy clusters (United States)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Marchegiani, P.; Paulo, C. M.


    We discuss a new technique to constrain models for the origin of radio relics in galaxy clusters using the correlation between the shock Mach number and the radio power of relics. This analysis is carried out using a sample of relics with information on both the Mach numbers derived from X-ray observations, M_X, and using spectral information from radio observations of the peak and the average values of the spectral index along the relic, M_R. We find that there is a lack of correlation between M_X and M_R; this result is an indication that the spectral index of the relic is likely not due to the acceleration of particles operated by the shock but it is related to the properties of a fossil electrons population. We also find that the available data on the correlation between the radio power P1.4 and Mach numbers (M_R and M_X) in relics indicate that neither the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) nor the adiabatic compression can simply reproduce the observed P_{1.4}-M correlations. Furthermore, we find that the radio power is not correlated with M_X, whereas it is not possible to exclude a correlation with M_R. This also indicates that the relic power is mainly determined by the properties of a fossil electron population rather than by the properties of the shock. Our results require either to consider models of shock (re-)acceleration that go beyond the proposed scenarios of DSA and adiabatic compression at shocks, or to reconsider the origin of radio relics in terms of other physical scenarios.

  7. PKS 0347+05: a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus system triggered in a major galaxy merger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadhunter, C. N.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Rose, M.; Dicken, D.; Inskip, K.


    We present optical, infrared (IR) and radio observations of the powerful Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio source PKS 0347+05 (z = 0.3390), and demonstrate that it is a rare example of a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, comprising a weak-line radio galaxy (WLRG)

  8. Radio Galaxy Zoo: Compact and extended radio source classification with deep learning (United States)

    Lukic, V.; Brüggen, M.; Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Rudnick, L.; Norris, R. P.; Simmons, B.


    Machine learning techniques have been increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in the morphological classification of galaxies. Convolutional neural networks have proven to be highly effective in classifying objects in image data. The current work aims to establish when multiple components are present, in the astronomical context of synthesis imaging observations of radio sources. To this effect, we design a convolutional neural network to differentiate between different morphology classes using sources from the Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) citizen science project. In this first step, we focus on exploring the factors that affect the performance of such neural networks, such as the amount of training data, number and nature of layers and the hyperparameters. We begin with a simple experiment in which we only differentiate between two extreme morphologies, using compact and multiple component extended sources. We found that a three convolutional layer architecture yielded very good results, achieving a classification accuracy of 97.4% on a test data set. The same architecture was then tested on a four-class problem where we let the network classify sources into compact and three classes of extended sources, achieving a test accuracy of 93.5%. The best-performing convolutional neural network setup has been verified against RGZ Data Release 1 where a final test accuracy of 94.8% was obtained, using both original and augmented images. The use of sigma clipping does not offer a significant benefit overall, except in cases with a small number of training images.

  9. LOFAR MSSS: Discovery of a 2.56 Mpc giant radio galaxy associated with a disturbed galaxy group (United States)

    Clarke, A. O.; Heald, G.; Jarrett, T.; Bray, J. D.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Cantwell, T. M.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Brienza, M.; Bonafede, A.; Breton, R. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Carbone, D.; Croston, J. H.; Farnes, J. S.; Harwood, J. J.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jurusik, W.; Kokotanekov, G.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Nikiel-Wroczyñski, B. S.; Orrú, E.; Paladino, R.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pizzo, R.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C. J.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sridhar, S. S.; Stewart, A. J.; Tasse, C.; van Velzen, S.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.


    We report on the discovery in the LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS) of a giant radio galaxy (GRG) with a projected size of 2.56 ± 0.07 Mpc projected on the sky. It is associated with the galaxy triplet UGC 9555, within which one is identified as a broad-line galaxy in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at a redshift of 0.05453 ± 1 × 10-5, and with a velocity dispersion of 215.86 ± 6.34 km s-1. From archival radio observations we see that this galaxy hosts a compact flat-spectrum radio source, and we conclude that it is the active galactic nucleus (AGN) responsiblefor generating the radio lobes. The radio luminosity distribution of the jets, and the broad-line classification of the host AGN, indicate this GRG is orientated well out of the plane of the sky, making its physical size one of the largest known for any GRG. Analysis of the infrared data suggests that the host is a lenticular type galaxy with a large stellar mass (log M/M⊙ = 11.56 ± 0.12), and a moderate star formation rate (1.2 ± 0.3 M⊙/ year). Spatially smoothing the SDSS images shows the system around UGC 9555 to be significantly disturbed, with a prominent extension to the south-east. Overall, the evidence suggests this host galaxy has undergone one or more recent moderate merger events and is also experiencing tidal interactions with surrounding galaxies, which have caused the star formation and provided the supply of gas to trigger and fuel the Mpc-scale radio lobes.

  10. Lyα excess in high-redshift radio galaxies: a signature of star formation (United States)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Humphrey, A.; De Breuck, C.; Fosbury, R.; Binette, L.; Vernet, J.


    About 54 per cent of radio galaxies at z >= 3 and 8 per cent of radio galaxies at 2 ~ 2) radio galaxies. These Lyα-excess objects (LAEs) show Lyα/HeII values consistent with or above standard photoionization model predictions. We reject with confidence several scenarios to explain the unusual strength of Lyα in these objects: shocks, low nebular metallicities, high gas densities and absorption/scattering effects. We show that the most successful explanation is the presence of a young stellar population which provides the extra supply of ionizing photons required to explain the Lyα excess in at least the most extreme LAEs (probably in all of them). This interpretation is strongly supported by the tentative trend found by other authors for z >= 3 radio galaxies to show lower ultraviolet rest-frame polarization levels, or the dramatic increase in the detection rate at submm wavelengths of z > 2.5 radio galaxies. The enhanced star formation activity in LAEs could be a consequence of a recent merger which has triggered both the star formation and the active galactic nucleus/radio activities. The measurement of unusually high Lyα ratios in the extended gas of some high-redshift radio galaxies suggests that star formation activity occurs in spatial scales of tens of kpc. We argue that, although the fraction of LAEs may be incompletely determined, both at 2 = 3, the much larger fraction of LAEs found at z >= 3 is a genuine redshift evolution and not due to selection effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the radio galaxy phenomenon is more often associated with a massive starburst at z > 3 than at z < 3. Unpublished results are presented in this paper for the radio galaxy 1338-1941, based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal (Chile) for the ESO project 69.B-0078(B). E-mail:

  11. The Optical Identification of the Luminous Radio Galaxy 0409-752 (United States)

    Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; May, J.; Navarrete, M.


    We have identified the radio source 0409 - 752 with a faint (V = 21.6) galaxy which has emission lines of [O II] 3727 (strong), [O III] 4959, 5007 (strong) and [Ne III] 3869 (weak), consistent with a redshift of 0.694. Assuming a cosmological redshift, and using different values for H_0_ and q_0_, we have computed the absolute luminosity in the range 45-8400 MHz. A careful comparison with radio galaxies Cyg A and 3C 295, taken as reference because they are luminous and their spectra are accurately known in that frequency range, shows that 0409 - 752 is even slightly more powerful. The ratio of radio to optical luminosities for 0409 - 752 is very close to the highest known for radio galaxies. We found that the IRAS point source 04099 - 7514 is actually associated to a S0 galaxy in the field.

  12. `Zwicky's Nonet': a compact merging ensemble of nine galaxies and 4C 35.06, a peculiar radio galaxy with dancing radio jets (United States)

    Biju, K. G.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Jacob, Joe; Patil, M. K.; Kumar, P. Sunil; Pandge, Mahadev; Dabhade, Pratik; Gaikwad, Madhuri; Dhurde, Samir; Abraham, Sheelu; Vivek, M.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Djorgovski, S. G.


    We report the results of our radio, optical and infrared studies of a peculiar radio source 4C 35.06, an extended radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the centre of galaxy cluster Abell 407 (z = 0.047). The central region of this cluster hosts a remarkably tight ensemble of nine galaxies, the spectra of which resemble those of passive red ellipticals, embedded within a diffuse stellar halo of ∼1 arcmin size. This system (named 'Zwicky's Nonet') provides unique and compelling evidence for a multiple-nucleus cD galaxy precursor. Multifrequency radio observations of 4C 35.06 with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610, 235 and 150 MHz reveal a system of 400-kpc scale helically twisted and kinked radio jets and outer diffuse lobes. The outer extremities of jets contain extremely steep-spectrum (spectral index -1.7 to -2.5) relic/fossil radio plasma with a spectral age of a few ×(107-108) yr. Such ultra-steep spectrum relic radio lobes without definitive hotspots are rare and they provide an opportunity to understand the life cycle of relativistic jets and physics of black hole mergers in dense environments. We interpret our observations of this radio source in the context of growth of its central black hole, triggering of its AGN activity and jet precession, all possibly caused by galaxy mergers in this dense galactic system. A slow conical precession of the jet axis due to gravitational perturbation between interacting black holes is invoked to explain the unusual jet morphology.

  13. Revealing the Faraday Depth Structure of Radio Galaxy NGC 612 with Broad-Band Radio Polarimetric Observations (United States)

    Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.


    We present full-polarisation, broadband observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarisation mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarisation models to the polarised spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarisation component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarised emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.

  14. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxies: active—galaxies: evolution—galaxies: individual: Speca—galaxies: individual: NGC ..... AGN-heated hot gas bubbles is nearly 1056 ergs and that is comparable to ener- getic impact of low-power ..... the probability may be, can create the central engines capable of launching massive energy feedback to the host ...

  15. A representative survey of the dynamics and energetics of FR II radio galaxies (United States)

    Ineson, J.; Croston, J. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.


    We report the first large, systematic study of the dynamics and energetics of a representative sample of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies with well-characterized group/cluster environments. We used X-ray inverse-Compton and radio synchrotron measurements to determine the internal radio-lobe conditions, and these were compared with external pressures acting on the lobes, determined from measurements of the thermal X-ray emission of the group/cluster. Consistent with previous work, we found that FR II radio lobes are typically electron dominated by a small factor relative to equipartition, and are overpressured relative to the external medium in their outer parts. These results suggest that there is typically no energetically significant proton population in the lobes of FR II radio galaxies (unlike for FR Is), and so for this population, inverse-Compton modelling provides an accurate way of measuring total energy content and estimating jet power. We estimated the distribution of Mach numbers for the population of expanding radio lobes, finding that at least half of the radio galaxies are currently driving strong shocks into their group/cluster environments. Finally, we determined a jet power-radio luminosity relation for FR II radio galaxies based on our estimates of lobe internal energy and Mach number. The slope and normalization of this relation are consistent with theoretical expectations, given the departure from equipartition and environmental distribution for our sample.

  16. Flat radio-spectrum galaxies and BL Lacs I. Core properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J; Marcha, MJ

    This paper concerns the relationship of BL Lacs and flat-spectrum weak emission-line galaxies. We compare the weak emission-line galaxies and the BL Lacs in a sample of 57 flat-spectrum objects (Marcha et al. 1996), using high-frequency radio and non-thermal optical flux densities, spectral indices

  17. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.


    Powerful radio Galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/FRII and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/FRII and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star forming, with more evidence for disc-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/FRII LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle-tailed, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  18. Radio and X-ray observations of the Abell 2241 galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, W.; Valentijn, E. A.


    Radio and X-ray observations of the two independent clusters in the A 2241 region are presented. The difference in both the radio and the X-ray behavior between the dominant galaxies of the two clusters is interpreted as being due to different densities of the intra cluster medium. In the most

  19. The spectral energy distribution of powerful starburst galaxies - I. Modelling the radio continuum (United States)

    Galvin, T. J.; Seymour, N.; Marvil, J.; Filipović, M. D.; Tothill, N. F. H.; McDermid, R. M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Hancock, P. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Cook, R. H.; Norris, R. P.; Bell, M. E.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Lenc, E.; McKinley, B.; Morgan, J.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wayth, R. B.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.


    We have acquired radio-continuum data between 70 MHz and 48 GHz for a sample of 19 southern starburst galaxies at moderate redshifts (0.067 attributed to free-free absorption across multiple regions of star formation with varying optical depths. The decomposed synchrotron and free-free emission components in our sample of galaxies form strong correlations with the total-infrared bolometric luminosities. Finally, we find that without accounting for free-free absorption with turnovers between 90 and 500 MHz the radio continuum at low frequency (ν value of -0.8 for normal galaxies. We suggest this may be caused by an intrinsically steeper cosmic ray distribution.

  20. Direct HST Dust Lane Detection in Powerful Narrow-Line Radio Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Ramírez


    Full Text Available We present the analysis of near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 10 Fanaroff Riley II powerful radio galaxies at low redshift (0.03 < z < 0.11 optically classified as narrow-line radio galaxies. The photometric properties of the host galaxy are measured using galfit, and compared with those from the literature. Our high resolution near-infrared observations provide new and direct information on the central kpc-scale dust lanes in our sample that could be connected to the pc-scale torus structure. Moreover, analyzing the infrared spectrograph Spitzer spectra of our sample, we suggest properties of the dust size of the torus.

  1. Radio Continuum and H I Study of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Kantharia, N. G.; Prabhu, T. P.


    The multifrequency radio continuum and 21 cm H I observations of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, Mrk 104, Mrk 108, Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069, and I Zw 97, using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) are presented here. Radio continuum emission at 610 MHz and 325 MHz is detected from all the observed galaxies whereas only a few are detected at 240 MHz. In our sample, three galaxies (Mrk 104, Mrk 108, and Mrk 1039) are members of groups and two galaxies (Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97) are isolated galaxies. The radio emission from Mrk 104 and Mrk 108 is seen to encompass the entire optical galaxy whereas the radio emission from Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069, and I Zw 97 is confined to massive H II regions. This, we suggest, indicates that the star formation in the latter group of galaxies has recently been triggered and that the environment in which the galaxy is evolving plays a role. Star formation rates (SFRs) calculated from 610 MHz emission are in the range 0.01-0.1 M sun yr-1 this is similar to the SFR obtained for individual star-forming regions in BCDs. The integrated radio spectra of four galaxies are modeled over the frequency range where data is available. We find that two of the galaxies, Mrk 1069 and Mrk 1039, show a turnover at low frequencies, which is well fitted by free-free absorption whereas the other two galaxies, Mrk 104 and Mrk 108, show a power law at the lowest GMRT frequencies. The flatter spectrum, localized star formation, and radio continuum in isolated galaxies lend support to stochastic self-propagating star formation. The H I observations of four galaxies, Mrk 104, Mrk 108, Mrk 1039, and Mrk 1069, show extended disks as large as ~1.1-6 times the optical size. All the observed BCDs (except Mrk 104) show rotating disk with a half power width of ~50-124 km s-1. Solid body rotation is common in our sample. We note that the tidal dwarf origin is possible for two of the BCDs in our sample.

  2. A search for faint high-redshift radio galaxy candidates at 150 MHz (United States)

    Saxena, A.; Jagannathan, P.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Best, P. N.; Intema, H. T.; Zhang, M.; Duncan, K. J.; Carilli, C. L.; Miley, G. K.


    Ultra-steep spectrum (USS) radio sources are good tracers of powerful radio galaxies at z > 2. Identification of even a single bright radio galaxy at z > 6 can be used to detect redshifted 21cm absorption due to neutral hydrogen in the intervening IGM. Here we describe a new sample of high-redshift radio galaxy (HzRG) candidates constructed from the TGSS ADR1 survey at 150 MHz. We employ USS selection (α ≤ -1.3) in ˜10000 square degrees, in combination with strict size selection and non-detections in all-sky optical and infrared surveys. We apply flux density cuts that probe a unique parameter space in flux density (50 < S150 < 200 mJy) to build a sample of 32 HzRG candidates. Follow-up Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.4 GHz with an average beam size of 1.3 arcseconds (″) revealed ˜48% of sources to have a single radio component. P-band (370 MHz) imaging of 17 of these sources revealed a flattening radio SED for ten sources at low frequencies, which is expected from compact HzRGs. Two of our sources lie in fields where deeper multi-wavelength photometry and ancillary radio data are available and for one of these we find a best-fit photo-z of 4.8 ± 2.0. The other source has zphot = 1.4 ± 0.1 and a small angular size (3.7″), which could be associated with an obscured star forming galaxy or with a `dead' elliptical. One USS radio source not part of the HzRG sample but observed with the VLA nonetheless is revealed to be a candidate giant radio galaxy with a host galaxy photo-z of 1.8 ± 0.5, indicating a size of 875 kpc.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brightest cluster galaxies Radio luminosity (Yuan+, 2016) (United States)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.


    Based on the largest optical catalogue of galaxy clusters of Wen and Han (2015, Cat. J/ApJ/807/178) and the largest radio survey data base of the NVSS (Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65) and FIRST (Helfand et al., Cat. VIII/92), we identified a large sample of 7138 radio-loud BCGs. More than half of radio BCGs host a AGN, and some of them show star-formation features. (1 data file).

  4. On the population of remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies and implications for radio source dynamics (United States)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Morganti, R.; Brienza, M.


    The purpose of this work is two-fold: (1) to quantify the occurrence of ultrasteep spectrum remnant Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies in a 74 MHz flux-limited sample, and (2) perform Monte Carlo simulations of the population of active and remnant FRII radio galaxies to confront models of remnant lobe evolution, and to provide guidance for further investigation of remnant radio galaxies. We find that fewer than 2 per cent of FRII radio galaxies with S74 MHz > 1.5 Jy are candidate ultrasteep spectrum remnants, where we define ultrasteep spectrum as α _74 MHz^1400 MHz > 1.2. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that models involving Sedov-like expansion in the remnant phase, resulting in rapid adiabatic energy losses, are consistent with this upper limit, and predict the existence of nearly twice as many remnants with normal (not ultrasteep) spectra in the observed frequency range as there are ultrasteep spectrum remnants. This model also predicts an ultrasteep remnant fraction approaching 10 per cent at redshifts z studies of the remnant population.

  5. Gas kinematics in powerful radio galaxies at z 2: Energy supply from star formation, AGN, and radio jets⋆ (United States)

    Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Best, P.; Seymour, N.; Vernet, J.


    We compare the kinetic energy and momentum injection rates from intense star formation, bolometric AGN radiation, and radio jets with the kinetic energy and momentum observed in the warm ionized gas in 24 powerful radio galaxies at z 2. These galaxies are among our best candidates for being massive galaxies near the end of their active formation period, when intense star formation, quasar activity, and powerful radio jets all co-exist. All galaxies have VLT/SINFONI imaging spectroscopy of the rest-frame optical line emission, showing extended emission-line regions with large velocity offsets (up to 1500 km s-1) and line widths (typically 800-1000 km s-1) consistent with very turbulent, often outflowing gas. As part of the HeRGÉ sample, they also have FIR estimates of the star formation and quasar activity obtained with Herschel/PACS and SPIRE, which enables us to measure the relative energy and momentum release from each of the three main sources of feedback in massive, star-forming AGN host galaxies during their most rapid formation phase. We find that star formation falls short by factors 10-1000 of providing the energy and momentum necessary to power the observed gas kinematics. The obscured quasars in the nuclei of these galaxies provide enough energy and momentum in about half of the sample, however, only if both are transferred to the gas relatively efficiently. We compare with theoretical and observational constraints on the efficiency of the energy and momentum transfer from jet and AGN radiation, which favors the radio jets as main drivers of the gas kinematics. Based on observations carried out with the Very Large Telescope of ESO under Program IDs 079.A-0617, 084.A-0324, 085.A-0897, and 090.A-0614.Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. Evidence for a Population of Short-Lived Powerful Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Readhead, A. C. S.; Xu, W.; Pearson, T. J.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Polatidis, A.


    It has recently become clear that the unusual ``compact triple'' radio galaxy 0710+439, discovered almost a decade ago (Readhead, Pearson & Unwin 1984, IAU Symp. 110, 131), is the prototype member of a distinct class of active galaxies (Conway et al. 1992, ApJ, 396, 62) that we call ``Compact Symmetric'' or CS objects. The distinguishing features of this class are: (1) the radio structure is symmetrically distributed about the center of activity; (2) the overall extent of the radio structure is typically a few hundred parsecs; (3) the radio emission is not strongly beamed; (4) the high-frequency radio spectra are steep; (5) the objects have low polarization; and (6) the objects display weak variability. The symmetry observed in these objects contrasts strongly with the asymmetric nuclear structure observed in most radio-loud objects, be they core-dominated flat-spectrum quasars, lobe-dominated steep-spectrum quasars, lobe-dominated steep-spectrum galaxies, or the majority of steep-spectrum compact objects. Possible explanations for CS objects include: (1) they are precursors of FR-II objects, (2) they are ``frustrated jets,'' or (3) they are young objects (1000--10,000 yr). We analyze multifrequency observations of the CS object 2352+495, identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 0.518, and show that the radio activity in this object is almost certainly short-lived - i.e., this is a ``young'' radio object. We use this result, in combination with our observations of two complete samples, to demonstrate that the most plausible explanation is that the CS objects are a previously unsuspected class of short-lived, powerful radio galaxies.

  7. A Radio Continuum Study of Dwarf Galaxies: 6 cm Imaging of LITTLE THINGS (United States)

    Hindson, Luke; Kitchener, Ged; Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker; Westcott, Jonathan; Hunter, Deidre; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Rupen, Michael; Rau, Urvashi


    In this paper, we examine to what extent the radio continuum can be used as an extinction-free probe of star formation in dwarf galaxies. To that aim, we observe 40 nearby dwarf galaxies with the Very Large Array at 6 cm (4–8 GHz) in C-configuration. We obtained images with 3″–8″ resolution and noise levels of 3–15 μJy beam‑1. We detected emission associated with 22 of the 40 dwarf galaxies, eight of which are new detections. The general picture is that of an interstellar medium largely devoid of radio continuum emission, interspersed by isolated pockets of emission associated with star formation. We find an average thermal fraction of ∼50%–70% and an average magnetic field strength of ∼5–8 μG, only slightly lower than that found in larger, spiral galaxies. At 100 pc scales, we find surprisingly high values for the average magnetic field strength of up to 50 μG. We find that dwarf galaxies follow the theoretical predictions of the radio continuum–star formation rate relation within regions of significant radio continuum emission but that the nonthermal radio continuum is suppressed relative to the star formation rate when considering the entire optical disk. We examine the far-infrared–star formation rate relation for our sample and find that the far-infrared is suppressed compared to the expected star formation rate. We discuss explanations for these observed relations and the impact of our findings on the radio continuum–far-infrared relation. We conclude that radio continuum emission at centimeter wavelengths has the promise of being a largely extinction-free star formation rate indicator. We find that star formation rates of gas-rich, low-mass galaxies can be estimated with an uncertainty of ±0.2 dex between the values of 2 × 10‑4 and 0.1 M ⊙ yr‑1.

  8. Increased Prevalence of Bent Lobes for Double-lobed Radio Galaxies in Dense Environments (United States)

    Silverstein, Ezekiel M.; Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.


    Double-lobed radio galaxies (DLRGs) often have radio lobes that subtend an angle of less than 180°, and these bent DLRGs have been shown to associate preferentially with galaxy clusters and groups. In this study, we utilize a catalog of DLRGs in SDSS quasars with radio lobes visible in VLA FIRST 20 cm radio data. We cross-match this catalog against three catalogs of galaxies over the redshift range 0< z< 0.70, obtaining 81 tentative matches. We visually examine each match and apply a number of selection criteria, eventually obtaining a sample of 44 securely detected DLRGs, which are paired to a nearby massive galaxy, galaxy group, or galaxy cluster. Most of the DLRGs identified in this manner are not central galaxies in the systems to which they are matched. Using this sample, we quantify the projected density of these matches as a function of projected separation from the central galaxy, finding a very steep decrease in matches as the impact parameter increases (for {{Σ }}\\propto {b}-m we find m={2.5}-0.3+0.4) out to b∼ 2 Mpc. In addition, we show that the fraction of DLRGs with bent lobes also decreases with radius, so that if we exclude DLRGs associated with the central galaxy in the system, the bent fraction is 78% within 1 Mpc and 56% within 2 Mpc, compared to just 29% in the field; these differences are significant at 3.6σ and 2.8σ , respectively. This behavior is consistent with ram pressure being the mechanism that causes the lobes to bend.

  9. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    2. National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Post Bag No. 3, Ganeshkind, Pune 411 007, India. International Centre for Radio Astronomical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

  10. The Co-Evolution of Star Formation and Powerful Radio Activity in Galaxies During Radio-Mode Feedback (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher


    Feedback from radio sources is thought to be a key ingredient in determining the shape of the galaxy luminosity function. Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are galactic scale (1-20 kpc) and so probe radio source feedback to the host galaxy. We propose to carry out WFC3 UV imaging of the line-free continuum between [CIII] 1909 and MgII 2798, as well as WFC3 line-free optical continuum imaging, in nine CSS radio sources. Following our pilot study that detected spatially extended UV radiation in 3/3 CSS sources, we propose observations which will increase our total sample size by a factor of 4. Imaging the UV continuum from hot massive stars is the best way to study recently triggered and ongoing star formation. We will map in detail the star formation regions in relation to the radio structures and multiwavelength properties of the sources. The high spatial resolution will allow us to separate morphologically and characterize the generic star formation which is due to gas infall, and that which is due to triggering by the radio source.

  11. Evidence for particle re-acceleration in the radio relic in the galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafede, A.; Brüggen, M. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Intema, H. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica-Sezione di Astronomia, Universitá di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Kantharia, N. [National center for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Van Weeren, R. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Röttgering, H. J. A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    Radio relics are diffuse radio sources observed in galaxy clusters, probably produced by shock acceleration during cluster-cluster mergers. Their large size, of the order of 1 Mpc, indicates that the emitting electrons need to be (re)accelerated locally. The usually invoked diffusive shock acceleration models have been challenged by recent observations and theory. We report the discovery of complex radio emission in the Galaxy cluster PLCKG287.0+32.9, which hosts two relics, a radio halo, and several radio filamentary emission. Optical observations suggest that the cluster is elongated, likely along an intergalactic filament, and displays a significant amount of substructure. The peculiar features of this radio relic are that (1) it appears to be connected to the lobes of a radio galaxy and (2) the radio spectrum steepens on either side of the radio relic. We discuss the origins of these features in the context of particle re-acceleration.

  12. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the relation between black hole mass, Mbh, and jet power, Qjet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in Mbh–Qjet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR. I/BL Lac and FR II/radio quasar.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.

  14. Ram pressure statistics for bent tail radio galaxies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mguda, Z


    Full Text Available ). The abundance matching approach allows us to determine the locations of all galaxies with stellar masses >10(sup11)MSol in the simulation volume. Assuming ram pressure exceeding a critical value causes bent morphology, we compute the ratio of all galaxies...

  15. Radio AGN in 13,240 galaxy clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S; de Vries, W; Becker, R


    We correlate the positions of 13,240 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) with 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3 from the maxBCG catalog with radio sources from the FIRST survey to study the sizes and distributions of radio AGN in galaxy clusters. We find that 19.7% of our BCGs are radio-loud, and this fraction depends on the stellar mass of the BCG, and to a lesser extent on the richness of the parent cluster (in the sense of increasing radio loudness with increasing mass). The intrinsic size of the radio emission associated with the BCGs peaks at 55 kpc, with a tail extending to 200 kpc. The radio power of the extended sources places them on the divide between FR I and FR II type sources, while sources compact in the radio tend to be somewhat less radio-luminous. We also detect an excess of radio sources associated with the cluster, instead of with the BCG itself, extending out to {approx} 1.4 kpc.

  16. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.

    Context. There is growing observational evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of radio-quiet and radio-loud galaxies. While AGN feedback is expected to be more common at high-redshift objects, studying local universe galaxies helps to better characterize

  17. The Double–Double Radio Galaxy 3C293 S. A. Joshi1,∗ , S. Nandi2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Radio galaxies are believed to be powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN). One of the interesting issues for all AGN is whether the active phases are episodic, and if so, the duration of these AGN phases. In radio galaxies and quasars, struc- tural and spectral information can help distinguish different cycles of ...

  18. High-energy gamma rays and neutrinos from nearby radio galaxies (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Hooper, Dan


    Multi-messenger data suggest that radio galaxies (ie non-blazar active galaxies) are a well-motivated class of sources for the diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos reported by the IceCube Collaboration. In this study, we consider the gamma-ray spectrum observed from four nearby radio galaxies (Centaurus A, PKS 0625-35, NGC 1275 and IC 310) and constrain the intensity and spectral shape of the emission injected from these sources, accounting for the effects of attenuation and contributions from electromagnetic cascades (initiated both within the radio galaxy itself and during extragalactic propagation). Assuming that this gamma-ray emission is generated primarily through the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with gas, we calculate the neutrino flux predicted from each of these sources. Although this scenario is consistent with the constraints published by the IceCube and ANTARES Collaborations, the predicted fluxes consistently fall within an order of magnitude of the current point source sensitivity. The prospects appear very encouraging for the future detection of neutrino emission from the nearest radio galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Cardamone, Carolin, E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Bldg. 26-331, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  20. A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.


    We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ˜2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.

  1. Unification of Radio Galaxies and their Accretion Jet Properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We investigate the relation between black hole mass, bh, and jet power, jet, for a sample of BL Lacs and radio quasars. We find that BL Lacs are separated from radio quasars by the FR I/II dividing line in bh-jet plane, which strongly supports the unification scheme of FR I/BL Lac and FR II/radio ...

  2. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon [CEOU-Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Trichas, Markos [Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom); Goto, Tomo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Malkan, Matt [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3-714 UCLA, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ruiz, Angel [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, 411 007 Pune (India); Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Yoshino-dai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Shim, Hyunjin [Department of Earth Science Education, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hanami, Hitoshi [Physics Section, Faculty of Humanities, Iwate University, Ueda 3 chome, 18-34 Morioka, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan); Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); and others


    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (galaxy, independent of the radio luminosity. In contrast, for narrow redshift and AGN luminosity ranges, we find that increasing radio luminosity leads to a decrease in the specific star formation rate. The most radio-loud AGNs are found to lie on the main sequence of star formation for their respective redshifts. For the first time, we potentially see such a two-sided feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  3. Jet reorientation in active galactic nuclei : two winged radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J; Scheuer, PAG; Laing, RA; Bridle, AH; Pooley, GG; Reich, W


    Winged, or X-shaped, radio sources form a small class of morphologically peculiar extragalactic sources. We present multifrequency radio observations of two such sources. We derive maximum ages since any re-injection of fresh particles of 34 and 17 Myr for the wings of 3C 223.1 and 3C 403


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Measurements at 60 mu wavelength of 3CR quasars and powerful radio galaxies in the redshift range 0.3

  5. Star formation in the hosts of GHz peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Barthel, P. D.; Vries, W. H. de; Baum, S. A.


    Abstract: AIMS: Search for star formation regions in the hosts of potentially young radio galaxies (Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum and Compact Steep Spectrum sources). METHODS: Near-UV imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys.} RESULTS: We find near-UV light which could be the

  6. Star formation in the hosts of GHz peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; O'Dea, C. P.; Barthel, P. D.; de Vries, W. H.; Baum, S. A.

    Aims. We are searching for star formation regions in the hosts of potentially young radio galaxies (gigahertz peaked spectrum and compact steep spectrum sources). Methods. We used near-UV imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Results. We find near-UV light could be the

  7. The properties of radio galaxies and the effect of environment in large-scale structures at z ˜ 1 (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Miller, Neal A.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Tomczak, Adam R.; Lubin, Lori M.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Becker, Robert H.; Gal, Roy R.; Wu, Po-Feng.; Squires, Gordon


    In this study, we investigate 89 radio galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed to be members of five large-scale structures (LSSs) in the redshift range of 0.65 ≤ z ≤ 0.96. Based on a two-stage classification scheme, the radio galaxies are classified into three sub-classes: active galactic nucleus (AGN), Hybrid, and star-forming galaxy (SFG). We study the properties of the three radio sub-classes and their global and local environmental preferences. We find AGN hosts are the most massive population and exhibit quiescence in their star formation activity. The SFG population has a comparable stellar mass to those hosting a radio AGN but are unequivocally powered by star formation. Hybrids, though selected as an intermediate population in our classification scheme, were found in almost all analyses to be a unique type of radio galaxies rather than a mixture of AGN and SFGs. They are dominated by a high-excitation radio galaxy population. We discuss environmental effects and scenarios for each sub-class. AGN tend to be preferentially located in locally dense environments and in the cores of clusters/groups, with these preferences persisting when comparing to galaxies of similar colour and stellar mass, suggesting that their activity may be ignited in the cluster/group virialized core regions. Conversely, SFGs exhibit a strong preference for intermediate-density global environments, suggesting that dusty starbursting activity in LSSs is largely driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions and merging.

  8. GTC optical imaging of extremely red 5C radio galaxies at high redshift (United States)

    Humphrey, A.; Villar-Martín, M.; Lagos, P.


    Aims: We investigate the nature of seven unusual radio galaxies from the 5C catalogue that were previously known to have extremely red R-K colours, and for which emission lines were previously found to be weak or absent in their optical spectra. Methods: We present and discuss u, g, or r images of these radio galaxies, obtained using the Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Results: We have detected all seven targets in our g-band imaging. Their optical emission is extended, and we tentatively detect a radio-optical alignment effect in this sample. A subset of our sample (three sources) shows broad-band spectral energy distributions that flatten out near the wavelength range of the g-band, implying a dominant contribution there due to young stars and/or scattered or reprocessed radiation from the active nucleus.

  9. Beamed radio and far infrared emission in quasars and radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H; Barthel, PD; Hes, R

    Simple orientation model predictions for the radio to far infrared spectral energy distributions of radio-loud AGN are confronted with observations at various radio frequencies. This model is subsequently used to investigate 60 mu m far-infrared data. The results are supportive of the unified scheme


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Weeren, R. J.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Intema, H. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Lal, D. V. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Brüggen, M.; De Gasperin, F. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Hoeft, M. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778, Tautenburg (Germany); Nuza, S. E. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stroe, A., E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    We report the discovery of extended radio emission in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CL J2344-4243, z = 0.596) with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 610 MHz. The diffuse emission extends over a region of at least 400-500 kpc and surrounds the central radio source of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, but does not appear to be directly associated with it. We classify the diffuse emission as a radio mini-halo, making it the currently most distant mini-halo known. Radio mini-halos have been explained by synchrotron emitting particles re-accelerated via turbulence, possibly induced by gas sloshing generated from a minor merger event. Chandra observations show a non-concentric X-ray surface brightness distribution, which is consistent with this sloshing interpretation. The mini-halo has a flux density of 17 ± 5 mJy, resulting in a 1.4 GHz radio power of (10.4 ± 3.5) × 10{sup 24} W Hz{sup –1}. The combined cluster emission, which includes the central compact radio source, is also detected in a shallow GMRT 156 MHz observation and together with the 610 MHz data we compute a spectral index of –0.84 ± 0.12 for the overall cluster radio emission. Given that mini-halos typically have steeper radio spectra than cluster radio galaxies, this spectral index should be taken as an upper limit for the mini-halo.

  11. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert subtypes can be understood as due to the ...

  12. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert sub- types can be understood as due to the ...

  13. Emission line gas ionisation in young radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, J.; Tadhunter, C.N.; Morganti, R.


    This paper is the second in a series in which we present intermediate-resolution, wide- wavelength coverage spectra for a complete sample of 14 compact radio sources, taken with the aim of investigating the impact of the nuclear activity on the cirumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM) in the early

  14. Host galaxies and environments of compact extragalactic radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano Ortega, Alvaro


    The main goal of this thesis is to study the interrelation of powerful radio sources with their hosts. The objects of study are GPS and CSS sources. Due to their small size, GPS/CSS sources are excellent probes of this relation. Furthermore, their young age allows us to compare them to the larger,

  15. Observational model of the ionized gas in Seyfert and radio-galaxy nuclei* (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.


    Equivalent widths of the total emission-line Hβ in Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies, expressed in terms of the featureless continuum, all have approximately the same frequency distribution. This suggests that the energy-input mechanism to both the narrow-line, low-density gas and the broad-line, high-density gas is photoionization by the featureless continuum. The reason for the weakness of the narrow emission lines in extreme Seyfert 1 galaxies is then the absorption of most of the ionizing photons in the dense gas near the central source. The statistics of line widths can be fitted by a model in which the dense gas has typical rotational velocity 5000 km/sec and typical turbulent velocity 2000 km/sec. A model is proposed in which the dense gas forms a rotating, turbulent disk with dimension ≈0.1 pc and height/diameter ≈2/5. Seyfert 2 galaxies are objects with little dense gas, and intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies are objects in which the dense gas is optically thin to ionizing radiation at least along the poles. Most radio galaxies have strong narrow emission lines, suggesting that escape of radio plasma can only occur where some ionizing photons can also escape from the dense gas. Other predictions, implications, and tests of this model are discussed. Images PMID:16592488

  16. A search for candidate radio supernova remnants in the nearby irregular starburst galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić B.


    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for new candidate radio su­pernova remnants (SNRs in the nearby starburst irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395 using archived radio observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA at the wavelengths of 3.5 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4214 and 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4395. These observations were analyzed as part of our ongoing search for candidate radio SNRs in nearby galaxies: the goal of this search is to prepare a large sample of candidate radio SNRs for the purpose of a robust statistical study of the properties of these sources. Based on our analysis, we have confirmed the nonthermal nature of the discrete radio sources α and β in NGC 4214 and classify these sources as candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with HII regions in that galaxy. We have measured the flux densities of the two candidate radio SNRs at each wavelength and calculated corresponding spectral indices: we have also measured flux densities of two other discrete radio sources in these galaxies - ρ in NGC 4214 and #3 in NGC 4395 which we suspect to be additional candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with other HII regions in these galaxies. However, the radio data presently available for these sources can­not confirm such a classification and additional observations are needed. We have also calculated the radio luminosities Lradio at the wavelength of 20 cm for these two candidate radio SNRs as well as the corresponding values for the minimum total energy Emin required to power these radio sources via synchrotron emission and the corresponding magnetic field strength Bmin. We have compared our mean calculated values for these properties with the mean values for populations of candidate radio SNRs in other starburst galaxies: while the values for Lradio and Bmin are roughly comparable to the values seen in other starburst galaxies, the mean value for Emin is higher than the mean value of any

  17. Properties of Lya Emitters Around the Radio Galaxy MRC 0316-257

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venemans, B; Rottgering, H; Miley, G; Kurk, J; De Breuck, C; van Breugel, W; Carilli, C; Ford, H; Heckman, T; Pentericci, L; McCarthy, P


    Observations of the radio galaxy MRC 0316-257 at z = 3.13 and the surrounding field are presented. Using narrow- and broad-band imaging obtained with the VLT*, 92 candidate Ly{alpha} emitters with a rest-frame equivalent width of > 15 AngstromS were selected in a {approx} 7{prime} x 7{prime} field around the radio galaxy. Spectroscopy of 40 candidate emitters resulted in the discovery of 33 emission line galaxies of which 31 are Ly{alpha} emitters with redshifts similar to that of the radio galaxy, while the remaining two galaxies turned out to be [{omicron} II] emitters. The Ly{alpha} profiles had widths (FWHM) corresponding to 120-800 kms{sup -1},with a median of 260 kms{sup -1}. Where the signal-to-noise spectra was large enough, the Ly{alpha} profiles are found to be asymmetric, with apparent absorption troughs blueward of the profile peaks, indicative of absorption along the line of sight of an {Eta}{Iota} mass of 1-5000 {mu}{circle_dot}. Besides that of the radio galaxy and one of the emitters that is an QSO, the continuum of the emitters is faint, with luminosities ranging from 1.3 L{sub *} to < 0.03 L{sub *}.The colors of the confirmed emitters are, on average, very blue. The median UV continuum slope is {beta}=-1.65, bluer than the average slope of LBGs with Ly{alpha} emitters is 2.6 {Mu}{circle_dot}{sup -1} as measured by the Ly{alpha} emission line or < 3.9 {Mu}{circle_dot}{sup -1} as measured by the UV continuum. The properties of the Ly{alpha} galaxies (faint, blue and small) are consistent with young star forming galaxies which are nearly dust free. The density of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies in the field around MRC 0316-257 is a factor of 3.3{sup +0.5}{sub -0.4} larger compared with the density of Ly{alpha} emitters at that redshift. The velocity distribution of the spectroscopically confirmed emitters has a dispersion of 640 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to a FWHM of 1510 km s{sup -1}, which is substantially smaller than the width of the narrow

  18. The LOFAR window on star-forming galaxies and AGNs - curved radio SEDs and IR-radio correlation at 0 (United States)

    Calistro Rivera, G.; Williams, W. L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Duncan, K.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Best, P. N.; Brüggen, M.; Chyży, K. T.; Conselice, C. J.; de Gasperin, F.; Engels, D.; Gürkan, G.; Intema, H. T.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mahony, E. K.; Miley, G. K.; Morabito, L. K.; Prandoni, I.; Sabater, J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tasse, C.; van der Werf, P. P.; White, G. J.


    We present a study of the low-frequency radio properties of star-forming (SF) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) up to redshift z = 2.5. The new spectral window probed by the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) allows us to reconstruct the radio continuum emission from 150 MHz to 1.4 GHz to an unprecedented depth for a radio-selected sample of 1542 galaxies in ∼ 7 deg2 of the LOFAR Boötes field. Using the extensive multiwavelength data set available in Boötes and detailed modelling of the far-infrared to ultraviolet spectral energy distribution (SED), we are able to separate the star formation (N = 758) and the AGN (N = 784) dominated populations. We study the shape of the radio SEDs and their evolution across cosmic time and find significant differences in the spectral curvature between the SF galaxy and AGN populations. While the radio spectra of SF galaxies exhibit a weak but statistically significant flattening, AGN SEDs show a clear trend to become steeper towards lower frequencies. No evolution of the spectral curvature as a function of redshift is found for SF galaxies or AGNs. We investigate the redshift evolution of the infrared-radio correlation for SF galaxies and find that the ratio of total infrared to 1.4-GHz radio luminosities decreases with increasing redshift: q1.4 GHz = (2.45 ± 0.04) (1 + z)-0.15 ± 0.03. Similarly, q150 MHz shows a redshift evolution following q150 GHz = (1.72 ± 0.04) (1 + z)-0.22 ± 0.05. Calibration of the 150 MHz radio luminosity as a star formation rate tracer suggests that a single power-law extrapolation from q1.4 GHz is not an accurate approximation at all redshifts.

  19. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bassa, C. G.; Adams, E. A. K.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Maddox, N. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S. [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science and Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bower, G. C. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Law, C. J. [Department of Astronomy and Radio Astronomy Lab, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcote, B.; Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Scholz, P., E-mail:, E-mail: [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada); and others


    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10{sup −4}) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m{sub r′} = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M {sub *} ∼ (4–7) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M {sub ⊙} L {sub ⊙} {sup −1}. Based on the H α flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm{sup −3}. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  20. Chandra Observations of the Nuclei of Radio Galaxies: 3C 295 and Hydra A (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; McNamara, B. R.; David, L. P.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)


    The angular resolution available with Chandra allows us to isolate the X-ray emission from the nucleus of many radio galaxies and obtain their spectra. As expected from unification schemes, spectra so far obtained can best be interpreted as heavily absorbed power laws. We present the spectral parameters so derived for 3C 295 and Hydra A and compare them to data obtained at other wavelengths.

  1. The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. A young clustered starburst revealed? (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.


    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC 4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods: Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results: The nuclear structure of NGC 4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (104.8 K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC 4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.

  2. Radio light curve of the galaxy possibly associated with FRB 150418 (United States)

    Johnston, S.; Keane, E. F.; Bhandari, S.; Macquart, J.-P.; Tingay, S. J.; Barr, E.; Bassa, C. G.; Beswick, R.; Burgay, M.; Chandra, P.; Honma, M.; Kramer, M.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Sugai, H.


    We present observations made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and the Giant Metre-Wave Telescope of the radio source within the galaxy WISE J071634.59-190039.2, claimed to be host of FRB 150418 by Keane et al. We have established a common flux density scale between the ATCA and JVLA observations, the main result of which is to increase the flux densities obtained by Keane et al. At a frequency of 5.5 GHz, the source has a mean flux density of 140 μJy and is variable on short time-scales with a modulation index of 0.36. Statistical analysis of the flux densities shows that the variations seen are consistent with the refractive interstellar scintillation of the weak active galactic nucleus at the centre of the galaxy. It may therefore be the case that the fast radio burst (FRB) and the galaxy are not associated. However, taking into account the rarity of highly variable sources in the radio sky, and our lack of knowledge of the progenitors of FRBs as a class, the association between WISE J071634.59-190039.2 and FRB 150418 remains a possibility.

  3. Large Scale Outflow from a Radio Loud AGN in Merging Galaxies at Redshift 2.47 (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan


    We detected a system of extended ionized gas cloud, approximately 40 kpc wide, while studying a compact group of galaxies surrounding a powerful radio source at z = 2.47. The most plausible source of these ionized gas, and also the radio emission, is a pair of merging galaxies greater than 70 kpc away from the tip of the detected extended gas cloud. Optical spectra of the merging pair itself shows strong UV lines with very broad line profiles of FWHM ~ 1700 km/s, which may represent a high velocity outflow driven by nuclear superbubbles that are commonly found in low redshift mergers. Thus, we have one merger with two distinct outflow systems: the extended ionized gas cloud, and the high velocity gas close to the host. This raises the question of the power source and the timing of the two outflows. The extended outflow is likely carried to such large distance by the radio jets, while the high velocity outflow close to the nucleus can be driven by the AGN radiation. The two outflows may be from a single episode of feedback, or two separate episodes triggered by different mechanism. Given that this is a stage 3 merger, where the two galaxies' nucleii share a common envelope, the kinematics and extent of the outflows from this system may shed some light on when the AGN feedback is triggered and the interplay between the different possible feedback mechanisms in the merger process.

  4. Excess Galactic Molecular Absorption Toward the Radio Galaxy 3C 111 (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Behar, E.


    We show the combined spectral analysis of Chandra high-energy transmission grating and XMM-Newton reflection-grating spectrometer observations of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111. This source is known to show excess neutral absorption with respect to the one estimated from 21 cm radio surveys of atomic H i in the Galaxy. However, previous works were not able to constrain the origin of such an absorber as local to our Milky Way or intrinsic to the source (z = 0.0485). The high signal-to-noise grating spectra allow us to constrain the excess absorption as being due to intervening gas in the Milky Way, and we estimate a time-averaged total column density of {N}{{H}}=(7.4+/- 0.1)× {10}21 cm-2, a factor of two higher than the tabulated H i value. We recommend using the total average Galactic column density estimated here when studying 3C 111. The origin of the extra Galactic absorption of {N}{{H}}=4.4× {10}21 cm-2 is likely due to molecular gas associated with the Taurus molecular cloud complex toward 3C 111, which is our nearest star-forming region. We also detect a weak (EW = 16 ± 10 eV) and narrow (FWMH radio galaxy and the Galactic interstellar medium, if used as a background source.

  5. 3D MHD simulations of magnetic field evolution and radio polarization of barred galaxies (United States)

    Kulesza-Żydzik, B.; Kulpa-Dybeł, K.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Soida, M.; Urbanik, M.


    Aims: We study numerically the large-scale gas and magnetic field evolution of barred galaxies in the gravitational potential of a disk, bulge, halo, and bar. We solve non-linear MHD equations including the back-reaction of the magnetic field to the gas. We do not take into account any dynamo process. Methods: We apply the numerical MHD code to calculate the model of the galaxy in three dimensions. We construct realistic maps of high-frequency (Faraday rotation free) polarized radio emission on the basis of the simulated magnetic fields. The polarization model includes the effects of projection and limited resolution. Results: The main result is that our modeled polarization maps resemble the radio polarization structures observed in barred galaxies. The modeled polarization B-vectors distribution along the bar and between spiral arms resembles the observed topology of the magnetic field in barred galaxies. Our calculations for several different rotational velocities and sound speeds give the same result we got in our previous earlier published model. The reason of this behaviour is the dynamical evolution of the bar that causes gas to form spiral waves going radially outward. A gaseous spiral arms in turn generates magnetic ones, which live much longer in the inter-arm disk space than the gaseous pattern.

  6. New Detections of Radio Minihalos in Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim; Venturi, Tiziana; Clarke, Tracy E.; Cassano, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale


    Cool cores of some galaxy clusters exhibit faint radio minihalos. Their origin is unclear, and their study has been limited by their small number. We undertook a systematic search for minihalos in a large sample of X-ray luminous clusters with high-quality radio data. In this article, we report four new minihalos (A 478, ZwCl 3146,RXJ 1532.9+3021, and A 2204) and five candidates found in the reanalyzed archival Very Large Array observations.The radio luminosities of our minihalos and candidates are in the range of 102325 W Hz1 at 1.4 GHz, which is consistent with these types of radio sources. Their sizes (40160 kpc in radius) are somewhat smaller than those of previously known minihalos. We combine our new detections with previously known minihalos, obtaining a total sample of 21 objects, and briefly compare the cluster radio properties to the average X-ray temperature and the total masses estimated from Planck.We find that nearly all clusters hosting minihalos are hot and massive. Beyond that, there is no clear correlation between the minihalo radio power and cluster temperature or mass (in contrast with the giant radio halos found in cluster mergers, whose radio luminosity correlates with the cluster mass). Chandra X-ray images indicate gas sloshing in the cool cores of most of our clusters, with minihalos contained within the sloshing regions in many of them. This supports the hypothesis that radio-emitting electrons are reaccelerated by sloshing. Advection of relativistic electrons by the sloshing gas may also play a role in the formation of the less extended minihalos.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Stasinska, Grazyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asari, Natalia V., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities L {sub 1.4}, narrow optical emission line luminosities L {sub [OIII]} and L{sub H{sub {alpha}}}, as well as black hole masses M {sub BH} derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that (1) NLRGs cover about four decades of the Eddington ratio, {lambda} {identical_to} L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}{proportional_to}L {sub line}/M {sub BH}; (2) L {sub 1.4}/M {sub BH} strongly correlates with {lambda}; and (3) radio loudness, R{identical_to}L{sub 1.4}/L{sub line}, strongly anti-correlates with {lambda}. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called magnetically choked accretion scenario. In this model, production of the jet is dominated by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the central black hole are confined by the ram pressure of the accretion flow. Since large net magnetic flux accumulated in central regions of the accretion flow required by the model can take place only via geometrically thick accretion, we speculate that the massive, 'cold' accretion events associated with luminous emission-line active galactic nucleus can be accompanied by an efficient jet production only if preceded by a hot, very sub-Eddington accretion phase.

  8. Extragalactic jets as probes of distant clusters of galaxies and the clusters occupied by bent radio AGN (COBRA) survey (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Wing, Joshua D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Golden-Marx, Emmet; Brodwin, Mark; Douglass, E. M.; Randall, Scott W.; Clarke, T. E.


    We are conducting a large survey of distant clusters of galaxies using radio sources with bent jets and lobes as tracers. These radio sources are driven by AGN and achieve their bent morphologies through interaction with the surrounding gas found in clusters of galaxies. Based on low-redshift studies, these types of sources can be used to identify clusters very efficiently. We present initial results from our survey of 653 bent-double radio sources with optical hosts too faint to appear in the SDSS. The sample was observed in the infrared with Spitzer, and it has revealed ~200 distant clusters or proto-clusters in the redshift range z ~ 0.7 - 3.0. The sample of bent-doubles contains both quasars and radio galaxies enabling us to study both radiative and kinetic mode feedback in cluster and group environments at a wide range of redshifts.

  9. The Spiral Host Galaxy of the Double Radio Source 0313-192 (United States)

    Keel, William C.; White, Raymond E., III; Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.


    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Gemini South, and Chandra observations of the radio galaxy 0313-192, which hosts a 350 kpc double source and jets, even though previous data have suggested that it is a spiral galaxy. We measure the bulge scale and the luminosity, radial, and vertical profiles of disk starlight and consider the distributions of H II regions and absorbing dust. In each case the HST data confirm its classification as an edge-on spiral galaxy, the only such system known to produce such an extended radio source of this kind. The Gemini near-IR images and Chandra spectral fit reveal a strongly obscured central active galactic nucleus (AGN), seen through the entire interstellar medium path length of the disk and showing X-ray evidence of additional absorption from warm or dense material close to the central object. We consider several possible mechanisms for producing such a rare combination of AGN and host properties, some combination of which may be at work. These include an unusually luminous bulge (suggesting a black hole of mass ~8×108 Msolar), the orientation of the jets near the pole of the gas-rich disk, and some evidence of a weak gravitational interaction that has warped the disk and could have enhanced fueling of the central engine. We detect an X-ray counterpart of the kiloparsec-scale radio jet emerging to the south; jet/counterjet limits on both radio and X-ray regimes allow them to be symmetric if seen more than 15° from the plane of the sky, still consistent with the jet axes being within ~30° of the poles of the gas-rich galaxy disk. A linear or disklike emission-line structure is seen around the nucleus, inclined by ~20° to the stellar disk but nearly perpendicular to the jets; this may represent the aftermath of a galaxy encounter, in which gas is photoionized by a direct view of the nuclear continuum. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  10. Radio-Continuum Jets Around the Peculiar Galaxy Pair ESO 295-IG022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovic, M. D.


    Full Text Available We report new radio-continuum observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA of the region surrounding the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022 at the centre of the poor cluster Abell S0102. We observed this cluster at wavelengths of $lambda$=20/13 and 6/3~cm with the ATCA 6~km array. With these configurations, we achieved a resolution of $sim$2arcsec at 3~cm which is sufficient to resolve the jet-like structure of $sim$3 arcmin lengthdetected at 20~cm. From our new high resolution images at 6 and 3~cm we confirm the presence of a double jet structure, most likely originating from the northern galaxy (ESO 295-IG022-N, bent and twisted towards the south. We found the spectral index of the jet to be very steep ($alpha$=-1.32. No point source was detected that could be associated with the core of ESO 295-IG022-N. On the other hand, ESO 295-IG022-S does not show any jet structure, but does show a point radio source. This source has variable flux and spectral index, and appears to be superposed on the line-of-sight of the jets (seen at 20-cm originating from the northern galaxy ESO 295-IG022-N. Finally, regions of very high and somewhat well ordered polarisation were detected at the level of 70 per cent.

  11. Radio-continuum jets around the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.


    Full Text Available We report new radio-continuum observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA of the region surrounding the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022 at the centre of the poor cluster Abell S0102. We observed this cluster at wavelengths of λ=20/13 and 6/3 cm with the ATCA 6 km array. With these configurations, we achieved a resolution of ~2'' at 3 cm which is sufficient to resolve the jet-like structure of ~3' length detected at 20 cm. From our new high resolution images at 6 and 3 cm we confirm the presence of a double jet structure, most likely originating from the northern galaxy (ESO 295-IG022-N, bent and twisted towards the south. We found the spectral index of the jet to be very steep (α=-1.32. No point source was detected that could be associated with the core of ESO 295-IG022-N. On the other hand, ESO 295-IG022-S does not show any jet structure, but does show a point radio source. This source has variable flux and spectral index, and appears to be superposed on the line-of-sight of the jets (seen at 20-cm originating from the northern galaxy ESO 295-IG022-N. Finally, regions of very high and somewhat well ordered polarization were detected at the level of 70%.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters: radio halos, relics and parameters (Yuan+, 2015) (United States)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.


    A large number of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos have been discovered and measured in recent decades through observations with VLA (e.g., Giovannini & Feretti 2000NewA....5..335G; van Weeren et al. 2011A&A...533A..35V), GMRT (e.g., Venturi et al. 2007A&A...463..937V; Kale et al. 2015A&A...579A..92K), WSRT (e.g., van Weeren et al. 2010Sci...330..347V; Trasatti et al. 2015A&A...575A..45T), and also ATCA (e.g., Shimwell et al. 2014MNRAS.440.2901S, 2015MNRAS.449.1486S). We have checked the radio images of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos in the literature and collected in Table 1 the radio flux Sν at frequencies within a few per cent around 1.4 GHz, 610 MHz, and 325 MHz; we have interpolated the flux at an intermediate frequency if measurements are available at higher and lower frequencies. To establish reliable scaling relations, we include only the very firm detection of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters, and omit questionable detections or flux estimates due to problematic point-source subtraction. (3 data files).

  13. Turbulence and Radio Mini-halos in the Sloshing Cores of Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.


    A number of relaxed, cool-core galaxy clusters exhibit diffuse, steep-spectrum radio sources in their central regions, known as radio mini-halos. It has been proposed that the relativistic electrons responsible for the emission have been reaccelerated by turbulence generated by the sloshing of the cool core gas. We present a high-resolution MHD simulation of gas sloshing in a galaxy cluster coupled with subgrid simulations of relativistic electron acceleration to test this hypothesis. Our simulation shows that the sloshing motions generate turbulence on the order of δv ~ 50-200 km s-1 on spatial scales of ~50-100 kpc and below in the cool core region within the envelope of the sloshing cold fronts, whereas outside the cold fronts, there is negligible turbulence. This turbulence is potentially strong enough to reaccelerate relativistic electron seeds (with initial γ ~ 100-500) to γ ~ 104 via damping of magnetosonic waves and non-resonant compression. The seed electrons could remain in the cluster from, e.g., past active galactic nucleus activity. In combination with the magnetic field amplification in the core, these electrons then produce diffuse radio synchrotron emission that is coincident with the region bounded by the sloshing cold fronts, as indeed observed in X-rays and the radio. The result holds for different initial spatial distributions of pre-existing relativistic electrons. The power and the steep spectral index (α ≈ 1-2) of the resulting radio emission are consistent with observations of mini-halos, though the theoretical uncertainties of the acceleration mechanisms are high. We also produce simulated maps of inverse-Compton hard X-ray emission from the same population of relativistic electrons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, V. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shannon, R. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jameson, A., E-mail: [Swinburne University of Technology, Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Mail H39, P.O. Box 218, VIC 3122 (Australia)


    We report the real-time discovery of a fast radio burst (FRB 131104) with the Parkes radio telescope in a targeted observation of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The dispersion measure of the burst is 779 cm{sup –3} pc, exceeding predictions for the maximum line-of-sight Galactic contribution by a factor of 11. The temporal structure of the burst is characterized by an exponential scattering tail with a timescale of 2.0{sub −0.5}{sup +0.8} ms at 1582 MHz that scales as frequency to the power –4.4{sub −1.8}{sup +1.6} (all uncertainties represent 95% confidence intervals). We bound the intrinsic pulse width to be <0.64 ms due to dispersion smearing across a single spectrometer channel. Searches in 78 hr of follow-up observations with the Parkes telescope reveal no additional sporadic emission and no evidence for associated periodic radio emission. We hypothesize that the burst is associated with the Carina dwarf galaxy. Follow-up observations at other wavelengths are necessary to test this hypothesis.

  15. The astrophysical consequences of intervening galaxy gas on fast radio bursts (United States)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Neeleman, Marcel


    We adopt and analyze results on the incidence and physical properties of damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) to predict the astrophysical impact of gas in galaxies on observations of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs). Three DLA measures form the basis of this analysis: (i) the HI column density distribution, parameterized as a double power-law; (ii) the incidence of DLAs with redshift (derived here), $\\ell(z)=A+B \\arctan(z-C)$ with $A=0.236_{-0.021}^{+0.016}, B=0.168_{-0.017}^{+0.010}, C=2.87_{-0.13}^{+0.17}$ and (iii) the electron density, parameterized as a log-normal deviate with mean $10^{-2.6} cm^{-3}$ and dispersion 0.3dex. Synthesizing these results, we estimate that the average rest-frame dispersion measure from the neutral medium of a single, intersecting galaxy is DM$^{NM}_{DLA}=0.25$ pc/cm^3. Analysis of AlIII and CII* absorption limits the putative warm ionized medium to contribute DM$^{WIM}_{DLA}<20$pc/cm^3. Given the low incidence of DLAs, we find that a population of FRBs at z=2 will incur DM(z=2)=0.01 pc/cm^3 on average, with a 99% c.l. upper bound of 0.22 pc/cm^3. Assuming that turbulence of the ISM in external galaxies is qualitatively similar to our Galaxy, we estimate that the angular broadening of an FRB by intersecting galaxies is negligible ($\\theta<0.1$mas). The temporal broadening is also predicted to be small, $\\tau \\approx 0.3$ms for a z=1 galaxy intersecting a z=2 FRB for an observing frequency of $\

  16. High angular resolution radio and infrared view of optically dark supernovae in luminous infrared galaxies (United States)

    Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki; Kool, Erik; Romero-Cañizales, Cristina; Ryder, Stuart; Perez-Torres, Miguel


    In luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs), the infall of gas into the central regions strongly enhances the star formation rate (SFR), especially within the nuclear regions which have also large amounts of interstellar dust. Within these regions SFRs of several tens to hundreds of solar masses per year ought to give rise to core-collapse supernova (SN) rates up to 1-2 SNe every year per galaxy. However, the current SN surveys, almost exclusively being ground-based seeing-limited and working at optical wavelengths, have been blinded by the interstellar dust and contrast issues therein. Thus the properties and rates of SNe in the nuclear environments of the most prolific SN factories in the Universe have remained largely unexplored. Here, we present results from high angular resolution observations of nearby LIRGs at infrared and radio wavelengths much less affected by the effects of extinction and lack of resolution hampering the optical searches.

  17. The origin of the X-ray, radio and H I structures in the NGC 5903 galaxy group (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Kolokythas, Konstantinos; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Raychaudhury, Somak; David, Laurence P.; Vrtilek, Jan M.


    The NGC 5903 galaxy group is a nearby (∼30 Mpc) system of ∼30 members, dominated by the giant ellipticals NGC 5903 and NGC 5898. The group contains two unusual structures: a ∼110 kpc long H I filament crossing NGC 5903 and a ∼75 kpc wide diffuse, steep-spectrum radio source of unknown origin that overlaps NGC 5903 and appears to be partly enclosed by the H I filament. Using a combination of Chandra, XMM-Newton, Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations, we detect a previously unknown ∼0.65 keV intra-group medium filling the volume within 145 kpc of NGC 5903 and find a loop of enhanced X-ray emission extending ∼35 kpc south-west from the galaxy, enclosing the brightest part of the radio source. The northern and eastern parts of this X-ray structure are also strongly correlated with the southern parts of the H I filament. We determine the spectral index of the bright radio emission to be α _{150}^{612} = 1.03 ± 0.08, indicating a radiative age >360 Myr. We discuss the origin of the correlated radio, X-ray and H I structures, either through an interaction-triggered active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst with enthalpy 1.8 × 1057 erg, or via a high-velocity collision between a galaxy and the H I filament. While neither scenario provides a complete explanation, we find that an AGN outburst is the most likely source of the principal X-ray and radio structures. However, it is clear that galaxy interactions continue to play an important role in the development of this relatively highly evolved galaxy group. We also resolve the question of whether the group member galaxy ESO 514-3 hosts a double-lobed radio source, confirming that the source is a superposed background AGN.

  18. Spatial distribution of far-infrared emission in spiral galaxies. I. Relation with radio continuum emission. (United States)

    Mayya, Y. D.; Rengarajan, T. N.


    We use high resolution IRAS and 20 cm radio continuum (RC) images of a sample of 22 spiral galaxies to study the correlation between the far infra-red (FIR) and RC emissions within the galactic disks. A combination of exponential and gaussian profiles rather than a single exponential profile is found to be a better representation of the observed intensity profiles in the two bands. The gaussian component, which we show is not due to the effects of limited beam-resolution, contains more than 60% of the total flux in majority of the galaxies. The dominance of the gaussian component suggests that the nuclear star forming regions and the bulge stars are more important contributors to the emission in the two bands, rather than the outer exponential stellar disks. The RC profile is flatter compared to the FIR profile, resulting in a decrease of their ratio, Q-Sixty, away from the center. However, the Q-sixty increases in the extreme outer parts, where the dispersion in the FIR and RC correlation is also higher than in the central regions. The global Q-sixty and its dispersion match those in the inner parts of the galaxies. These results imply that the observed tight correlation in the global quantities reflects processes in the inner regions only where OB stars and the associated Type II supernovae control the FIR and RC emission. In the outer parts heating of very small dust grains by the old disk stars provides a secondary component in the FIR emission, without associated RC emission. The edge-on galaxy NGC3079 shows extended FIR and RC emissions along its minor axis, probably associated with the nuclear starburst activity. keywords - star formation - far infrared emission -- radio continuum emission

  19. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G


    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  20. Spatial distribution of far infrared emission in spiral galaxies I. Relation with radio continuum emission


    Y. D. Mayya; Rengarajan, T. N.


    We use high resolution IRAS and 20 cm radio continuum (RC) images of a sample of 22 spiral galaxies to study the correlation between the far infra-red (FIR) and RC emissions within the galactic disks. A combination of exponential and gaussian profiles rather than a single exponential profile is found to be a better representation of the observed intensity profiles in the two bands. The gaussian component, which we show is not due to the effects of limited beam-resolution, contains more than 6...

  1. Probing the gas content of radio galaxies through H I absorption stacking (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.


    Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we carried out shallow H i absorption observations of a flux-selected (S1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) sample of 93 radio active galactic nuclei (AGN), which have available SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) redshifts between 0.02 goal is to study the gas properties of radio sources down to S1.4 GHz flux densities not systematically explored before using, for the first time, stacking of absorption spectra of extragalactic H i. Despite the shallow observations, we obtained a direct detection rate of ~29%, comparable with deeper studies of radio galaxies. Furthermore, detections are found at every S1.4 GHz flux level, showing that H i absorption detections are not biased toward brighter sources. The stacked profiles of detections and non-detections reveal a clear dichotomy in the presence of H i, with the 27 detections showing an average peak τ = 0.02 corresponding to N(H i) ~(7.4 ± 0.2) × 1018 (Tspin/cf) cm-2, while the 66 non-detections remain undetected upon stacking with a peak optical depth upper limit τ orientation effects connected to a disk-like distribution of the H i can be partly responsible for the dichotomy that we see in our sample. However, orientation effects alone cannot explain all the observational results, and some of our galaxies must be genuinely depleted of cold gas. A fraction of the compact sources in the sample are confirmed by previous studies as likely young radio sources (compact steep spectrum and gigahertz peaked spectrum sources). These show an even higher detection rate of 55%. Along with their high integrated optical depth and wider profile, this reinforces the idea that young radio AGN are embedded in a medium that is rich in atomic gas. Part of our motivation is to probe for the presence of faint H i outflows at low optical depth using stacking. However, the stacked profiles do not reveal any significant blueshifted wing. We are currently collecting more data to investigate the presence of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicken, D.; Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Kharb, P. [Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Tadhunter, C.; Ramos Almeida, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morganti, R. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Spoon, H. [224 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Inskip, K. J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Holt, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Nesvadba, N. P. H., E-mail: [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)


    We present deep Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra for complete samples of 46 2 Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) and 19 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z < 0.1), and use the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features to examine the incidence of contemporaneous star formation and radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Our analysis reveals PAH features in only a minority (30%) of the objects with good IRS spectra. Using the wealth of complementary data available for the 2 Jy and 3CRR samples we make detailed comparisons between a range of star formation diagnostics: optical continuum spectroscopy, mid- to far-IR (MFIR) color, far-IR excess and PAH detection. There is good agreement between the various diagnostic techniques: most candidates identified to have star formation activity on the basis of PAH detection are also identified using at least two of the other techniques. We find that only 35% of the combined 2 Jy and 3CRR sample show evidence for recent star formation activity (RSFA) at optical and/or MFIR wavelengths. This result argues strongly against the idea of a close link between starburst and powerful radio-loud AGN activity, reinforcing the view that, although a large fraction of powerful radio galaxies may be triggered in galaxy interactions, only a minority are triggered at the peaks of star formation activity in major, gas-rich mergers. However, we find that compact radio sources (D < 15 kpc) show a significantly higher incidence of RSFA (>75%) than their more extended counterparts ( Almost-Equal-To 15%-25%). We discuss this result in the context of a possible bias toward the selection of compact radio sources triggered in gas-rich environments.

  3. A large anisotropy in the sky distribution of 3CRR quasars and other radio galaxies (United States)

    Singal, Ashok K.


    We report the presence of large anisotropies in the sky distributions of powerful extended quasars as well as some other sub-classes of radio galaxies in the 3CRR survey, the most reliable and most intensively studied complete sample of strong steep-spectrum radio sources. The anisotropies lie about a plane passing through the equinoxes and the north celestial pole. Out of a total of 48 quasars in the sample, 33 of them lie in one half of the observed sky and the remaining 15 in the other half. The probability that in a random distribution of 3CRR quasars in the sky, statistical fluctuations could give rise to an asymmetry in observed numbers up to this level is only ˜1 %. Also only about 1/4th of Fanaroff-Riley 1 (FR1) type of radio galaxies lie in the first half of the observed sky and the remainder in the second half. If we include all the observed asymmetries in the sky distributions of quasars and radio galaxies in the 3CRR sample, the probability of their occurrence by a chance combination reduces to ˜2×10-5. Two pertinent but disturbing questions that could be raised here are—firstly why should there be such large anisotropies present in the sky distribution of some of the strongest and most distant discrete sources, implying inhomogeneities in the universe at very large scales (covering a fraction of the universe)? Secondly why should such anisotropies lie about a great circle decided purely by the orientation of earth's rotation axis and/or the axis of its revolution around the sun? It seems yet more curious when we consider the other anisotropies, e.g., an alignment of the four normals to the quadrupole and octopole planes in the CMBR with the cosmological dipole and the equinoxes. Then there is the other recently reported large dipole anisotropy in the NVSS radio source distribution differing in magnitude from the CMBR dipole by a factor of four, and therefore not explained as due to the peculiar motion of the Solar system, yet aligned with the CMBR

  4. An abundance of phenomena: mergers, AGN feedback, radio galaxies, sloshing, and filaments in the NGC 741 group (United States)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; Schellenberger, Gerrit; David, Laurence P.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Giacintucci, Simona; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Duchesne, Stefan; Raychaudhury, Somak


    While AGN and mergers are thought to play important roles in group and cluster evolution, their effects in galaxy groups are poorly understood. We show recent results from an analysis of deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 741, which provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly-bent jets, a 100kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  5. Evidence for a Multiphase ISM in Early Type Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies with Strong Radio Continuum (United States)

    Kim, Dong Woo


    We have observed NGC 1316 (Fornax A) with the ROSAT HRI. In this paper, we present the results of these observations and we complement them with the spectral analysis of the archival PSPC data. The spectral properties suggest the presence of a significant component of thermal X-ray emission (greater than 60%), amounting to approx. 10(exp 9) solar mass of hot ISM. Within 3 feet from the nucleus of NGC 1316, the HRI X-ray surface brightness falls as r(exp -2) following the stellar light. In the inner approx. 30 inch., however, the X-ray surface brightness is significantly elongated, contrary to the distribution of stellar light, which is significantly rounder within 10 inch. This again argues for a non-stellar origin of the X-ray emission. This flattened X-ray feature is suggestive of either the disk-like geometry of a rotating cooling flow and/or the presence of extended, elongated dark matter. By comparing the morphology of the X-ray emission with the distribution of optical dust patches, we find that the X-ray emission is significantly reduced at the locations where the dust patches are more pronounced, indicating that at least some of the X-ray photons are absorbed by the cold ISM. We also compare the distribution of the hot and cold ISM with that of the ionized gas, using recently obtained H(sub alpha) CCD data. We find that the ionized gas is distributed roughly along the dust patches and follows the large scale X-ray distribution at r greater than 1 foot from the nucleus. However, there is no one-to-one correspondence between ionized gas and hot gas. Both morphological relations and kinematics suggest different origins for hot and cold ISM. The radio jets in projection appear to pass perpendicularly through the central X-ray ellipsoid. Comparison of thermal and radio pressures suggests that the radio jets are confined by the surrounding hot gaseous medium.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIRST catalog of FR II radio galaxies (Capetti+, 2017) (United States)

    Capetti, A.; Massaro, F.; Baldi, R. D.


    We searched for FR II radio galaxies in the sample of 18,286 radio sources built by Best & Heckman (2012, Cat. J/MNRAS/421/1569; hereafter the BH12 sample) by limiting our search to the subsample of objects in which, according to these authors, the radio emission is produced by an active nucleus. They cross-matched the optical spectroscopic catalogs produced by the group from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and Johns Hopkins University (Brinchmann et al. 2004MNRAS.351.1151B; Tremonti et al. 2004ApJ...613..898T) based on data from the data release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7/SDSS; Abazajian et al. 2009ApJS..182..543A),1 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al. 1998AJ....115.1693C, Cat. VIII/65) and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey (FIRST; Becker et al. 1995ApJ...450..559B; Helfand et al. 2015ApJ...801...26H, Cat. VIII/92) adopting a radio flux density limit of 5 mJy in the NVSS. We focused on the sources with redshift z<0.15. The majority (107) of the selected FR IIs are classified as LEG, but there are also 14 HEG and just one source that cannot be classified spectroscopically because of the lack of emission lines, namely J1446+2142. (1 data file).

  7. Relativistic jet feedback II: Relationship to gigahertz peak spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies (United States)

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nesvadba, Nicole PH


    We propose that Gigahertz Peak Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are the signposts of relativistic jet feedback in evolving galaxies. Our simulations of relativistic jets interacting with a warm, inhomogeneous medium, utilize cloud densities and velocity dispersions in the range derived from optical observations, show that free-free absorption can account for the ˜ GHz peak frequencies and low frequency power laws inferred from the radio observations. These new computational models replace the power-law model for the free-free optical depth in the (Bicknell et al. 1997) model by a more fundamental model involving disrupted log-normal distributions of warm gas. One feature of our new models is that at early stages, the low frequency spectrum is steep but progressively flattens as a result of a broader distribution of optical depths, suggesting that the steep low frequency spectra discovered by Callingham et al. (2018) may possibly be attributed to young sources. We also investigate the inverse correlation between peak frequency and size and find that the initial location on this correlation is determined by the average density of the warm ISM. The simulated sources track this correlation initially but eventually fall below it, indicating the need for a more extended ISM than presently modelled. GPS and CSS sources can potentially provide new insights into the phenomenon of AGN feedback since their peak frequencies and spectra are indicative of the density, turbulent structure and distribution of gas in the host galaxy.

  8. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Heald, George [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Braun, Robert [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Rainer, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ{sub SFR} maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R{sub int}=0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR}, with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ{sub SFR}){sub RC}∝(Σ{sub SFR}){sub hyb}{sup 0.63±0.25}, implying that data points with high Σ{sub SFR} are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ{sub SFR}. We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of

  9. Occurrence of Radio Minihalos in a Mass-limited Sample of Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim; Cassano, Rossella; Venturi, Tiziana; Clarke, Tracy E.; Brunetti, Gianfranco


    We investigate the occurrence of radio minihalos—diffuse radio sources of unknown origin observed in the cores of some galaxy clusters—in a statistical sample of 58 clusters drawn from the Planck Sunyaev-Zel’dovich cluster catalog using a mass cut (M 500 > 6 × 1014 M ⊙). We supplement our statistical sample with a similarly sized nonstatistical sample mostly consisting of clusters in the ACCEPT X-ray catalog with suitable X-ray and radio data, which includes lower-mass clusters. Where necessary (for nine clusters), we reanalyzed the Very Large Array archival radio data to determine whether a minihalo is present. Our total sample includes all 28 currently known and recently discovered radio minihalos, including six candidates. We classify clusters as cool-core or non-cool-core according to the value of the specific entropy floor in the cluster center, rederived or newly derived from the Chandra X-ray density and temperature profiles where necessary (for 27 clusters). Contrary to the common wisdom that minihalos are rare, we find that almost all cool cores—at least 12 out of 15 (80%)—in our complete sample of massive clusters exhibit minihalos. The supplementary sample shows that the occurrence of minihalos may be lower in lower-mass cool-core clusters. No minihalos are found in non-cool cores or “warm cores.” These findings will help test theories of the origin of minihalos and provide information on the physical processes and energetics of the cluster cores.

  10. Ordered magnetic fields around radio galaxies: evidence for interaction with the environment (United States)

    Guidetti, D.; Laing, R. A.; Bridle, A. H.; Parma, P.; Gregorini, L.


    We present detailed imaging of Faraday rotation and depolarization for the radio galaxies 0206+35, 3C 270, 3C 353 and M 84, based on Very Large Array observations at multiple frequencies in the range 1365 to 8440 MHz. All of the sources show highly anisotropic banded rotation measure (RM) structures with contours of constant RM perpendicular to the major axes of their radio lobes. All except M84 also have regions in which the RM fluctuations have lower amplitude and appear isotropic. We give a comprehensive description of the banded RM phenomenon and present an initial attempt to interpret it as a consequence of interactions between the sources and their surroundings. We show that the material responsible for the Faraday rotation is in front of the radio emission and that the bands are likely to be caused by magnetized plasma which has been compressed by the expanding radio lobes. We present a simple model for the compression of a uniformly magnetized external medium and show that RM bands of approximately the right amplitude can be produced, but only for special initial conditions. A two-dimensional magnetic structure in which the field lines are a family of ellipses draped around the leading edge of the lobe can produce RM bands in the correct orientation for any source orientation. We also report the first detections of rims of high depolarization at the edges of the inner radio lobes of M 84 and 3C 270. These are spatially coincident with shells of enhanced X-ray surface brightness, in which both the field strength and the thermal gas density are likely to be increased by compression. The fields must be tangled on small scales.

  11. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of the radio galaxy IC310 (United States)

    Fraija, N.; Marinelli, A.; Galván-Gámez, A.; Aguilar-Ruiz, E.


    The radio galaxy IC310 located in the Perseus Cluster is one of the brightest objects in the radio and X-ray bands, and one of the closest active galactic nuclei observed in very-high energies. In GeV - TeV γ-rays, IC310 was detected in low and high flux states by the MAGIC telescopes from October 2009 to February 2010. Taking into account that the spectral energy distribution (SED) up to a few GeV seems to exhibit a double-peak feature and that a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model can explain all of the multiwavelength emission except for the non-simultaneous MAGIC emission, we interpret, in this work, the multifrequency data set of the radio galaxy IC310 in the context of homogeneous hadronic and leptonic models. In the leptonic framework, we present a multi-zone SSC model with two electron populations to explain the whole SED whereas for the hadronic model, we propose that a single-zone SSC model describes the SED up to a few GeVs and neutral pion decay products resulting from pγ interactions could describe the TeV - GeV γ-ray spectra. These interactions occur when Fermi-accelerated protons interact with the seed photons around the SSC peaks. We show that, in the leptonic model the minimum Lorentz factor of second electron population is exceedingly high γe ∼ 105 disfavoring this model, and in the hadronic model the required proton luminosity is not extremely high ∼1044 erg/s, provided that charge neutrality between the number of electrons and protons is given. Correlating the TeV γ-ray and neutrino spectra through photo-hadronic interactions, we find that the contribution of the emitting region of IC310 to the observed neutrino and ultra-high-energy cosmic ray fluxes are negligible.

  12. The peculiar radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block-II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Sahayanathan, S. [Astrophysical Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Anjum, Ayesha [Department of Physics, Christ University, Bangalore-560029 (India); Pandey, S. B., E-mail: [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora peak, Nainital-263129 (India)


    We present a multiwavelength study of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLSy1) 1H 0323+342, detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Multiband light curves show many orphan X-ray and optical flares having no corresponding γ-ray counterparts. Such anomalous variability behavior can be due to different locations of the emission region from the central source. During a large flare, a γ-ray flux doubling timescale as small as ∼3 hr is noticed. We built spectral energy distributions (SEDs) during different activity states and modeled them using a one-zone leptonic model. The shape of the optical/UV component of the SEDs is dominated by accretion disk emission in all the activity states. In the X-ray band, significant thermal emission from the hot corona is inferred during quiescent and first flaring states; however, during subsequent flares, the nonthermal jet component dominates. The γ-ray emission in all the states can be well explained by inverse-Compton scattering of accretion disk photons reprocessed by the broad-line region. The source showed violent intra-night optical variability, coinciding with one of the high γ-ray activity states. An analysis of the overall X-ray spectrum fitted with an absorbed power-law plus relativistic reflection component hints at the presence of an Fe Kα line and returns a high black hole spin value of a = 0.96 ± 0.14. We argue that 1H 0323+342 possesses dual characteristics, akin to both flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and radio-quiet NLSy1 galaxies, though at a low jet power regime compared to powerful FSRQs.

  13. The Peculiar Radio-loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342 (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Sahayanathan, S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.; Anjum, Ayesha; Pandey, S. B.


    We present a multiwavelength study of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLSy1) 1H 0323+342, detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Multiband light curves show many orphan X-ray and optical flares having no corresponding γ-ray counterparts. Such anomalous variability behavior can be due to different locations of the emission region from the central source. During a large flare, a γ-ray flux doubling timescale as small as ~3 hr is noticed. We built spectral energy distributions (SEDs) during different activity states and modeled them using a one-zone leptonic model. The shape of the optical/UV component of the SEDs is dominated by accretion disk emission in all the activity states. In the X-ray band, significant thermal emission from the hot corona is inferred during quiescent and first flaring states; however, during subsequent flares, the nonthermal jet component dominates. The γ-ray emission in all the states can be well explained by inverse-Compton scattering of accretion disk photons reprocessed by the broad-line region. The source showed violent intra-night optical variability, coinciding with one of the high γ-ray activity states. An analysis of the overall X-ray spectrum fitted with an absorbed power-law plus relativistic reflection component hints at the presence of an Fe Kα line and returns a high black hole spin value of a = 0.96 ± 0.14. We argue that 1H 0323+342 possesses dual characteristics, akin to both flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and radio-quiet NLSy1 galaxies, though at a low jet power regime compared to powerful FSRQs.

  14. The discovery of six Ly{alpha} emitters near a radio galaxy at z {approx} 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venemans, B P; Rottgering, H A; Overzier, R A; Miley, G K; De Breuck, C; Kurk, J D; van Breugel, W; Carilli, C L; Ford, H; Heckman, T; McCarthy, P; Pentericci, L


    The authors present the results of narrow-band and broad-band imaging with the Very Large Telescope of the field surrounding the radio galaxy TN J0924-2201 at z = 5.2. 14 candidate Ly{alpha} emitters with an observed equivalent width of at least 124 {angstrom} were detected. Spectroscopy of 8 of these objects revealed 6 having redshifts similar to that of the radio galaxy. The density of emitters near the radio galaxy is a factor 3-4 higher than in the field, and comparable to the density of Ly{alpha} emitters in the protocluster 1338-1942 at z = 4.1. The Ly{alpha} emitters near TN J0924-2201 could therefore be part of a structure that will evolve into a 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}} cluster. These observations confirm that substantial clustering of Ly{alpha} emitters occur at z > 5 and strengthen the idea that radio galaxies in the early Universe pinpoint regions of high density.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Gandhi, P.; Takahashi, T.; Takei, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tanaka, Y. T.; Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Madejski, G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); O' Sullivan, S. P. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Feain, I. J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Hardcastle, M. J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kataoka, J.; Takeuchi, Y. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Ostrowski, M. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Reville, B. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Simionescu, A.; Werner, N., E-mail: [KIPAC, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We report on Suzaku observations of selected regions within the southern giant lobe of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. In our analysis we focus on distinct X-ray features detected with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer within the range 0.5-10 keV, some of which are likely associated with fine structure of the lobe revealed by recent high-quality radio intensity and polarization maps. With the available photon statistics, we find that the spectral properties of the detected X-ray features are equally consistent with thermal emission from hot gas with temperatures kT > 1 keV, or with a power-law radiation continuum characterized by photon indices {Gamma} {approx} 2.0 {+-} 0.5. However, the plasma parameters implied by these different models favor a synchrotron origin for the analyzed X-ray spots, indicating that a very efficient acceleration of electrons up to {approx}> 10 TeV energies is taking place within the giant structure of Centaurus A, albeit only in isolated and compact regions associated with extended and highly polarized radio filaments. We also present a detailed analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission filling the whole field of view of the instrument, resulting in a tentative detection of a soft excess component best fitted by a thermal model with a temperature of kT {approx} 0.5 keV. The exact origin of the observed excess remains uncertain, although energetic considerations point to thermal gas filling the bulk of the volume of the lobe and mixed with the non-thermal plasma, rather than to the alternative scenario involving a condensation of the hot intergalactic medium around the edges of the expanding radio structure. If correct, this would be the first detection of the thermal content of the extended lobes of a radio galaxy in X-rays. The corresponding number density of the thermal gas in such a case is n{sub g} {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}, while its pressure appears to be in almost exact equipartition with the volume-averaged non-thermal pressure

  16. Giant Lobes of Centaurus A Radio Galaxy Observed with the Suzaku X-Ray Satellite (United States)

    Stawarz, Ł.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Madejski, G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Cheung, C. C.; Feain, I. J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Gandhi, P.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Kataoka, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Reville, B.; Siemiginowska, A.; Simionescu, A.; Takahashi, T.; Takei, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Werner, N.


    We report on Suzaku observations of selected regions within the southern giant lobe of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. In our analysis we focus on distinct X-ray features detected with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer within the range 0.5-10 keV, some of which are likely associated with fine structure of the lobe revealed by recent high-quality radio intensity and polarization maps. With the available photon statistics, we find that the spectral properties of the detected X-ray features are equally consistent with thermal emission from hot gas with temperatures kT > 1 keV, or with a power-law radiation continuum characterized by photon indices Γ ~ 2.0 ± 0.5. However, the plasma parameters implied by these different models favor a synchrotron origin for the analyzed X-ray spots, indicating that a very efficient acceleration of electrons up to >~ 10 TeV energies is taking place within the giant structure of Centaurus A, albeit only in isolated and compact regions associated with extended and highly polarized radio filaments. We also present a detailed analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission filling the whole field of view of the instrument, resulting in a tentative detection of a soft excess component best fitted by a thermal model with a temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV. The exact origin of the observed excess remains uncertain, although energetic considerations point to thermal gas filling the bulk of the volume of the lobe and mixed with the non-thermal plasma, rather than to the alternative scenario involving a condensation of the hot intergalactic medium around the edges of the expanding radio structure. If correct, this would be the first detection of the thermal content of the extended lobes of a radio galaxy in X-rays. The corresponding number density of the thermal gas in such a case is ng ~ 10-4 cm-3, while its pressure appears to be in almost exact equipartition with the volume-averaged non-thermal pressure provided by the radio-emitting electrons and the lobes

  17. Suzaku observations of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2255: The northeast radio relic (United States)

    Akamatsu, H.; Mizuno, M.; Ota, N.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; van Weeren, R. J.; Kawahara, H.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kawaharada, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Takizawa, M.; Vink, J.; Zandanel, F.


    We present the results of deep 140 ks Suzaku X-ray observations of the north-east (NE) radio relic of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2255. The temperature structure of Abell 2255 is measured out to 0.9 times the virial radius (1.9 Mpc) in the NE direction for the first time. The Suzaku temperature map of the central region suggests a complex temperature distribution, which agrees with previous work. Additionally, on a larger-scale, we confirm that the temperature drops from 6 keV around the cluster center to 3 keV at the outskirts, with two discontinuities at r 5' (450 kpc) and 12' (1100 kpc) from the cluster center. Their locations coincide with surface brightness discontinuities marginally detected in the XMM-Newton image, which indicates the presence of shock structures. From the temperature drop, we estimate the Mach numbers to be ℳinner 1.2 and, ℳouter 1.4. The first structure is most likely related to the large cluster core region ( 350-430 kpc), and its Mach number is consistent with the XMM-Newton observation (ℳ 1.24: Sakelliou & Ponman 2006, MNRAS, 367, 1409). Our detection of the second temperature jump, based on the Suzaku key project observation, shows the presence of a shock structure across the NE radio relic. This indicates a connection between the shock structure and the relativistic electrons that generate radio emission. Across the NE radio relic, however, we find a significantly lower temperature ratio (T1/T2 1.44 ± 0.16 corresponds to ℳX-ray 1.4) than the value expected from radio wavelengths, based on the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism (T1/T2> 3.2 or ℳRadio> 2.8). This may suggest that under some conditions, in particular the NE relic of A2255 case, the simple diffusive shock acceleration mechanism is unlikely to be valid, and therefore, more a sophisticated mechanism is required.

  18. A Search for Blazar-Like Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh R. Miller


    Full Text Available We report the results of an observational program to investigate the gamma-ray and optical variability properties of the vRL NLSY1 galaxies listed in the Yuan et al. sample. We have identified 17 members of the Yuan et al. sample possibly associated with gamma-ray sources based on a combination of their optical polarization and optical variability and their gamma-ray properties. Eight have previously been associated with gamma-ray sources. We find nine additional members that we predict are excellent candidates to be associated with gamma-ray sources in the future. All 17 sources have many properties in common with flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs, suggesting that they may, in fact, constitute a new subclass of FSRQs.

  19. Fast variability of tera-electron volt gamma rays from the radio galaxy M87. (United States)

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brown, A M; Bühler, R; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'c; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Füssling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khélifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moulin, E; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M


    The detection of fast variations of the tera-electron volt (TeV) (10(12) eV) gamma-ray flux, on time scales of days, from the nearby radio galaxy M87 is reported. These variations are about 10 times as fast as those observed in any other wave band and imply a very compact emission region with a dimension similar to the Schwarzschild radius of the central black hole. We thus can exclude several other sites and processes of the gamma-ray production. The observations confirm that TeV gamma rays are emitted by extragalactic sources other than blazars, where jets are not relativistically beamed toward the observer.

  20. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsaesser, D.; Gehrels, N.; hide


    Context. gamma-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (gamma-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest gamma-NLS1 known, PKS2004447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS2004447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-NLS1s. Methods. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results. The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other gamma-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions. PKS2004447 appears to be a unique member of the gamma-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all gamma-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray-loud AGN.

  1. Fermi monitoring of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram-673635 (India)


    We present detailed analysis of the γ-ray flux variability and spectral properties of the five radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxies, detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, namely 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, PMN J0948+0022, PKS 1502+036, and PKS 2004−447. The first three sources show significant flux variations, including the rapid variability of a few hours by 1H 0323+342. The average γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 shows deviation from a simple power-law (PL) behavior, whereas the PL model gives a better fit for the other three sources. The spectra of 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, and PMN J0948+0022, which are in low, flaring, and moderately active states, respectively, show significant curvature. Such curvature in the γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 could be due to the emission region located inside the broad line region (BLR) where the primary mechanism of the γ-ray emission is inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of BLR photons occurring in the Klein–Nishina regime. The γ-ray emission of SBS 0846+513 is explained by IC scattering of dusty torus photons, which puts the emission region outside the BLR and thus under the Thomson regime. Therefore, the observed curvature of SBS 0846+513 could be intrinsic to the particle energy distribution. The presence of curvature in the γ-ray spectrum and flux variability amplitudes of some of the RL-NLSy1 galaxies suggests that these sources could be akin to low/moderate jet power flat spectrum radio quasars.

  2. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio-Galaxy Cygnus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.


    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A,focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN...... and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law (Γ~1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of NH~1.6x1023 cm-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (>10ke......V (90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power-law plus reflection modelleaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast(15,000-26,000km/s), high column-density (NW>3x1023 cm-2), highly ionized (ξ~2,500 erg cm/s-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also...

  3. HST/ACS Emission Line Snapshots of nearby 3CR Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant; Sparks, W. B.; Chiaberge, M.; Baum, S. A.; Allen, M. G.; Axon, D. J.; Capetti, A.; Floyd, D. J. E.; Macchetto, F. D.; Miley, G. K.; O'Dea, C. P.; Perlman, E. S.; Quillen, A. C.


    We present the results of a new HST/ACS snapshot program in which we have obtained emission line images of nearby (z successfully for 20 such objects, a sample consisting of both low-power FR I and classical high-power FR II radio galaxies. While only a subset of our initially proposed sample was observed, the newly reduced data we do have are excellent and will serve as an enhancement to an already superb dataset. In future papers, we will use these data to probe fundamental relationships between warm optical line-emitting gas, radio source structure (jets and lobes) and X-ray coronal halos. We will combine our existing UV images with new emission line images to establish quantitative star formation characteristics and their relation to dust and merger scenarios. Through the use of emission-line excitation maps, we will test theories on ionization beam patterns and luminosities from active nuclei, as well as seek areas of jet induced star formation. The resulting database will be an invaluable resource to the astronomical community for years to come.

  4. A Radio Continuum and H I Study of Optically Selected Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies: Mrk 1039 and Mrk 0104 (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Kantharia, N. G.; Prabhu, T. P.


    We present a GMRT radio continuum and H I study of two Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies Mrk 1039 and Mrk 0104. GMRT 610 MHz observations of Mrk 1039 show that the emission is coincident with a bright intense star forming region in the east of the galaxy. The emission at 610 MHz is more extended compared to higher frequencies. The radio spectrum is found to steepen away from the star forming region, suggesting the dominance of the non-thermal component at 610 MHz which maybe due to an older (few 100 Myr old) burst. We detect radio emission at 610 and 240 MHz from Mrk 0104 and estimate a spectral index of -1.14. We find that the emission is more extended at the low GMRT frequencies compared to the 1.4 GHz emission. The galaxy shows extended H I distribution which is about 1.3 times the optical size and contains a mass of 9×10^8 M⊙. We also detect a H I cloud about ˜ 4.5 kpc to the north of the galaxy which does not have any obvious optical counterpart. We speculate that this H I cloud could be involved in triggering the current burst of star formation in Mrk 0104.

  5. Probing the Disk-Jet Connection of the Radio Galaxy 3C120 Observed With Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Jun; Reeves, James N.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Markowitz, Alex G.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Arimoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tsubuku, Yoshihiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Gallo, Luigi C.; Madejski, Greg M.; Terashima, Yuichi; Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /NASA, Goddard /Garching, Max Planck


    Broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are a rare type of radio-loud AGN, in which the broad optical permitted emission lines have been detected in addition to the extended jet emission. Here we report on deep (40ksec x 4) observations of the bright BLRG 3C 120 using Suzaku. The observations were spaced a week apart, and sample a range of continuum fluxes. An excellent broadband spectrum was obtained over two decades of frequency (0.6 to 50 keV) within each 40 ksec exposure. We clearly resolved the iron K emission line complex, finding that it consists of a narrow K{sub {alpha}} core ({sigma} {approx_equal} 110 eV or an EW of 60 eV), a 6.9 keV line, and an underlying broad iron line. Our confirmation of the broad line contrasts with the XMM-Newton observation in 2003, where the broad line was not required. The most natural interpretation of the broad line is iron K line emission from a face-on accretion disk which is truncated at {approx} 10 r{sub g}. Above 10 keV, a relatively weak Compton hump was detected (reflection fraction of R {approx_equal} 0.6), superposed on the primary X-ray continuum of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 1.75. Thanks to the good photon statistics and low background of the Suzaku data, we clearly confirm the spectral evolution of 3C 120, whereby the variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy. More strikingly, we discovered that the variability is caused by a steep power-law component of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 2.7, possibly related to the non-thermal jet emission. We discuss our findings in the context of similarities and differences between radio-loud/quiet objects.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Liuzzo, E. [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Bonafede, A. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)


    This paper contains an analysis of short Chandra observations of 19 3C sources with redshifts between 0.3 and 0.5 not previously observed in the X-rays. This sample is part of a project to obtain Chandra data for all of the extragalactic sources in the 3C catalog. Nuclear X-ray intensities as well as any X-ray emission associated with radio jet knots, hotspots, or lobes have been measured in three energy bands: soft, medium, and hard. Standard X-ray spectral analysis for the four brightest nuclei has also been performed. X-ray emission was detected for all the nuclei of the radio sources in the current sample with the exception of 3C 435A. There is one compact steep spectrum source while all the others are FR II radio galaxies. X-ray emission from two galaxy clusters (3C 19 and 3C 320), from six hotspots in four radio galaxies (3C 16, 3C 19, 3C 268.2, 3C 313), and extended X-ray emission on kiloparsec scales in 3C 187 and 3C 313, has been detected.

  7. From Radio with Love: An Overview of the Role of Radio Observations in Understanding High-Energy Emission from Active Galaxies (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh


    The gamma-ray satellite Fermi and the ground based TeV facilities MAGIC, VERITAS and HESS have ushered in a new era in the observation of high-energy emission from active galaxies. The energy budgets of these objects have a major contribution from gamma-rays and it is simply not possible to understand their physics without high-energy observations. Though the exact mechanisms for high-energy production in galaxies remains an open question, gamma-rays typically result from interactions between high-energy particles. Via different interactions these same particles can produce radio emission. Thus the non-thermal nature of gamma-ray emission practically guarantees that high-energy emitters are also radio loud. Aside from their obvious role as a component of multiwavelength analysis, radio observations provide two crucial elements essential to understanding the source structure and physical processes of high-energy emitters: very high timing resolution and very high spatial resolution. A brief overview of the unique role played by radio observations in unraveling the mysteries of the high energy Universe as presented here.

  8. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome


    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  9. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a New Planck Galaxy Cluster PLCKG171.9-40.7 (United States)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Kale, Ruta; Wik, Daniel R.; Venturi, Tiziana; Markevitch, Maxim


    We report the discovery of a giant radio halo in a new, hot, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster recently found by Planck, PLCKG171.9-40.7. The radio halo was found using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz, and in the 1.4 GHz data from a NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey pointing that we have reanalyzed. The diffuse radio emission is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission, has an extent of approx.1 Mpc and a radio power of approx. 5×10(exp 24)W/Hz at 1.4 GHz. Its integrated radio spectrum has a slope of alpha approx. = 1.8 between 235 MHz and 1.4 GHz, steeper than that of a typical giant halo. The analysis of the archival XMMNewton X-ray data shows that the cluster is hot (approx. 10 keV) and disturbed, consistent with X-ray selected clusters hosting radio halos. This is the first giant radio halo discovered in one of the new clusters found by Planck.

  10. Detection of radio emission at 610 MHz from the supernova SN2008bx in the BCD galaxy I Zw 97 (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Gurgubelli, U. K.; Kantharia, N. G.; Anupama, G. C.; Prabhu, T. P.


    We report the likely detection of the Type II supernova SN 2008bx (T. Puckett et. al. 2009, CBET #1348; M.C. Bentz et. al. 2009, CBET #1359; S. Blondin & P. Berlind 2009, CBET #1359) at 610 MHz in the blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 97. The observations of I Zw 97 were made using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) on 04 June 2009 with an on-source time of ~4.5 hours as part of the programme to study star forming regions in blue compact dwarf galaxies.

  11. Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy of powerful 2Jy and 3CRR radio galaxies. II. AGN power indicators and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicken, D. [CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tadhunter, C. [University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morganti, R. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Axon, D.; Robinson, A.; Magagnoli, M. [Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/V ia Lactea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mingo, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hardcastle, M. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Singh, V. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Rose, M.; Spoon, H. [224 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Inskip, K. J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Holt, J., E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    It remains uncertain which continuum and emission line diagnostics best indicate the bolometric powers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), especially given the attenuation caused by the circumnuclear material and the possible contamination by components related to star formation. Here we use mid-IR spectra along with multiwavelength data to investigate the merit of various diagnostics of AGN radiative power, including the mid-IR [Ne III] λ25.89 μm and [O IV] λ25.89 μm fine-structure lines, the optical [O III] λ5007 forbidden line, and mid-IR 24 μm, 5 GHz radio, and X-ray continuum emission, for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.05 < z < 0.7) and 17 3CRR FRII radio galaxies (z < 0.1). We find that the mid-IR [O IV] line is the most reliable indicator of AGN power for powerful radio-loud AGNs. By assuming that the [O IV] is emitted isotropically, and comparing the [O III] and 24 μm luminosities of the broad- and narrow-line AGNs in our samples at fixed [O IV] luminosity, we show that the [O III] and 24 μm emission are both mildly attenuated in the narrow-line compared to the broad-line objects by a factor of ≈2. However, despite this attenuation, the [O III] and 24 μm luminosities are better AGN power indicators for our sample than either the 5 GHz radio or the X-ray continuum luminosities. We also detect the mid-IR 9.7 μm silicate feature in the spectra of many objects but not ubiquitously: at least 40% of the sample shows no clear evidence for these features. We conclude that, for the majority of powerful radio galaxies, the mid-IR lines are powered by AGN photoionization.

  12. The search for faint radio supernova remnants in the outer Galaxy: five new discoveries (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Foster, Tyler J.; Kothes, Roland; Geisbüsch, Jörn; Tung, Albert


    Context. High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the "missing SNR problem"). Aims: The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likely the shells of uncatalogued SNRs. Methods: We examine 5 × 5 degree mosaics from the entire 1420 MHz continuum and polarization dataset of the CGPS after removing unresolved "point" sources and subsequently smoothing them. Newly revealed extended emission objects are compared to similarly prepared CGPS 408 MHz continuum mosaics, as well as to source-removed mosaics from various existing radio surveys at 4.8 GHz, 2.7 GHz, and 327 MHz, to identify candidates with non-thermal emission characteristics. We integrate flux densities at each frequency to characterise the radio spectra behaviour of these candidates. We further look for mid- and high-frequency (1420 MHz, 4.8 GHz) ordered polarized emission from the limb brightened "shell"-like continuum features that the candidates sport. Finally, we use IR and optical maps to provide additional backing evidence. Results: Here we present evidence that five new objects, identified as filling all or some of the criteria above, are strong candidates for new SNRs. These five are designated by their Galactic coordinate names G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6, G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8, and G160.1-1.1. The radio spectrum of each is presented, highlighting their steepness, which is characteristic of synchrotron radiation. CGPS 1420 MHz polarization data and 4.8 GHz polarization data also provide evidence that these objects are newly discovered SNRs. These discoveries represent a significant increase in the number of SNRs known in the outer

  13. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, Junichiro; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tanaka, Y.T.; /Hiroshima U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; O' Sullivan, S.P.; /Australia, CSIRO, Epping; Cheung, C.C.; /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Yuasa, T.; Odaka, H.; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Svoboda, J.; /European Space Agency


    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the {gamma} rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed {gamma}-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed {gamma}-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  14. Comparisons of Jet Properties between GeV Radio Galaxies and Blazars (United States)

    Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Cui, Wei; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan


    We compile a sample of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 12 GeV radio galaxies (RGs), including eight FR I RGs and four FR II RGs. These SEDs can be represented with the one-zone leptonic model. No significant unification, as expected in the unification model, is found for the derived jet parameters between FR I RGs and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and between FR II RGs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). However, on average FR I RGs have a larger {γ }{{b}} (break Lorentz factor of electrons) and lower B (magnetic field strength) than FR II RGs, analogous to the differences between BL Lacs and FSRQs. The derived Doppler factors (δ) of RGs are on average smaller than those of blazars, which is consistent with the unification model such that RGs are the misaligned parent populations of blazars with smaller δ. On the basis of jet parameters from SED fits, we calculate their jet powers and the powers carried by each component, and compare their jet compositions and radiation efficiencies with blazars. Most of the RG jets may be dominated by particles, like BL Lacs, not FSRQs. However, the jets of RGs with higher radiation efficiencies tend to have higher jet magnetization. A strong anticorrelation between synchrotron peak frequency and jet power is observed for GeV RGs and blazars in both the observer and co-moving frames, indicating that the “sequence” behavior among blazars, together with the GeV RGs, may be intrinsically dominated by jet power.

  15. Interstellar Hydrogen in Galaxies: Radio observations of neutral hydrogen yield valuable information on the properties of galaxies. (United States)

    Roberts, M S


    Measurement of the 21-cm line radiation originating from the interstellar neutral hydrogen in a galaxy yields information on the total mass and total hydrogen content of the galaxy. The ratio of these two quantities is correlated with structural type in the sense that the later type galaxies contain a higher fraction of their total mass in the form of interstellar hydrogen This ratio is one of the few physical parameters known to correlate with structural type. It need not, however, reflect an evolutionary sequence, such as more hydrogen implying a younger galaxy. Efficiency of conversion of hydrogen to stars can just as easily explain the correlation. Except for the very latest systems, the total mass of a spiral does not appear to be correlated with type. Red shifts of galaxies measured at optical wavelengths and at 21 cm are in excellent agreement. The form of the Doppler expression has been shown to hold over a wavelength range of 5 x 105. All spirals earlier than type Ir which have been studied with adequate resolution show a central minimum in their hydrogen distribution. The region of maximum projected HI surface density occurs at some distance from the center. In the earlier type spirals the optical arms are located in the region of this maximum surface density. In the later type spirals the maximum HI density and prominent optical arms are less well correlated and, at times, are anticorrelated. Detailed studies of the HI distribution and motions within a galaxy require the high relative resolution of beam synthesis arrays. We may expect significant new information from such studies, which are now in progress. Filled-aperture telescopes will supply the necessary observations at zero spacing and vital statistical information on large numbers of galaxies, peculiar systems and groups and clusters of galaxies. The two types of telescope systems will complement one another. In the near future we should have a much better description of spiral galaxies and, we

  16. Observations of the galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (United States)

    Loi, F.; Murgia, M.; Govoni, F.; Vacca, V.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Carretti, E.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Vazza, F.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Boschin, W.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Enßlin, T.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orrù, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B.


    We observed the galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 with the Sardinia Radio Telescope to provide new constraints on its spectral properties at high frequency. We conducted observations in three frequency bands centred at 1.4, 6.6 and 19 GHz, resulting in beam resolutions of 14, 2.9 and 1 arcmin, respectively. These single-dish data were also combined with archival interferometric observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. From the combined images, we measured a flux density of S1.4 GHz = (158.3 ± 9.6) mJy for the central radio halo and S1.4 GHz = (126 ± 8) and (11.7 ± 0.7) mJy for the northern and the southern relics, respectively. After the spectral modelling of the discrete sources, we measured at 6.6 GHz S6.6 GHz = (17.1 ± 1.2) and (0.6 ± 0.3) mJy for the northern and southern relics, respectively. Assuming simple diffusive shock acceleration, we interpret measurements of the northern relic with a continuous injection model represented by a broken power law. This yields an injection spectral index αinj = 0.7 ± 0.1 and a Mach number M = 3.3 ± 0.9, consistent with recent X-ray estimates. Unlike other studies of the same object, no significant steepening of the relic radio emission is seen in data up to 8.35 GHz. By fitting the southern relic spectrum with a simple power law (Sν ∝ ν-α), we obtained a spectral index α ≈ 1.9 corresponding to a Mach number (M ≈ 1.8) in agreement with X-ray estimates. Finally, we evaluated the rotation measure of the northern relic at 6.6 GHz. These results provide new insights on the magnetic structure of the relic, but further observations are needed to clarify the nature of the observed Faraday rotation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present the discovery of a weak radio galaxy from the Leiden Berkeley Deep Survey at a redshift of 2.390, the faint optical and IR counterpart of the steep-spectrum, compact radio source 53W002. Its lambda-dependent optical continuum morphology is compact with linear size approximately 10-35 kpc

  18. The many lives of active galactic nuclei-II: The formation and evolution of radio jets and their impact on galaxy evolution (United States)

    Raouf, Mojtaba; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Croton, Darren J.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Bernyk, Maksym


    We describe new efforts to model radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a cosmological context using the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) semi-analytic galaxy model. Our new method tracks the physical properties of radio jets in massive galaxies including the evolution of radio lobes and their impact on the surrounding gas. This model also self consistently follows the gas cooling-heating cycle that significantly shapes star formation and the life and death of many galaxy types. Adding jet physics to SAGE adds new physical properties to the model output, which in turn allows us to make more detailed predictions for the radio AGN population. After calibrating the model to a set of core observations we analyse predictions for jet power, radio cocoon size, radio luminosity and stellar mass. We find that the model is able to match the stellar mass-radio luminosity relation at z ∼ 0 and the radio luminosity function out to z ∼ 1. This updated model will make possible the construction of customised AGN-focused mock survey catalogues to be used for large-scale observing programs.

  19. Discovery of a new, 2.2-Mpc giant radio galaxy at a redshift of 0.57 (United States)

    Sebastian, Biny; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Joshi, Ravi; Wadadekar, Yogesh


    We report the discovery of one of the largest and most distant giant radio galaxy (GRG) in the Lynx field, which was discovered using deep Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 150 MHz observations. The core is detected at 150 MHz and also in the VLA FIRST survey. Spectroscopic observations carried out using the IUCAA Girawali Observatory(IGO) provided a redshift value of 0.57. This redshift was later confirmed with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data Release 12). The angular size of the GRG is 5.5 arcmin and at the redshift of 0.57, its linear size is 2.2 Mpc. At this high redshift, only a few radio sources are known to have such large linear size. In order to estimate the spectral index of the bridge emission as well as the spectral age of the source, we observed this source at the L band, 610 and 325-MHz bands with the GMRT. We present the spectral ageing analysis of the source that puts an upper limit of 20 Myr on the spectral age. The better resolution maps presented here as opposed to the original 150-MHz map shows evidence for a second episode of emission. We also find that the core is detected at all four frequencies with a spectral index of 0.85, which is steeper than normal, hence we speculate that the core may be a compact steep spectrum source, which makes this GRG a candidate triple-double radio galaxy.

  20. Feeding and Feedback in the Powerful Radio Galaxy 3C 120 (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Ueda, Y.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Williams, B. J.; Stawarz, L.; hide


    We present a spectral analysis of a 200-kilosecond observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120, performed with the high-energy transmission grating spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find (i) a neutral absorption component intrinsic to the source with a column density of log N (sub H) equals 20.67 plus or minus 0.05 square centimeters; (ii) no evidence for a warm absorber (WA) with an upper limit on the column density of just log N (sub H) less than 19.7 square centimeters, assuming the typical ionization parameter log xi approximately equal to 2.5 ergs per second per centimeter; the WA may instead be replaced by (iii) a hot emitting gas with a temperature kT approximately equal to 0.7 kiloelectronvolts observed as soft X-ray emission from ionized Fe L-shell lines, which may originate from a kiloparsec-scale shocked bubble inflated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind or jet with a shock velocity of about 1000 kilometers per second determined by the emission line width; (iv) a neutral Fe K alpha line and accompanying emission lines indicative of a Compton-thick cold reflector with a low reflection fraction R approximately equal to 0.2, suggesting a large opening angle of the torus; (v) a highly ionized Fe XXV emission feature indicative of photoionized gas with an ionization parameter log xi equal to 3.75 (sup plus 0.38) (sub minus 0.27) ergs per second per centimeter and a column density of log N (sub H) greater than 22 square centimeters localized within approximately 2 pc from the X-ray source; and (vi) possible signatures of a highly ionized disk wind. Together with previous evidence for intense molecular line emission, these results indicate that 3C 120 is likely a late-state merger undergoing strong AGN feedback.

  1. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.


    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  2. New CO and Millimeter Continuum Observations of the z = 2.394 Radio Galaxy 53W002. (United States)

    Alloin; Barvainis; Guilloteau


    The z=2.39 radio galaxy 53W002 lies in a cluster of Lyalpha emission-line objects and may itself be undergoing a major burst of star formation. CO (3-2) emission, at 102 GHz, was detected from 53W002 in 1997 by Scoville et al., who also reported a possible 30 kpc extension and velocity gradient suggesting a rotating gaseous disk. In this Letter, we present new interferometric CO (3-2) observations that confirm the previous line detection with improved signal-to-noise ratio, but show no evidence for source extension or velocity gradient. The compact nature of the CO source and the molecular mass found in this object are similar to luminous infrared galaxies and other active galactic nuclei previously studied.

  3. The Connection between the Radio Jet and the γ-ray Emission in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120 and the Blazar CTA 102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio


    Full Text Available We present multi-wavelength studies of the radio galaxy 3C 120 and the blazar CTA 102 during unprecedented γ-ray flares for both sources. In both studies the analysis of γ-ray data has been compared with a series of 43 GHz VLBA images from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program, providing the necessary spatial resolution to probe the parsec scale jet evolution during the high energy events. To extend the radio dataset for 3C 120 we also used 15 GHz VLBA data from the MOJAVE sample. These two objects which represent very different classes of AGN, have similar properties during the γ-ray events. The γ-ray flares are associated with the passage of a new superluminal component through the mm VLBI core, but not all ejections of new components lead to γ-ray events. In both sources γ-ray events occurred only when the new components are moving in a direction closer to our line of sight. We locate the γ-ray dissipation zone a short distance from the radio core but outside of the broad line region, suggesting synchrotron self-Compton scattering as the probable mechanism for the γ-ray production.

  4. GBT CHANG-ES: Enhancing Radio Halos in Edge-on Galaxies Through Short-Spacing Corrections (United States)

    Trent Braun, Timothy; Kepley, Amanda; Rand, Richard J.; Mason, Brian Scott; CHANG-ES


    We present L- and C-band continuum Stokes I data from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies that are part of the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). CHANG-ES is an Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) large program to measure radio continuum emission from the halos of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies in order to address a wide variety of science goals, including constraining the structure of magnetic fields, understanding the origins of radio halos, and probing both cosmic ray transport and cosmic ray driven winds. These goals can be reached by studying radio halo scale heights, spectral index variations with height, and the distribution of intensity and position angle of polarized emission. In particular, we are interested in modeling non-thermal presssure gradients in the gaseous halos of nearby galaxies to predict how they contribute to the decrease in the rotation of extraplanar gas with increasing height off of the galactic midplanes (lagging halos). Ultimately, the study of lagging halos will help us probe the efficacy of gas cycling between the disk and the halo in nearby galaxies. Crucial to this and the rest of the CHANG-ES analysis is the combination of the VLA data (B,C,D configurations in L-band and C,D configurations in C-band) with the GBT data in order to fill in the missing short-spacings in the u-v plane, which increases our sensitivity to large-scale emission and allows us to recover the total flux density. We present preliminary results from two methods of combining single-dish and interferometic data, namely the use of GBT data cubes as a model for the CASA task tclean and combining the Fourier transforms of the images as weighted sums in the u-v plane (feathering). Lastly, we detail our new data reduction pipeline for our wideband GBT continuum data, with an emphasis on the application of a least-squares basket-weaving technique used to remove striping image artifacts that notoriously plague single


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Krühler, T. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)


    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Vernet, Joeel; De Breuck, Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Seymour, Nick [CASS, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hatch, Nina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Matt [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Rettura, Alessandro [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanford, Spencer A. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Stevens, Jason A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, STRI, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)


    We report the first results from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN program, a Cycle 7 and 8 Spitzer Space Telescope snapshot program to investigate the environments of a large sample of obscured and unobscured luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1.2 < z < 3.2. These data, obtained for 387 fields, reach 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m depths of [3.6]{sub AB} = 22.6 and [4.5]{sub AB} = 22.9 at the 95% completeness level, which is two to three times fainter than L* in this redshift range. By using the color cut [3.6] - [4.5] > -0.1 (AB), which efficiently selects high-redshift (z > 1.3) galaxies of all types, we identify galaxy cluster member candidates in the fields of the radio-loud AGN. The local density of these Infrared Array Camera (IRAC)-selected sources is compared to the density of similarly selected sources in blank fields. We find that 92% of the radio-loud AGN reside in environments richer than average. The majority (55%) of the radio-loud AGN fields are found to be overdense at a {>=}2{sigma} level; 10% are overdense at a {>=}5{sigma} level. A clear rise in surface density of IRAC-selected sources toward the position of the radio-loud AGN strongly supports an association of the majority of the IRAC-selected sources with the radio-loud AGN. Our results provide solid statistical evidence that radio-loud AGN are likely beacons for finding high-redshift galaxy (proto-)clusters. We investigate how environment depends on AGN type (unobscured radio-loud quasars versus obscured radio galaxies), radio luminosity and redshift, finding no correlation with either AGN type or radio luminosity. We find a decrease in density with redshift, consistent with galaxy evolution for this uniform, flux-limited survey. These results are consistent with expectations from the orientation-driven AGN unification model, at least for the high radio luminosity regimes considered in this sample.

  7. A Radio Relic and a Search for the Central Black Hole in the Abell 2261 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (United States)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Gültekin, Kayhan; Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.; Taylor, Joanna M.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.


    We present VLA images and HST/STIS spectra of sources within the center of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 2261. These observations were obtained to test the hypothesis that its extremely large, flat core reflects the ejection of its supermassive black hole. Spectra of three of the four most luminous “knots” embedded in the core were taken to test whether one may represent stars bound to a displaced massive black hole. The three knots have radial velocity offsets (| {{Δ }}V| ≲ 150 {km} {{{s}}}-1) from the BCG. Knots 2 and 3 show kinematics, colors, and stellar masses consistent with infalling low-mass galaxies or larger stripped cluster members. Large errors in the stellar velocity dispersion of Knot 1, however, mean that we cannot rule out the hypothesis that it hosts a high-mass black hole. A2261-BCG has a compact, relic radio source offset by 6.5 kpc (projected) from the optical core’s center, but no active radio core that would pinpoint the galaxy’s central black hole to a tight 10 GHz flux limit 48 {Myr} ago, with an equipartition condition magnetic field of 15 μG. These observations are still consistent with the hypothesis that the nuclear black hole has been ejected from its core, but the critical task of locating the supermassive black hole or demonstrating that A2261-BCG lacks one remains to be done.

  8. Synchrotron Emission from Dark Matter Annihilation: Predictions for Constraints from Non-detections of Galaxy Clusters with New Radio Surveys (United States)

    Storm, Emma; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Splettstoesser, Megan; Profumo, Stefano


    The annihilation of dark matter particles is expected to yield a broad radiation spectrum via the production of Standard Model particles in astrophysical environments. In particular, electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation produce synchrotron radiation in the presence of magnetic fields. Galaxy clusters are the most massive collapsed structures in the universe, and are known to host ˜μG-scale magnetic fields. They are therefore ideal targets to search for, or to constrain the synchrotron signal from dark matter annihilation. In this work, we use the expected sensitivities of several planned surveys from the next generation of radio telescopes to predict the constraints on dark matter annihilation models which will be achieved in the case of non-detections of diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters. Specifically, we consider the Tier 1 survey planned for the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) at 120 MHz, the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey planned for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) at 1.4 GHz, and planned surveys for Aperture Tile in Focus (APERTIF) at 1.4 GHz. We find that, for massive clusters and dark matter masses ≲ 100 {GeV}, the predicted limits on the annihilation cross section would rule out vanilla thermal relic models for even the shallow LOFAR Tier 1, ASKAP, and APERTIF surveys.

  9. Properties and environment of Radio Emitting Galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey


    Bardelli, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Mignoli, M; Halliday, C.; Kovac, K.; Ciliegi, P.; Caputi, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bondi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.


    Aims. We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterparts from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic informations, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination. Methods. By comparing the star formation rates estimated from the optical spectral energy distribution with those based on the radio luminosity, we divide the radio sources in to three fam...

  10. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236 (United States)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.


    Context. There is growing observational evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of radio-quiet and radio-loud galaxies. While AGN feedback is expected to be more common at high-redshift objects, studying local universe galaxies helps to better characterize the different manifestations of AGN feedback. Aims: Molecular line observations can be used to quantify the mass and energy budget of the gas affected by AGN feedback. We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C 236, a Faranoff-Riley type 2 (FR II) radio source at z ~ 0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. The source 3C 236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme H i outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) was used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C 236 by imaging with high spatial resolution (0.6″) the emission of the 2-1 line of 12CO in the nucleus of the galaxy. We searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We also derived the star-formation rate (SFR) in 3C 236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical, and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency (SFE) of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C 236 comes from a spatially resolved ~1.4″(2.6 kpc-) diameter disk characterized by a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a cold gas mass M(H2) ~ 2.1 × 109 M⊙. Based on CO we determine a new value for the redshift of the source zCO = 0.09927 ± 0.0002. The similarity between the CO and H i profiles indicates that the deep H i absorption in 3C 236 can be accounted for by a rotating H i structure. This restricts the evidence of H i outflow to only the most extreme velocities. In the light of the new

  11. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using Multi-Wavelength Data (United States)

    Hota, Ananda; Konar, C.; Stalin, C. S.; Vaddi, Sravani; Mohanty, Pradeepta K.; Dabhade, Pratik; Dharmik Bhoga, Sai Arun; Rajoria, Megha; Sethi, Sagar


    We present a brief review of progress in the understanding of general spiral and elliptical galaxies, through merger, star formation and AGN activities. With reference to case studies performed with the GMRT, we highlight the unique aspects of studying galaxies in the radio wavelengths where powerful quasars and bright radio galaxies are traditionally the dominating subjects. Though AGN or quasar activity is extremely energetic, it is extremely short-lived. This justify focussing on transitional galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT, LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of these relic radio plasma can be as old as a few hundred Myr. There is a huge gap between this and what is found in optical bands. The very first relic-evidences of a past quasar activity (Hanny's Voorwerp) was discovered in 2007 by a Galaxy Zoo citizen-scientist, a school teacher, in the optical bands. This relic is around a few tens of thousand years old. More discoveries needed to match these time-scales with star formation time-scales in AGN host galaxies to better understand black hole galaxy co-evolution process via feedback-driven quenching of star formation. It is now well-accepted that discovery and characterization of such faint fuzzy relic features can be more efficiently done by human eye than a machine. Radio interferometry images are more complicated than optical and need the citizen-scientists to be trained. RAD@home, the only Indian citizen-science research project in astronomy, analysing TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) 150 MHz data and observing from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT), was launched in April 2013. Unique, zero-infrastructure zero-funded design of RAD@home as a collaboratory of 69 trained e-astronomers is briefly described. Some of the new-found objects like episodic radio galaxies, radio-jet and

  12. Mid-infrared Excess from the West Hot Spot of the Radio Galaxy Pictor A Unveiled by WISE (United States)

    Isobe, Naoki; Koyama, Shoko; Kino, Motoki; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Niinuma, Kotaro; Tashiro, Makoto


    Mid-infrared properties are reported of the west hot spot of the radio galaxy Pictor A with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The mid-infrared counterpart to the hot spot, WISE J051926.26‑454554.1, is listed in the AllWISE source catalog. The source was detected in all four of the WISE photometric bands. A comparison between the WISE and radio images reinforces the physical association of the WISE source to the hot spot. The WISE flux density of the source was carefully evaluated. A close investigation of the multi-wavelength synchrotron spectral energy distribution from the object reveals a mid-infrared excess at the wavelength of λ =22 μm with a statistical significance of 4.8σ over the simple power-law extrapolation from the synchrotron radio spectrum. The excess is reinforced by single and double cutoff power-law modeling of the radio-to-optical spectral energy distribution. The synchrotron cutoff frequency of the main and excess components was evaluated as 7.1× {10}14 Hz and 5.5× {10}13 Hz, respectively. From the cutoff frequency, the magnetic field of the emission region was constrained as a function of the region size. In order to interpret the excess component, an electron population different from the main one dominating the observed radio spectrum is necessary. The excess emission is proposed to originate in a substructure within the hot spot, in which the magnetic field is a factor of a few stronger than that in the minimum-energy condition. The relation of the mid-infrared excess to the X-ray emission is briefly discussed.

  13. High-Redshift Radio Galaxies from Deep Fields C. H. Ishwara ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2International Centre for Radio Astronomical Research, University of Western Australia,. Perth, Western Australia, Australia. ∗ e-mail: Abstract. Most of the radio ... cating that the known HzRGs represent the tip of the ice-berg in luminosity. There are, potentially, a large number of HzRGs yet to be ...

  14. On Asymmetries in Powerful Radio Sources and the Quasar/Galaxy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We utilize the distributions of fractional separation difference. (x) as asymmetry parameter, linear size (D) and core-to lobe luminosity ratio (R) as orientation indicators, to investigate a consequence of radio source orientation and relativistic beaming effects in a sample of powerful non-symmetric extragalactic radio ...

  15. A Hidden Radio Halo in the Galaxy Cluster A 1682? T. Venturi1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Beyond those individual sources, residuals are present in the central cluster region, suggestive of a radio halo outshined by the bright individual radio sources. We carried out follow-up observations of A1682 over a wide frequency range, in order to study the spectral properties of the individual sources, and possibly image.

  16. The radio structure of the peculiar narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy candidate J1100+4421 (United States)

    Gabányi, K. É.; Frey, S.; Paragi, Z.; Järvelä, E.; Morokuma, T.; An, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tar, I.


    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) are an intriguing subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their observed properties indicate low central black hole mass and high accretion rate. The extremely radio-loud NLS1 sources often show relativistic beaming and are usually regarded as younger counterparts of blazars. Recently, the object SDSS J110006.07+442144.3 was reported as a candidate NLS1 source. The characteristics of its dramatic optical flare indicated its jet-related origin. The spectral energy distribution of the object was similar to that of the γ-ray detected radio-loud NLS1, PMN J0948+0022. Our high-resolution European very long baseline interferometry network observations at 1.7 and 5 GHz revealed a compact core feature with a brightness temperature of ≳1010 K. Using the lowest brightness temperature value and assuming a moderate Lorentz factor of ∼9, the jet viewing angle is ≲26°. Archival Very Large Array data show a large-scale radio structure with a projected linear size of ∼150 kpc reminiscent of double-sided morphology.

  17. The Optically Unbiased GRB Host (TOUGH) Survey. VI. Radio Observations at z <~ 1 and Consistency with Typical Star-forming Galaxies (United States)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Kamble, A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Reinfrank, R. F.; Bonavera, L.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Ibar, E.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garrett, M. A.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaplan, D. L.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Massardi, M.; Pal, S.; Sollerman, J.; Tanvir, N. R.; van der Horst, A. J.; Watson, D.; Wiersema, K.


    The objective of this paper is to determine the level of obscured star formation activity and dust attenuation in a sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts, and to test the hypothesis that GRB hosts have properties consistent with those of the general star-forming galaxy populations. We present a radio continuum survey of all z 500 M ⊙ yr-1. For the undetected hosts the mean radio flux (~ 88% of the z <~ 1 GRB hosts have ultraviolet dust attenuation A UV < 6.7 mag (visual attenuation AV < 3 mag). Hence, we did not find evidence for large dust obscuration in a majority of GRB hosts. Finally, we found that the distributions of SFRs and A UV of GRB hosts are consistent with those of Lyman break galaxies, Hα emitters at similar redshifts, and of galaxies from cosmological simulations. The similarity of the GRB population with other star-forming galaxies is consistent with the hypothesis that GRBs, a least at z <~ 1, trace a large fraction of all star formation, and are therefore less biased indicators than once thought. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Large Programme 177.A-0591), the Australian Telescope Compact Array, the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

  18. Empirical Constraints on the Origin of Fast Radio Bursts: Volumetric Rates and Host Galaxy Demographics as a Test of Millisecond Magnetar Connection (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Villar, V. A.; Alexander, K. D.; Eftekhari, T.; Metzger, B. D.


    The localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 to a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy at z = 0.193, and its association with a luminous quiescent radio source, suggests the possibility that FRBs originate from magnetars, formed by the unusual supernovae that occur in such galaxies. We investigate this possibility via a comparison of magnetar birth rates, the FRB volumetric rate, and host galaxy demographics. We calculate average volumetric rates of possible millisecond magnetar production channels, such as superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and general magnetar production via core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). For each channel, we also explore the expected host galaxy demographics using their known properties. We determine for the first time the number density of FRB emitters (the product of their volumetric birth rate and lifetime), {R}{FRB}τ ≈ {10}4 Gpc-3, assuming that FRBs are predominantly emitted from repetitive sources similar to FRB 121102 and adopting a beaming factor of 0.1. By comparing rates, we find that production via rare channels (SLSNe, GRBs) implies a typical FRB lifetime of ˜30-300 years, in good agreement with other lines of argument. The total energy emitted over this time is consistent with the available energy stored in the magnetic field. On the other hand, any relation to magnetars produced via normal CCSNe leads to a very short lifetime of ˜0.5 years, in conflict with both theory and observation. We demonstrate that due to the diverse host galaxy distributions of the different progenitor channels, many possible sources of FRB birth can be ruled out with ≲ 10 host galaxy identifications. Conversely, targeted searches of galaxies that have previously hosted decades-old SLSNe and GRBs may be a fruitful strategy for discovering new FRBs and related quiescent radio sources, and determining the nature of their progenitors.

  19. Radio jets clearing the way through galaxies: the view from Hi and molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    Massive gas outflows are considered a key component in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Because of this, they are the topic of many studies aimed at learning more about their occurrence, location and physical conditions as well as the mechanism(s) at their origin. This contribution

  20. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations

  1. Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI Imaging of HI-selected Local Group Galaxy Candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Elizabeth A.; Cannon, J. M.; Oosterloo, T.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    The paucity of low mass galaxies in the Universe is a long-standing problem. We recently presented a set of isolated ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) identified within the dataset of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) HI line survey that are consistent with representing low mass

  2. High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino backgrounds from clusters of galaxies and radio constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandanel, F.; Tamborra, I.; Gabici, S.; Ando, S.


    Cosmic-ray protons accumulate for cosmological times in clusters of galaxies because their typical radiative and diffusive escape times are longer than the Hubble time. Their hadronic interactions with protons of the intra-cluster medium generate secondary electrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos. In

  3. CHANG-ES X: Spatially Resolved Separation of Thermal Contribution from Radio Continuum Emission in Edge-on Galaxies (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos J.; Mora-Partiarroyo, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Rand, Richard J.; Stein, Yelena; Walterbos, René A. M.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Basu, Aritra; Patterson, Maria; Kepley, Amanda; Beck, Rainer; Irwin, Judith; Heald, George; Li, Jiangtao; Wiegert, Theresa


    We analyze the application of star formation rate calibrations using Hα and 22 μm infrared (IR) imaging data in predicting the thermal radio component for a test sample of three edge-on galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3044, and NGC 4631) in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). We use a mixture of Hα and 24 μm calibration from Calzetti et al. and a linear 22 μm only calibration from Jarrett et al. on the test sample. We apply these relations on a pixel-to-pixel basis to create thermal prediction maps in the two CHANG-ES bands: L and C band (1.5 GHz and 6.0 GHz, respectively). We analyze the resulting nonthermal spectral index maps, and find a characteristic steepening of the nonthermal spectral index with vertical distance from the disk after application of all methods. We find possible evidence of extinction in the 22 μm data as compared to 70 μm Spitzer Multiband Imaging Photometer imaging in NGC 891. We analyze a larger sample of edge-on and face-on galaxy 25–100 μm flux ratios, and find that the ratios for edge-ons are systematically lower by a factor of 1.36, a result we attribute to excess extinction in the mid-IR in edge-ons. We introduce a new calibration for correcting the Hα luminosity for dust when galaxies are edge-on or very dusty.

  4. Extreme Gas Kinematics in the z=2.2 Powerful Radio Galaxy MRC1138-262: Evidence for Efficient AGN Feedback in the Early Universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvadba, N H; Lehnert, M D; Eisenhauer, F; Gilbert, A M; Tecza, M; Abuter, R


    To explain the properties of the most massive low-redshift galaxies and the shape of their mass function, recent models of galaxy evolution include strong AGN feedback to complement starburst-driven feedback in massive galaxies. Using the near-infrared integral-field spectrograph SPIFFI on the VLT, we searched for direct evidence for such a feedback in the optical emission line gas around the z = 2.16 powerful radio galaxy MRC1138-262, likely a massive galaxy in formation. The kpc-scale kinematics, with FWHMs and relative velocities {approx}< 2400 km s{sup -1} and nearly spherical spatial distribution, do not resemble large-scale gravitational motion or starburst-driven winds. Order-of-magnitude timescale and energy arguments favor the AGN as the only plausible candidate to accelerate the gas, with a total energy injection of {approx} few x 10{sup 60} ergs or more, necessary to power the outflow, and relatively efficient coupling between radio jet and ISM. Observed outflow properties are in gross agreement with the models, and suggest that AGN winds might have a similar, or perhaps larger, cosmological significance than starburst-driven winds, if MRC1138-262 is indeed archetypal. Moreover, the outflow has the potential to remove significant gas fractions ({approx}< 50%) from a > L* galaxy within a few 10 to 100 Myrs, fast enough to preserve the observed [{alpha}/Fe] overabundance in massive galaxies at low redshift. Using simple arguments, it appears that feedback like that observed in MRC1138-262 may have sufficient energy to inhibit material from infalling into the dark matter halo and thus regulate galaxy growth as required in some recent models of hierarchical structure formation.

  5. The changing source of X-ray reflection in the radio-intermediate Seyfert 1 galaxy III Zw 2 (United States)

    Gonzalez, A. G.; Waddell, S. G. H.; Gallo, L. C.


    We report on X-ray observations of the radio-intermediate, X-ray bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, III Zw 2, obtained with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift over the past 17 yr. The source brightness varies significantly over yearly time-scales, but more modestly over periods of days. Pointed observations with XMM-Newton in 2000 and Suzaku in 2011 show spectral differences despite comparable X-ray fluxes. The Suzaku spectra are consistent with a power-law continuum and a narrow Gaussian emission feature at ˜6.4 keV, whereas the earlier XMM-Newton spectrum requires a broader Gaussian profile and soft-excess below ˜2 keV. A potential interpretation is that the primary power-law emission, perhaps from a jet base, preferentially illuminates the inner accretion disc in 2000, but the distant torus in 2011. The interpretation could be consistent with the hypothesized precessing radio jet in III Zw 2 that may have originated from disc instabilities due to an ongoing merging event.

  6. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Radio-detected Submillimeter Galaxies in the HST Frontier Fields (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Heywood, Ian; Momjian, Emmanuel; Barger, Amy J.; Smail, Ian


    In this second paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we cross-match SCUBA-2 maps with 3 and 6 GHz images from the Janksy-VLA Frontier Fields Legacy Survey for three cluster fields, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1149.5+2223. Within the HST coverage, 14 out of 44 850 μm sources have 3 GHz counterparts, five of which are also detected at 6 GHz. The 850 μm flux densities of these detected sources span from 0.7 to 4.4 mJy after correcting for lensing amplification. The median redshift of the sample is z={1.28}-0.09+0.07, much lower than the typical redshifts (z = 2-3) of brighter submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the literature. In addition, we find that our sources have lower dust temperatures than those of the brighter SMGs. This is also confirmed by an analysis of the ratio between infrared star-formation rate and 850 μm flux density. However, these 14 sources may not represent the general submillimeter population at the same flux range, given that the SCUBA-2 sources without radio counterparts are likely at higher redshifts. Detection of these sources would require deeper radio images or submillimeter interferometry.

  7. ALMA polarization observations of the particle accelerators in the hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445 (United States)

    Orienti, M.; Brunetti, G.; Nagai, H.; Paladino, R.; Mack, K.-H.; Prieto, M. A.


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array polarization observations at 97.5 GHz of the southern hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445. The hotspot structure is dominated by two bright components enshrouded by diffuse emission. Both components show fractional polarization between 30 and 40 per cent, suggesting the presence of shocks. The polarized emission of the western component has a displacement of about 0.5 kpc outward with respect to the total intensity emission and may trace the surface of a front shock. Strong polarization is observed in a thin strip marking the ridge of the hotspot structure visible from radio to optical. No significant polarization is detected in the diffuse emission between the main components, suggesting a highly disordered magnetic field likely produced by turbulence and instabilities in the downstream region that may be at the origin of the extended optical emission observed in this hotspot. The polarization properties support a scenario in which a combination of both multiple and intermittent shock fronts due to jet dithering and spatially distributed stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration processes are present in the hotspot complex.

  8. Using the VLBA to Uncover AGN in Dwarf Galaxies Exhibiting Nuclear Radio Emission (United States)

    Dieck, Christopher; Johnson, Megan; Reines, Amy; Greene, Jenny


    The formation mechanism of billion solar mass black holes found in massive galaxies in the early universe is not yet understood. Investigation of black holes in dwarf galaxies in the local universe can help to constrain theoretical formation mechanisms and masses of black hole seeds for these supermassive black holes. The pilot study discussed herein used the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to observe three nearby low mass (~109 M⊙) dwarf galaxies detected with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA). However, the JVLA does not have sufficient spatial resolution to discriminate between emission from various processes (e.g. supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei). Due to the high spatial resolution of the VLBA and the proximity of the targets, the physical scales probed are on the order of unity parsecs. Imaging of this small physical region should allow us to differentiate the source of the JVLA detected emission between a single nuclear source and multiple discreet sources, depending on whether the emission is resolved by the VLBA or not. Here we present preliminary results of our VLBA imaging and future plans.

  9. The ionization of the emission-line gas in young radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, J.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Morganti, R.


    This paper is the second in a series in which we present intermediate-resolution, wide-wavelength coverage spectra for a complete sample of 14 compact radio sources, taken with the aim of investigating the impact of the nuclear activity on the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM) in the early

  10. Properties and environment of radio-emitting galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardelli, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčic, V.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Mignoli, M.; Halliday, C.; Kovač, K.; Ciliegi, P.; Caputi, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bondi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Capak, P.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Jahnke, K.

    Aims: We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterparts from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic informations, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination.

  11. New insights into the interstellar medium of the dwarf galaxy IC 10: connection between magnetic fields, the radio-infrared correlation and star formation (United States)

    Basu, Aritra; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Heesen, Volker; Beck, Rainer; Brinks, Elias; Westcott, Jonathan; Hindson, Luke


    We present the highest sensitivity and angular resolution study at 0.32 GHz of the dwarf irregular galaxy IC 10, observed using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, probing ˜45 pc spatial scales. We find the galaxy-averaged radio continuum spectrum to be relatively flat, with a spectral index α = -0.34 ± 0.01 (Sν ∝ να), mainly due to a high contribution from free-free emission. At 0.32 GHz, some of the H II regions show evidence of free-free absorption as they become optically thick below ˜0.41 GHz with corresponding free electron densities of ˜ 11-22 cm- 3. After removing the free-free emission, we studied the radio-infrared (IR) relations on 55, 110 and 165 pc spatial scales. We find that on all scales the non-thermal emission at 0.32 and 6.2 GHz correlates better with far-infrared (FIR) emission at 70 μm than mid-IR emission at 24 μm. The dispersion of the radio-FIR relation arises due to variations in both magnetic field and dust temperature, and decreases systematically with increasing spatial scale. The effect of cosmic ray transport is negligible as cosmic ray electrons were only injected ≲5 Myr ago. The average magnetic field strength (B) of 12 μG in the disc is comparable to that of large star-forming galaxies. The local magnetic field is strongly correlated with local star formation rate (SFR) as B ∝ SFR0.35 ± 0.03, indicating a starburst-driven fluctuation dynamo to be efficient (˜10 per cent) in amplifying the field in IC 10. The high spatial resolution observations presented here suggest that the high efficiency of magnetic field amplification and strong coupling with SFR likely sets up the radio-FIR correlation in cosmologically young galaxies.

  12. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru


    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (I.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buat, V. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Charmandaris, V.; Magdis, G. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borgne, D. Le [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France); Lin, L. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States); and others


    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.

  14. Study of galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void. VI. H I-observations with Nançay Radio Telescope (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Martin, J.-M.


    Context. Void population consists mainly of late-type and low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies, whose atomic hydrogen is the main component of their baryonic matter. Therefore observations of void galaxy Hi are mandatory to understand both their evolution and dynamics. Aims: Our aim was to obtain integrated Hi parameters for a fainter part of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void galaxy sample (total of 45 objects) with the Nançay Radio Telescope (NRT) and to conduct the comparative analysis of the whole 103 void galaxies with known Hi data with a sample of similar galaxies residing in denser environments of the Local Volume. Methods: For Hi observations we used the NRT with its sensitive antenna/receiver system FORT and standard processing. The comparison of the void and "control" samples on the parameter M(HI)/LB is conducted with the non-parametric method "The 2 × 2 Contingency Table test". Results: We obtained new Hi data for about 40% of the Lynx-Cancer galaxy sample. Along with data from the literature, we use for further analysis data for 103 void objects. The proxy of the evolutional parameter M(HI)/LB of the void sample is compared with that of 82 galaxies of morphological types 8-10 residing in the Local Volume groups and aggregates. Conclusions: At the confidence level of P = 0.988, we conclude that for the same luminosity, these void galaxies are systematically gas-richer, in average by 39%. This result is consistent with the authors' earlier conclusion on the smaller gas metallicities and evidences for the slower low-mass galaxy evolution in voids. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  15. The Search for Faint Radio Supernova Remnants in the Outer Galaxy: Five New Discoveries


    Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Foster, Tyler J.; Kothes, Roland; Geisbuesch, Joern; Tung, Albert


    High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the Missing SNR problem). The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likel...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sambruna, Rita M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Davis, David S., E-mail: [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R{sub X,BAT} where radio-loud objects have log R{sub X,BAT} > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the {gamma}-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}. In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Yuki [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tominaga, Nozomu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Stawarz, Łukasz [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gandhi, Poshak [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1-3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, Gamal; Essam, Ahmad; Hamed, Gamal [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Aoki, Tsutomu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Contreras, Carlos; Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Iwata, Ikuru, E-mail: [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others


    We present our discovery of dramatic variability in SDSS J1100+4421 by the high-cadence transient survey Kiso Supernova Survey. The source brightened in the optical by at least a factor of three within about half a day. Spectroscopic observations suggest that this object is likely a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) at z = 0.840, however, with unusually strong narrow emission lines. The estimated black hole mass of ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} implies bolometric nuclear luminosity close to the Eddington limit. SDSS J1100+4421 is also extremely radio-loud, with a radio loudness parameter of R ≅ 4 × 10{sup 2}-3 × 10{sup 3}, which implies the presence of relativistic jets. Rapid and large-amplitude optical variability of the target, reminiscent of that found in a few radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1s, is therefore produced most likely in a blazar-like core. The 1.4 GHz radio image of the source shows an extended structure with a linear size of about 100 kpc. If SDSS J1100+4421 is a genuine NLS1, as suggested here, this radio structure would then be the largest ever discovered in this type of active galaxies.

  18. Non-Uniform Free-Free Absorption in the GPS Radio Galaxy 0108+388

    CERN Document Server

    Marr, J M; Crawford, F


    We have observed the canonical gigahertz-peaked spectrum source 0108+388 with the VLBA at a range of frequencies above and below the spectral peak. The activity that dominates the radio emission from 0108+388, which is also classified as a Compact Symmetric Object, is thought to be less than 1000 years old. We present strong evidence that the spectral turnover in 0108+388 results from free-free absorption by non-uniform gas, possibly in the form of a disk in the central tens of parsecs.

  19. Gas rotation, shocks and outflow within the inner 3 kpc of the radio galaxy 3C 33 (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Schnorr-Müller, Allan


    We present optical integral field spectroscopy - obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph - of the inner 4.0 × 5.8 kpc2 of the narrow line radio galaxy 3C 33 at a spatial resolution of 0.58 kpc. The gas emission shows three brightest structures: a strong knot of nuclear emission and two other knots at ≈1.4 kpc south-west and north-east of the nucleus along the ionization axis. We detect two kinematic components in the emission lines profiles, with a 'broader component' (with velocity dispersion σ ≥ 150 km s - 1 ) being dominant within an ˜1 kpc wide strip ('the nuclear strip') running from the south-east to the north-west, perpendicular to the radio jet, and a narrower component (σ ≤ 100 km s - 1 ) dominating elsewhere. Centroid velocity maps reveal a rotation pattern with velocity amplitudes reaching ˜± 350 km s - 1 in the region dominated by the narrow component, while residual blueshifts and redshifts relative to rotation are observed in the nuclear strip, where we also observe the highest values of the [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα and [O I]/Hα line ratios, and an increase of the gas temperature (˜18 000 K), velocity dispersion and electron density (˜500 cm - 3 ). We interpret these residuals and increased line ratios as due to a lateral expansion of the ambient gas in the nuclear strip due to shocks produced by the passage of the radio jet. The effect of this expansion in the surrounding medium is very small, as its estimated kinetic power represents only 2.6 × 10-5 - 3.0 × 10-5 of the AGN bolometric luminosity. A possible signature of inflow is revealed by an increase in the [O I]/Hα ratio values and velocity dispersions in the shape of two spiral arms extending to 2.3 kpc north-east and south-west from the nucleus.

  20. Faraday rotation at low frequencies: magnetoionic material of the large FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036 (United States)

    O'Sullivan, S. P.; Lenc, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.


    We present a low-frequency, broadband polarization study of the FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036 (z = 0.0551), using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) from 70 to 230 MHz. The northern and southern hotspots (separated by ˜14.5΄ on the sky) are resolved by the MWA (3΄.3 resolution) and both are detected in linear polarization across the full frequency range. A combination of Faraday rotation measure (RM) synthesis and broadband polarization model-fitting are used to constrain the Faraday depolarization properties of the source. For the integrated southern hotspot emission, two RM component models are strongly favoured over a single RM component, and the best-fitting model requires Faraday dispersions of approximately 0.7 and 1.2 rad m-2 (with a mean RM of ˜50 rad m-2). High resolution imaging at 5″ with the ATCA shows significant sub-structure in the southern hotspot and highlights some of the limitations in the polarization modelling of the MWA data. Based on the observed depolarization, combined with extrapolations of gas density scaling-relations for group environments, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the intergalactic medium between ˜0.04 and 0.5 μG. We also comment on future prospects of detecting more polarized sources at low frequencies.

  1. Relative Timing of X-ray, UV, and Optical Dips in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120 (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Williamson, Karen E.


    We have recently completed a year-long program to monitoring the FR 1 radio galaxy 3C 120 at optical, UV, and X-ray bands with the Swift satellite. The light curves reveal several sharp dips in the X-ray, UV, and optical flux. During this period, a number of superluminal knots appeared in the jet, as seen in our approximately monthly 43 GHz VLBA images. The relative timing of the flux minima at the different bands provides information on the locations of the emission sites in the accretion disk-corona system. The relationship between the dips and delayed passage of new knots through the stationary core, situated about 0.5 pc downstream of the black hole, sheds light on the disk-jet connection. The presentation will compare the results of the authors' analysis of the data with the expectations of various theoretical models for the inner disk-corona.This research was supported in part by NASA through the Swift and Fermi guest investigator programs, grants NNX16AN69G and NNX14AQ58G.

  2. X-ray Dips Followed by Superluminal Ejections as Evidence for An Accretion Disc Feeding the Jet in A Radio Galaxy (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Gomez, Jose-Luis; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair, M.


    Accretion onto black holes is thought to power the relativistic jets and other high-energy phenomena in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the "microquasar" binary systems located in our Galaxy. However, until now there has been insufficient multifrequency monitoring to establish a direct observational link between the black hole and the jet in an AGE. This contrasts with the case of microquasars, in which superluminal features appear and propagate down the radio jet shortly after sudden decreases in the X-ray flux. Such an X-ray dip is most likely caused by the disappearance of a section of the inner accretion disc, part of which falls past the event horizon and the remainder of which is injected into the jet. This infusion of energy generates a disturbance that propagates down the jet, creating the appearance of a superluminal bright spot. Here we report the results of three years of intensive monitoring of the X-ray and radio emission of the Seyfert-like radio galaxy 3C 120. As in the case of microquasars, dips in the X-ray emission are followed by ejections of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. Comparison of the characteristic length and time scales allows us to infer that the rotational states of the black holes in these two objects are different.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Kamble, A.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Kruehler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Reinfrank, R. F. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bonavera, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Castro Ceron, J. M. [Department of Radio Astronomy, Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (INTA-NASA/INSA), Ctra. M-531, km. 7, E-28.294 Robledo de Chavela (Madrid) (Spain); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Garrett, M. A. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Massardi, M. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Pal, S. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA (Australia); Sollerman, J. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Van der Horst, A. J., E-mail: [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others


    The objective of this paper is to determine the level of obscured star formation activity and dust attenuation in a sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts, and to test the hypothesis that GRB hosts have properties consistent with those of the general star-forming galaxy populations. We present a radio continuum survey of all z < 1 GRB hosts in The Optically Unbiased GRB Host (TOUGH) sample supplemented with radio data for all (mostly pre-Swift) GRB-SN hosts discovered before 2006 October. We present new radio data for 22 objects and have obtained a detection for three of them (GRB 980425, 021211, 031203; none in the TOUGH sample), increasing the number of radio-detected GRB hosts from two to five. The star formation rate (SFR) for the GRB 021211 host of {approx}825 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the highest ever reported for a GRB host, places it in the category of ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We found that at least {approx}63% of GRB hosts have SFR < 100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and at most {approx}8% can have SFR > 500 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. For the undetected hosts the mean radio flux (<35 {mu}Jy 3{sigma}) corresponds to an average SFR < 15 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Moreover, {approx}> 88% of the z {approx}< 1 GRB hosts have ultraviolet dust attenuation A{sub UV} < 6.7 mag (visual attenuation A{sub V} < 3 mag). Hence, we did not find evidence for large dust obscuration in a majority of GRB hosts. Finally, we found that the distributions of SFRs and A{sub UV} of GRB hosts are consistent with those of Lyman break galaxies, H{alpha} emitters at similar redshifts, and of galaxies from cosmological simulations. The similarity of the GRB population with other star-forming galaxies is consistent with the hypothesis that GRBs, a least at z {approx}< 1, trace a large fraction of all star formation, and are therefore less biased indicators than once thought.

  4. Suzaku and Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J1053.7+5453 with a radio relic (United States)

    Itahana, Madoka; Takizawa, Motokazu; Akamatsu, Hiroki; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Kawahara, Hajime; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Vink, Jacco; Zandanel, Fabio


    We present the results of Suzaku and Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J1053.7+5453 (z = 0.0704), which contains a radio relic. The radio relic is located at a distance of ˜540 kpc from the X-ray peak toward the west. We measured the temperature of this cluster for the first time. The resultant temperature in the center is ˜1.3 keV, which is lower than the value expected from the X-ray luminosity-temperature and the velocity dispersion-temperature relations. Though we did not find a significant temperature jump at the outer edge of the relic, our results suggest that the temperature decreases outward across the relic. Assuming the existence of the shock at the relic, its Mach number becomes M ≃ 1.4. A possible spatial variation of Mach number along the relic is suggested. Additionally, a sharp surface brightness edge is found at a distance of ˜160 kpc from the X-ray peak toward the west in the Chandra image. We performed X-ray spectral and surface brightness analyses around the edge with the Suzaku and Chandra data, respectively. The obtained surface brightness and temperature profiles suggest that this edge is not a shock but likely a cold front. Alternatively, it cannot be ruled out that thermal pressure is really discontinuous across the edge. In this case, if the pressure across the surface brightness edge is in equilibrium, other forms of pressure sources, such as cosmic-rays, are necessary. We searched for the non-thermal inverse Compton component in the relic region. Assuming a photon index Γ = 2.0, the resultant upper limit of the flux is 1.9 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 for a 4.50 × 10-3 deg2 area in the 0.3-10 keV band, which implies that the lower limit of magnetic field strength becomes 0.7 μG.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, B.; Chiaberge, M.; Kotyla, J. P.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tremblay, G. R. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Stanghellini, C. [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Baum, S.; O’Dea, C. P. [University of Manitoba, Dept of Physics and Astronomy, 66 Chancellors Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Capetti, A. [Osservatorio Astronomico de Torino, Corso Savona, I-10024 Moncalieri TO (Italy); Miley, G. K. [Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg 70, 2311 EZ Leiden (Netherlands); Perlman, E. S. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Quillen, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    We present new rest-frame UV and visible observations of 22 high- z (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveal that brighter QSOs generally tend to be redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical and radio axes alignment.

  6. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the COSMOS field: The extent of the radio-emitting region revealed by 3 GHz imaging with the Very Large Array (United States)

    Miettinen, O.; Novak, M.; Smolčić, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Aravena, M.; Brisbin, D.; Karim, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Albrecht, M.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P. L.; Casey, C. M.; Civano, F.; Hayward, C. C.; Herrera Ruiz, N.; Ilbert, O.; Jiang, C.; Laigle, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Magnelli, B.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Middelberg, E.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Navarrete, F.; Padilla, N. D.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Scott, K. S.; Sheth, K.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.


    Context. The observed spatial scale of the radio continuum emission from star-forming galaxies can be used to investigate the spatial extent of active star formation, constrain the importance of cosmic-ray transport, and examine the effects of galaxy interactions. Aims: We determine the radio size distribution of a large sample of 152 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field that were pre-selected at 1.1 mm, and later detected with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) in the observed-frame 1.3 mm dust continuum emission at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ≥5. Methods: We used the deep, subarcsecond-resolution (1σ = 2.3μJy beam-1;.̋75) centimetre radio continuum observations taken by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA)-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project. Results: One hundred and fifteen of the 152 target SMGs (76% ± 7%) were found to have a 3 GHz counterpart (≥ 4.2σ), which renders the radio detection rate notably high. The median value of the deconvolved major axis full width at half maximum (FWHM) size at 3 GHz is derived to be 0.̋59 ± 0.̋05 , or 4.6 ± 0.4 kpc in physical units, where the median redshift of the sources is z = 2.23 ± 0.13 (23% are spectroscopic and 77% are photometric values). The radio sizes are roughly log-normally distributed, and they show no evolutionary trend with redshift, or difference between different galaxy morphologies. We also derived the spectral indices between 1.4 and 3 GHz, and 3 GHz brightness temperatures for the sources, and the median values were found to be α1.4 GHz3 GHz = -0.67 (Sν ∝ να) and TB = 12.6 ± 2 K. Three of the target SMGs, which are also detected with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4 GHz (AzTEC/C24b, 61, and 77a), show clearly higher brightness temperatures than the typical values, reaching TB(3 GHz) > 104.03 K for AzTEC/C61. Conclusions: The derived median radio spectral index agrees with a value expected for optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation

  7. A Radio Jet Drives a Molecular and Atomic Gas Outflow in Multiple Regions within One Square Kiloparsec of the Nucleus of the nearby Galaxy IC5063 (United States)

    Dasyra, K. M.; Bostrom, A. C.; Combes, F.; Vlahakis, N.


    We analyzed near-infrared data of the nearby galaxy IC5063 taken with the Very Large Telescope SINFONI instrument. IC5063 is an elliptical galaxy that has a radio jet nearly aligned with the major axis of a gas disk in its center. The data reveal multiple signatures of molecular and atomic gas that has been kinematically distorted by the passage of the jet plasma or cocoon within an area of ˜1 kpc2. Concrete evidence that the interaction of the jet with the gas causes the gas to accelerate comes from the detection of outflows in four different regions along the jet trail: near the two radio lobes, between the radio emission tip and the optical narrow-line-region cone, and at a region with diffuse 17.8 GHz emission midway between the nucleus and the north radio lobe. The outflow in the latter region is biconical, centered 240 pc away from the nucleus, and oriented perpendicularly to the jet trail. The diffuse emission that is observed as a result of the gas entrainment or scattering unfolds around the trail and away from the nucleus with increasing velocity. It overall extends for ≳700 pc parallel and perpendicular to the trail. Near the outflow starting points, the gas has a velocity excess of 600-1200 km s-1 with respect to ordered motions, as seen in [Fe ii], {Pa}α , or {{{H}}}2 lines. High {{{H}}}2 (1-0) S(3)/S(1) flux ratios indicate non-thermal excitation of gas in the diffuse outflow.

  8. The radio structure of radio-quiet quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipski, C.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Bennert, N.; Hüttemeister, S.


    Aims.We investigate the radio emitting structures of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei with an emphasis on radio-quiet quasars to study their connection to Seyfert galaxies.
    Methods: .We present and analyse high-sensitivity VLA radio continuum images of 14 radio-quiet quasars and six Seyfert

  9. Short-term radio variability and parsec-scale structure in A gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajima, Kiyoaki [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fujisawa, Kenta [The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Hayashida, Masaaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Isobe, Naoki [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ishida, Takafumi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshinori, E-mail: [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)


    We made simultaneous single-dish and very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 323+342, showing gamma-ray activity revealed by Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations. We found significant variation of the total flux density at 8 GHz on the timescale of one month by the single-dish monitoring. The total flux density varied by 5.5% in 32 days, which is comparable to the gamma-ray variability timescale, corresponding to the variability brightness temperature of 7.0 × 10{sup 11} K. The source consists of central and southeastern components on the parsec (pc) scale. Only the flux of the central component decreased in the same way as the total flux density, indicating that the short-term radio variability, and probably the gamma-ray-emitting region, is associated with this component. From the VLBI observations, we obtained brightness temperatures of greater than (5.2 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 10} K and derived an equipartition Doppler factor of greater than 1.7, a variability Doppler factor of 2.2, and an 8 GHz radio power of 10{sup 24.6} W Hz{sup –1}. Combining them, we conclude that acceleration of radio jets and creation of high-energy particles are ongoing in the central engine and that the apparent very radio-loud feature of the source is due to the Doppler boosting effect, resulting in the intrinsic radio loudness being an order of magnitude smaller than the observed values. We also conclude that the pc-scale jet represents recurrent activity from the spectral fitting and the estimated kinematic age of pc- and kpc-scale extended components with different position angles.

  10. Evidence for a nuclear radio jet and its structure down to ≲100 Schwarzschild radii in the center of the Sombrero galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Inoue, Makoto [Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan R.O.C. (China)


    The Sombrero galaxy (M 104, NGC 4594) is associated with one of the nearest low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We investigated the detailed radio structure of the Sombrero nucleus using high-resolution, quasi-simultaneous, multi-frequency, phase-referencing Very Long Baseline Array observations. We obtained high-quality images of this nucleus at seven frequencies, where those at 15, 24, and 43 GHz are the first clear very long baseline interferometry detections. At 43 GHz, the nuclear structure was imaged on a linear scale under 0.01 pc or 100 Schwarzschild radii, revealing a compact, high-brightness-temperature (≳ 3 × 10{sup 9} K) radio core. We discovered the presence of the extended structure emanating from the core on two sides in the northwest and southeast directions. The nuclear radio spectra show a clear spatial gradient, which is similar to that seen in more luminous AGNs with powerful relativistic jets. Moreover, the size and position of the core tend to be frequency dependent. These findings provide evidence that the central engine of the Sombrero is powering radio jets and the jets are overwhelming the emission from the underlying radiatively inefficient accretion flow over the observed frequencies. Based on these radio characteristics, we constrained the following physical parameters for the M 104 jets: (1) the northern side is approaching, whereas the southern one is receding; (2) the jet viewing angle is relatively close to our line-of-sight (≲ 25°); and (3) the intrinsic jet velocity is highly sub-relativistic (≲ 0.2c). The derived pole-on nature of the M 104 jets is consistent with the previous argument that this nucleus contains a true type II AGN, i.e., the broad line region is actually absent or intrinsically weak if the plane of the circumnuclear torus is perpendicular to the jet axis.

  11. A Giant Radio Halo in a Low-Mass Sz-selected Galaxy Cluster: ACT-CLJ0256.5+0006 (United States)

    Knowles, Kendra; Intema, H. T.; Baker, A. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bond, J. R.; Cress, C.; Gupta, N.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; hide


    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)- selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 (z = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S610 = 5.6 +/- 1.4mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest mass systems, M500, SZ = (5.0 +/- 1.2) × 10(exp14) M, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S325 = 10.3 +/- 5.3mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of a610 325 = 1.0+ 0.7 - 0.9. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio haloes, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P1.4 GHz = (1.0 +/- 0.3) × 10(exp 24)W/Hz, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the intracluster medium morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of v? = 1880 +/- 210 km/s. We construct a simple merger model to infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-LX scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+ 0006 just before first core crossing.

  12. B2B marketing


    Pospíšilová, Lucie


    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  13. The gamma-ray emitting radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004-447. I. The X-ray View (United States)

    Kreikenbohm, A.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Markowitz, A.; Chang, C. S.; Carpenter, B.; Elsässer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Mannheim, K.; Müller, C.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Trüstedt, J.


    As part of the TANAMI multiwavelength progam, we discuss new X-ray observations of the γ-ray and radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy (γ-NLS1) PKS 2004-447. The active galaxy is a member of a small sample of radio-loud NLS1s detected in γ-rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. It stands out for being the radio-loudest and the only southern-hemisphere source in this sample. We present results from our X-ray monitoring program comprised of Swift snapshot observations from 2012 through 2014 and two new X-ray observations with XMM-Newton in 2012. Supplemented by archival data from 2004 and 2011, our data set allows for a careful analysis of the X-ray spectrum and variability of this peculiar source. The (0.5-10) keV spectrum is described well by a power law (Γ ~ 1.6), which can be interpreted as non-thermal emission from a relativistic jet. The source exhibits moderate flux variability on timescales of both months and years. Correlated brightness variations in the (0.5-2) keV and (2-10) keV bands are explained by a single variable spectral component, such as the one from the jet. A possible soft excess seen in the data from 2004 cannot be confirmed by the new XMM-Newton observations taken during low-flux states. Any contribution to the total flux in 2004 is less than 20% of the power-law component. The (0.5-10) keV luminosities of PKS 2004-447 are in the range of (0.5-2.7) × 1044 erg s-1. A comparison of the X-ray properties among the known γ-NLS1 galaxies shows that in four out of five cases the X-ray spectrum is dominated by a flat power law without intrinsic absorption. These objects are moderately variable in their brightness, while spectral variability is observed in at least two sources. The major difference across the X-ray spectra of γ-NLS1s is the luminosity, which spans a range of almost two orders of magnitude from 1044 erg s-1 to 1046 erg s-1 in the (0.5-10) keV band.

  14. Discovery of H I gas in a young radio galaxy at z = 0.44 using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (United States)

    Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Hunstead, R. W.; Pracy, M. B.; Curran, S. J.; Croom, S. M.; Glowacki, M.; Morganti, R.; Shabala, S. S.; Zwaan, M. A.; Allen, G.; Amy, S. W.; Axtens, P.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K. W.; Barker, S.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Braun, R.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Brown, A.; Bunton, J. D.; Cantrall, C.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Edwards, P. G.; Ekers, R.; Feain, I.; Ferris, R. H.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Grancea, A.; Gupta, N.; Guzman, J. C.; Hampson, G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Haskins, C.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B. T.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kendall, R.; Kesteven, M.; Kiraly, D.; Koribalski, B. S.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Macleod, A.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Mirtschin, P.; Norris, R. P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A.; Serra, P.; Shaw, R.; Shields, M.; Shimwell, T.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, T.; Troup, E.; Turner, B.; Tuthill, J.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Wilson, C. D.


    We report the discovery of a new 21-cm H I absorption system using commissioning data from the Boolardy Engineering Test Array of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). Using the 711.5-1015.5 MHz band of ASKAP we were able to conduct a blind search for the 21-cm line in a continuous redshift range between z = 0.4 and 1.0, which has, until now, remained largely unexplored. The absorption line is detected at z = 0.44 towards the GHz-peaked spectrum radio source PKS B1740-517 and demonstrates ASKAP's excellent capability for performing a future wide-field survey for H I absorption at these redshifts. Optical spectroscopy and imaging using the Gemini-South telescope indicates that the H I gas is intrinsic to the host galaxy of the radio source. The narrow [O III] emission lines show clear double-peaked structure, indicating either large-scale outflow or rotation of the ionized gas. Archival data from the XMM-Newton satellite exhibit an absorbed X-ray spectrum that is consistent with a high column density obscuring medium around the active galactic nucleus. The H I absorption profile is complex, with four distinct components ranging in width from 5 to 300 km s-1 and fractional depths from 0.2 to 20 per cent. In addition to systemic H I gas, in a circumnuclear disc or ring structure aligned with the radio jet, we find evidence for a possible broad outflow of neutral gas moving at a radial velocity of v ˜ 300 km s-1. We infer that the expanding young radio source (tage ≈ 2500 yr) is cocooned within a dense medium and may be driving circumnuclear neutral gas in an outflow of ˜1 M⊙ yr-1.

  15. SoxB2 (United States)

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore


    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  16. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the statistical properties of the radio halo population in galaxy clusters. Radio bi-modality is observed in galaxy clusters: a fraction of clusters host giant radio halos while a majority of clusters do not show evidence of diffuse cluster-scale radio emission. The radio bi-modality has a correspondence in terms of ...

  17. The Galaxy in circular polarization: All-sky radio prediction, detection strategy, and the charge of the leptonic cosmic rays (United States)

    Enßlin, Torsten A.; Hutschenreuter, Sebastian; Vacca, Valentina; Oppermann, Niels


    The diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission should exhibit a low level of diffuse circular polarization (C P ) due to the circular motions of the emitting relativistic electrons. This probes the Galactic magnetic field in a similar way as the product of total Galactic synchrotron intensity times Faraday depth. We use this to construct an all sky prediction of the so far unexplored Galactic C P from existing measurements. This map can be used to search for this C P signal in low frequency radio data even prior to imaging. If detected as predicted, it would confirm the expectation that relativistic electrons, and not positrons, are responsible for the Galactic radio emission. Furthermore, the strength of real to predicted circular polarization would provide statistical information on magnetic structures along the line-of-sights.

  18. Relationship among FR-I, FR-II(Q) and FR-II(G) Radio Galaxies R. S. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    )/log(νR/νV). 2. Results. The average values of the K-correcting radio and optical luminosities are as follows: For FR-I, log νL178 MHz. R. = 40.92±1.05 erg s. −1. , log νL0.54 μm. V. = 43.92±0.36 erg s. −1 . For FR-II(G), log νL178 MHz. R.

  19. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki


    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  20. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but the energy of each type of wave varies inversely with its wavelength. Thus ... parent to radio-waves; much of the galaxy is also transparent to ..... stars in the galaxies. The im- age has been inverted (like a film negative) so darker re- gions in the image are ac- tually brighter. In the opti- cal image the two galaxies.

  1. Radio-to-Gamma-Ray Monitoring of the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PMN J0948+0022 from 2008 to 2011 (United States)

    Foschini, L.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Hovatta, T.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lister, M. L.; Braito, V.; Gallo, L.; Hamilton, T. S.; hide


    We present more than three years of observations at different frequencies, from radio to high-energy ?-rays, of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) Galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.585). This source is the first NLS1 detected at energies above 100 MeV and therefore can be considered the prototype of this emerging new class of ?-ray emitting active galactic nuclei (AGN). The observations performed from 2008 August 1 to 2011 December 31 confirmed that PMN J0948+0022 generates a powerful relativistic jet, which is able to develop an isotropic luminosity at gamma-rays of the order of 1048 erg per second, at the level of powerful quasars. The evolution of the radiation emission of this source in 2009 and 2010 followed the canonical expectations of relativistic jets with correlated multiwavelength variability (gamma-rays followed by radio emission after a few months), but it was difficult to retrieve a similar pattern in the light curves of 2011. The comparison of gamma-ray spectra before and including 2011 data suggested that there was a softening of the highenergy spectral slope. We selected five specific epochs to be studied by modelling the broad-band spectrum, which are characterised by an outburst at gamma-rays or very low/high flux at other wavelengths. The observed variability can largely be explained by changes in the injected power, the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet, or the electron spectrum. The characteristic time scale of doubling/halving flux ranges from a few days to a few months, depending on the frequency and the sampling rate. The shortest doubling time scale at gamma-rays is 2.3 +/- 0.5 days. These small values underline the need of highly sampled multiwavelength campaigns to better understand the physics of these sources.

  2. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.


    an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet......-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable...... relativistic Fe K$\\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk....

  3. X-ray Observations of the Radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Markoff, Sera; Parker, Michael; Miller, Jon M.


    We report on the 200-ks NuSTAR observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) AGN, PMN J0948+0022, executed simultaneously with an 80-ks XMM-Newton observation in 2016. PMN J0948+0022 was chosen because it is one of seven known, powerfully-jetted radio-loud (RL) NLS1s that have been observed with Fermi. We will detail our progress toward meeting the following campaign objectives with the analysis of these datasets: (1) Confirming the presence of the soft excess and look for any evidence of reflection, either in Fe K emission or the Compton hump above 10 keV; (2) Determining the correct spectral model across the entire X-ray bandpass (e.g., Comptonization vs. blurred reflection for the soft excess); (3) Measuring the coronal parameters (temperature, optical depth, compactness) by constraining the high-energy cutoff of the power-law and the low-energy UV/optical data simultaneously; (4) Looking for any correlations between the corona, jet and accretion properties by examining radio and Fermi monitoring of the source contemporaneous with the X-ray and UV/optical data and comparing fits to pure disk/corona models vs. jet models; (5) Furthering our understanding of the jet emission mechanism(s) in RLNLS1s by adding new information to the SED modeling of this source.

  4. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445 (United States)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.


    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  5. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Birkinshaw, Mark [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Peter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy

  6. The Properties of Primordial Stars and Galaxies measured from the 21-cm Global Spectrum using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith; Wollack, Edward


    DARE is a mission concept designed to observe the formation of primordial stars, black holes, and galaxies (z=11-35) by measuring their spectral effects on the redshifted 21-cm hydrogen line. The UV and X-ray radiation emitted by these first objects ionized and heated the intergalactic medium and imprinted characteristic features in the 21-cm spectrum. The 1.4 GHz signal is redshifted into the radio band 40-120 MHz. DARE will take advantage of the quietest RF environment in the inner solar system by using the Moon as a shield from human radio frequency interference and solar emissions via observations on the lunar farside. DARE’s science objectives are to determine: when the first stars turned on and their properties, when the first black holes began accreting and their masses, the reionization history of the early Universe, and if evidence exists for exotic physics in the Dark Ages such as Dark Matter decay. Wideband crossed-dipole antennas, pilot tone stablized radiometric receivers, a polarimeter, and a digital spectrometer constitute the science instrument. DARE’s radiometer is precisely calibrated with a featureless spectral response, controlled systematics, and heritage from CMB missions. Models for the instrument main beam and sidelobes, antenna reflection coefficient, gain variations, and calibrations will be validated with electromagnetic simulations, laboratory and anechoic chamber measurements, and verified on-orbit. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm spectrum, its uniformity over large angular scales, and its unpolarized state are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially-varying, polarized emission of the bright Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. The 21-cm signal will be extracted in the presence of foregrounds using a Bayesian framework with a Markov Chain Monto Carlo (MCMC) numerical inference technique. The DARE data analysis pipeline enables efficient, simultaneous, and self

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime; Brough, Sarah; Croton, Darren J.; Driver, Simon; Graham, Alister; Baldry, Ivan; Brown, Michael; Prescott, Matt; Wang, Lingyu


    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between

  8. CGCG292-057: A Near-Distance Merger Galaxy with Double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J1159+5820 is an extended radio galaxy with a quite unusual morphology, featuring two pairs of radio lobes. Such sources, called double–double radio galaxies, constitute a very rare class of extragalactic radio sources. Furthermore, the extended radio structure of this source shows an X-shape form. According to a much ...

  9. The Star Formation in Radio Survey: Jansky Very Large Array 33 GHz Observations of Nearby Galaxy Nuclei and Extranuclear Star-forming Regions (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Dong, D.; Momjian, E.; Linden, S.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Meier, D. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Turner, J. L.


    We present 33 GHz imaging for 112 pointings toward galaxy nuclei and extranuclear star-forming regions at ≈2″ resolution using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. A comparison with 33 GHz Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope single-dish observations indicates that the interferometric VLA observations recover 78% ± 4% of the total flux density over 25″ regions (≈kpc scales) among all fields. On these scales, the emission being resolved out is most likely diffuse non-thermal synchrotron emission. Consequently, on the ≈30–300 pc scales sampled by our VLA observations, the bulk of the 33 GHz emission is recovered and primarily powered by free–free emission from discrete H II regions, making it an excellent tracer of massive star formation. Of the 225 discrete regions used for aperture photometry, 162 are extranuclear (i.e., having galactocentric radii r G ≥ 250 pc) and detected at >3σ significance at 33 GHz and in Hα. Assuming a typical 33 GHz thermal fraction of 90%, the ratio of optically-thin 33 GHz to uncorrected Hα star formation rates indicates a median extinction value on ≈30–300 pc scales of A Hα ≈ 1.26 ± 0.09 mag, with an associated median absolute deviation of 0.87 mag. We find that 10% of these sources are “highly embedded” (i.e., A Hα ≳ 3.3 mag), suggesting that on average, H II regions remain embedded for ≲1 Myr. Finally, we find the median 33 GHz continuum-to-Hα line flux ratio to be statistically larger within r G < 250 pc relative to the outer disk regions by a factor of 1.82 ± 0.39, while the ratio of 33 GHz to 24 μm flux densities is lower by a factor of 0.45 ± 0.08, which may suggest increased extinction in the central regions.

  10. Magnetic filaments associated radio-source feedback (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana


    Heating of the intergalactic medium by radio sources must be associated with magnetization. We present a case study of a double radio galaxy system that shows extensive field injection through two different radio plume morphologies that both extend hundreds of kpc. One plume exhibits two exceptionally narrow radio-bright features which extend along much of its length. The extreme length-to-width radio of these filaments suggests that they trace organized and stable magnetic ropes that have been drawn out by the motion of the radio galaxy through the intergalactic mediu, and that dissipate only slowly.

  11. A dichotomy in radio jet orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; de Zeeuw, P. T.


    We examine the relative orientations of radio jets, central dust and stars in low-power (i.e., FR I and FR I/II) radio galaxies. We use the position angles of jet and dust to constrain the three-dimensional angle theta(DJ) between jet and dust. For galaxies with filamentary dust 'lanes' (which tend

  12. Extragalactic radio continuum surveys and the transformation of radio astronomy (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.


    Next-generation radio surveys are about to transform radio astronomy by discovering and studying tens of millions of previously unknown radio sources. These surveys will provide fresh insights for understanding the evolution of galaxies, measuring the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate, and rivalling traditional techniques in the measurement of fundamental cosmological parameters. By observing a new volume of observational parameter space, they are also likely to discover unexpected phenomena. This Review traces the evolution of extragalactic radio continuum surveys from the earliest days of radio astronomy to the present, and identifies the challenges that must be overcome to achieve this transformational change.

  13. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tended regions of emission. These jets, which occur across the electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassive black holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seen on the scale of parsecs in the nuclear regions to those which power the giant radio sources extending over several mega- parsecs. These jets ...

  14. B2-B2.5 code benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M; Voskoboynikov, S.; Rozhansky, V.; Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S.; Kotov, V.; Boerner, P.


    ITER-IO currently (and since about 15 years) employs the code for its divertor design, currently version SOLPS4.3. is a special variant of the B2-EIRENE code, which was originally developed by an European consortium (FZ Juelich, AEA Culham, ERM Belgium/KU Leuven) in the late eighties and early nineties of the last century under NET contracts. Until today even the very similar edge plasma codes within the SOLPS family, if run on a seemingly identical choice of physical parameters, still sometimes disagree significantly with each other. It is obvious that in computational engineering applications, as they are carried out for the various ITER divertor aspects with SOLPS4.3 for more than a decade now, any transition from one to another code must be fully backward compatible, or, at least, the origin of differences in the results must be identified and fully understood quantitatively. In this report we document efforts undertaken in 2010 to ultimately eliminate the third issue. For the kinetic EIRENE part within SOLPS this backward compatibility (back until 1996) was basically achieved (V. Kotov, 2004-2006) and SOLPS4.3 is now essentially up to date with the current EIRENE master maintained at FZ Juelich. In order to achieve a similar level of reproducibility for the plasma fluid (B2, B2.5) part, we follow a similar strategy, which is quite distinct from the previous SOLPS benchmark attempts: the codes are ''disintegrated'' and pieces of it are run on smallest (i.e. simplest) problems. Only after full quantitative understanding is achieved, the code model is enlarged, integrated, piece by piece again, until, hopefully, a fully backward compatible B2 / B2.5 ITER edge plasma simulation will be achieved. The status of this code dis-integration effort and its findings until now (Nov. 2010) are documented in the present technical note. This work was initiated in a small workshop by the three partner teams of KU Leuven, St. Petersburg

  15. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.


    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  16. Radio and Optical Spectra of Objects from Two Complete Samples of Radio Sources


    Chavushyan, V.; Mujica, R.; Gorshkov, A. G.; Konnikova, V. K.; Mingaliev, M.G.; Valdez, J. R.


    We present optical identifications and radio spectra for ten radio sources from two flux-density-complete samples. Radio variability characteristics are presented for four objects. The observations were obtained on the RATAN-600 radio telescope at 0.97-21.7 GHz and the 2.1 m telescope of the Haro Observatory in Cananea, Mexico at 4200-9000 =C5. Among the ten objects studied, three are quasars, four are BL Lac objects, two are radio galaxies, and one is a Sy 1 galaxy. Two of the sources identi...

  17. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'? (United States)

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane


    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  18. Noyaux actifs de galaxies en rayons gamma extrêmes : Connexions radio-gamma pour l’étude des blazars intermédiaires


    Hervet, Olivier


    The development of multi-wavelength observations of active galactic nuclei nowadays allows to reach a quasi-full coverage of their emission from radio to the highest reachable energies, in the TeV domain, by the Cherenkov telescopes. Consequently, the emission models of these sources are increasingly constraints, in particular for blazars where standard one zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission scenarios are regularly disproved by this new information flow. The main subject of this the...

  19. Propagation of cosmic rays in extragalactic radio sources (United States)

    Earl, J. A.


    A model of extragalactic radio sources is considered which assumes that relativistic electrons carry energy from the central galaxy to the radio lobes and also emit the radio waves. It is suggested that the radio emission is confined to an axis because electrons propagate parallel to the magnetic field more readily than perpendicular to it and that symmetric radio lobes appear on this axis because electrons are deposited at supercoherent transitions far from the central galaxy, where they propagate diffusively. The slow drift velocities that characterize this propagation are shown to explain the secondary structure between the main lobes and to establish a relationship between double sources and galactic radio trails.

  20. Galaxies at High Redshift (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.


    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  1. Planetary Nebulae as kinematic and dynamical tracers of galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Napolitano, Nicola; Arnaboldi, Magda; Cortesi, Arianna; Romanowsky, Aaron; Gerhard, Ortwin; Merrifield, Michael; Kuijken, Konrad; Freeman, Ken; Douglas, Nigel


    The kinematics and dynamical properties of galaxy halos are difficult to measure, given the faint stellar surface brightness that characterizes those regions. Gas-rich systems such as spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio emission of their gas component. Early type galaxies contain less gas,

  2. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market


    Kaynova Tatyana V.


    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  3. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g) (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.


    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  4. Innovation diffusion in B2B relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Reichert, Michael


    Through a multiple case study based on interviews with radio editorial staff, this ar- ticle provides insights in the selection process for the use of new songs in German radio broadcasting. Radio editors learn about new songs through different chan- nels, the intensity of the information search...... depends on the station's size and re- sources. Several criteria for new song adoption have been identified, including: con- gruence with format, usage by competitive stations, evaluations by radio consul- tancy....

  5. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Derman, Samuel


    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

  6. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  7. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  8. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping......Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...

  9. Detecting supernova remnants in external galaxies (United States)

    Dickel, J. R.; Dodorico, S.


    Identification of supernova remnants (SNR) in external galaxies through the combined use of radio, optical and X-ray surveys is discussed. Some 24 likely distant galaxy SNR have been found in the past six years, though confirmation is often difficult. Radio surveys of other galaxies are restricted by background object contamination in the field, and confirmation of these candidates requires other techniques. Optical measurement of the ratio of the forbidden SII doublet at .6717 and .6731 microns to H-alpha, followed by spectroscopic or radio confirmation, has successfully identified SNR in the LMC and other galaxies, though few in number. Most of the SNR in the Magellanic Clouds have been detected as X-ray emitters, but towards M31 there are no coincidences between the lists of optical SNR and X-ray sources. An increase in SNR identifications should result from use of the Space Telescope and continued use of the VLA.

  10. Neutral hydrogen in nearby elliptical and lenticular galaxies : the continuing formation of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Oosterloo, T. A.; McDermid, R. M.; Krajnovic, D.; Cappellari, M.; Kenn, F.; Weijmans, A.; Sarzi, M.


    We present the results of deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of neutral hydrogen in 12 nearby elliptical and lenticular galaxies. The selected objects come from a representative sample of nearby galaxies earlier studied at optical wavelengths with the integral-field spectrograph

  11. HI observations of low surface brightness galaxies : Probing low-density galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; vanderHulst, JM


    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) 21-cm HI observations of 19 late-type low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Our main findings are that these galaxies, as well as having low surface brightnesses, have low HI surface densities, about a factor of

  12. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock ...

  13. Radio Journalism. (United States)

    Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

    This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…

  14. B2C graphene, nanotubes, and nanoribbons. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Pei, Yong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    We report a first-principles prediction of a new two-dimensional inorganic material, namely, the B(2)C graphene in which the boron and carbon atoms are packed into a mosaic of hexagons and rhombuses. In the B(2)C graphene, each carbon atom is bonded with four boron atoms, forming a planar-tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) moiety, a notion first conceived by Hoffmann et al. The B(2)C graphene is possibly a metal with a small overlap in the energy of conduction and valence bands. Like the carbon graphene and nanotubes, a B(2)C graphene sheet can be rolled into various forms of B(2)C nanotubes as well. Depending on the roll-up vector, the B(2)C nanotubes may become either a metal or a semiconductor. All B(2)C graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be uniformly metallic, regardless of their width and edge structure.

  15. The Suzaku Observation of the Nucleus of theRadio-Loud Active Galaxy Centaurus A: Constraints on Abundances of the Accreting Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, A.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Bamba, A.; Isobe, N.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Mushotzky,; Okajima, T.; Ptak, A.; Reeves, J.N.; Ueda, Y.; Yamasaki, T.; Yaqoob, T.


    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The net exposure times after screening were: 70 ks per X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) camera, 60.8 ks for the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) PIN, and 17.1 ks for the HXD-GSO. The hard X-rays are fit by two power-laws of the same slope, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} respectively. The spectrum is consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, but it is also consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature vapec model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The Fe K{alpha} line width yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. Fe, Ca, and S K-shell absorption edges are detected. Elemental abundances are constrained via absorption edge depths and strengths of the fluorescent and diffuse plasma emission lines. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.1) of the circumnuclear material suggests that it could not have originated in the relatively metal-poor outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative abundances are consistent with enrichment from Type II and Ia supernovae.

  16. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  17. Bulge-Disk Evolution in Interacting Bulgeless Galaxies (United States)

    Das, M.; Ramya, S.; Sengupta, C.; Mishra, K.


    Bulgeless galaxies are an extreme class of late type spiral galaxies that have practically no bulge and are nearly pure disk in morphology. Their lack of evolution is a puzzle for theories of galaxy formation and the secular evolution of galaxy disks. However, one of the processes by which these galaxies could evolve is through interactions with other galaxies. In this study we present radio (GMRT) observations of star formation in a sample of bulgeless galaxies. We did followup Hα imaging and optical spectroscopy of two galaxies, NGC 3445 and NGC 4027. Both galaxies have extended emission associated with their tidal interactions. Their nuclei show ongoing star formation but no signs of AGN activity. The R band images suggest that their centers have oval distortions or pseudobulges that may later evolve into larger bulges. Thus interactions are an important trigger for the formation of bulges in such disk dominated systems.

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, 19395-5746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brough, Sarah [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Croton, Darren J.; Graham, Alister [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Driver, Simon [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Baldry, Ivan [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Brown, Michael [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Prescott, Matt [Astrophysics Group, The University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Wang, Lingyu, E-mail: [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen (Netherlands)


    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between the two most luminous members, and the offset between the position of the BGG and the luminosity centroid of the group. We find that the radio luminosity of the largest galaxy in the group strongly depends on its environment, such that the BGGs in dynamically young (evolving) groups are an order of magnitude more luminous in the radio than those with a similar stellar mass but residing in dynamically old (relaxed) groups. This observation has been successfully reproduced by a newly developed semi-analytic model that allows us to explore the various causes of these findings. We find that the fraction of radio-loud BGGs in the observed dynamically young groups is ∼2 times that of the dynamically old groups. We discuss the implications of this observational constraint on the central galaxy properties in the context of galaxy mergers and the super massive black hole accretion rate.

  19. Astronomers Discover Spectacular Structure in Distant Galaxy (United States)


    Researchers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have imaged a "spectacular and complex structure" in a galaxy 50 million light-years away. Their work both resolves a decades-old observational mystery and revises current theories about the origin of X-ray emission coming from gas surrounding the galaxy. The new VLA image is of the galaxy M87, which harbors at its core a supermassive black hole spewing out jets of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light and also is the central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. The VLA image is the first to show detail of a larger structure that originally was detected by radio astronomers more than a half-century ago. Analysis of the new image indicates that astronomers will have to revise their ideas about the physics of what causes X-ray emission in the cores of many galaxy clusters. Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; Jean Eilek of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech) in Socorro, NM; and Namir Kassim of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC, announced their discovery at the American Astronomical Society's meeting today in Austin, TX. The new observations show two large, bubble-like lobes, more than 200,000 light-years across, that emit radio waves. These lobes, which are intricately detailed, apparently are powered by gravitational energy released from the black hole at the galaxy's center. "We think that material is flowing outward from the galaxy's core into these large, bright, radio-emitting 'bubbles,'" Owen said. The newly-discovered "bubbles" sit inside a region of the galaxy known to be emitting X-rays. Theorists have speculated that this X-ray emission arises when gas that originally was part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, cools and falls inwards onto M87 itself, at the center of the cluster. Such "cooling flows" are commonly thought to be responsible for strong X-ray emission in many

  20. Radio Mariackie


    Tytko, Marek Mariusz


    Tekst dotyczy początków katolickiego Radia Mariackiego w Krakowie w 1993 r. The text concerns the begining of the Mariackie Radio [The Mariackie Broadcasting, the Maria's Radio Station, the Maria's Broadcasting, the Maria's Radio) in Cracow 1993.

  1. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  2. Polarized synchrotron radiation from the Andromeda galaxy M 31 and background sources at 350 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gießübel, R.; Heald, G.; Beck, R.; Arshakian, T. G.


    Context. Low-frequency radio continuum observations are best suited to search for radio halos of inclined galaxies. Polarization measurements at low frequencies allow the detection of small Faraday rotation measures caused by regular magnetic fields in galaxies and in the foreground of the Milky

  3. Direct evidence for outflow of metal-enriched gas along the radio jets of Hydra A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K.W.; McNamara, B.R.; David, L.P.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Wise, M.W.


    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the

  4. GMRT Detection of a New Wide-Angle Tail (WAT) Radio Source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the serendipitous detection of a Wide-Angle Tail (WAT) radio galaxy at 240 and 610 MHz, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). This WAT is hosted by a cD galaxy PGC 1519010 whose photometric redshift given in the SDSS DR6 catalogue is close to the spectroscopic redshifts (0.105, 0.106 and ...

  5. The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double–Double Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detection of lobe related X-ray depends on how well the background subtraction can be done. Once we detect such lobe-related X-ray, we can try to fit the data with IC-CMB and thermal ... ages are comparable if bulk back-flow and both radiative and adiabatic losses are taken into .... 1997). We believe that the lateral.

  6. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.


    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  7. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo


    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  8. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.


    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  9. The HI distribution of spiral galaxies in the cluster A 262

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Alfaro, H; Szomoru, A; Cayatte, [No Value; Balkowski, C; Sancisi, R


    We present results of an HI survey of the cluster of galaxies Abell 262, using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Eleven galaxies were detected in five fields. In a few cases the gas in these galaxies shows an asymmetrical distribution; the most likely explanation is the interaction

  10. Clusters and Groups of Galaxies : International Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Mezzetti, M


    The large-scale structure of the Universe and systems Clusters, and Groups of galaxies are topics like Superclusters, They fully justify the meeting on "Clusters of great interest. and Groups of Galaxies". The topics covered included the spatial distribution and the clustering of galaxies; the properties of Superclusters, Clusters and Groups of galaxies; radio and X-ray observations; the problem of unseen matter; theories concerning hierarchical clustering, pancakes, cluster and galaxy formation and evolution. The meeting was held at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (Italy) from September 13 to September 16, 1983. It was attended by about 150 participants from 22 nations who presented 67 invited lectures (il) and contributed papers (cp), and 45 poster papers (pp). The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of F. Bertola, P. Biermann, A. Cavaliere, N. Dallaporta, D. Gerba1, M. Hack, J . V . Peach, D. Sciama (Chairman), G. Setti, M. Tarenghi. We are particularly indebted to D. Scia...

  11. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - I. HI imaging of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Van Albada, TS; van der Hulst, JM; Sancisi, R

    Neutral hydrogen observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are presented for a sample of 73 late-type dwarf galaxies. These observations are part of the WHISP project (Westerbork Hi Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies). Here we present Hi maps, velocity fields, global profiles

  12. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  13. Star formation in bulgeless late-type galaxies: clues to their evolution (United States)

    Das, M.; Sengupta, C.; Ramya, S.; Misra, K.


    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope 1280-MHz radio continuum observations and follow-up optical studies of the disc and nuclear star formation in a sample of low-luminosity bulgeless galaxies. The main aim is to understand bulge formation and overall disc evolution in these late-type galaxies. We detected radio continuum from five of the 12 galaxies in our sample; the emission is mainly associated with disc star formation. Only two of the detected galaxies had extended radio emission; the others had patchy disc emission. In the former two galaxies, NGC 3445 and NGC 4027, the radio continuum is associated with star formation triggered by tidal interactions with nearby companion galaxies. We did follow-up Hα imaging and nuclear spectroscopy of both galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope. The Hα emission is mainly associated with the strong spiral arms. The nuclear spectra indicate ongoing nuclear star formation in NGC 3445 and NGC 4027 which may be associated with nuclear star clusters. No obvious signs of active galactic nuclei activity were detected. Although nearly bulgeless, both galaxies appear to have central oval distortions in the R-band images; these could represent pseudo-bulges that may later evolve into large bulges. We thus conclude that tidal interactions are an important means of bulge formation and disc evolution in bulgeless galaxies; without such triggers these galaxies appear to be low in star formation and overall disc evolution.

  14. Customer Relationship Management in B2B


    VRCHOTA, Tomáš


    This thesis is focused on CRM systems for small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the B2B market. The main goal was to identify the needs and possibilities of the use of CRM systems in small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the B2B market and propose the appropriate CRM systems for this target group. Needs of small and medium-sized enterprises were explored by qualitative research by individual structured interviews. In the next part of the thesis I selected 33 CRM systems wh...

  15. The Radio/Optical Morphology of Micro-Jansky Radio Sources (United States)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.


    We have observed the SSA13 field (RA=13 23, DEC=42 38) using the VLA. At 1.4 GHz the rms noise is 5.0 μ Jy with resolution 1.8'', at 8.4 GHz the rms noise is 1.5 μ Jy with a resolution of 3.0''. Optical images at R-band and Z-band with 1.1'' seeing were obtained from the Subaru telescope. Over 900 radio sources were detected (528 in the complete sample) and the optical/radio registration 95% of the radio sources. The radio/optical morphological properties of the sources are sorted into a small number of classifications and these properties are compared. Our main conclusions are: (1) About half of the radio sources are associated with a relatively isolated galaxy; most other identifications are with binary systems. (2) Only 7 extended AGN (>5'') are found. (3) At Z-band, 8% of the sources are fainter than 26 mag. (4) The slope of the differential radio count is -2.3 with a density of 2.0 sources (amin)-2 with a flux density >27.5 μ Jy. (5) The average radio angular size is 1.35'', but very few sources are larger than 5''. (6) The radio orientation is often correlated with the galaxy identification or binary system orientation. Two correlations in these data suggest that most sources are associated with distant galaxies dominated by starburst activity. (1) The radio sources with angular size >1'' show an Infrared/radio correlation, whereas smaller-diameter sources do not; and (2) The radio spectral index steepens for sources weak then 100 μ Jy, suggesting an even lower proportion of AGN at the fainter observed levels.

  16. A sharp view on the low-frequency radio sky

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Intema, Hubertus Theodorus


    The study of cosmic large-scale structure formation benefits from radio observations, because it provides an unbiased view on the early Universe. Distant radio galaxies and diffuse cluster sources generally have a steep spectrum, which implies an increased brightness towards lower frequencies (below

  17. Radio Recombination Lines at Decametre Wavelengths. Prospects for the Future (United States)


    redshift radio galaxies and studies of clusters of galaxies; probing particle acceleration in supernova remnants, radio galaxies, and clusters of...0.76 −4 17 1 G358−2 76 441 0.53 −10 28 1 G358+0 76 441 0.90 −3 24 1 G358+2 76 441 0.80 3 8 1 L1407 25 640 0.7 −10 17 3 (a) This listing excludes lines...time to detect (5σ) a line of optical depth 10−3 with an well-matched instrumental bandwidth. The instruments listed are ones from which published RRL

  18. 12 CFR 708b.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... elections. No official or senior manager of the credit union, or the immediate family members of any... Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MERGERS OF FEDERALLY-INSURED CREDIT UNIONS; VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OR CONVERSION OF INSURED STATUS § 708b.2 Definitions. (a...

  19. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron isotope effect [2] has been observed in MgB2 re- vealing that the pairing mechanism ... energy there is a flat band which is predominantly of boron 2p origin. This band makes a large contribution to the ... This yields a Tc = 24.7 K. We thus find that a phonon mediated theory of strong coupling superconductivity gives a ...

  20. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)


    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  2. The Far-Infrared Properties of the Most Isolated Galaxies (United States)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Leon, S.; Espada, D.; Bergond, G.; García, E.; Sabater, J.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verley, S.


    A long-standing question in galaxy evolution involves the role of nature (self-regulation) vs. nurture (environment) on the observed properties (and evolution) of galaxies. A collaboration centreed at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Granada, Spain) is trying to address this question by producing a observational database for a sample of 1050 isolated galaxies from the catalogue of Karachentseva (1973) with the overarching goal being the generation of a "zero-point" sample against which effects of environment on galaxies can be assessed. The AMIGA (Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) database (see will include optical, IR and radio line and continuum measures. The galaxies in the sample represent the most isolated galaxies in the local universe. In the present contribution, we will present the project, as well as the results of an analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) and molecular gas properties of this sample.

  3. Radiative efficiency and content of extragalactic radio sources: Toward a universal scaling relation between jet power and radio power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîrzan, L.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Carilli, C.L.; Wise, M.W.


    We present an analysis of the energetics and particle content of the lobes of 24 radio galaxies at the cores of cooling clusters. The radio lobes in these systems have created visible cavities in the surrounding hot, X-ray-emitting gas, which allow direct measurement of the mechanical jet power of

  4. Galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster lensing with the SDSS and FIRST surveys (United States)

    Demetroullas, C.; Brown, M. L.


    We perform a galaxy-galaxy lensing study by correlating the shapes of ∼2.7 × 105 galaxies selected from the VLA FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres) radio survey with the positions of ∼38.5 million Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies, ∼132 000 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and ∼78 000 SDSS galaxies that are also detected in the VLA FIRST survey. The measurements are conducted on angular scales θ ≲ 1200 arcsec. On scales θ ≲ 200 arcsec, we find that the measurements are corrupted by residual systematic effects associated with the instrumental beam of the VLA data. Using simulations, we show that we can successfully apply a correction for these effects. Using the three lens samples (the SDSS DR10 sample, the BCG sample and the SDSS-FIRST matched object sample), we measure a tangential shear signal that is inconsistent with 0 at the 10.2σ, 3.8σ and 9σ levels, respectively. Fitting an NFW model to the detected signals, we find that the ensemble mass profile of the BCG sample agrees with the values in the literature. However, the mass profiles of the SDSS DR10 and the SDSS-FIRST matched object samples are found to be shallower and steeper than results in the literature, respectively. The best-fitting Virial masses for the SDSS DR10, BCG and SDSS-FIRST matched samples, derived using an NFW model and allowing for a varying concentration factor, are M_{200}^SDSS-DR10 = (1.2 ± 0.4) × 10^{12} M_{⊙}, M_{200}^BCG = (1.4 ± 1.3) × 10^{13} M_{⊙} and M_{200}^SDSS-FIRST =8.0 ± 4.2 × 10^{13} M_{⊙}, respectively. These results are in good agreement (within ∼2σ) with values in the literature. Our findings suggest that for galaxies to be bright both in the radio and in the optical, they must be embedded in very dense environment on scales R ≲ 1 Mpc.

  5. Gamma-ray Spectra of Starburst Galaxies (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose; Paglione, Timothy


    Starburst galaxies offer a unique window into the nature of star formation, its driving forces, and the energetic interactions within the galaxy. Their supernovae enrich the surrounding environment with cosmic rays that interact with the interstellar medium and galactic magnetic fields producing gamma-rays and non-thermal radio emission. We generated gamma-ray spectra for the 7 brightest starburst galaxies using 8.6 years of Pass 8 Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In addition to new detections, we will report on the results of simultaneously modeling the gamma-ray and radio spectra. These results confirm prior studies favoring high magnetic field strengths in the starburst regions.

  6. Hydra A at Low Radio Frequencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, W. M; Clarke, T. E; Taylor, G. B; Perley, R. A; Kassim, N. E


    We present new, low-frequency images of the powerful FR I radio galaxy Hydra A (3C 218). Images were made with the Very Large Array at frequencies of 1415, 330, and 74 MHz, with resolutions on the order of 20...

  7. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.


    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Radio continuum emission has been detected from a planetary nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud: this is the first radio continuum detection for any planetary nebula outside our galaxy. The radio flux density is a factor of two lower than predicted from the HP flux. This could be due either to a

  9. The radio properties of the X-ray cluster Abell 2256

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridle, A. H.; Fomalont, E. B.; Miley, G. K.; Valentijn, E. A.


    The paper considers the mapping of the complex radio emission from the X-ray cluster Abell 2256. The cluster contains at least four and possibly eight radio galaxies with head-tail morphology and 4 ft radio source with a steep spectrum and a unique morphology; it is suggested that this emission has

  10. Do Unification Models Explain the X-ray Properties of Radio Sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Haas, M.; Barthel, P.; Willner, S. P.; Leipski, C.; Worrall, D.; Birkinshaw, M.; Antonucci, R. R.; Ashby, M.; Chini, R.; Fazio, G. G.; Lawrence, C. R.; Ogle, P. M.; Schulz, B.

    Chandra observations of a complete, flux-limited sample of 38 high-redshift (1 radio selected (and so relatively unbiased in orientation), 3CRR radio sources (21 quasars, 17 narrow line radio galaxies, NLRGs) support Unification models and lead to estimates of the covering

  11. B2C verkkokaupan perustaminen suositulle leivontablogille


    Paakkunainen, Anni


    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on B2C (business to customer) eli kuluttajille suunnatun verk-kokaupan perustaminen suositulle leivontablogille Annin Uunissa. Annin Uunissa -blogi on syksyllä 2013 perustettu leivontablogi kaikenlaisesta leivonnasta ja ruoanlaitoista kiinnostuneil-le henkilöille. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda verkkokaupan demoversio Annin Uunissa -blogin yhteyteen avattavaan verkkokauppaan. Työn tavoitteeseen olennaisesti vaikuttava alatavoite on kattavan liiketoimintasuunnit...

  12. Evidence that the AGN dominates the radio emission in z ˜ 1 radio-quiet quasars (United States)

    White, Sarah V.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Kalfountzou, Eleni; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Verma, Aprajita; Cao Orjales, José M.; Stevens, Jason


    In order to understand the role of radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) in galaxy evolution, we must determine the relative levels of accretion and star-formation activity within these objects. Previous work at low radio flux densities has shown that accretion makes a significant contribution to the total radio emission, in contrast with other quasar studies that suggest star formation dominates. To investigate, we use 70 RQQs from the Spitzer-Herschel Active Galaxy Survey. These quasars are all at z ˜ 1, thereby minimizing evolutionary effects, and have been selected to span a factor of ˜100 in optical luminosity, so that the luminosity dependence of their properties can be studied. We have imaged the sample using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), whose high sensitivity results in 35 RQQs being detected above 2σ. This radio data set is combined with far-infrared luminosities derived from grey-body fitting to Herschel photometry. By exploiting the far-infrared-radio correlation observed for star-forming galaxies, and comparing two independent estimates of the star-formation rate, we show that star formation alone is not sufficient to explain the total radio emission. Considering RQQs above a 2σ detection level in both the radio and the far-infrared, 92 per cent are accretion dominated, and the accretion process accounts for 80 per cent of the radio luminosity when summed across the objects. The radio emission connected with accretion appears to be correlated with the optical luminosity of the RQQ, whilst a weaker luminosity dependence is evident for the radio emission connected with star formation.

  13. Solar Radio (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  14. Radio wavelength transients: Current and emerging prospects (United States)

    Lazio, J.


    Known classes of radio wavelength transients range from the nearby stellar flares and radio pulsars to the distant Universe γ-ray burst afterglows. Hypothesized classes of radio transients include analogs of known objects, e.g., extrasolar planets emitting Jovian-like radio bursts and giant-pulse emitting pulsars in other galaxies, to the exotic, prompt emission from γ-ray bursts, evaporating black holes, and transmitters from other civilizations. A number of instruments and facilities are either under construction or in early observational stages and are slated to become available in the next few years. With a combination of wide fields of view and wavelength agility, the detection and study of radio transients will improve immensely.

  15. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2 (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.


    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  16. B2B oriented on-line applications generator


    Vintilă Bogdan-Cătălin


    B2B applications are presented. Quality characteristics of B2B applications are defined. B2B application structure is defined. The application for contracts is developed. The advantages are identified.

  17. Galaxy Classifications with Deep Learning (United States)

    Lukic, Vesna; Brüggen, Marcus


    Machine learning techniques have proven to be increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in object classification, estimating redshifts and data mining. One example of object classification is classifying galaxy morphology. This is a tedious task to do manually, especially as the datasets become larger with surveys that have a broader and deeper search-space. The Kaggle Galaxy Zoo competition presented the challenge of writing an algorithm to find the probability that a galaxy belongs in a particular class, based on SDSS optical spectroscopy data. The use of convolutional neural networks (convnets), proved to be a popular solution to the problem, as they have also produced unprecedented classification accuracies in other image databases such as the database of handwritten digits (MNIST †) and large database of images (CIFAR ‡). We experiment with the convnets that comprised the winning solution, but using broad classifications. The effect of changing the number of layers is explored, as well as using a different activation function, to help in developing an intuition of how the networks function and to see how they can be applied to radio galaxy images.

  18. To be or not B2B?

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, L J


    La question du commerce électronique interentreprises par le web (Business to Business, B2B) est posée actuellement par les grands groupes industriels impliqués dans le commerce mondial. Les prévisions sont imposantes, le B2B atteindra le C.A. de 3000 milliards de dollars en 2003. Les conditions d'accès, la façon de procéder des deux organisateurs (ARIBA et COMMERCE ONE) des plus grandes places de marchés actuelles, sont décrites. La base de l'énorme pyramide est le catalogue électronique multilingue UNSPSC (United Nations Standard Products and Services Classification) et l'organisation ECCMA (Electronic Commerce Code Management Association) qui gère le développement des UNSPSC codes en 8 langues. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur (re)-déclare qu'un des efforts principaux à fournir par le CERN est la création de son propre catalogue électronique. Dans la Division ST, une aide partielle à ce vaste programme pourrait être apportée par la normalisation des codes et désignations des pièces de maint...

  19. When galaxy clusters collide : the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroe, Andra


    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage'

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SEDs of the radio continuum from KINGFISHER (Tabatabaei+, 2017) (United States)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Krause, M.; Dumas, G.; Meidt, S.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, R.; Murphy, E. J.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Groves, B.; Bolatto, A.; Dale, D.; Galametz, M.; Sandstrom, K.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Hunt, L. K.; de Looze, I.; Pellegrini, E. W.


    The KINGFISH sample consists of 61 nearby galaxies of different morphological types. From this sample, we selected all galaxies with declinations >=-21° and named this subsample KINGFISHER (KINGFISH galaxies Emitting in Radio). These galaxies can be observed with the Effelsberg 100m single-dish telescope to obtain global measurements of the radio continuum at 20cm, 6cm, and 3.6cm. The non-KINGFISH galaxy, M51, is also included in this study. We observed 35 of these galaxies at 6cm, 10 galaxies at 20cm, and 7 at 3.6cm to complete already existing archival data during four observation runs (2008 Dec, 2009 Dec, 2010 Apr and 2010 Dec & 2012 Mar). (3 data files).

  1. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar (United States)


    Observatory in California indicated that the object was likely a binary quasar in the midst of a galaxy merger. Carnegie's Mulchaey then used the 6.5 meter Baade-Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas observatory in Chile to obtain deeper images and more detailed spectroscopy of the merging galaxies. "Just because you see two galaxies that are close to each other in the sky doesn't mean they are merging," says Mulchaey. "But from the Magellan images we can actually see tidal tails, one from each galaxy, which suggests that the galaxies are in fact interacting and are in the process of merging." Thomas Cox, now a fellow at the Carnegie Observatories, corroborated this conclusion using computer simulations of the merging galaxies. When Cox's model galaxies merged, they showed features remarkably similar to what Mulchaey observed in the Magellan images. "The model verifies the merger origin for this binary quasar system," he says. "It also hints that this kind of galaxy interaction is a key component of the growth of black holes and production of quasars throughout our universe." * The authors of the paper published in the Astrophysical Journal are Paul J. Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Adam D. Myers of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Wayne A. Barkhouse of the University of North Dakota, John S. Mulchaey of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Vardha N. Bennert of the Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Thomas J. Cox of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Thomas L. Aldcroft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Joan M. Wrobel of National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: and

  2. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  3. Watching a Cannibal Galaxy Dine (United States)


    , allow astronomers to get an even sharper view of the structure of this galaxy, completely free of obscuring dust. The original images, obtained by observing in the near-infrared through three different filters (J, H, K) were combined using a new technique that removes the dark, screening effect of the dust, providing a clear view of the centre of this galaxy. What the astronomers found was surprising: "There is a clear ring of stars and clusters hidden behind the dust lanes, and our images provide an unprecedentedly detailed view toward it," says Jouni Kainulainen, lead author of the paper reporting these results. "Further analysis of this structure will provide important clues on how the merging process occurred and what has been the role of star formation during it." The research team is excited about the possibilities this new technique opens: "These are the first steps in the development of a new technique that has the potential to trace giant clouds of gas in other galaxies at high resolution and in a cost-effective way," explains co-author João Alves. "Knowing how these giant clouds form and evolve is to understand how stars form in galaxies." Looking forward to the new, planned telescopes, both on the ground and in space, "this technique is very complementary to the radio data ALMA will collect on nearby galaxies, and at the same time it poses interesting avenues of research for extragalactic stellar populations with the future European Extremely Large Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, as dust is omnipresent in galaxies," says co-author Yuri Beletsky. Previous observations done with ISAAC on the VLT have revealed that a supermassive black hole lurks inside Centaurus A. Its mass is about 200 million times the mass of our Sun, or 50 times more massive than the one that lies at the centre of our Milky Way. In contrast to our own galaxy, the supermassive black hole in Centaurus A is continuously fed by material falling onto into it, making the giant

  4. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni


    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  5. Nustar detection of the blazar B2 1023+25 at redshift 5.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.


    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at z = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we...... boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor ~13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive...

  6. Angular Momentum of Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Butler, Kirsty M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Oh, Se-Heon


    We present measurements of baryonic mass {M}{{b}} and specific angular momentum (sAM) {j}{{b}} in 14 rotating dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS sample. These measurements, based on 21 cm kinematic data from the Very Large Array and stellar mass maps from the Spitzer Space Telescope, extend previous AM measurements by more than two orders of magnitude in {M}{{b}}. The dwarf galaxies show systematically higher {j}{{b}} values than expected from the {j}{{b}}\\propto {M}{{b}}2/3 scaling of spiral galaxies, representative of a scale-free galaxy formation scenario. This offset can be explained by decreasing baryon mass fractions {f}{{M}}={M}{{b}}/{M}{dyn} (where {M}{dyn} is the dynamical mass) with decreasing {M}{{b}} (for {M}{{b}}< {10}11 {M}⊙ ). We find that the sAM of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) alone is about 2.5 times higher than that of the stars. The M-j relation of H I is significantly steeper than that of the stars, as a direct consequence of the systematic variation of the H I fraction with {M}{{b}}.

  7. The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy (United States)


    ESO's Wide Field Imager has captured the intricate swirls of the spiral galaxy Messier 83, a smaller look-alike of our own Milky Way. Shining with the light of billions of stars and the ruby red glow of hydrogen gas, it is a beautiful example of a barred spiral galaxy, whose shape has led to it being nicknamed the Southern Pinwheel. Messier 83, M83 ESO PR Photo 25/08 Spiral Galaxy Messier 83 This dramatic image of the galaxy Messier 83 was captured by the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory, located high in the dry desert mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Messier 83 lies roughly 15 million light-years away towards the huge southern constellation of Hydra (the sea serpent). It stretches over 40 000 light-years, making it roughly 2.5 times smaller than our own Milky Way. However, in some respects, Messier 83 is quite similar to our own galaxy. Both the Milky Way and Messier 83 possess a bar across their galactic nucleus, the dense spherical conglomeration of stars seen at the centre of the galaxies. This very detailed image shows the spiral arms of Messier 83 adorned by countless bright flourishes of ruby red light. These are in fact huge clouds of glowing hydrogen gas. Ultraviolet radiation from newly born, massive stars is ionising the gas in these clouds, causing the great regions of hydrogen to glow red. These star forming regions are contrasted dramatically in this image against the ethereal glow of older yellow stars near the galaxy's central hub. The image also shows the delicate tracery of dark and winding dust streams weaving throughout the arms of the galaxy. Messier 83 was discovered by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in the mid 18th century. Decades later it was listed in the famous catalogue of deep sky objects compiled by another French astronomer and famous comet hunter, Charles Messier. Recent observations of this enigmatic galaxy in ultraviolet light and radio waves have shown that even its outer desolate regions

  8. A panchromatic view of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, Alessandro


    Describing how to investigate all kinds of galaxies through a multifrequency analysis, this text is divided into three different sections. The first describes the data currently available at different frequencies, from X-rays to UV, optical, infrared and radio millimetric and centimetric, while explaining their physical meaning. In the second section, the author explains how these data can be used to determine physical parameters and quantities, such as mass and temperature. The final section is devoted to describing how the derived quantities can be used in a multifrequency analysis to study


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU


    Full Text Available Within the present paper, we propose to review some of the main aspects documented by the academic research so far with regard to the online purchasing behaviour in the B2B online environment (more specifically, in the case of the small and medium-sized companies. Preliminary conclusions reveal that, at least in the case studies, the dominant feature is that the geographic delimitation creates a potential obstacle when it comes to applying a general principle governing the small and medium-sized enterprises. Despite this, we consider that some theoretical elements can be acknowledged, elements from which future research can start to develop theories and hypothesis aimed at better explaining the phenomenon. Furthermore, the fact that the studies are rarely involving the same sector, makes it impossible to generalise the process.

  10. [Inhibition of cytochrome b2 by acrylamide]. (United States)

    Kulis, Iu Iu; Shvirmitskas, G Iu; Antanavichius, V S; Vaitkiavichius, R K


    Acrylamide (0.4--0.9 M) irreversibly inhibits reduced (Ered) cytochrome b2 (L (+) -lactate: cytochrome c oxidoreductase) from the yeast Hansenula anomala (ki = 1,67 min-1 at 35 degrees in 0.73 M solution of acrylamide). Changes in fluorescence of FMN, which reflect the changes in protein structure occur symbatically to the inactivation. The rate of inactivation depends on concentration of acrylamide in a degree of 6.4. The inactivation of the oxidized enzyme occurs faster than that of th reduced one at concentrations less than 0.5 M. The inactivation of Ered by acrylonitrile and acrylic acid occurs 10 times slower and does not correlate with the rate of mercaptoethanol binding to the monomers. The inhibition of Ered is caused by specific effects of carylamide and modification of the enzyme active center.

  11. Optical Follow-Up Observations for the High-z COBRA (Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN) Survey (United States)

    Golden-Marx, Emmet; Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Wing, Joshua; Ashby, Matthew; Brodwin, Mark


    Galaxy clusters are unique laboratories for exploring galaxy formation and evolution. Relatively few galaxy clusters have been spectroscopically confirmed beyond a redshift of 1. Different methods of searching for galaxy clusters are adding to these numbers, including detecting regions with a high-density of galaxies in the optical and IR regimes, detecting the hot intracluster medium in the X-ray, and measuring the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Another promising method for discovering high-redshift galaxy clusters uses radio observations of AGN. In particular, we use bent-double lobed radio sources, known often to reside in nearby clusters, as markers for distant galaxy clusters. We present initial results from the high-redshift COBRA (Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN) survey. We have Spitzer IRAC observations of 653 bent-double radio sources with hosts too faint to be detected in the SDSS. Since the host galaxies for these radio sources are usually giant ellipticals, lack of detection in the SDSS means they are likely at z > 0.7. We have begun deep follow-up optical observations using the 4.3 m Discovery Channel Telescope and have determined from these initial optical observations that ~50% of the observed fields are overdense and thus good cluster candidates. Additionally, we have created optical-IR color magnitude diagrams to estimate the redshifts of our cluster candidates by identifying the red sequence. The distribution of galaxies on the red sequence can be used to limit galaxy formation models.

  12. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster? (United States)


    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of

  13. Supernova Remnants and Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Pannuti, T. G.

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have attracted a considerable amount of interest in modern astrophysics from both observational and theoretical perspectives. SNRs play an integral role in numerous processes associated with the evolution of galaxies, including the injection of significant amounts of kinetic energy and heavy-element enriched material into the interstellar medium (ISM). In addition, SNRs have emerged as the leading candidates for the acceleration of cosmic rays within the disks of galaxies through the proposed diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Observations of SNRs have been conducted at three particular wavelengths, based on distinct processes of energy emission associated with these objects. Thermal bremsstrahlung emission from gas shock-heated to temperatures of 10^6 - 10^7 K, recombination radiation from ionized atomic species such as [S II] and non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons gyrating in the SNR's magnetic field produce X-ray, optical and radio emission, respectively. Studies of SNRs within our own Galaxy have been hampered by considerable distance uncertainties and massive extinction along Galactic lines of sight, particularly at the X-ray and optical wavelengths. In contrast, the study of SNRs located in nearby galaxies -- particularly galaxies located at high Galactic latitudes with face-on or nearly face-on orientations -- offers the opportunity to examine equidistant samples of SNRs that are nearly free of obscuration. We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray, optical and radio) study of the resident SNR populations of the Sculptor Group galaxies NGC 300 and NGC 7793 and the northern grand-design spiral NGC 6946. These three galaxies are nearby (2.1 Megaparsecs, 3.34 Megaparsecs and 5.1 Megaparsecs distant, respectively), located at high Galactic latitudes and clearly exhibit extensive massive star formation throughout their disks. We have observed these galaxies at the wavelengths of 6 and 20 cm with the Very

  14. Digitale radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Zondervan, L.


    Als eerste in Europa heeft Nederland begin december 2006 de omschakeling van analoge naar digitale ethertelevisie gemaakt. Voor de analoge FM-radio is er ook een digitale variant, T-DAB. T-DAB staat voor 'Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting'. Dit artikel gaat verder in op deze techniek en de

  15. Cosmic Ray Streaming in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Oh, Siang P.


    The origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters remains an open question in astrophysics. This emission indicates the presence of cluster-wide magnetic fields and high energy cosmic ray (CR) electrons. I will discuss how the properties of the observed radio emission in clusters are shaped by different CR transport processes, namely CR streaming. Recent work has shown that fast streaming may turn off radio emission on relatively short time scales - a full treatment of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave damping shows that streaming may be even faster than previously thought in high β environments. I will briefly introduce the physics behind CR transport, and present simple numerical simulations of the Coma cluster that predict radio emission, as well as other observable signatures such as gamma radiation that can differentiate between models for the source of the CR electrons.

  16. Star formation in bulgeless late type spiral Galaxies (United States)

    Das, M.; Ramya, S.; Sengupta, C.; Mishra, K.

    We present radio and follow-up optical observations of a sample of bulgeless late type spiral galaxies. We searched for signs of nuclear activity and disk star formation in the sample galaxies. Interaction induced star formation can often trigger bulge formation. We found significant radio emission associated with star formation in two sample galaxies, NGC3445 and NGC4027, both of which are tidally interacting with nearby companions. For the others, the star formation was either absent or limited to only localized regions in the disk. Both galaxies also have oval bars that are possibly pseudobulges that may later evolve into bulges. We did follow up optical Hα imaging and nuclear spectroscopy of NGC3445 and NGC4027 using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). The Hα emission is mainly associated with strong spiral arms that have been triggered by the tidal interact1ions. The nuclear spectra of both galaxies indicate ongoing nuclear star formation but do not show signs of AGN activity. We thus conclude that star formation in bulgeless galaxies is generally low but is enhanced when the galaxies interact with nearby companions; this activity may ultimately lead to the formation of bulges in these galaxies.

  17. Radio-continuum observations of a giant radio source QSO J0443.8-6141

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.


    Full Text Available We report the discovery of a giant double-lobed (lobe-core-lobe radio-continuum structure associated with QSO J0443.8-6141 at z=0.72. This QSO was originally identified during the follow-up of a sample of ROSAT All Sky Survey sources at radio and optical frequencies. With a linear size of ~0.77 Mpc, QSO J0443.8-6141 is classified as a giant radio source (GRS; based on its physical properties, we classify QSO J0443.8-6141 as a FR II radio galaxy. High-resolution observations are required to reliably identify GRSs; the next generation of southern sky radio and optical surveys will be crucial to increasing our sample of these objects.

  18. Superstaar Ott Lepland tõi Pärnu miksimeistrile B2H-le võidu / Andris Tammela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammela, Andris


    Pärnu hiphopartistist B2H-st ehk Andres Selgojast, kes võitis Power Hit Radio korraldatud võistluse, milles tuli remiksida TV3 show' "Eesti otsib superstaari" finalistide lugusid. Võidu tõi remiks värske superstaari Ott Leplandi esitatud Snoop Dogi loost "Who I Am (Whats My Name)"

  19. Detection of Molecular Gas in Void Galaxies : Implications for Star Formation in Isolated Environments (United States)

    Das, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Honey, M.; Ramya, S.


    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1-0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1-0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 108 and 109 M⊙. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M⊙ yr-1 which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  20. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Void Galaxies (United States)

    Das, M.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Honey, M.; Ramya, S.


    We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and followup Hα imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities. CO(1-0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)×109 M⊙. The Hα imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star formation rates vary between from 0.2 - 1.0 M7odot; yr -1, which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study shows that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks may contain molecular gas and have star formation rates similar to galaxies in denser environments.

  1. GMRT H I study of giant low surface brightness galaxies (United States)

    Mishra, A.; Kantharia, N. G.; Das, M.; Omar, A.; Srivastava, D. C.


    We present H I observations of four giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies UGC 1378, UGC 1922, UGC 4422 and UM 163 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope. We include H I results on UGC 2936, UGC 6614 and Malin 2 from literature. H I is detected from all the galaxies and the extent is roughly twice the optical size; in UM 163, H I is detected along a broken disc encircling the optical galaxy. We combine our results with those in literature to further understand these systems. The main results are the following: (1) the peak H I surface densities in GLSB galaxies are several times 1021 cm-2. The H I mass is between 0.3 and 4 × 1010 M⊙; dynamical mass ranges from a few times 1011 M⊙ to a few times 1012 M⊙. (2) The rotation curves of GLSB galaxies are flat to the outermost measured point with rotation velocities of the seven GLSB galaxies being between 225 and 432 km s-1. (3) Recent star formation traced by near-ultraviolet emission in five GLSB galaxies in our sample appears to be located in rings around the galaxy centre. We suggest that this could be due to a stochastic burst of star formation at one location in the galaxy being propagated along a ring over a rotation period. (4) The H I is correlated with recent star formation in five of the seven GLSB galaxies.

  2. The Hydrodynamics of Galaxy Transformation in Extreme Cluster Environments (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani


    Cluster of galaxies are hostile environments. Infalling cluster galaxies are stripped of their dark matter, stars, and hot and cold interstellar medium gas. The ISM, in addition to tidal and ram pressure stripping, can evaporate due to thermal conduction. Gas loss and the subsequent suppression of star formation is not straightforward: magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM shield galaxies and their stripped tails from shear instabilities and conduction, radiative cooling can inhibit gas loss, and feedback from stars and AGN can replenish the ISM. While there is observational evidence that these processes operate, a theoretical understanding of the physics controlling the energy cycle in cluster galaxies remains elusive. Additionally, galaxies have a significant impact on ICM evolution: orbiting galaxies stir up and stretch ICM magnetic field lines, inject turbulence into the ICM via their wakes and g-waves, and infuse metals into the ICM. Quantifying the balance between processes that remove, retain, and replenish the ISM, and the impact of galaxies on the ICM require specialized hydrodynamic simulations of the cluster environment and its galaxies. I will present results from some of these simulations that include ram pressure stripping of galaxies' hot ISM, the effect of magnetic fields on this process, and the effectiveness of isotropic and anisotropic thermal conduction in removing and retaining the ISM. I will also quantify magnetic field amplification and turbulence injection due to orbiting galaxies, and implications for X-ray and radio observations and measurements of galactic coronae, tails, magnetic fields, and turbulence.

  3. The case for electron re-acceleration at galaxy cluster shocks (United States)

    van Weeren, Reinout J.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Dawson, William A.; Golovich, Nathan; Lal, Dharam V.; Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Brìggen, Marcus; Ogrean, Georgiana A.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Placco, Vinicius M.; Santucci, Rafael M.; Wittman, David; Jee, M. James; Kraft, Ralph P.; Sobral, David; Stroe, Andra; Fogarty, Kevin


    On the largest scales, the Universe consists of voids and filaments making up the cosmic web. Galaxy clusters are located at the knots in this web, at the intersection of filaments. Clusters grow through accretion from these large-scale filaments and by mergers with other clusters and groups. In a growing number of galaxy clusters, elongated Mpc-sized radio sources have been found1,2 . Also known as radio relics, these regions of diffuse radio emission are thought to trace relativistic electrons in the intracluster plasma accelerated by low-Mach-number shocks generated by cluster-cluster merger events 3 . A long-standing problem is how low-Mach-number shocks can accelerate electrons so efficiently to explain the observed radio relics. Here, we report the discovery of a direct connection between a radio relic and a radio galaxy in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3411-3412 by combining radio, X-ray and optical observations. This discovery indicates that fossil relativistic electrons from active galactic nuclei are re-accelerated at cluster shocks. It also implies that radio galaxies play an important role in governing the non-thermal component of the intracluster medium in merging clusters.

  4. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.


    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  5. Too Fast, Too Furious: A Galaxy's Fatal Plunge (United States)


    Trailing 200,000-light-year-long streamers of seething gas, a galaxy that was once like our Milky Way is being shredded as it plunges at 4.5 million miles per hour through the heart of a distant cluster of galaxies. In this unusually violent collision with ambient cluster gas, the galaxy is stripped down to its skeletal spiral arms as it is eviscerated of fresh hydrogen for making new stars. The galaxy's untimely demise is offering new clues to solving the mystery of what happens to spiral galaxies in a violent universe. Views of the early universe show that spiral galaxies were once much more abundant in rich clusters of galaxies. But they seem to have been vanishing over cosmic time. Where have these "missing bodies" gone? Astronomers are using a wide range of telescopes and analysis techniques to conduct a "CSI" or Crime Scene Investigator-style look at what is happening to this galaxy inside its cluster's rough neighborhood. "It's a clear case of galaxy assault and battery," says William Keel of the University of Alabama. "This is the first time we have a full suite of results from such disparate techniques showing the crime being committed, and the modus operandi." Keel and colleagues are laying out the "forensic evidence" of the galaxy's late life, in a series of presentations today in Atlanta, Ga., at the 203rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society. Astronomers have assembled the evidence by combining a variety of diagnostic observations from telescopes analyzing the galaxy's appearance in X-ray, optical, and radio light. Parallel observations at different wavelengths trace how stars, gas, and dust are being tossed around and torn from the fragile galaxy, called C153. Though such "distressed" galaxies have been seen before, this one's demise is unusually swift and violent. The galaxy belongs to a cluster of galaxies that slammed into another cluster about 100 million years ago. This galaxy took the brunt of the beating as it fell along a trajectory

  6. The baryonic mass function of galaxies. (United States)

    Read, J I; Trentham, Neil


    In the Big Bang about 5% of the mass that was created was in the form of normal baryonic matter (neutrons and protons). Of this about 10% ended up in galaxies in the form of stars or of gas (that can be in molecules, can be atomic, or can be ionized). In this work, we measure the baryonic mass function of galaxies, which describes how the baryonic mass is distributed within galaxies of different types (e.g. spiral or elliptical) and of different sizes. This can provide useful constraints on our current cosmology, convolved with our understanding of how galaxies form. This work relies on various large astronomical surveys, e.g. the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (to observe stars) and the HIPASS radio survey (to observe atomic gas). We then perform an integral over our mass function to determine the cosmological density of baryons in galaxies: Omega(b,gal)=0.0035. Most of these baryons are in stars: Omega(*)=0.0028. Only about 20% are in gas. The error on the quantities, as determined from the range obtained between different methods, is ca 10%; systematic errors may be much larger. Most (ca 90%) of the baryons in the Universe are not in galaxies. They probably exist in a warm/hot intergalactic medium. Searching for direct observational evidence and deeper theoretical understanding for this will form one of the major challenges for astronomy in the next decade.

  7. SETI among galaxies by virtue of black holes (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio


    In two recent papers (Refs. Maccone (2011, 2009) [1,2]) this author proved that the radio communications among any pair of stars within our Galaxy are feasible with modest transmitted powers if the gravitational lenses of both stars are exploited. In the present paper we extend those innovative results to the case of radio communications among nearby galaxies. We show that the radio communications among galaxies may become feasible if the supermassive black holes, usually located at the center of galaxies, are exploited as gravitational lenses. In other words, a massive black hole may be regarded as a huge focusing device for radio waves being transmitted out of that galaxy and/or being received from another galaxy. This happens because a black hole is such a highly massive and compact object that all electromagnetic waves flying by its surface are highly deflected by its gravitational field and made to focus at a comparatively short distance from the black hole itself.Next we consider the possibility of building radio bridges between our own Galaxy (the Milky Way) and other nearby galaxies. This possibility is serious because, since 1974, astronomers have come to known that a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A* does exist at the center of our Galaxy. In 2002 its mass was estimated to be of the order of 2.6 million solar masses, and in 2008 this estimate was increased to 4.31 million solar masses. Furthermore, in 2004 a team of astronomers reported the discovery of a potential intermediate-class black hole called GCIRS 13E orbiting around SgrA* at about three light-years and having an estimated mass of 1,300 solar masses. These two big black holes could be our Galaxy's “antennae” for communications with alien civilizations harboring in other nearby galaxies.We mathematically show that the following radio bridges may be created between SgrA* and the supermassive black hole located at the center of the nearby galaxies:The SgrA*-Andromeda's (M31) P2

  8. CI, [CII] and CO observations towards TNJ 1338–1942: Probing the ISM in a massive proto-cluster galaxy at z = 4.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, S; Greve, T R; Seymour, N


    A number of studies have dealt with the link between distant powerful radio sources and the most massive galaxies in the early Universe. Despite major advances in our understanding of high redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), we still only have a rudimentary picture of the physical conditions (i.e. gas...

  9. Cold Fronts in Clusters of Galaxies: Observations and Modeling (United States)

    Markevitch, Maxim


    Mergers of galaxy clusters -- some of the most energetic events in the Universe -- produce disturbances in hot intracluster medium, such as shocks and cold fronts, that can be used as tools to study the physics of galaxy clusters. Cold fronts may constrain viscosity and the structure and strength of the cluster magnetic fields. Combined with radio data, these observations also shed light on the production of ultrarelativistic particles that are known to coexist with the cluster thermal plasma. This talk will summarize the current X-ray observations of cluster mergers, as well as some recent radio data and high resolution hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. MgB_{2} nonlinear properties investigated under localized high rf magnetic field excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Tai


    Full Text Available The high transition temperature and low surface resistance of MgB_{2} attracts interest in its potential application in superconducting radio frequency accelerating cavities. However, compared to traditional Nb cavities, the viability of MgB_{2} at high rf fields is still open to question. Our approach is to study the nonlinear electrodynamics of the material under localized rf magnetic fields. Because of the presence of the small superconducting gap in the π band, the nonlinear response of MgB_{2} at low temperature is potentially complicated compared to a single-gap s-wave superconductor such as Nb. Understanding the mechanisms of nonlinearity coming from the two-band structure of MgB_{2}, as well as extrinsic sources of nonlinearity, is an urgent requirement. A localized and strong rf magnetic field, created by a magnetic write head, is integrated into our nonlinear-Meissner-effect scanning microwave microscope [T. Tai et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 2615 (2011ITASE91051-822310.1109/TASC.2010.2096531]. MgB_{2} films with thickness 50 nm, fabricated by a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique on dielectric substrates, are measured at a fixed location and show a strongly temperature-dependent third harmonic response. We propose that several possible mechanisms are responsible for this nonlinear response.

  11. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.


    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.; Croston, J. H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hardcastle, M. J.; Jarvis, M. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kraft, R. P.; Evans, D. A., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We present here the first results from the Chandra ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN) Large Project, characterizing the cluster environments of a sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 0.5 that covers three decades of radio luminosity. This is the first systematic X-ray environmental study at a single epoch, and has allowed us to examine the relationship between radio luminosity and cluster environment without the problems of Malmquist bias. We have found a weak correlation between radio luminosity and host cluster X-ray luminosity, as well as tentative evidence that this correlation is driven by the subpopulation of low-excitation radio galaxies, with high-excitation radio galaxies showing no significant correlation. The considerable scatter in the environments may be indicative of complex relationships not currently included in feedback models.

  13. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.


    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  14. Weathering the Largest Storms in the Universe : Understanding environmental effects on extended radio emission in clusters (United States)

    Dehghan, S.


    This thesis presents an investigation of the habitat of extended radio sources, and the way in which the generation and properties of these radio sources are affected by environmental factors. We begin with a detailed structure analysis of the 0.3 deg2 area of the MUSYC-ACES field, generated by applying a density-based clustering method, known as DBSCAN, to our spectroscopic and photometric samples of the field. As a result, we identify 62 over-dense regions across the field. Based on the properties of the detected structures, we classify 13 as clusters, of which 90% are associated with diffuse soft-band X-ray emission. This provides a strong and independent confirmation that both the clustering and classification methodologies are reliable for use in investigation of the environment of the radio sources in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). Using an interpolation-based method followed by a new calibration technique of using clusters of similar mass as standard candles, we are able to estimate the local environmental richness for a desired region. This methodology is applied to a sample of AGNs and star forming galaxies in the CDFS to probe whether or not the radio luminosity of the different radio sources is correlated to their environments. As a result, we do not find a significant correlation between the radio luminosity and the environment of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGNs, however, a weak positive dependency is spotted for radio-loud AGNs. This may indicate that over-populated environments trigger or enhance the radio activity processes in the AGNs. We find that star-forming galaxies, unlike radio-loud AGNs, tend to avoid overpopulated environments especially at low redshifts. However, radio-loud AGN are found in both poor and rich environments. As a result, we find neither of these radio sources suitable for tracing the over-dense regions of the Universe, unlike tailed radio galaxies. It is believed that tailed radio galaxies reside in the dense

  15. The Surroundings of Disturbed, Active Galaxies


    Arp, Halton


    The brightest apparent magnitude examples of ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG's) are studied here in X-ray, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths. It is is found that they have associated material reaching out to apparent diameters of the order of a degree on the sky. Gas, dust, X-ray material and quasars appear to be ejected from the active nuclei with all objects nearer than their redshift distances.

  16. The interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server


    It has been more than five decades ago that Henk van de Hulst predicted the observability of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI ). Since then use of the 21-cm line has greatly improved our knowledge in many fields and has been used for galactic structure studies, studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of the mass distribution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of spiral struc­ ture, studies of high velocity gas in the Milky Way and other galaxies, for measuring distances using the Tully-Fisher relation etc. Regarding studies of the ISM, there have been a number of instrumen­ tal developments over the past decade: large CCD's became available on optical telescopes, radio synthesis offered sensitive imaging capabilities, not only in the classical 21-cm HI line but also in the mm-transitions of CO and other molecules, and X-ray imaging capabilities became available to measure the hot component of the ISM. These developments meant that Milky Way was n...

  17. Revealing the Heart of the Galaxy : The Milky Way and its Black Hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.


    1. Introduction: the luminous pathway; 2. The discovery of the Milky Way Galaxy; 3. The new physics; 4. Parting the veil with radio astronomy; 5. The violent Universe; 6. New windows on the Galactic Center; 7. The Milky Way as a barred spiral galaxy; 8. The evolving view of active galactic nuclei;

  18. The Lockman Hole project : Gas and galaxy properties from a stacking experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gereb, K.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Guglielmino, G.; Prandoni, I.


    We perform an HI stacking analysis to study the relation between HI content and optical/radio/IR properties of galaxies located in the Lockman Hole area. In the redshift range covered by the observations (up to z = 0.09), we use the SDSS to separate galaxies with different optical characteristics,

  19. Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio; ESO Workshop


    The possibilities of astronomical observation have dramatically increased over the last decade. Major satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra and XMM Newton, are complemented by numerous large ground-based observatories, from 8m-10m optical telescopes to sub-mm and radio facilities. As a result, observational astronomy has access to virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum of galaxies, even at high redshifts. Theoretical models of galaxy formation and cosmological evolution now face a serious challenge to match the plethora of observational data. In October 2003, over 170 astronomers from 15 countries met for a 4-day workshop to extensively illustrate and discuss all major observational projects and ongoing theoretical efforts to model galaxy formation and evolution. This volume contains the complete proceedings of this meeting and is therefore a unique and timely overview of the current state of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  20. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C? (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  1. Characterising Radio Emissions in Cosmic Filaments (United States)

    Miller, R. O.


    A growing number of radio studies probe galaxy clusters into the low-power regime in which star formation is the dominant source of radio emission. However, at the time of writing no comparably deep observations have focused exclusively on the radio populations of cosmic filaments. This thesis describes the ATCA 2.1 GHz observations and subsequent analysis of two such regions - labelled Zone 1 (between clusters A3158 and A3125/A3128) and Zone 2 (between A3135 and A3145) - in the Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (HRS). Source count profiles of both populations are discussed and a radio luminosity function for Zone 1 is generated. While the source counts of Zone 2 appear to be consistent with expected values, Zone 1 exhibits an excess of counts across a wide flux range (1 mJy< S_1.4 < 200 mJy). An excess in radio activity at the lower extent of this range (log P_1.4 < 22.5; within the SF-dominated regime) is also suggested by the radio luminosity function for that region, and brief colour analysis suggests that such an excess is indeed predominantly associated with a starforming population. The differences between the two filamentary zones is attributed to cosmic variation. The regions are both small (~ 1 degree square), and are significantly separated in the HRS. Further radio observations of filaments are required and the results combined into a larger sample size in order to arrive at a generalised model filamentary population.

  2. Satellites of radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into agn triggering and feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail:, E-mail: [Indiana University, Department of Astronomy, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)


    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best and Heckman from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members, and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17σ significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via tidal effects or may otherwise enhance the intensity or duration of the radio-emitting phase. Furthermore, we find that the incidence of radio AGNs among potential hosts (massive ellipticals) is similar for field galaxies and for non-BCG cluster members, suggesting that AGN fueling depends primarily on conditions in the host halo rather than the parent, cluster halo. Regarding feedback, we find that radio AGNs, either high or low excitation, have no detectable effect on star formation in their satellites, as neither induced star formation nor star formation quenching is present in more than ∼1% of radio AGN.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The observed distribution and kinematics (as derived from 21-cm radio synthesis observations) of the H I gas in a sample of 24 gas-rich early-type (S0 to Sa) disk galaxies are summarized and compared to those of later type (Sb to Sm) spiral galaxies. Lenticular galaxies more frequently have inner or

  4. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos (United States)

    Coccato, Lodovico


    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio Hi emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  5. Cosmic magnetism in centimeter- and meter-wavelength radio astronomy (United States)

    Akahori, Takuya; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Fujita, Yutaka; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Kameya, Osamu; Kudoh, Takahiro; Kudoh, Yuki; Machida, Mami; Miyashita, Yoshimitsu; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takahashi, Keitaro; Takizawa, Motokazu; Yamazaki, Dai G.


    The magnetic field is ubiquitous in the universe. Though it plays an essential role in various astrophysical phenomena, its real origin and evolution are poorly known. This article reviews the understanding of the latest research concerning magnetic fields in the interstellar medium, the Milky Way Galaxy, external galaxies, active galactic nuclei, clusters of galaxies, and the cosmic web. Particularly, the review is concentrated in the achievements that have been provided by centimeter- and meter-wavelength radio observations. The article also introduces various methods for analyzing linear polarization data, including synchrotron radiation, Faraday rotation, depolarization, and Faraday tomography.

  6. An Investigation of B-2 Pilot Force Reserve Component Augmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Russell


    ... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...

  7. The Dynamic Radio Sky: An Opportunity for Discovery (United States)


    radio transients and co- herent pulses from brown dwarfs . Additionally, archival studies have found not-yet identified radio transients without optical or...all astrophysical environ- ments including the solar system, star-forming regions, the Galactic center, and other galaxies . By observing the sky so as...brown dwarfs , flare stars extrasolar planets signals from ET civilizations pulsar giant pulses, inter- mittant pulsars, magnetar flares, X-ray binaries


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents background of B2B exchanges and review of their forms and functionalities. The benefits and fails reasons are noticed. European enterprises interest in B2B trade is next aspect of consideration. Finally, the trust barriers of B2B exchanges are presented.

  9. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  10. Literatuuroverzicht analysemethodes voor vitamine B1 en B2


    Oostenbrink, T.; Hollman, P.


    Inventarisatie analysemethodes vitamine B1 en B2. De extraktie van vitamine B1 en B2 dient voor een aantal levensmiddelen nader onderzocht te worden. Het is zinvol een automatische methode voor vitamine B1 en B2 op te starten. HPLC methodes zijn voor de levensmiddelenanalyse nog in een beginstadium.

  11. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  12. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies


    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan


    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  13. H I kinematics in a massive spiral galaxy at z=0.89

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, LVE; de Bruyn, AG


    We present a kinematic model of the neutral hydrogen in the spiral galaxy of the lens system PKS 1830-211, based on a Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) 1.4-GHz radio map and the integrated and redshifted 21-cm hydrogen absorption-line profile as measured with the Westerbork

  14. ALMA Explores How Supermassive Black Holes Talk to Their Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    We believe that supermassive black holes evolve in tandem with their host galaxies but how do the two communicate? Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have revealed new clues about how a monster black hole talks to its galaxy.A Hubble image of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster. [Adapted from Russell et al. 2017]Observing FeedbackActive galactic nuclei (AGN), the highly luminous centers of some galaxies, are thought to radiate due to active accretion onto the supermassive black hole at their center.Its long been suspected that the radiation and outflowing material which often takes the form of enormous bipolar radio jets emitted into the surroundings influence the AGNs host galaxy, affecting star formation rates and the evolution of the galaxy. This AGN feedback has been alternately suggested to trigger star formation, quench it, and truncate the growth of massive galaxies.The details of this feedback process, however, have yet to be thoroughly understood in part because its difficult to obtain detailed observations of how AGN outflows interact with the galactic gas surrounding them. Now, a team of scientists led by Helen Russell (Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, UK) has published the results of a new, high-resolution look at the gas in a massive galaxy in the center of the Phoenix cluster.Many Uses for FuelThe Phoenix cluster, a nearby (z = 0.596) group of star-forming galaxies, is the most luminous X-ray cluster known. The central galaxy in the cluster is especially active: it hosts a starburst of 500800 solar masses per year, the largest starburst found in any galaxy below a redshift of z= 1.The star formation in this galaxy is sustained by an enormous reservoir of cold molecular gas roughly 20 billion solar masses worth. This reservoir also powers the galaxys central black hole, fueling powerful radio jets that extend into the hot atmosphere of the galaxy and blow a giant bubble into the hot gas at each pole

  15. A Zoo of Galaxies (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.


    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (; starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  16. LOFAR imaging of Cygnus A - direct detection of a turnover in the hotspot radio spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKean, J.P.; Godfrey, L.E.H.; Vegetti, S.; Wise, M.W.; Morganti, R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Hardcastle, M.J.; Rafferty, D.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I.M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M.E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bernardi, G.


    The low-frequency radio spectra of the hotspots within powerful radio galaxies can provide valuable information about the physical processes operating at the site of the jet termination. These processes are responsible for the dissipation of jet kinetic energy, particle acceleration, and

  17. Compact radio cores : from the first black holes to the last

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H; Kording, E; Nagar, NM


    One of the clearest signs of black hole activity is the presence of a compact radio core in the nuclei of galaxies. While in the past the focus had been on the few bright and relativistically beamed sources, new surveys now show that essentially all black holes produce compact radio emission that

  18. A Zoo of Radio Relics: Cluster Cores to Filaments Ruta Kale1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    external medium if the effects of projection are ignored. Key words. Galaxy clusters – relics. 1. Introduction ... environment on the evolution of radio relics. Three radio relics that represent environments ... environment becomes denser: relics in sparse environments, A786 (α ∼ −1.0) and. A1664 (α ∼ −1.1) have flat spectra as ...

  19. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server


    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  20. Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies. - V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC 4722 (United States)

    Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Makarov, D. I.; Perepelitsyna, Y. A.; Safonova, E. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.


    We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC 4722 (MB = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC 4722 is a member of the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ˜14 kpc-long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionized and neutral gas in UGC 4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (MB = -15.2, M(H I)/LB ˜ 4.3) We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12 + log (O/H) ˜ 7.5-7.6 which is two to three times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consistent with a simple stellar population with a post starburst age of 0.45-0.5 Gyr. This system hence appears to be the first known case of a minor merger with a prominent tidal feature consisting of a young stellar population.

  1. Deep GMRT 150-MHz observations of the LBDS-Lynx region: ultrasteep spectrum radio sources (United States)

    Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sirothia, S. K.; Wadadekar, Y.; Pal, S.; Windhorst, R.


    It has been known for nearly three decades that high-redshift radio galaxies exhibit steep radio spectra, and hence ultrasteep spectrum radio sources provide candidates for high-redshift radio galaxies. Nearly all radio galaxies with z > 3 have been found using this redshift-spectral index correlation. We have started a programme with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to exploit this correlation at flux density levels about 10 to 100 times deeper than the known high-redshift radio galaxies which were identified primarily using the already available radio catalogues. In our programme, we have obtained deep, high-resolution radio observations at 150 MHz with GMRT for several `deep' fields which are well studied at higher radio frequencies and in other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, with an aim to detect candidate high-redshift radio galaxies. In this paper we present results from the deep 150-MHz observations of the LBDS-Lynx field, which has been already imaged at 327, 610 and 1412 MHz with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and at 1400 and 4860 MHz with the Very Large Array. The 150-MHz image made with GMRT has an rms noise of ˜0.7 mJy beam-1 and a resolution of ˜19 × 15 arcsec2. It is the deepest low-frequency image of the LBDS-Lynx field. The source catalogue of this field at 150 MHz has about 765 sources down to ˜20 per cent of the primary beam response, covering an area of about 15 deg2. Spectral index was estimated by cross-correlating each source detected at 150 MHz with the available observations at 327, 610, 1400 and 4860 MHz and also using available radio surveys such as the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey at 327 MHz and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm at 1400 MHz. We find about 150 radio sources with spectra steeper than 1. About two-third of these are not detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, hence are strong candidate high-redshift radio galaxies, which need to be further explored with

  2. Molecular hydrogen in the central regions of southern infrared galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J; Israel, FP


    An extensive set of molecular hydrogen observations of centers of southern infrared galaxies is presented. Our data are combined with published infrared and radio observations to investigate the relationship between nuclear and circumnuclear activity. We convert the observational data to absolute

  3. Structure and content of the galaxy and galactic gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The conference included papers on ..gamma..-ray pulsars, galactic diffuse flux and surveys, radio surveys of external galaxies, galactic distribution of pulsars, and galactic gamma emission. Galactic structure drawing on all branches of galactic astronomy is discussed. New and unpublished material is included. (JFP)

  4. The ursa major cluster of galaxies - IV. HI synthesis observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, MAW; Sancisi, R

    In this data paper we present the results of an extensive 21 cm-line synthesis imaging survey of 43 spiral galaxies in the nearby Ursa Major cluster using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Detailed kinematic information in the form of position-velocity diagrams and rotation curves is

  5. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat w as m eant by a galaxy. It w as in the 1920s that astronom ers realised that w e live in a separate galaxy, and that other galaxies w ...

  6. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  7. Evolving Neural Networks for the Classification of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C


    The FIRST survey (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) is scheduled to cover 10,000 square degrees of the northern and southern galactic caps. Until recently, astronomers classified radio-emitting galaxies through a visual inspection of FIRST images. Besides being subjective, prone to error and tedious, this manual approach is becoming infeasible: upon completion, FIRST will include almost a million galaxies. This paper describes the application of six methods of evolving neural networks (NNs) with genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify bent-double galaxies. The objective is to demonstrate that GAs can successfully address some common problems in the application of NNs to classification problems, such as training the networks, choosing appropriate network topologies, and selecting relevant features. The results indicate that most of the methods perform equally well on our data, but the feature selection method gives superior results.

  8. Gas and stars in compact (young) radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Emonts, B.; Holt, J.; Tadhunter, C.; Oosterloo, T.; Struve, C.

    Gas can be used to trace the formation and evolution of galaxies as well as the impact that the nuclear activity has on the surrounding medium. For nearby compact radio sources, we have used observations of neutral hydrogen - that we detected in emission distributed over very large scales - combined

  9. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxies: active—quasars: general—radiation mechanisms: non-thermal—radio continuum: general. 1. Introduction. It is well known that synchrotron radiation mechanism does not allow MASER type coherent emission .... been sometimes called in the literature a 'cosmic conspiracy' (Cotton et al. 1980). Although one ...

  10. Gamma-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and their place in the AGN zoo (United States)

    D'Ammando, Filippo; Orienti, Monica; Finke, Justin; Giroletti, Marcello; Larsson, Josefin


    Relativistic jets are usually produced by radio-loud AGN hosted in giant elliptical galaxies such as blazars and radio galaxies. The discovery by Fermi-LAT of variable gamma-ray emission from narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies revealed the presence of a new class of AGN with relativistic jets. Considering that NLSy1 are usually hosted in spiral galaxies, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects and the formation of relativistic jets. In this talk I discuss the radio-to-gamma-ray properties of the gamma-ray NLSy1 detected during the first 7 years of Fermi operation, the observations of their host galaxies, and the estimation of their black hole masses.

  11. Feedback at the Working Surface : A Joint X-ray and Low-Frequency Radio Spectral Study of the Cocoon Shock in Cygnus A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, Michael W.; Rafferty, D. A.; McKean, J. P.

    We report on preliminary results from a joint spectral analysis of the cocoon shock region in Cygnus A using deep archival Chandra data and new low-frequency radio data from LOFAR. Being both bright in X-rays and the most powerful radio source in the local universe, the FRII radio galaxy Cygnus A

  12. Harnessing marketing automation for B2B content marketing


    Järvinen, Joel; Taiminen, Heini


    The growing importance of the Internet to B2B customer purchasing decisions has motivated B2B sellers to create digital content that leads potential buyers to interact with their company. This trend has engendered a new paradigm referred to as ‘content marketing.’ This study investigates the organizational processes for developing valuable and timely content to meet customer needs and for integrating content marketing with B2B selling processes. The results of this single case study demonstra...

  13. The physical and chemical structure of Sagittarius B2. II. Continuum millimeter emission of Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) with ALMA (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S.-L.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Möller, Th.


    Context. The two hot molecular cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N), which are located at the center of the giant molecular cloud complex Sagittarius B2, have been the targets of numerous spectral line surveys, revealing a rich and complex chemistry. Aims: We seek to characterize the physical and chemical structure of the two high-mass star-forming sites Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) using high-angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths, reaching spatial scales of about 4000 au. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to perform an unbiased spectral line survey of both regions in the ALMA band 6 with a frequency coverage from 211 GHz to 275 GHz. The achieved angular resolution is 0.̋4, which probes spatial scales of about 4000 au, i.e., able to resolve different cores and fragments. In order to determine the continuum emission in these line-rich sources, we used a new statistical method, STATCONT, which has been applied successfully to this and other ALMA datasets and to synthetic observations. Results: We detect 27 continuum sources in Sgr B2(M) and 20 sources in Sgr B2(N). We study the continuum emission variation across the ALMA band 6 (i.e., spectral index) and compare the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission with previous SMA 345 GHz and VLA 40 GHz observations to study the nature of the sources detected. The brightest sources are dominated by (partially optically thick) dust emission, while there is an important degree of contamination from ionized gas free-free emission in weaker sources. While the total mass in Sgr B2(M) is distributed in many fragments, most of the mass in Sgr B2(N) arises from a single object, with filamentary-like structures converging toward the center. There seems to be a lack of low-mass dense cores in both regions. We determine H2 volume densities for the cores of about 107-109 cm-3 (or 105-107 M⊙ pc-3), i.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the stellar densities of super star clusters. We

  14. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca


    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  15. Most Distant Group of Galaxies Known in the Universe (United States)


    New VLT Discovery Pushes Back the Beginnings Summary Using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers from The Netherlands, Germany, France and the USA [1] have discovered the most distant group of galaxies ever seen , about 13.5 billion light-years away. It has taken the light now recorded by the VLT about nine-tenths of the age of the Universe to cover the huge distance. We therefore observe those galaxies as they were at a time when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age . The astronomers conclude that this group of early galaxies will develop into a rich cluster of galaxies, such as those seen in the nearby Universe. The newly discovered structure provides the best opportunity so far for studying when and how galaxies began to form clusters after the initial Big Bang , one of the greatest puzzles in modern cosmology. PR Photo 11a/02 : Sky field with the distant cluster of galaxies. PR Photo 11b/02 : Spectra of some of the galaxies in the cluster. Radio Galaxies as cosmic signposts A most intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first groupings or "clusters" of galaxies emerged from the gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theoretical models predict that densely populated galaxy clusters ("rich clusters" in current astronomical terminology) are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in the primeval gas, and stars condense out of these clumps to form small galaxies. Then these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. The peculiar class of "radio galaxies" is particularly important for investigating such scenarios. They are called so because their radio emission - a result of violent processes believed to be related to massive black holes located at the centres of these galaxies - is stronger by 5 - 10 orders of magnitude than that of our own Milky Way galaxy. In fact, this radio emission is often so intense that the galaxies can be spotted at extremely large distances, and thus at the remote epoch when

  16. Star formation in blue compact dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Prabhu, T. P.; Sahu, D. K.

    Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) are dwarfs undergoing current burst of star formation (SF). In our work, we determine the ages of the underlying old stellar population to be ˜4 Gyr that is dominating the mass of the galaxy, underlying the current burst of SF. An intermediate population of ˜500 Myr which dominates the stellar light from the galaxy is also detected. The burst of SF at the present epoch spans ˜10 Myr as estimated from various age estimators like Hα, diagnostic diagrams and colour-colour diagrams. BCDGs undergo a burst of SF for a longer duration (of about a few 100 Myr to a Gyr) followed by a short/long quiescence. The amount of column density of localized neutral hydrogen required for the current burst to occur seems to be 10^{21} cm^{-2}. This could be the threshold required for SF. Radio continuum emission reveals that the emission is coincident with the star forming regions. The star formation rates (SFR) estimated from Hα match well with the SFR estimated using non-thermal radio emission for individual star forming regions, but are ˜6-7 times less as compared to the SFR calculated from far-IR (FIR) emission.

  17. The Stormy Life of Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Rudnick, Lawrence


    Galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally bound structures, hold the full history of their baryonic evolution, serve as important cosmological tools and allow us to probe unique physical regimes in their diffuse plasmas. With characteristic dynamical timescales of 107-109 years, these diffuse thermal and relativistic media continue to evolve, as dark matter drives major mergers and more gentle continuing accretion. The history of this assembly is encoded in the plasmas, and a wide range of observational and theoretical investigations are aimed at decoding their signatures. X-ray temperature and density variations, low Mach number shocks, and "cold front" discontinuities all illuminate clusters' continued evolution. Radio structures and spectra are passive indicators of merger shocks, while radio galaxy distortions reveal the complex motions in the intracluster medium. Deep in cluster cores, AGNs associated with brightest cluster galaxies provide ongoing energy, and perhaps even stabilize the intracluster medium. In this talk, we will recount this evolving picture of the stormy ICM, and suggest areas of likely advance in the coming years.

  18. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.


    High-pressure X-ray diffraction in ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4 powders and single crystals has been studied using synchrotron radiation as well as conventional X-rays. The experimental results are supported by calculations using density functional theory. ScB2, YB4 and HoB4 are hard materials (bulk...

  19. B2B or Not to Be: Does B2B E-Commerce Increase Labour Productivity?


    Bertschek, Irene; Fryges, Helmut; Kaiser, Ulrich


    We implement an endogeneous switching-regression model for labour productivity and firms' decision to use business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Our approach allows B2B usage to affect any parameter of the labour productivity equation and to properly take account of strategic complementarities between the input factors and B2B usage. Empirical evidence from 1,394 German firms shows that firms using B2B e-commerce have a significantly higher output elasticity with respect to ICT-investment and...

  20. Influence of TiB2 particles on machinability and machining parameter optimization of TiB2/Al MMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong JIANG


    Full Text Available In situ formed TiB2 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (TiB2/Al MMCs have some extraordinary properties which make them be a promising material for high performance aero-engine blade. Due to the influence of TiB2 particles, the machinability is still a problem which restricts the application of TiB2/Al MMCs. In order to meet the industrial requirements, the influence of TiB2 particles on the machinability of TiB2/Al MMCs was investigated experimentally. Moreover, the optimal machining conditions for this kind of MMCs were investigated in this study. The major conclusions are: (1 the machining force of TiB2/Al MMCs is bigger than that of non-reinforced alloy and mainly controlled by feed rate; (2 the residual stress of TiB2/Al MMCs is compressive while that of non-reinforced alloy is nearly neutral; (3 the surface roughness of TiB2/Al MMCs is smaller than that of non-reinforced alloy under the same cutting speed, but reverse result was observed when the feed rate increased; (4 a multi-objective optimization model for surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR was established, and a set of optimal parameter combinations of the machining was obtained. The results show a great difference from SiC particle reinforced MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control of machining process of this material.

  1. Cluster galaxy population evolution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: brightest cluster galaxies, stellar mass distribution, and active galaxies (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Oguri, Masamune; Chen, Kai-Feng; Tanaka, Masayuki; Chiu, I.-non; Huang, Song; Kodama, Tadayuki; Leauthaud, Alexie; More, Surhud; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Lihwai; Miyazaki, Satoshi; HSC Collaboration


    The unprecedented depth and area surveyed by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC-SSP) have enabled us to construct and publish the largest distant cluster sample out to z~1 to date. In this exploratory study of cluster galaxy evolution from z=1 to z=0.3, we investigate the stellar mass assembly history of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and evolution of stellar mass and luminosity distributions, stellar mass surface density profile, as well as the population of radio galaxies. Our analysis is the first high redshift application of the top N richest cluster selection, which is shown to allow us to trace the cluster galaxy evolution faithfully. Our stellar mass is derived from a machine-learning algorithm, which we show to be unbiased and accurate with respect to the COSMOS data. We find very mild stellar mass growth in BCGs, and no evidence for evolution in both the total stellar mass-cluster mass correlation and the shape of the stellar mass surface density profile. The clusters are found to contain more red galaxies compared to the expectations from the field, even after the differences in density between the two environments have been taken into account. We also present the first measurement of the radio luminosity distribution in clusters out to z~1.

  2. Unveiling galaxies the role of images in astronomical discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Jean-René


    Galaxies are known as the building blocks of the universe, but arriving at this understanding has been a thousand-year odyssey. This journey is told through the lens of the evolving use of images as investigative tools. Initial chapters explore how early insights developed in line with new methods of scientific imaging, particularly photography. The volume then explores the impact of optical, radio and x-ray imaging techniques. The final part of the story discusses the importance of atlases of galaxies; how astronomers organised images in ways that educated, promoted ideas and pushed for new knowledge. Images that created confusion as well as advanced knowledge are included to demonstrate the challenges faced by astronomers and the long road to understanding galaxies. By examining developments in imaging, this text places the study of galaxies in its broader historical context, contributing to both astronomy and the history of science.

  3. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua


    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  4. ORM-based semantics of B2B transactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.; Meersman, R; Herrero, P; Dillon, T


    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely

  5. Attempts at doping indium in MgB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude


    Indium (In) doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-liquid phase reaction in Ar. After reaction at 800 °C, less than 1 at.% Mg was replaced by In in the MgB2 phase, without significant influence on its lattice parameters and only a slight decrease of its superconducting transiti...

  6. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies


    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson


    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  7. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren


    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  8. A census of radio-selected AGNs on the COSMOS field and of their FIR properties (United States)

    Magliocchetti, M.; Popesso, P.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.


    We use the new catalogue by Laigle et al. to provide a full census of VLA-COSMOS radio sources. We identify 90 per cent of such sources and sub-divide them into active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies on the basis of their radio luminosity. The AGN sample is complete with respect to radio selection at all z ≲ 3.5. Out of 704 AGNs, 272 have a counterpart in the Herschel maps. By exploiting the better statistics of the new sample, we confirm the results of Magliocchetti et al.: the probability for a radio-selected AGN to be detected at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths is both a function of radio luminosity and redshift, whereby powerful sources are more likely FIR emitters at earlier epochs. Such an emission is due to star-forming processes within the host galaxy. FIR emitters and non-FIR emitters only differentiate in the z ≲ 1 universe. At higher redshifts, they are indistinguishable from each other, as there is no difference between FIR-emitting AGNs and star-forming galaxies. Lastly, we focus on radio AGNs which show AGN emission at other wavelengths. We find that mid-infrared (MIR) emission is mainly associated with ongoing star formation and with sources which are smaller, younger and more radio luminous than the average parent population. X-ray emitters instead preferentially appear in more massive and older galaxies. We can therefore envisage an evolutionary track whereby the first phase of a radio-active AGN and of its host galaxy is associated with MIR emission, while at later stages the source becomes only active at radio wavelengths and possibly also in the X-ray.

  9. Superconductivity in the intermetallic borocarbides YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C (United States)

    Durajski, A. P.; Paliwoda, M. K.; Szczȩśniak, R.


    We report a detailed study of the thermodynamic properties of the conventional phonon-mediated superconductors YPd2B2C, YPt2B2C and LaPt2B2C. Our calculations conducted within the framework of the Migdal-Eliashberg formalism show that the experimental values of the critical temperature cannot be properly reproduced using commonly accepted value of Coulomb pseudopotential. Moreover, we proved that the values of universal ratios of conventional superconductivity appearing in the Bardeen-Copper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory are inconsistent with our results obtained from the investigated borocarbides. The observed differences are connected with the strong/medium-coupling and retardation effects existing in the studied systems.

  10. Relativistic jets in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies. New discoveries and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ammando F.


    Full Text Available Before the launch of the Fermi satellite only two classes of AGNs were known to produce relativistic jets and thus emit up to the γ-ray energy range: blazars and radio galaxies, both hosted in giant elliptical galaxies. The first four years of observations by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi confirmed that these two are the most numerous classes of identified sources in the extragalactic γ-ray sky, but the discovery of γ-ray emission from 5 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies revealed the presence of a possible emerging third class of AGNs with relativistic jets. Considering that narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies seem to be typically hosted in spiral galaxy, this finding poses intriguing questions about the nature of these objects, the onset of production of relativistic jets, and the cosmological evolution of radio-loud AGN. Here, we discuss the radio-to-γ-rays properties of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, also in comparison with the blazar scenario.

  11. NGC 741 - Mergers and AGN feedback on galaxy groups scale (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J.; David, L.; O'Sullivan, E.; Giacintucci, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S.; Raychaudhury, S.


    Low mass galaxy cluster systems and groups play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies like those to be carried out with new instruments such as eROSITA. A detailed understanding of the astrophysical processes taking place in these systems is crucial before using them as cosmological tools. The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes, although of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviation from hydrostatic equilibrium, are poorly understood on the galaxy group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741, which provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source (only 17 kpc from the BCG), strongly-bent jets and a 130 kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas stripping from NGC 742, the character of (ghost) cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  12. Using Near-IR Imaging to Probe Accretion-Disk Physics in Powerful Radio Sources (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton; O'Dea, Chris; Baum, Stefi


    An intriguing question in the study of powerful radio galaxies concerns the reason for their wide diversity of properties: is this related predominantly to external environmental effects, or to intrinsic differences in their central engines and accretion processes? We propose to address this question by using the 2.1m + ONIS to obtain J, H and K imaging of two samples of FR I and FR II radio galaxies, to measure the luminosity and colors of warm circumnuclear dust and determine the near- IR structure and environment of the surrounding host galaxies. The dust absorbs radiation from the AGN and re-radiates it in the near-IR, which can thus be used as a diagnostic of the AGN radiant energy output. This will be compared with the AGN kinetic energy output in the form of radio jets. Our two samples are statistically well-matched in both radio power and redshift space, allowing us to carry out statistical comparisons between AGN properties such as the radiant / kinetic energy conversion, as well as large-scale host galaxy properties. This will indicate whether differences between these classes of active galaxies are related primarily to the central engine, or instead dominated by the large-scale properties of the host galaxy and its environment.

  13. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon


    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  14. Classic Galaxy with Glamour (United States)


    This color composite image of nearby NGC 300 combines the visible-light pictures from Carnegie Institution of Washington's 100-inch telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (colored red and yellow), with ultraviolet views from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detectors image far ultraviolet light (colored blue). This composite image traces star formation in progress. Young hot blue stars dominate the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, while the older stars congregate in the nuclear regions which appear yellow-green. Gases heated by hot young stars and shocks due to winds from massive stars and supernova explosions appear in pink, as revealed by the visible-light image of the galaxy. Located nearly 7 million light years away, NGC 300 is a member of a nearby group of galaxies known as the Sculptor Group. It is a spiral galaxy like our own Milky Way.

  15. The invisible universe the story of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit


    Hidden from human view, accessible only to sensitive receivers attached to huge radio telescopes, the invisible universe beyond our senses continues to fascinate and intrigue our imaginations. Closer to home, in the Milky Way galaxy, radio astronomers listen patiently to the ticking of pulsars that tell of star death and states of matter of awesome densities. All of this happens out there in the universe hidden from our eyes, even when aided by the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the story of radio astronomy, of how radio waves are generated by stars, supernova, quasars, colliding galaxies and by the very beginnings of the universe itself. The author discusses what radio astronomers are doing in the New Mexico desert, in a remote valley in Puerto Rico, and in the green Pocahontas Valley in West Virginia, as well as dozens of other remote sites around the world. With each of these observatories, the scientists collect and analyze their data, "listening" to the radio signals from space in order to learn what, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.À. Korobeynikov


    Full Text Available The paper represents the author’s methods of estimating regional professional mobile radio market potential, that belongs to high-tech b2b markets. These methods take into consideration such market peculiarities as great range and complexity of products, technological constraints and infrastructure development for the technological systems operation. The paper gives an estimation of professional mobile radio potential in Perm region. This estimation is already used by one of the systems integrator for its strategy development.

  17. Fine-Filament MgB2 Superconductor Wire (United States)

    Cantu, Sherrie


    Hyper Tech Research, Inc., has developed fine-filament magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconductor wire for motors and generators used in turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems. In Phase I of the project, Hyper Tech demonstrated that MgB2 multifilament wires (superconductor and engineering current density and AC losses. Hyper Tech also fabricated MgB2 rotor coil packs for a superconducting generator. The ultimate goal is to enable low-cost, round, lightweight, low-AC-loss superconductors for motor and generator stator coils operating at 25 K in next-generation turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems.

  18. The Dependence of the IR-Radio Correlation on the Metallicity (United States)

    Qiu, Jianjie; Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Zhou, Luwenjia


    We have compiled a sample of 26 metal-poor galaxies with 12 + log(O/H) infrared continuum and 1.4 GHz radio continuum data. By comparing to galaxies at higher metallicity, we have investigated the IR-radio relationship’s dependence on metallicity at the 24, 70, 100, and 160 μm bands, as well as the integrated FIR luminosity. It is found that metal-poor galaxies have on average lower {q}{IR} than metal-rich ones, with larger offsets at longer IR wavelengths, from -0.06 dex in {q}24μ {{m}} to -0.6 dex in {q}160μ {{m}}. The {q}{IR} of all galaxies as a whole at 160 μm show positive trends with the metallicity and IR-to-FUV ratio and negative trends with the IR color, while those at lower IR wavelengths show weaker correlations. We propose a mechanism that invokes the combined effects of low obscured-SFR-to-total-SFR fraction and warm dust temperature at low metallicity to interpret the above behavior of {q}{IR}, with the former reducing the IR radiation and the latter further reducing the IR emission at longer IR wavelengths. Other mechanisms that are related to the radio emission, including the enhanced magnetic field strength and increased thermal radio contribution, are unable to reconcile the IR-wavelength-dependent differences of {q}{IR} between metal-poor and metal-rich galaxies. In contrast to {q}{IR}, the mean total-SFR-to-radio ratio of metal-poor galaxies is the same as that for metal-rich galaxies, indicating the 1.4 GHz radio emission is still an effective tracer of SFRs at low metallicity.

  19. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology. (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline


    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  20. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J


    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004) (United States)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.


    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  2. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: The low-frequency radio luminosity - star-formation rate relation (United States)

    Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, MJ; Smith, DJB; Best, PN; Bourne, N.; Calistro-Rivera, G.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, MJ; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Tasse, C.; Williams, WL


    Radio emission is a key indicator of star-formation activity in galaxies, but the radio luminosity-star formation relation has to date been studied almost exclusively at frequencies of 1.4 GHz or above. At lower radio frequencies the effects of thermal radio emission are greatly reduced, and so we would expect the radio emission observed to be completely dominated by synchrotron radiation from supernova-generated cosmic rays. As part of the LOFAR Surveys Key Science project, the Herschel-ATLAS NGP field has been surveyed with LOFAR at an effective frequency of 150 MHz. We select a sample from the MPA-JHU catalogue of SDSS galaxies in this area: the combination of Herschel, optical and mid-infrared data enable us to derive star-formation rates (SFRs) for our sources using spectral energy distribution fitting, allowing a detailed study of the low-frequency radio luminosity-star-formation relation in the nearby Universe. For those objects selected as star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using optical emission line diagnostics, we find a tight relationship between the 150 MHz radio luminosity (L150) and SFR. Interestingly, we find that a single power-law relationship between L150 and SFR is not a good description of all SFGs: a broken power law model provides a better fit. This may indicate an additional mechanism for the generation of radio-emitting cosmic rays. Also, at given SFR, the radio luminosity depends on the stellar mass of the galaxy. Objects which were not classified as SFGs have higher 150-MHz radio luminosity than would be expected given their SFR, implying an important role for low-level active galactic nucleus activity.

  3. Intra-night optical variability characteristics of different classes of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (United States)

    Kshama, S. K.; Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.


    In a first systematic effort to characterize the intra-night optical variability (INOV) of different classes of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) Galaxies, we have carried out observations on a sample of radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) NLSy1 galaxies. The RL-NLSy1 galaxies are further divided into γ-ray loud (GL) and γ-ray quiet (GQ) NLSy1 galaxies. Our sample consists of four sets, each set consisting of a RQ-NLSy1, a GQ-NLSy1 and a GL-NLSy1 galaxy, closely matched in redshift and optical luminosity. Our observations on both RQ- and GQ-NLSy1 galaxies consist of a total of 19 nights, whereas the data for GL-NLSy1 galaxies (18 nights) were taken from the literature published earlier by us. This enabled us to do a comparison of the duty cycle (DC) of different classes of NLSy1 galaxies. Using power-enhanced F-test, with a variability threshold of 1 per cent, we find DCs of about 55 per cent, 39 per cent and 0 per cent for GL-, GQ- and RQ-NLSy1 galaxies, respectively. The high DC and large amplitude of INOV (24.0 ± 13.7 per cent) shown by GL-NLSy1 galaxies relative to the other two classes might be due to their inner aligned relativistic jets having large bulk Lorentz factors. The null DC of RQ-NLSy1 galaxies could mean the presence of low power and/or largely misaligned jets in them. However, dividing RL-NLSy1 galaxies into low and high optical polarization sources, we find that sources with large polarization show somewhat higher DCs (69 per cent) and amplitudes (29 per cent) compared to those with low polarization. This points to a possible link between INOV and optical polarization.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, M.; Honey, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India); Saito, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate school of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Iono, D. [Chile Observatory, NAOJ (Japan); Ramya, S., E-mail: [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China)


    We present the detection of molecular gas from galaxies located in nearby voids using the CO(1–0) line emission as a tracer. The observations were performed using the 45 m single dish radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. Void galaxies lie in the most underdense parts of our universe and a significant fraction of them are gas rich, late-type spiral galaxies. Although isolated, they have ongoing star formation but appear to be slowly evolving compared to galaxies in denser environments. Not much is known about their star formation properties or cold gas content. In this study, we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively high IRAS fluxes or Hα line luminosities, both of which signify ongoing star formation. All five galaxies appear to be isolated and two lie within the Bootes void. We detected CO(1–0) emission from four of the five galaxies in our sample and their molecular gas masses lie between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}. We conducted follow-up Hα imaging observations of three detected galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope and determined their star formation rates (SFRs) from their Hα fluxes. The SFR varies from 0.2 to 1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}; which is similar to that observed in local galaxies. Our study indicates that although void galaxies reside in underdense regions, their disks contain molecular gas and have SFRs similar to galaxies in denser environments. We discuss the implications of our results.

  5. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...... on the ways in which design sense making artefacts may drive also B2B sales agents’ work....

  6. Properties of L=1 B1 and B2* Mesons (United States)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C. S.; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, P.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A.-F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chan, K.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clément, C.; Clément, B.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de, K.; de Jong, S. J.; de Jong, P.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Martins, C. De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, J.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hansson, P.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kothari, B.; Kozelov, A. V.; Krop, D.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lazoflores, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lellouch, J.; Lesne, V.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Li, L.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, A.; Michaut, M.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.


    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B1 and B2* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B+(*)π-. The mass of B1 is measured to be 5720.6±2.4±1.4MeV/c2 and the mass difference ΔM between B2* and B1 is 26.2±3.1±0.9MeV/c2, giving the mass of the B2* as 5746.8±2.4±1.7MeV/c2. The production rate for B1 and B2* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9±1.9±3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  7. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting tapes using electrophoresis (United States)

    Xu, J. D.; Wang, S. F.; Zhou, Y. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; He, M.; Dai, S. Y.; Yang, G. Z.


    Superconducting MgB2/Ta tapes with a critical temperature of 34 K have been prepared successfully by ex situ annealing of electrophoresis-grown boron in the presence of Mg vapour at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the MgB2/Ta tapes, and well-formed MgB2 crystals with sizes up to 2 μm were observed. The x-ray diffraction patterns showed randomly orientated growth of MgB2 phase in the tapes. Estimates using hysteresis loops and the Bean model give a value of 6.8 × 105 A cm-2 for the critical current density.

  8. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons. (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G


    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson.

  9. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamel, Magdi N


    A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that of an electronic marketplace that would bring suppliers together with major buyers of goods and services for the purpose of conducting "frictionless commerce...

  10. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.


    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  11. Scope of Internal Marketing in B2B Companies


    Nigam, Niharika


    Abstract Previous studies have focused on "internal marketing" from services marketing perspective. There is, therefore, a great dearth of in-depth research on its application to other business types. This research attempts to find the scope of internal marketing in B2B companies. The purpose of this research is to closely examine the elements, their linkage, tools and applications of Internal marketing when applied to B2B settings. Internal marketing, the application of marketing managem...

  12. Redefining B2B Relationship Marketing: Insight from postmodern Alibaba


    Cockayne, David


    The cultural and philosophical movement of modernism has defined contemporary marketing knowledge, constructing a powerful narrative that has conceptually bound, yet semantically separated business to consumer (B2C) and business to business (B2B) marketing knowledge. Perceived paradigm shifts towards relationships, and the birth of relationship marketing are argued to be no more than an evolution of modern marketing, yet at the heart of relational constructs sit the very features modernism se...

  13. Radio Stalin as an example of the Czech pirate radio


    Prágrová, Šárka


    Diploma thesis "Radio Stalin as an example of Czech piracy radio broadcast" is aimed to complexly present radio station Radio Stalin which was broadcasting in October 1990 in Prague. Radio Stalin is presented in the context of events of that time and related changes in politics, economy, society and media and in the context of piracy radio broadcast. First of all the emphasis is put on media transformation and changes in legislative framework of radio broadcasting after 1989. Radio Stalin is ...

  14. X-ray study of the environmental impact on the initial stages of a radio source evolution (United States)

    Sobolewska, M.; Siemiginowska, A.; Migliori, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Hardcastle, M.; Ostorero, L.; Stawarz, L.


    Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are thought to be among the progenitors of large-scale radio galaxies. They show radio features typically observed in large-scale radio galaxies (jets, lobes, hot spots), but contained within the central 1 kpc region of the host galaxy. Because the CSOs are symmetric and not affected by beaming, their linear radio size can be translated into the source age if one measures the expansion velocity of the radio source. However, if the jet expansion is disturbed, e.g. by a dense interstellar medium (ISM), the ages derived this way may be biased. Until now we did not have means to discriminate between confined and non-confined radio sources. We present our X-ray studies of CSOs performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra. For the first time, the data reveal the evidence in favor of the hypothesis that in a sub-population of CSOs the medium is Compton Thick and the radio jets may be confined. Thus their kinematic ages may be underestimated. We discuss the implications of our results on the high energy emission models of CSOs, the earliest stages of the radio source evolution, jet interactions with the ISM, diversity of the environments in which the jets expand, and jet-galaxy co-evolution.

  15. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini


    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.

  16. Leaving home [radio drama


    Lawrence, Conan


    A 50 minute Radio Drama tracing the stories of Amy, Edie and Barnard Beechey as they prepare for the First World War and the changes it brings to their lives. Broadcast on BBC Radio Lincolnshire, 4th August, 2014.

  17. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    FRBs) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and Rotating Radio. Transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up observations in the ...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) Radio Science (RS) data archive contains both raw radio tracking data collected during the surface lifetime of the MPF Lander and results...

  19. Radio-Loudness of Active Galactic Nuclei: Observational Facts and Theoretical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Heidelberg Observ. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Jagiellonian U., Astron.; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.


    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. Our studies cover about seven orders of magnitude in accretion luminosity (expressed in Eddington units, i.e. as Eddington ratios) and the full range of AGN black hole masses. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness--Eddington-ratio plane. The ''upper'' sequence is formed by radio selected AGNs, the ''lower'' sequence contains mainly optically selected objects. Whereas an apparent ''gap'' between the two sequences may be an artifact of selection effects, the sequences themselves mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that the normalization of this dependence is determined by the black hole spin. This implies that central black holes in giant elliptical galaxies have (on average) much larger spins than black holes in spiral/disc galaxies. This galaxy-morphology related radio-dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. This led to speculations in the literature that formation of powerful jets at high accretion rates is intermittent and related to switches between two disk accretion modes, as directly observed in some BH X-ray binaries. We argue that such intermittency can be reconciled with the spin paradigm, provided that successful formation of relativistic jets by rotating black holes requires collimation by MHD outflows from accretion disks.

  20. Origin and physics of the highest energy cosmic rays: What can we learn from Radio Astronomy?


    Biermann, Peter L.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Munyaneza, Faustin; Tascau, Oana


    Here in this lecture we will touch on two aspects, one the new radio methods to observe the effects of high energy particles, and second the role that radio galaxies play in helping us understand high energy cosmic rays. We will focus here on the second topic, and just review the latest developments in the first. Radio measurements of the geosynchrotron radiation produced by high energy cosmic ray particles entering the atmosphere of the Earth as well as radio \\v{C}erenkov radiation coming fr...

  1. An Old Fogey’s History of Radio Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Spencer


    Full Text Available This paper describes a personal view of the discovery of radio jets in celestial radio sources. The existence of narrow, collimated optical features in distant objects has been known about since the early 20th century; however, the advent of radio astronomy in the 1940s and 1950s revealed the existence of a large number of discrete radio sources. The realization that many of these objects were not primarily stellar or local to our own galaxy, but rather extragalactic, followed the determination of accurate radio positions, enabling identifications with optical objects. High-resolution radio interferometers found that they were often compact, and with a double lobed structure, implying outflow from a central object. Shortly afterwards, accurate techniques for the measurement of polarization were developed. However it was not until the advent of synthesis instruments in the 1970s that radio images of the sources were produced, and the existence of radio jets firmly established and their polarization characteristics found.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Kazunori [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Johnson, Michael D., E-mail: [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Keane et al. have recently reported the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150418, with a promising radio counterpart at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz—a rapidly decaying source, falling from 200–300 μ Jy to 100 μ Jy on timescales of ∼6 days. This transient source may be associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.492, providing the first firm spectroscopic redshift for an FRB and the ability to estimate the density of baryons in the intergalactic medium via the combination of known redshift and radio dispersion of the FRB. An alternative explanation, first suggested by Williams and Berger, is that the identified counterpart may instead be a compact active galactic nucleus (AGN). The putative counterpart’s variation may then instead be extrinsic, caused by refractive scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way, which would invalidate the association with FRB 150418. We examine this latter explanation in detail and show that the reported observations are consistent with scintillating radio emission from the core of a radio-loud AGN having a brightness temperature T {sub b} ≳ 10{sup 9} K. Using numerical simulations of the expected scattering for the line of sight to FRB 150418, we provide example images and light curves of such an AGN at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz. These results can be compared with continued radio monitoring to conclusively determine the importance of scintillation for the observed radio variability, and they show that scintillation is a critical consideration for continued searches for FRB counterparts at radio wavelengths.

  3. Mechanical Spectroscopy of MgB2 Containing Sic / Spektroskopia Mechaniczna MgB2 Zawierającego Sic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.R.


    Full Text Available The compound magnesium diboride (MgB2 has been well-known since the 1950s; however, its superconducting properties were unknown. Intrinsic characteristics of MgB2 make this material a promising candidate for technological applications, although the low value of the irreversibility field and the decrease in critical current density with the increase in the magnetic field considerably reduce its utility. The present work aimed to study the effect of carbon-based doping on anelastic properties of MgB2 as measured by mechanical spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by using the powder-intube method. The samples were made with 5, 7.5, and 10 wt.% of silicon carbide (SiC. The results reveal complex mechanical loss spectra caused by the interaction between point defects and surface defects in the crystalline lattice of MgB2.

  4. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients (United States)

    Lorimer, D. R.


    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field) (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i.e. large area) searches for radio pulsars. I'll summarize the methods we use, some of the challenges they present, look at some of the recent and current efforts going on. I will also look at outreach of this area to groups outside the traditional area of pulsar research, highlight the discoveries of radio transients and look ahead to the future. Pulsars found at other wavelengths will be reviewed elsewhere in this volume.

  5. Experimental determination of physical processes in space, leading to deviations of radio synchrotron radiation spectra from the power law (United States)

    Men', A. V.


    We present universal formulas for spectral characteristics of cosmic radio sources of synchrotron radiation upon the presence of spectral density maxima at certain frequencies (spectra with negative curvature) taking into account most typical physical processes observed in space. On the basis of long-term observations of angular radiation structure of cosmic radio sources in the decameter wavelength range by the URAN radio interferometer system, we determine most probable physical processes resulting in spectra with extremum values for several quasars, radio galaxies, and their separate components. On the basis of these data, we estimate some parameters of cosmic medium, magnetic field, and angular sizes of compact radio sources and their components.

  6. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.


    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  7. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided spiral galaxies · Outline of the talk: · Collaborators · Background : · Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo ...

  8. Galaxies in Fligh t

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the constellation of Corona Borealis, for example, there is a cluster containing some 400 galaxies. Our Milky Way is a member of a small cluster which embraces among others, the Andromeda Nebula and the two galaxies known as the Magellanic Clouds, which are of a relatively rare type that has no well- defined shape.

  9. H I scaling relations of galaxies in the environment of H I-rich and control galaxies observed by the Bluedisk project (United States)

    Wang, Enci; Wang, Jing; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Li, Cheng


    Our work is based on the `Bluedisk' project, a programme to map the neutral gas in a sample of 25 H I-rich spirals and a similar number of control galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). In this paper, we focus on the H I properties of the galaxies in the environment of our targeted galaxies. In total, we extract 65 galaxies from the WSRT cubes with stellar masses between 108 and 1011 M⊙. Most of these galaxies are located on the same H I mass-size relation and `H I-plane' as normal spiral galaxies. We find that companions around H I-rich galaxies tend to be H I-rich as well and to have larger R_{90,H I}/R_{50,H I}. This suggests a scenario of `H I conformity', similar to the colour conformity found by Weinmann et al.: galaxies tend to adopt the H I properties of their neighbours. We visually inspect the outliers from the H I mass-size relation and galaxies which are offset from the H I plane and find that they show morphological and kinematical signatures of recent interactions with their environment. We speculate that these outliers have been disturbed by tidal or ram-pressure stripping processes, or in a few cases, by accretion events.

  10. Radio-loud high-redshift protogalaxy canidates in Bootes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S; van Breugel, W; Brown, M J; de Vries, W; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; Jannuzi, B; Rottgering, H; Stanford, S A; Stern, D; Willner, S P


    We used the Near Infrared Camera (NIRC) on Keck I to obtain K{sub s}-band images of four candidate high-redshift radio galaxies selected using optical and radio data in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey in Bootes. Our targets have 1.4 GHz radio flux densities greater than 1 mJy, but are undetected in the optical. Spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that three of these objects are at z > 3, with radio luminosities near the FR-I/FR-II break. The other has photometric redshift z{sub phot} = 1.2, but may in fact be at higher redshift. Two of the four objects exhibit diffuse morphologies in K{sub s}-band, suggesting that they are still in the process of forming.



    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  12. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel


    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  13. Observational evidence that positive and negative AGN feedback depends on galaxy mass and jet power (United States)

    Kalfountzou, E.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Wilner, D.; Elvis, M.; Page, M. J.; Trichas, M.; Smith, D. J. B.


    Several studies support the existence of a link between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and star formation activity. Radio jets have been argued to be an ideal mechanism for direct interaction between the AGN and the host galaxy. A drawback of previous surveys of AGN is that they are fundamentally limited by the degeneracy between redshift and luminosity in flux-density limited samples. To overcome this limitation, we present far-infrared Herschel observations of 74 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), 72 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and 27 radio galaxies (RGs), selected at 0.9 positive radio-jet feedback or radio AGN triggering is linked to star formation triggering, and (3) RGs have lower SFRs by a factor of 2.5 than the RLQ sub-sample with the same BH mass and bolometric luminosity. We suggest that there is some jet power threshold at which radio-jet feedback switches from enhancing star formation (by compressing gas) to suppressing it (by ejecting gas). This threshold depends on both galaxy mass and jet power.

  14. Jet Propagation Through Messy Media: Radio-Mode Feedback Facilitated by Entrainment (United States)

    Heinz, Sebastian

    Relativistic jets powered by accreting supermassive black holes play an important role in the regulation of structure formation. They can provide a mechanical link between the black hole and the diffuse interstellar medium. The heating of cool-core galaxy clusters by radio galaxies is observationally well-established. The frontier of radio-mode feedback is the study of jet interaction with the ISM in early-type galaxies, with the aim to understand the formation of the so-called red sequence in galaxy color-magnitude diagrams. A key question in our understanding of this process is how jets couple with the diffuse medium. Energetically, it is likely that radio jets can match and exceed the cooling luminosity of the diffuse gas in elliptical galaxies. A common critique is that highly collimated outflow might only deposit their energy in a narrow channel and escape, thus leaving most of the gas of a galaxy unaffected. The answer may lie in the propagation of jets within galaxies. Mass loading by stellar winds likely slows down the jets within the galaxy, thus allowing them to couple with the gas and effectively isotropize the energy release. Similarly, entrainment within radio lobes (the diffuse exhaust plasma deposited into the ISM by jets) must affect the dynamics of diffuse radio plasma and the observational signatures of radio galaxies. We will study the propagation of jets and the evolution of radio lobes that are affected by mass-loading to construct realistic prescriptions of feedback in galaxies, and in order to understand the observational signatures of this interaction. This proposal aims to: a) Quantify the impact of jets on galaxy formation and evolution, deriving solid quantitative models for the energy input into galaxies as a function of jet power and stellar mass. From a solid analytic understanding of the problem, we will devise a set of high-resolution simulations that will test the mass-loading hypothesis and calibrate the amount of jet deceleration

  15. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds (United States)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team


    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  16. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward


    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  17. The galaxy ancestor problem (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  18. A Galaxy is Born in a Swirling Hydrogen Cloud (United States)


    Astronomers from the University of Leiden have discovered an extremely distant, enormous gas cloud. It is probably a `cocoon' from which one or more galaxies are in the process of being born, soon after the Big Bang. The observations also indicate that this gas cloud is slowly rotating, an entirely new result of great cosmological significance. The discovery was made with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla in Chile by a team consisting of Rob van Ojik, Huub Röttgering, Chris Carilli, George Miley and Malcolm Bremer from Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) and Duccio Macchetto of the European Space Agency (ESA) stationed in Baltimore, U.S.A. Their extensive observations are reported in an article accepted for publication in the professional European journal `Astronomy and Astrophysics' and also as a chapter of van Ojik's Ph.D. thesis which is defended at the University of Leiden on October 25. This exciting result casts new light on one of the most important questions of modern cosmology, i.e. how lumpy galaxies were `born' out of the extremely smooth fireball produced during the Big Bang . Discovery of a Very Distant Infant Galaxy Among the most important questions which astronomers are now attempting to answer are when and how did galaxies form. This involves a very difficult and time-consuming study of the most distant galaxies that can be perceived with modern telescopes. Because of the extremely long time it has taken their light to reach us, we now observe them, as they looked like soon after the Big Bang. For some years, the Leiden group has been using a combination of observational techniques at radio and optical telescopes to pinpoint very distant galaxies. In fact, this group has discovered more than half of the sixty most distant galaxies now known. The majority of these remote galaxies were first detected because of their strong radio emission and many of them were later found to be embedded in clouds of hot gas, mostly

  19. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.


    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  20. Study of MgB2 Films on Niobium Substrate (United States)

    Zhuang, Chenggang; Yao, Dan; Li, Fen; Zhang, Kaicheng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao


    We have successfully fabricated polycrystalline MgB2 films on metal niobium by using the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique. TC (onset) of these samples ranged from 38.5 K to 39.4 K, with δT, 0.1 K ˜ 0.3 K. The observed TC was the highest among all the MgB2 films over metal substrates reported to date. Thicknesses of the films were about 1.0 μm. XRD indicated that lattice constants approached the values of the bulk. The film surface was visible with hexagonal plate-shaped MgB2 crystallites but not dense enough, shown by SEM observation. A line scanning spectra of EDX on the cutting cross section exhibited that there was an oxygen-rich region at the interface. Also, the diffusion of the Mg atoms deeply into the film has resulted in the tenacity and adherence of the film to the substrate. TEM investigation proved the existence of this buffer layer, ˜100 nm. Estimated using magnetic hysteresis loops and Bean model, JC was above 2.30 x 10^4 A/cm^2 at 10 K in zero field. The synthesis of MgB2/Nb films with thickness above one micron, showing certain tenacity, is an important and significant step towards the application of the 2^nd generation MgB2 superconductor wires or tapes.

  1. A Submillimeter Perspective on the Goods Fields. II. The High Radio Power Population in the Goods-N (United States)

    Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.; Owen, F. N.; Hsu, L.-Y.; Wang, W.-H.


    We use ultradeep 20 cm data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and 850 μm data from SCUBA-2 and the Submillimeter Array of an 124 arcmin2 region of the Chandra Deep Field-north to analyze the high radio power ({P}20{cm}> {10}31 erg s-1 Hz-1) population. We find that 20 (42 ± 9%) of the spectroscopically identified z> 0.8 sources have consistent star formation rates (SFRs) inferred from both submillimeter and radio observations, while the remaining sources have lower (mostly undetected) submillimeter fluxes, suggesting that active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity dominates the radio power in these sources. We develop a classification scheme based on the ratio of submillimeter flux to radio power versus radio power and find that it agrees with AGN and star-forming galaxy classifications from Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Our results provide support for an extremely rapid drop in the number of high SFR galaxies above about a thousand solar masses per year (Kroupa initial mass function) and for the locally determined relation between X-ray luminosity and radio power for star-forming galaxies applying at high redshifts and high radio powers. We measure far-infrared (FIR) luminosities and find that some AGNs lie on the FIR-radio correlation, while others scatter below. The AGNs that lie on the correlation appear to do so based on their emission from the AGN torus. We measure a median radio size of 1.″0 ± 0.3 for the star-forming galaxies. The radio sizes of the star-forming galaxies are generally larger than those of the AGNs. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon (United States)


    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  3. A Submillimeter Galaxy Illuminating its Circumgalactic Medium: Lyα Scattering in a Cold, Clumpy Outflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geach, J. E.; Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Blain, A. W.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.; Jenness, T.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, D.; Smith, D. J. B.; Spaans, M.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, P.

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal "Lyman-α Blob" (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S 850 = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total

  4. Cosmic Star-Formation History Since Z 5 And Faint Radio Populations (United States)

    Novak, Mladen


    We make use of the deep VLA-COSMOS radio observations at 3 GHz to infer radio luminosity functions using approximately 6000 star-forming galaxies and 1800 AGN hosts up to redshift of z 5. This is currently the largest radio-selected sample available out to such high redshift across an area of 2 square degrees with a sensitivity of rms=2.3 ujy/beam. For both populations we find a strong redshift trend that can be fitted with a two-parameter pure luminosity evolution model. We estimate star formation rates (SFR) from our radio luminosities using an IR-radio correlation that is redshift dependent. Our data suggest that the cosmic SFR density (SFRD) history peaks about z 2.5 and that the ultraluminous infrared galaxies contribute up to 25% to the total SFRD at the same redshift. We find evidence of a potential underestimation of SFRD based on UV rest-frame observations of Lyman break galaxies. Finally, we use our evolution models to calculate the radio source counts down to SKA sensitivity limits thus providing better constraints for the next generation radio surveys.

  5. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón


    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  6. ORM-Based Semantics of B2B Transactions (United States)

    Balsters, H.; van Blommestein, F.

    After widespread implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning and Personal Information Management, the next wave in the application of ICT is headed towards business to business (B2B) communication. B2B has a number of specific aspects, one of them being negotiation. This aspect has been largely neglected by present implementations of standard EDI- or XML-messaging and by B2B webservice implementations. In this paper a precise model is given of the negotiation process. The requirements of a potential Buyer and the offer of a potential Seller are matched and, if the negotiation is successful, a contract is concluded. The negotiation process model is represented in ORM, extended with dynamic constraints. Our model may be implemented in the databases of the trading partners and in message- or service definitions.

  7. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server


    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  8. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková


    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  9. The gravitational dynamics of galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one could arrive at the number of galaxies of this size in the observable Universe – again around 1011. A few galaxies are bigger and brighter than our own, but many more are smaller, going down to dwarf galaxies which could be ten thousand times less luminous. Nevertheless, galaxies do form a distinct and unique unit ...

  10. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets (United States)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.


    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.3 powerful relativistic jets (L1.4 GHz > 1027 W Hz-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4 GHz ˜ 1023.7-1028.3 W Hz-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the μe-Reff relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the MK,nuclear -MK,bulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, which could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi-analytical models where low-luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high-luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  11. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source (United States)

    de Gasperin, F.


    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of an FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 yr, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲1 per cent of radio galaxies), and only for a few of them, a detailed radio study that goes beyond the morphological classification has been conducted. In this paper, we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multifrequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarization properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  12. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars (United States)


    powering starburst galaxies , nucleosynthesis, cosmology probes, and distribution of heavy elements and energy into the interstellar medium (ISM...SNe come in two basic types, type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of white dwarfs ) and types Ib/Ic/II (resulting from the core-collapse of massive of SN 1923A in the spiral galaxy M83 (Stockdale et al. 2006; Eck et al. 1998). Prior to SN 1923A, the last observed SNe with detected radio

  13. B2B-asiantuntijayritys ja sosiaalinen media


    Sahlman, Katriina


    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten B2B-asiantuntijayritykset toimivat sosiaalisessa mediassa, miten ne hyödyntävät sitä palvelujensa ja brändinsä markkinointiin sekä lopulta liiketoimintansa edistämiseen. Tutkimus suoritettiin haastattelumuotoisena, laadullisena tutkimuksena. Tutkimukseen haastateltiin yhdeksää B2B-asiantuntijayrityksissä toimivaa, sosiaalista mediaa työkseen tai sen parissa työskentelevää henkilöä, jotka myös vapaa-ajallaan aktiivisesti käyttävät sosiaal...

  14. Convergent de novo synthesis of vineomycinone B2 methyl ester. (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Zhong, Yashan; O'Doherty, George A


    An efficient de novo synthesis of vineomycinone B2 methyl ester has been achieved. The longest linear route required only 14 steps from achiral commercially available starting materials (4.0% overall yield). The key transformations included the de novo asymmetric synthesis of two key fragments, which were joined by a convergent late stage Suzuki's glycosylation for the construction of the aryl β-C-glycoside. A subsequent BBr3 one-pot debenzylation, demethylation and air oxidation provided vineomycinone B2 methyl ester.

  15. The renaissance of radio astronomy: towards the Square Kilometre Array (United States)

    Ferrari, C.


    In this paper, I will give a brief overview of the largest radio telescope in the world, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The history of this instrument, its development as a huge international project, as well as its main scientific goals, will be summarised. I will then focus on a particular science case by presenting how the first phase of the SKA (SKA1), whose observations are expected to start in the early 2020's, will change our radio view of the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe: galaxy clusters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pree, C. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States); Wilner, D. J. [Harvard Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States)


    We have imaged the Sgr B2 Main region with the Very Large Array in the BnA configuration ({theta}{sub beam} = 0.''13) in both the H52{alpha} (45.453 GHz) radio recombination line and 7 mm continuum emission. At a distance of 8500 pc, this spatial resolution corresponds to a physical scale of 0.005 pc ({approx}1100 AU). The current observations detect H52{alpha} emission in 12 individual ultracompact and hypercompact H II regions. Two of the sources with detected H52{alpha} emission have broad ({Delta}V{sub FWHM} {approx} 50 km s{sup -1}) recombination lines, and two of the sources show lines with peaks at more than one velocity. We use line parameters from the H52{alpha} lines and our previous H66{alpha} line observations to determine the relative contribution of thermal, pressure, and kinematic broadening, and electron density. These new observations suggest that pressure broadening can account for the broad lines in some of the sources, but that gas motions (e.g., turbulence, accretion, or outflow) contribute significantly to the broad lines in at least one of the sources (Sgr B2 F3).

  17. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center? (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.


    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  18. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  19. The High-redshift Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey: The Spitzer Catalog (United States)

    Paterno-Mahler, R.; Blanton, E. L.; Brodwin, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Golden-Marx, E.; Decker, B.; Wing, J. D.; Anand, G.


    We present 190 galaxy cluster candidates (most at high redshift) based on galaxy overdensity measurements in the Spitzer/IRAC imaging of the fields surrounding 646 bent, double-lobed radio sources drawn from the Clusters Occupied by Bent Radio AGN (COBRA) Survey. The COBRA sources were chosen as objects in the Very Large Array FIRST survey that lack optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to a limit of m r = 22, making them likely to lie at high redshift. This is confirmed by our observations: the redshift distribution of COBRA sources with estimated redshifts peaks near z = 1 and extends out to z≈ 3. Cluster candidates were identified by comparing our target fields to a background field and searching for statistically significant (≥slant 2σ ) excesses in the galaxy number counts surrounding the radio sources; 190 fields satisfy the ≥slant 2σ limit. We find that 530 fields (82.0%) have a net positive excess of galaxies surrounding the radio source. Many of the fields with positive excesses but below the 2σ cutoff are likely to be galaxy groups. Forty-one COBRA sources are quasars with known spectroscopic redshifts, which may be tracers of some of the most distant clusters known.

  20. Neutral Hydrogen Radio Propperties of ASAS-SN Supernovae Hosts (United States)

    Ross, Timothy W.; Salter, Chris; Ghosh, Tapasi; Minchin, Robert; Jones, Kristen; All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN)


    We compiled properties of the galaxies containing recent supernovae. The galaxies were observed in the Hydrogen 21-cm region using the Arecibo 305-m Radio Telescope, and the supernovae were found by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) project. We were able to detect the neutral hydrogen hyperfine transition in 50 new galaxies to date, and retrieved information on 52 host galaxies with previous detections. Including archival detections, the detection rates of Type CC SNe was 96.9%, that of Type Ia was 76.3%, while no Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) had detections. In all we calculated the integrated HI flux of 102 host galaxies in the Arecibo sky. With the integrated HI flux we calculated mass values. The median HI mass, log [MHI/(h‑2C M⊙)], with h =.73, for all SN host galaxies was 9.47±0.02, with the median for Type Ia hosts being 9.55±0.02 and the median for Type CC being 9.30±0.02.

  1. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E


    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  2. ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne


    Existing HST observations of nearby galaxies comprise a sparse and highly non-uniform archive, making comprehensive comparative studies among galaxies essentially impossible. We propose to secure HST's lasting impact on the study of nearby galaxies by undertaking a systematic, complete, and carefully crafted imaging survey of ALL galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting images will allow unprecedented measurements of: {1} the star formation history {SFH} of a >100 Mpc^3 volume of the Universe with a time resolution of Delta[log{t}]=0.25; {2} correlations between spatially resolved SFHs and environment; {3} the structure and properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and {4} the color distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these goals, we will use a combination of wide-field tiling and pointed deep imaging to obtain uniform data on all 72 galaxies within a volume-limited sample extending to 3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the M81 group. For each galaxy, the wide-field imaging will cover out to 1.5 times the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout the limits of the survey volume. One additional deep pointing per galaxy will reach SNR 10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover the ancient SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. This proposal will produce photometric information for 100 million stars {comparable to the number in the SDSS survey} and uniform multi-color images of half a square degree of sky. The resulting archive will establish the fundamental optical database for nearby galaxies, in preparation for the shift of high-resolution imaging to the near-infrared.

  3. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.


    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  4. Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog


    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Kaisina, Elena I.


    We present an all-sky catalog of 869 nearby galaxies, having individual distance estimates within 11 Mpc or corrected radial velocities V_{LG} < 600 km/s. The catalog is a renewed and expanded version of the "Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies" by Karachentsev et al. (2004). It collects data on the following observables for the galaxies: angular diameters, apparent magnitudes in FUV-, B-, and K_s- bands, H_alpha and HI fluxes, morphological types, HI-line widths, radial velocities and distance e...

  5. Supernova SN 2008iz in M82 Galaxy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) radio observations for an on-going monitoring campaign of supernova SN 2008iz in the nearby galaxy M82. We fit two light curve models to the data, a simple power-law model and a simplified Weiler model, yielding a decline index, β = -1.23±0.01 and ...

  6. Il B2B e il paradigma dei costi di transazione (B2B and the Transaction Costs Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Sabbatini


    Full Text Available Business to Business (B2B Internet commerce causes a significant contraction of transaction costs. According to the Coase paradigm, we would thus expect a deverticalization of the industry and broader scope for anonymous market mechanisms. In reality, such expectations are not fully borne out by the facts. When the industrial structure is concentrated the B2Bgenerally loses its independence, and is owned by the firms which most contribute to its development, e.g. the ones able to bring the liquidity to it. The B2B governance mechanism established by these firms gives hierarchical mechanisms a role which they do not usually play in extensive, anonymous markets.         JEL Codes: D23, L86Keywords: Cost, Transaction Costs, Transactions

  7. Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies: The QSO-2's (United States)

    Hines, D. C.


    QSO-like nuclei have been detected in the most luminous infrared galaxies known, and in many other ultraluminous infrared galaxies with ``warm'' far-IR colors. These misdirected QSOs are revealed by the morphology and spectrum of light polarized by scattering. In particular, P09104+4109 and F15307+3252 exhibit spectacular bipolar morphology in WFPC2 and NICMOS images, and broad, polarized emission-lines in their polarized spectra. This strongly suggests that the QSO nuclei are surrounded by dusty tori which obscure our direct view, but allow nuclear emission to escape through the open poles to be subsequently scattered (thus polarized) into our line of sight. Even though the radio-infrared correlation indicates ongoing star formation, if viewed from the vantage point of the scattering material, these objects would be indistinguishable from typical luminous QSOs. Hence, they should be classified as ``QSO-2's.'' These results imply that: QSO activity is intimately related to the ultraluminous infrared galaxy phenomenon. A significant fraction of the total luminosity can be generated by the non-stellar central engines. QSOs may contribute significantly to the cosmic infrared background.

  8. Cosmologically distant OH megamasers : a test of the galaxy merging rate at Z approximate to 2 and a contaminant of blind HI surveys in the 21cm line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, FH


    Bright OH megamaser galaxies, radiating 1667/1665 MHz lines, could be detected at redshifts from z approximate to 1 to 3 in moderate integration times with existing radio telescopes. The superluminous FIR galaxies that host the megamasers are relatively rare at z approximate to 0, but they may have

  9. Investigation of TaC–TaB2 ceramic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    their composites [2]. Optimization of sintering conditions and microstructural parameters led to the following mechan- ical property: flexural strength ranging from 670 to 900 MPa for TaC-based ceramics [14]. In this work, the densification, microstructure, mechanical properties of TaC–TaB2 compos- ites were investigated.

  10. Intelligent Information Integration in B2B Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Omelayenko, Borys; Ding, Ying; Klein, Michel; Flett, Alan; Schulten, Ellen; Botquin, Guy; Brown, Mike; Dabiri, Gloria


    Internet and web technology penetrates many aspects of our daily life. Its importance as a medium for business transactions will grow exponentially during the next few years. In terms of the involved market volume, the B2B area will hereby be the most interesting area. Also, it will be the place,

  11. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  12. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085, India ... for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10 µm) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The ... Experimental. Polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10 µm) and large single-grain (3×2×1 mm3) MgB2 samples.

  13. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the MnB2 compounds. Polarized spin and spin–orbit coupling are included in calculations within ...

  14. Laser cladding of aluminium using TiB2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S


    Full Text Available Modification of Aluminium surface by injecting, dispersing and melting TiB2 powder with the help of a laser beam promises to enhance tribological properties of Aluminium. The present work consists of making single lines and various overlapping lines...

  15. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 3. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2. L. L. Sun J. S. Zhang D. R. ... Centre for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

  16. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-2 - Declining balance method. (United States)


    ... straight line rate (without adjustment for salvage) is 5 percent, and the declining balance rate at twice... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declining balance method. 1.167(b)-2 Section 1... Declining balance method. (a) Application of method. Under the declining balance method a uniform rate is...

  18. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    type structure, where B atoms form a primitive honey- comb lattice consisting of graphite-like sheets separated by hexagonal layers of Mg atoms. Boron isotope effect. (Bud'ko et al 2001) has been observed in MgB2 giving credence to the belief that the pairing mechanism leading to superconductivity is of phononic origin.

  19. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.


    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  20. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The