Sample records for radicalization processes control

  1. Controlled Functionalization of Olefin/styrene Copolymers through Free Radical Processes

    Passaglia, Elisa; Aglietto, Mauro; Ciardelli, Francesco; Picchioni, Francesco


    The functionalization of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-b-styrene triblock copolymer (SEBS) and styrene-co-butadiene (SBR) random copolymer by free radical processes is presented. SEBS was functionalized in the melt with diethyl maleate (DEM) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator. The functional

  2. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Donatella Della Porta


    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  3. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes.

    Simic, Michael G.


    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  4. Origins and Development of Initiation of Free Radical Polymerization Processes

    Dietrich Braun


    Full Text Available At present worldwide about 45% of the manufactured plastic materials and 40% of synthetic rubber are obtained by free radical polymerization processes. The first free radically synthesized polymers were produced between 1910 and 1930 by initiation with peroxy compounds. In the 1940s the polymerization by redox processes was found independently and simultaneously at IG Farben in Germany and ICI in Great Britain. In the 1950s the systematic investigation of azo compounds as free radical initiators followed. Compounds with labile C–C-bonds were investigated as initiators only in the period from the end of the 1960s until the early 1980s. At about the same time, iniferters with cleavable S–S-bonds were studied in detail. Both these initiator classes can be designated as predecessors for “living” or controlled free radical polymerizations with nitroxyl-mediated polymerizations, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer processes (RAFT, and atom transfer radical polymerizations (ATRP.


    Andrea R. Szkurhan; Michael K. Georges


    An overview of aqueous polymerizations, which include emulsion, miniemulsion and suspension polymerizations,under stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) conditions is presented. The success of miniemulsion and suspension SFRP polymerizations is contrasted with the difficulties associated with obtaining a stable emulsion polymerization. A recently developed unique microprecipitation technique is referenced as a means of making submicron sized particles that can be used to achieve a stable emulsion SFRP process.

  6. Mechanically controlled radical polymerization initiated by ultrasound

    Mohapatra, Hemakesh; Kleiman, Maya; Esser-Kahn, Aaron Palmer


    In polymer chemistry, mechanical energy degrades polymeric chains. In contrast, in nature, mechanical energy is often used to create new polymers. This mechanically stimulated growth is a key component of the robustness of biological materials. A synthetic system in which mechanical force initiates polymerization will provide similar robustness in polymeric materials. Here we show a polymerization of acrylate monomers initiated and controlled by mechanical energy provided by ultrasonic agitation. The activator for an atom-transfer radical polymerization is generated using piezochemical reduction of a Cu(II) precursor complex, which thus converts a mechanical activation of piezoelectric particles to the synthesis of a new material. This polymerization reaction has some characteristics of controlled radical polymerization, such as narrow molecular-weight distribution and linear dependence of the polymeric chain length on the time of mechanical activation. This new method of controlled radical polymerization complements the existing methods to synthesize commercially useful well-defined polymers.

  7. Process Improvement in a Radically Changing Organization

    Varga, Denise M.; Wilson, Barbara M.


    This presentation describes how the NASA Glenn Research Center planned and implemented a process improvement effort in response to a radically changing environment. As a result of a presidential decision to redefine the Agency's mission, many ongoing projects were canceled and future workload would be awarded based on relevance to the Exploration Initiative. NASA imposed a new Procedural Requirements standard on all future software development, and the Center needed to redesign its processes from CMM Level 2 objectives to meet the new standard and position itself for CMMI. The intended audience for this presentation is systems/software developers and managers in a large, research-oriented organization that may need to respond to imposed standards while also pursuing CMMI Maturity Level goals. A set of internally developed tools will be presented, including an overall Process Improvement Action Item database, a formal inspection/peer review tool, metrics collection spreadsheet, and other related technologies. The Center also found a need to charter Technical Working Groups (TWGs) to address particular Process Areas. In addition, a Marketing TWG was needed to communicate the process changes to the development community, including an innovative web site portal.

  8. Processing Chinese hand-radicals activates the medial frontal gyrus

    Qing-Lin Wu; Yu-Chen Chan; Joseph P. Lavallee; Hsueh-Chin Chen; Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung


    Embodied semantics theory asserts that the meaning of action-related words is neural y represented through networks that overlap with or are identical to networks involved in sory-motor processing. While some studies supporting this theory have focused on Chinese cha-racters, less attention has been paid to their semantic radicals. Indeed, there is stil disagreement about whether these radicals are processed independently. The present study investigated whether radicals are processed separately and, if so, whether this processing occurs in sensory-motor gions. Materials consisted of 72 high-frequency Chinese characters, with 18 in each of four ries:hand-action verbs with and without hand-radicals, and verbs not related to hand actions, with and without hand-radicals. Twenty-eight participants underwent functional MRI scans while reading the characters. Compared to characters without hand-radicals, reading characters with hand-radicals activated the right medial frontal gyrus. Verbs involving hand-action activated the left inferior parietal lobule, possibly reflecting integration of information in the radical with the semantic meaning of the verb. The findings may be consistent with embodied semantics theory and suggest that neural representation of radicals is indispensable in processing Chinese characters.

  9. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  10. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    L. Berchicci (Luca); C.L. Tucci (Christopher)


    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring, ass


    Daniel Koehler


    Full Text Available This paper examines in detail the role of the Internet in individual radicalization processes of eight German former right-wing extremists. Applying Grounded Theory methodology the qualitative interviews were analyzed in several coding and re-coding phases. The findings are integrated into the existing literature afterwards. Besides well known factors, such as more effective communication, anonymity and better networking opportunities, this study found evidence that the Internet is a major driving factor to establish and foster the development of radical contrast societies (cf. Koehler, 2015 transmitting radical and violent ideologies and translating them into political activism. As a venue for information exchange, ideological development and training, the individual radicalization process was characteristically shaped or even made possible through the Internet. This paper also shows the high value of qualitative research regarding the topic in contrast to usually employed quantitative analysis of webpage content.

  12. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  13. Biodegradable and radically polymerized elastomers with enhanced processing capabilities.

    Ifkovits, Jamie L; Padera, Robert F; Burdick, Jason A


    The development of biodegradable materials with elastomeric properties is beneficial for a variety of applications, including for use in the engineering of soft tissues. Although others have developed biodegradable elastomers, they are restricted by their processing at high temperatures and under vacuum, which limits their fabrication into complex scaffolds. To overcome this, we have modified precursors to a tough biodegradable elastomer, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) with acrylates to impart control over the crosslinking process and allow for more processing options. The acrylated-PGS (Acr-PGS) macromers are capable of crosslinking through free radical initiation mechanisms (e.g., redox and photo-initiated polymerizations). Alterations in the molecular weight and % acrylation of the Acr-PGS led to changes in formed network mechanical properties. In general, Young's modulus increased with % acrylation and the % strain at break increased with molecular weight when the % acrylation was held constant. Based on the mechanical properties, one macromer was further investigated for in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. A mild to moderate inflammatory response typical of implantable biodegradable polymers was observed, even when formed as an injectable system with redox initiation. Moreover, fibrous scaffolds of Acr-PGS and a carrier polymer, poly(ethylene oxide), were prepared via an electrospinning and photopolymerization technique and the fiber morphology was dependent on the ratio of these components. This system provides biodegradable polymers with tunable properties and enhanced processing capabilities towards the advancement of approaches in engineering soft tissues.

  14. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    albumin, indicating that the tertiary structure of the target protein plays an important role in determining the rate of radical transfer and/or the stability of the resultant species. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the HRP/H2O2/no free tyrosine system involving radical transfer...... to the albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction......Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...

  15. Novel Complex Polymers with Carbazole Functionality by Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Kazuhiro Nakabayashi


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent advances in the design and synthesis of novel complex polymers with carbazole moieties using controlled radical polymerization techniques. We focus on the polymeric architectures of block copolymers, star polymers, including star block copolymers and miktoarm star copolymers, comb-shaped copolymers, and hybrids. Controlled radical polymerization of N-vinylcarbazole (NVC and styrene and (methacrylate derivatives having carbazole moieties is well advanced, leading to the well-controlled synthesis of complex macromolecules. Characteristic optoelectronic properties, assembled structures, and three-dimensional architectures are briefly introduced.

  16. Innovation Processes and Entrepreneurial Culture for Radical Innovations

    Ľubica Knošková


    Full Text Available To survive and prosper, the organizations need to embed the processes and mechanisms to discover major technology and consumer trends and respond to them through new growth areas. Based on profound literature review providing insight into organizational factors that affect firms’ ability to manage innovation this paper asks which innovation processes and entrepreneurial culture support radical innovations. The aim of the paper is to specify the company behaviour that leads to innovative outputs with high level of novelty in country specific context of Slovakia. We conducted two-stage empirical research in 2009 and 2014 mapping companies’ approach to innovation management during the last 10 years. After surveying 102 firms in the first stage and 287 firms in the second stage we derive success factors for radical innovations. The findings demonstrate growing importance of corporate strategic orientation, highly developed innovation processes and parallel mechanisms for radical innovation, ability to manage internally and externally open innovation and support entrepreneurial culture. This study makes unique contribution to the understanding of innovation processes, organizational factors, and their significance and dynamics. It should attract managerial attention to recognize the importance of innovation management factors for building firm’s innovation competency.

  17. Sensing Magnetic Directions in Birds: Radical Pair Processes Involving Cryptochrome

    Roswitha Wiltschko


    Full Text Available Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1 it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2 it is an “inclination compass”, not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3 it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds.

  18. Sensing magnetic directions in birds: radical pair processes involving cryptochrome.

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang


    Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1) it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2) it is an "inclination compass", not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3) it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds.

  19. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt acetoacetonate

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh; Sahar Amiri


    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube. In this process, the high rate of propagation was used to carry out the reaction in a microcapillary tube. Under 60°C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in a one-step polymerization process. PVAc polymerization systems showed induction time, which was reduced in this reaction with using complex of DMF/ Co(acac)2. The kinetics of the reaction with a smaller degree of branching from this catalyst indicated that the electronegativity of the transition metal and diffusion of the homogeneous catalyst with DMF are important factors of fast polymerization in the bulk. Thermal properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily reformed or stretched microsolid polymer demonstrated 20% crystallinity.

  20. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.


    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  1. Quantum Information Processing in the Radical-Pair Mechanism

    Mouloudakis, K


    Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We here show that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering the quantum information extracted during the reaction we unravel new magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.

  2. Synthesis of glycopolymers by controlled radical polymerization techniques and their applications.

    Vázquez-Dorbatt, Vimary; Lee, Juneyoung; Lin, En-Wei; Maynard, Heather D


    Natural saccharides are involved in numerous biological processes. It has been shown that these carbohydrates play a role in cell adhesion and proliferation, as well as protein stabilization, organization, and recognition. Certain carbohydrates also serve as receptors for viruses and bacteria. They are over expressed in diseases such as cancer. Hence, a lot of effort has been focused on mimicking these sugars. Polymers with pendent saccharide groups, also known as glycopolymers, are studied as oligo- and polysaccharide mimics. Controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), as well as cyanoxyl-mediated free radical polymerization have allowed chemists to synthesize well-defined glycopolymers that, in some cases, have particular end-group functionalities. This review focuses on the synthesis of glycopolymers by these methods and the applications of glycopolymers as natural saccharide mimics.

  3. Sequential biphotonic processes: photochemical reactivity of phthalocyanine radicals

    Van Vlierberge, B.; Ferraudi, G.


    Results of a study of the photochemistry of Rh(III), Al(III), and Zn(II) phthalocyanine cation radicals are reported here. The radicals were generated in a flash photolysis apparatus, which employs two flash-lamp-pump dye lasers. This excitation of the metallophthalocyanines at wavelengths of the phthalocyanine's Q band produced the long-lived triplet state. Irradiation of the phthalocyanine radicals led to rapid (t less than 1 decomposition of these species followed by a partial recovery of the radical concentration. The dependence of radical yield on medium conditions was noted, and this dependence was probably attributable to an increase in the yield of the reactive excited state and/or a decrease in the rate of excited-state relaxation in changing from protic to aprotic media or replacing D/sub 2/O by H/sub 2/O. 10 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.


    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara


    Free radicals formation in the acidum boricum (AB) during thermal sterilization process was examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Acidum boricum was sterilized according to the pharmacopea norms at temperatures 160°C (120 min), 170°C (60 min), and 180°C (30 min). Free radicals (~10(17) spin/g) were thermally formed in these drug. The free radicals system revealed complex character, and the asymmetrical EPR spectra were measured. Mainly oxygen free radicals exist in the tested heated AB. Slower spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in AB sterilized at 160, 170 and 180°C. AB may be sterilized at temperatures 160, 170 and 180°C. For AB thermal sterilization at temperature 170°C is recommended. Free radicals concentrations changes during storage of the examined AB, and probably interactions with oxygen molecules may be responsible for this effect.

  5. Neutral Radical Molecules Ordered in Self-Assembled Monolayer Systems for Quantum Information Processing

    Tamulis, A; Tretiak, S; Berman, G P; Allara, D L


    Implementation of quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spins in stable molecular radicals is discussed. The necessary operating conditions for such molecules are formulated in self-assembled monolayer (SAM) systems. As a model system we start with 1, 3 -diketone types of neutral radicals. Using first principles quantum chemical calculations we prove that these molecules have the stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of organic free radicals related to combustion processes

    Weisshaar, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)


    The primary long-term goal of this work is to develop new techniques for measuring vibrational spectra of polyatomic neutral free radicals. The authors explore a variation of resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in which tunable {omega}{sub IR} excites the radical vibrationally and {omega}{sub UV} selectively ionizes only the vibrationally excited molecules. Development of the IR + UV R2PI experiment is underway. In the meantime, the authors have used optical R2PI and pulsed field ionization (PFI) detection to obtain new vibrational spectra of species such as the benzyl and phenylsilane cations. In benzyl, a great deal was learned about the vibronic coupling mechanism in the mixed q{sup 2}A{sub 2}-2{sup 2}B{sub 2} system near 450 nm by projecting the mixed states onto the manifold of cation vibrational states. In phenylsilane{sup +}, we find that the sixfold barrier to internal rotation of the silyl group is small (V{sub 6} = +19 cm{sup {minus}1}). We are beginning to understand the mechanisms of coupling of torsional states with vibration, overall rotation, and other electronic states. In addition, we are developing a new model of internal rotation in aromatic compounds based on Prof. Frank Weinhold`s natural resonance theory.

  7. Laboratory studies of nitrate radical chemistry - application to atmospheric processes

    Noremsaune, Ingse


    This thesis studies atmospheric chemistry and tries in particular to fill gaps in the data base of atmospheric reactions. It studies the nitrate radical reactions with chloroethenes and with but-2-yne (2-butyne). The mechanisms and rate coefficients for the NO{sub 3}-initiated degradation of the chloroethenes and 2-butyne were investigated by means of the static reaction chamber and the fast flow-discharge technique. The reactions between the nitrate radical and the chloroethenes were studied at atmospheric pressure in a reaction chamber with synthetic air as bath gas. FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy) spectroscopy was used to follow the reactions and to identify the products. Products were observed for the reactions with (E)-1,2-dichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, although the absorption bands are weak. The alkyl peroxynitrate and nitrate compounds form very strong and characteristic absorption bands. The rate coefficients for the reactions between NO{sub 3} and the chloroethenes were investigated at room temperature by three different methods. The results are given in tables. 132 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Mechanism study and molecular design in controlled/“living” radical polymerization


    This tutorial review summarizes recent progress in the research field of controlled/"living" radical polymerization (CLRP) from Soochow University.The present paper gives a broad overview of the mechanism study and molecular design in CLRP.The mechanism study in CLRP aided by microwave,initiated by γ-radiation at low temperature,mediated by iron,in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and the mechanism transfer between different CLRP processes are reviewed and summarized.The molecular design in CLRP,especially in RAFT polymerization for mechanism study,and in achieving tailor-made functional polymers is studied and discussed in the later part.

  9. Controlled/"Living" Radical Polymerization of (-)-Menthyl Methacrylate


    The atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP) of (-)-menthyl methacrylate((-)-MnMA) mediated by CuCl/bipyridine and ethyl 2-bromopropionate or 1-phenylethyl bromide in THF system has been studied. The dependence of the specific rotation on molecular weight and the CD of Poly((-)-MnMA) thus obtained was investigated.

  10. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625019, Tamilnadu (India); Jawahar, A. [Department of Chemistry, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625019, Tamilnadu (India)


    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging.

  11. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  12. The role of accounting practices in a radical change process : towards a comprehensive change framework

    Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der


    This paper is concerned with investigating the role of accounting practices in radical change processes. The institutional framework has been taken as a starting point in investigating these processes. The research has been carried out at the Dutch Railways. This company was forced by the Dutch gove

  13. [Free radical processes at patients with pathologies of biliary ducts and methods of their correction].

    Bolevich, S B; Stupin, V A; Gakhramanov, T V; Khokonov, M A; Silina, E V; Men'shova, N I; Bogdanova, L S


    The main objective of a research in the early diagnostics of a functional condition of a liver, is to estimate the degree of the level of its expressiveness and timely pathogenetic correction on the basis of the free radical system processes of studying of patients with mechanical jaundice. Results were carried out among 61 patients with pathologies of bile tracts( biliary ducts) which proved the essential role of free radical processes with strengthening of peroxidation of membrane lipids against the absolute or relative insufficiency of endogenic antioxidants in the mechanism of development of hepatic insufficiency at the given category of patients with the highest degree expressed at the serious conditions of the patients with malignant diseases. It is revealed that the inclusion of energy corrector antioxidants of reamberin to the therapy as a part of standard schemes of treatment promoted positive regressing dynamics of parameters of free radical processes that are correlated with positive clinical symptoms and outcome of diseases.

  14. Radicals and Non-Equilibrium Processes in Low-Temperature Plasmas

    Petrović, Zoran; Mason, Nigel; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Radmilović-Radjenović, Marija


    Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and Institute of Physics, Belgrade. Each Symposium has sought to highlight a key topic of plasma research and the 5th EU - Japan symposium explored the role of Radicals and Non-Equilibrium Processes in Low-Temperature Plasmas since these are key elements of plasma processing. Other aspects of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits were also considered. Unlike bio-medicine and perhaps politics, in plasma processing free radicals are `good radicals' but their kinetics are difficult to understand since there remains little data on their collisions with electrons and ions. One of the goals of the symposium was to facilitate communication between experimentalists and theorists in binary collision physics with plasma modellers and practitioners of plasma processing in order to optimize efforts to provide much needed data for both molecules and radicals of practical importance. The non-equilibrium nature of plasmas is critical in the efficient manufacturing of high resolution structures by anisotropic plasma etching on Si wafers since they allow separate control of the directionality and energy of ions and provide a high level of separation between the mean energies of electrons and ions. As nanotechnologies become practical, plasma processing may play a key role, not only in manufacturing of integrated circuits, but also for self-organization of massively parallel manufacturing of nanostructures. In this Symposium the key issues that are hindering the development of such new, higher resolution technologies were discussed and some possible solutions were proposed. In particular, damage control, fast neutral etching, processes at surface and modeling of profiles were addressed in several of the lectures. A wide range of topics are covered in this book including atomic and molecular collision physics - primarily focused towards formation and analysis of radicals, basic swarm data and breakdown kinetics, basic kinetics of RF and DC

  15. Engineering live cell surfaces with functional polymers via cytocompatible controlled radical polymerization

    Niu, Jia; Lunn, David J.; Pusuluri, Anusha; Yoo, Justin I.; O'Malley, Michelle A.; Mitragotri, Samir; Soh, H. Tom; Hawker, Craig J.


    The capability to graft synthetic polymers onto the surfaces of live cells offers the potential to manipulate and control their phenotype and underlying cellular processes. Conventional grafting-to strategies for conjugating preformed polymers to cell surfaces are limited by low polymer grafting efficiency. Here we report an alternative grafting-from strategy for directly engineering the surfaces of live yeast and mammalian cells through cell surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization. By developing cytocompatible PET-RAFT (photoinduced electron transfer-reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization), synthetic polymers with narrow polydispersity (Mw/Mn cells using either covalent attachment or non-covalent insertion, while maintaining high cell viability. Compared with conventional grafting-to approaches, these methods significantly improve the efficiency of grafting polymer chains and enable the active manipulation of cellular phenotypes.

  16. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.


    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  17. Fingerprinting DNA oxidation processes: IR characterization of the 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine radical cation.

    Bucher, Dominik B; Pilles, Bert M; Pfaffeneder, Toni; Carell, Thomas; Zinth, Wolfgang


    Methylated cytidine plays an important role as an epigenetic signal in gene regulation. Its oxidation products are assumed to be involved in active demethylation processes but also in damaging DNA. Here, we report the photochemical production of the 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine radical cation via a two-photon ionization process. The radical cation is detected by time-resolved IR spectroscopy and identified by band assignment using density functional theory calculations. Two final oxidation products are characterized with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  18. Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Bowen, Kit H.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordon, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; La Verne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C. W.; Meisel, Dan; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.


    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactors, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered.

  19. Multivariate Statistical Process Control

    Kulahci, Murat


    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...

  20. Control study of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer

    Bin Liu


    Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated in our hospital were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received arterial interventional chemotherapy combined with radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, control group received simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and then differences in prognosis-associated factors, MMP and Leptin contents as well as tumor marker and telomerase activity levels of two groups were compared.Results:Serum HER-2/neu ECD level of observation group was lower than that of control group, and serum DKK-1, TS and TP levels were higher than those of control group; at each point in time after treatment, serum CA72-4 and CA50 contents of observation group were lower than those of control group; intraoperative MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and Leptin levels in gastric cancer tissue of observation group were lower than those of control group; telomerase activity value in gastric cancer tissue of observation group after treatment was lower than that of control group, and both PGⅠ positive expression rate and PGⅠ/ PGⅡ ratio were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer can lower tumor malignancy, promote the curative effect of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and improve long-term prognosis.

  1. Control of surface charges by radicals as a principle of antistatic polymers protecting electronic circuitry.

    Baytekin, H Tarik; Baytekin, Bilge; Hermans, Thomas M; Kowalczyk, Bartlomiej; Grzybowski, Bartosz A


    Even minute quantities of electric charge accumulating on polymer surfaces can cause shocks, explosions, and multibillion-dollar losses to electronic circuitry. This paper demonstrates that to remove static electricity, it is not at all necessary to "target" the charges themselves. Instead, the way to discharge a polymer is to remove radicals from its surface. These radicals colocalize with and stabilize the charges; when they are scavenged, the surfaces discharge rapidly. This radical-charge interplay allows for controlling static electricity by doping common polymers with small amounts of radical-scavenging molecules, including the familiar vitamin E. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by rendering common polymers dust-mitigating and also by using them as coatings that prevent the failure of electronic circuitry.

  2. The Radical Press and the Beginning of the Birth Control Movement in the United States.

    Goldstein, Cynthia

    The American birth control movement was born among radicals, mostly socialist women, early in the twentieth century. Although some information about birth control had circulated in medical journals, books and advertising in the nineteenth century, the passage in 1873 of a federal obscenity law known as the Comstock law resulted in the absence of…

  3. The Radical Press and the Beginning of the Birth Control Movement in the United States.

    Goldstein, Cynthia

    The American birth control movement was born among radicals, mostly socialist women, early in the twentieth century. Although some information about birth control had circulated in medical journals, books and advertising in the nineteenth century, the passage in 1873 of a federal obscenity law known as the Comstock law resulted in the absence of…

  4. SH radical: the key intermediate in sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal.

    Yan, Jinding; Yang, Jianli; Liu, Zhenyu


    To uncouple the complex behavior of sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal and to elucidate the main mechanism, typical organic and inorganic sulfur compounds impregnated on or mixed with a low-ash char are studied through temperature-programmed decomposition coupled with online mass spectrum analysis (TPDMS) and followed by temperature-programmed oxidation coupled also with online mass spectrum analysis (TPOMS) in a temperature range of up to 800 degrees C. It is evident that the cleavages of Cal-S and Car-S bonds, where the subscripts al and ar stand for aliphatic and aromatic carbon, respectively, in the organic compounds result in the formation of SH radicals, which then undergo secondary reactions with the char to form various sulfur compounds such as H2S, SO2, COS, and elemental sulfur, as well as sulfur structures in the char. H2 has the ability to stabilize the -* SH radicals and weaken the interactions between the -* SH radicals and the char. For the sulfur compounds, which do not generate the *SH radical, the only sulfur products detected are those formed directly from the decomposition of the starting sulfur compounds, H2S from FeS2 in H2 or SO2 from Fe2(SO4)3 in He, for example, and no sulfur structure is formed in the char. Minerals have significant effects on the bond cleavage temperature and the reactions of the *SH radicals with the char. It is clear that the *SH radical is a key species interacting with the char to form secondary sulfur compounds, while H2S and SO2 play no role in the sulfur transformation to the carbon structure.

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Cancer Control and Survival after Robot-Assisted versus Open Radical Prostatectomy.

    Hu, Jim C; O'Malley, Padraic; Chughtai, Bilal; Isaacs, Abby; Mao, Jialin; Wright, Jason D; Hershman, Dawn; Sedrakyan, Art


    Robot-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted in the U.S. for prostate cancer. Its adoption has been driven by market forces and patient preference, and debate continues regarding whether it offers improved outcomes to justify the higher cost relative to open surgery. We examined the comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted vs open radical prostatectomy in cancer control and survival in a nationally representative population. This population based observational cohort study of patients with prostate cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy during 2003 to 2012 used data captured in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results)-Medicare linked database. Propensity score matching and time to event analysis were used to compare all cause mortality, prostate cancer specific mortality and use of additional treatment after surgery. A total of 6,430 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies and 9,161 open radical prostatectomies performed during 2003 to 2012 were identified. The use of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy increased from 13.6% in 2003 to 2004 to 72.6% in 2011 to 2012. After a median followup of 6.5 years (IQR 5.2-7.9) robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was associated with an equivalent risk of all cause mortality (HR 0.85, 0.72-1.01) and similar cancer specific mortality (HR 0.85, 0.50-1.43) vs open radical prostatectomy. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was also associated with less use of additional treatment (HR 0.78, 0.70-0.86). Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy has comparable intermediate cancer control as evidenced by less use of additional postoperative cancer therapies and equivalent cancer specific and overall survival. Longer term followup is needed to assess for differences in prostate cancer specific survival, which was similar during intermediate followup. Our findings have significant quality and cost implications, and provide reassurance regarding the adoption of more

  6. Simulating Controlled Radical Polymerizations with mcPolymer—A Monte Carlo Approach

    Georg Drache


    Full Text Available Utilizing model calculations may lead to a better understanding of the complex kinetics of the controlled radical polymerization. We developed a universal simulation tool (mcPolymer, which is based on the widely used Monte Carlo simulation technique. This article focuses on the software architecture of the program, including its data management and optimization approaches. We were able to simulate polymer chains as individual objects, allowing us to gain more detailed microstructural information of the polymeric products. For all given examples of controlled radical polymerization (nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMRP homo- and copolymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT, we present detailed performance analyses demonstrating the influence of the system size, concentrations of reactants, and the peculiarities of data. Different possibilities were exemplarily illustrated for finding an adequate balance between precision, memory consumption, and computation time of the simulation. Due to its flexible software architecture, the application of mcPolymer is not limited to the controlled radical polymerization, but can be adjusted in a straightforward manner to further polymerization models.

  7. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan


    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet.

  8. Food Processing Control


    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  9. Controlled synthesis of photochromic polymer brushes by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Piech, Marcin; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Long, Timothy Michael


    This work reports on the grafting of methyl methacrylate polymer brushes containing spirobenzopyran pendant groups from flat silica surfaces and colloidal particles utilizing atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to the kind of surface bound initiator, the type of halide and ligand used in the catalytic complex, the presence/absence of untethered initiator, and solvent type. This enabled synthesis of coatings up to 80 {+-} 3 nm thick with controlled spirobenzopyran content. While polymerization kinetics indicate the presence of chain termination reactions, the 'living' character of the process is confirmed by controlled formation of block copolymer brushes. UV/vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the UV-induced isomerization of spirobenzopyran to zwitterionic merocyanine and the thermal back-reaction. Spectral and kinetic analyses of this latter bleaching process points to the existence of free and associated merocyanines in the polymeric brush in both tetrahydrofuran and toluene. However, stabilization of merocyanine species by the polymer matrix is considerably greater in toluene with thermal back-reaction rates approaching those determined for solid dry films.

  10. Surface loss rate of H and N radicals in H2/N2 plasma etching process

    Moon, Chang Sung; Takeda, Keigo; Hayashi, Toshio; Takashima, Seigo; Sekine, Makoto; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hori, Masaru


    As ULSI devices are down to nano-scale size, there have been many efforts to develop low dielectric constant (low-k) materials and establish the plasma etching technology. Especially, the interaction between the plasma and the surface has an enormous influence on characterizing the etching process. However, the reactions in contact with solid surface such as substrate and wall are very complicated and moreover, at present, there are many interactions unknown and they are not fully understood yet. In this study, surface loss probabilities of H, N radicals on stainless steel and organic low-k film surfaces are investigated by vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) technique. The changes of H, N radical densities are quantitatively measured in H2/N2 plasma afterglow and the loss rates on each surface are evaluated. It is expected that the development of plasma etching process can be advanced by understanding the reaction of radicals with the surface during organic low-k etching process.

  11. Controlled processing during sequencing.

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle


    Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6) in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region's activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations.

  12. Controlled processing during sequencing

    Malathi eThothathiri


    Full Text Available Longstanding evidence has identified a role for the frontal cortex in sequencing within both linguistic and non-linguistic domains. More recently, neuropsychological studies have suggested a specific role for the left premotor-prefrontal junction (BA 44/6 in selection between competing alternatives during sequencing. In this study, we used neuroimaging with healthy adults to confirm and extend knowledge about the neural correlates of sequencing. Participants reproduced visually presented sequences of syllables and words using manual button presses. Items in the sequence were presented either consecutively or concurrently. Concurrent presentation is known to trigger the planning of multiple responses, which might compete with one another. Therefore, we hypothesized that regions involved in controlled processing would show greater recruitment during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. Whole-brain analysis showed concurrent > consecutive activation in sensory, motor and somatosensory cortices and notably also in rostral-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Region of interest analyses showed increased activation within left BA 44/6 and correlation between this region’s activation and behavioral response times. Functional connectivity analysis revealed increased connectivity between left BA 44/6 and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum during the concurrent than the consecutive condition. These results corroborate recent evidence and demonstrate the involvement of BA 44/6 and other control regions when ordering co-activated representations.

  13. Effect of radicals combination on acetylene yield in process of coal pyrolysis by hydrogen plasma

    Dai, B.; Fan, Y.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics


    A new process for production of acetylene by pyrolysis of coal in hydrogen plasma overcomes the disadvantage of discontinuity and pollution in the conventional carbide method. Complex homogeneous reactions take place after pulverized coal is injected into a high-temperature plasma reactor. In order to preserve C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in low-temperature gas, quenching is needed to avoid the dissociation of acetylene. The objective of this paper is to indicate that radicals recombination is also important in acetylene production. Therefore the quenching process should be optimized to obtain high yield of acetylene. In this work, C-H equilibrium system in high-temperature range of 2000-5000 K is obtained using the free energy minimization method. At lower temperature, the decomposition of acetylene can be avoided while the recombination reaction of radicals C{sub 2}H and H will not be interrupted. As a result, the acetylene concentration in quenched gas will increase. The theoretical acetylene content in quenched gas is computed using the radical recombination mechanism based on the composition of thermal equilibrium, and the optimized C/H ratio is determined simultaneously. The maximum acetylene content is 59.9% in volume. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Highly functionalized and potent antiviral cyclopentane derivatives formed by a tandem process consisting of organometallic, transition-metal-catalyzed, and radical reaction steps.

    Jagtap, Pratap R; Ford, Leigh; Deister, Elmar; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Mackman, Richard; Bahador, Gina; Jahn, Ullrich


    A simple modular tandem approach to multiply substituted cyclopentane derivatives is reported, which succeeds by joining organometallic addition, conjugate addition, radical cyclization, and oxygenation steps. The key steps enabling this tandem process are the thus far rarely used isomerization of allylic alkoxides to enolates and single-electron transfer to merge the organometallic step with the radical and oxygenation chemistry. This controlled lineup of multiple electronically contrasting reactive intermediates provides versatile access to highly functionalized cyclopentane derivatives from very simple and readily available commodity precursors. The antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds was screened and a number of compounds showed potent activity against hepatitis C and dengue viruses.

  15. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of mesoporous silica supported TiCl4 heterogeneous catalyst

    M A Semsarzadeh; S Amiri; M Azadeh


    The heterogeneous TiCl4 catalysts supported on mesoporous mobile composition of matter (MCM-41) and mesoporous silicone particles synthesized from block copolymer of PPG–PEG–PPG (SPB) complexed with dimethyl formamide (DMF) ligand were used in a controlled free radical reaction with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator in bulk polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc). In this polymerization process, mesoporous particle of SPB increased the reactivity of TiCl4 catalyst with DMF ligand. The active site formed on the surface and the pores of the catalyst produced specific sequences of VAc on the chain with different thermal and microstructural properties and crystallinity.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy of initial nitridation processes on oxidized Si(100) surface with radical nitrogen

    Takahashi, R; Ikeda, H; Sakashita, M; Sakai, A; Yasuda, Y; Nakatsuka, O; Zaima, S


    We have investigated the initial nitridation processes on oxidized Si(100) with radical nitrogen at a substrate temperature of 850degC using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). It is found that the thin oxide layer suppresses the changes of original Si step structures during nitridation, and this effect critically depends on the growth conditions of the oxide layer. Comparison of the nitride island morphology to the case of the clean surface suggests that the migration of the precursor during nitridation is suppressed by the oxygen in the layer. (author)

  17. Regiochemical control of monolignol radical coupling: a new paradigm for lignin and lignan biosynthesis

    Gang, D. R.; Costa, M. A.; Fujita, M.; Dinkova-Kostova, A. T.; Wang, H. B.; Burlat, V.; Martin, W.; Sarkanen, S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.


    BACKGROUND: Although the lignins and lignans, both monolignol-derived coupling products, account for nearly 30% of the organic carbon circulating in the biosphere, the biosynthetic mechanism of their formation has been poorly understood. The prevailing view has been that lignins and lignans are produced by random free-radical polymerization and coupling, respectively. This view is challenged, mechanistically, by the recent discovery of dirigent proteins that precisely determine both the regiochemical and stereoselective outcome of monolignol radical coupling. RESULTS: To understand further the regulation and control of monolignol coupling, leading to both lignan and lignin formation, we sought to clone the first genes encoding dirigent proteins from several species. The encoding genes, described here, have no sequence homology with any other protein of known function. When expressed in a heterologous system, the recombinant protein was able to confer strict regiochemical and stereochemical control on monolignol free-radical coupling. The expression in plants of dirigent proteins and proposed dirigent protein arrays in developing xylem and in other lignified tissues indicates roles for these proteins in both lignan formation and lignification. CONCLUSIONS: The first understanding of regiochemical and stereochemical control of monolignol coupling in lignan biosynthesis has been established via the participation of a new class of dirigent proteins. Immunological studies have also implicated the involvement of potential corresponding arrays of dirigent protein sites in controlling lignin biopolymer assembly.

  18. Regiochemical control of monolignol radical coupling: a new paradigm for lignin and lignan biosynthesis

    Gang, D. R.; Costa, M. A.; Fujita, M.; Dinkova-Kostova, A. T.; Wang, H. B.; Burlat, V.; Martin, W.; Sarkanen, S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.


    BACKGROUND: Although the lignins and lignans, both monolignol-derived coupling products, account for nearly 30% of the organic carbon circulating in the biosphere, the biosynthetic mechanism of their formation has been poorly understood. The prevailing view has been that lignins and lignans are produced by random free-radical polymerization and coupling, respectively. This view is challenged, mechanistically, by the recent discovery of dirigent proteins that precisely determine both the regiochemical and stereoselective outcome of monolignol radical coupling. RESULTS: To understand further the regulation and control of monolignol coupling, leading to both lignan and lignin formation, we sought to clone the first genes encoding dirigent proteins from several species. The encoding genes, described here, have no sequence homology with any other protein of known function. When expressed in a heterologous system, the recombinant protein was able to confer strict regiochemical and stereochemical control on monolignol free-radical coupling. The expression in plants of dirigent proteins and proposed dirigent protein arrays in developing xylem and in other lignified tissues indicates roles for these proteins in both lignan formation and lignification. CONCLUSIONS: The first understanding of regiochemical and stereochemical control of monolignol coupling in lignan biosynthesis has been established via the participation of a new class of dirigent proteins. Immunological studies have also implicated the involvement of potential corresponding arrays of dirigent protein sites in controlling lignin biopolymer assembly.

  19. Study of the Radical Chain Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Oxidation for In Situ Combustion Process

    Alexandra Ushakova


    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of in situ combustion models of oil oxidation, many of the effects are still beyond consideration. For example, until now, initial stages of oxidation were not considered from a position of radical chain process. This is a serious difficulty for the simulation of oil recovery process that involves air injection. To investigate the initial stages of oxidation, the paper considers the sequence of chemical reactions, including intermediate short-living compounds and radicals. We have attempted to correlate the main stages of the reaction with areas of heat release observed in the experiments. The system of differential equations based on the equations of oxidation reactions was solved. Time dependence of peroxides formation and start of heat release is analytically derived for the initial stages. We have considered the inhibition of initial oxidation stages by aromatic oil compounds and have studied the induction time in dependence on temperature. Chain ignition criteria for paraffins and crude oil in presence of core samples were obtained. The calculation results are compared with the stages of oxidation that arise by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry. According to experimental observations we have determined which reactions are important for the process and which can be omitted or combined into one as insignificant.

  20. 1,2-Migration of N-Diarylboryl Imidazol-2-ylidene through Intermolecular Radical Process.

    Liu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Yi-Hung; Lin, Tien-Sung; Peng, Shie-Ming; Chiu, Ching-Wen


    1,2-Boryl migration of N-boryl N-heterocyclic carbene to 2-boryl imidazole is proposed to proceed through generation and recombination of two radical intermediates, namely, a neutral diarylboron radical and a N-heterocyclic carbene radical. Crossover experiments suggest that these two radical species are stable enough to escape solvent cages and recombine intermolecularly. The presence of radical intermediates is further supported by spin trapping experiments. Besides, the coordination of Li(+) cation is found to be critical for the stability of the NHC radical.

  1. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    Zhang, Tao


    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Acupuncture for Preventing Complications after Radical Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Wei-min Yi


    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the preventive effects of acupuncture for complications after radical hysterectomy. A single-center randomized controlled single-blinded trial was performed in a western-style hospital in China. One hundred and twenty patients after radical hysterectomy were randomly allocated to two groups and started acupuncture from sixth postoperative day for five consecutive days. Sanyinjiao (SP6, Shuidao (ST28, and Epangxian III (MS4 were selected with electrical stimulation and Zusanli (ST36 without electrical stimulation for thirty minutes in treatment group. Binao (LI14 was selected as sham acupuncture point without any stimulation in control group. The main outcome measures were bladder function and prevalence of postoperative complications. Compared with control group, treatment group reported significantly improved bladder function in terms of maximal cystometric capacity, first voiding desire, maximal flow rate, residual urine, and bladder compliance, and decreased bladder sensory loss, incontinence, and urinary retention on fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. Treatment group showed significant advantage in reduction of urinary tract infection on thirtieth postoperative day. But no significant difference between groups was observed for lymphocyst formation. By improving postoperative bladder function, early intervention of acupuncture may provide a valuable alternative method to prevent bladder dysfunctional disorders and urinary tract infection after radical hysterectomy.

  3. Control using intake and combustion models for conventional and active radical engines

    Ohyama, Y. [Hitachi Car Engineering Co. Ltd., Hitachinaka (Japan)


    The combination of physical models of an advanced engine control system was proposed to obtain sophisticated combustion control in ultra-lean combustion engines, including homogeneous compression-ignition and active radical combustion. Physical models of intake, combustion and engine thermodynamics were incorporated, in which the effects of residual gas from prior cycles on intake air mass and combustion were taken into consideration. The control of in-cylinder air/fuel ratio, misfire, knocking and auto-ignition was investigated using simulations. (author)

  4. Process control in biogas plants

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr


    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  5. Kinetics and mechanisms of cylindrospermopsin destruction by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes.

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D


    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent cyanobacterial toxin frequently found in water bodies worldwide raising concerns over the safety of drinking and recreational waters. A number of technologies have been investigated to remove and/or degrade cyanotoxins with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) being among the most promising and effective for water detoxification. In this study, the degradation of CYN by sulfate radical-based UV-254 nm-AOPs was evaluated. The UV/S2O8(2-) (UV/peroxydisulfate) was more efficient than UV/HSO5(-) (UV/peroxysulfate) and UV/H2O2 (UV/hydrogen peroxide) processes when natural water samples were used as reaction matrices. The observed UV fluence based pseudo-first-order rate constants followed the expected order of radical quantum yields. The presence of 200 μM natural organic matter (NOM) as carbon slightly inhibited the destruction of CYN; 1.24 mg L(-1)NO3(-) (nitrate) had no significant influence on the removal efficiency and 50 μg L(-1) Fe(2+) [iron (2+)] or Cu(2+) [copper (2+)] improved the performance of UV/S2O8(2-). The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH; hydroxyl radical scavenger) in the reaction yielded byproducts that indicated specific sites in CYN preferentially attacked by sulfate radicals (SRs). The predominant CYN degradation byproduct was P448 consistent with fragmentation of the C5C6 bond of the uracil ring. The subsequent formation of P420 and P392 through a stepwise loss of carbonyl group(s) further supported the fragmentation pathway at C5C6. The byproduct P432 was identified exclusively as mono-hydroxylation of CYN at tricyclic guanidine ring, whereas P414 was detected as dehydrogenation at the tricyclic ring. The elimination of sulfate group and the opening of tricyclic ring were also observed. The possible degradation pathways of CYN by SR-AOP were presented.

  6. Sensors for Process Control

    Tschulena, G.


    Sensors are one of the key elements for the automation in the manufacturing and process technology. The sensor field is presently within a restructuring process, directed to a stronger utilization of solid state technologies. This restructuring is governed by the utilization of solid state physical effects, by the use of reproducible fabrication techniques, and by the market driving forces. The state of the art of sensors in modern fabrication techniques will be demonstrated in examples, namely for sensors in silicon technology, in thin film technology and in thick film/screen printing technology. Some important physical and technological problems to be solved for the development of new and advanced sensor families will be outlined. Sensor development is strongly directed to the minaturization of devices and to the integration of different sensors to multisensors, as well as the integration between sensors and microelectronics.

  7. Combustion Process Modelling and Control

    Vladimír Maduda


    Full Text Available This paper deals with realization of combustion control system on programmable logic controllers. Control system design is based on analysis of the current state of combustion control systems in technological device of raw material processing area. Control system design is composed of two subsystems. First subsystem is represented by software system for measured data processing and for data processing from simulation of the combustion mathematical model. Outputs are parameters for setting of controller algorithms. Second subsystem consists from programme modules. The programme module is presented by specific control algorithm, for example proportional regulation, programmed proportional regulation, proportional regulation with correction on the oxygen in waste gas, and so on. According to the specific combustion control requirements it is possible built-up concrete control system by programme modules. The programme modules were programmed by Automation studio that is used for development, debugging and testing software for B&R controllers.

  8. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    Nazir, H.Z.


    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust agains

  9. Process management: two control charts.

    McKenzie, L


    It is not at all surprising that many persons avoid involvement in statistical process control. The statistical procedures developed in industry to monitor production processes are somewhat different from those employed in biostatistics and social science applications. Many find it difficult to adjust to these procedures and to apply statistical process control techniques to situations in health care settings. Not everyone involved in a QI process, however, needs to become versed in statistical process control techniques. At the Indiana University Medical Center several persons from different hospital departments have volunteered to form a cadre of internal statistical process control consultants. The group has come to be known by some as the statistical process control "think tank." No doubt a small group of individuals who are interested in statistics, quality control, and computers can be found in most hospitals. While it is necessary that the large majority of managers and supervisors in any health care organization are knowledgeable about process management and control charts at the concept level of understanding, it takes a relatively few to understand and use such control charts. As internal consultants, these few persons can provide technical assistance when such aid is needed.

  10. Control structures for flow process

    Mircea Dulău


    Full Text Available In the industrial domain, a large number of applications is covered by slow processes, including the flow, the pressure, the temperature and the level control. Each control system must be treated in steady and dynamic states and from the point of view of the possible technical solutions. Based on mathematical models of the processes and design calculations, PC programs allow simulation and the determination of the control system performances.The paper presents a part of an industrial process with classical control loops of flow and temperature. The mathematical model of the flow control process was deducted, the control structure, based on experimental criterions, was designed and the version witch ensure the imposed performances was chosen. Using Matlab, the robustness performances were studied.

  11. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control


    0 1 4 3 NDARDS THE NATIONAL February 1982 Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control RESEARCH PROG RAM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime...SUBTITLE Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...examples are contained in Appendix C. Included, are examples of how “A/C” process - analysis leads to design improvement and how a change in sequence can

  12. Quantum information processing in the radical-pair mechanism: Haberkorn's theory violates the Ozawa entropy bound.

    Mouloudakis, K; Kominis, I K


    Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We show here that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures, and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering Groenewold's information, the quantum information extracted during the reaction, we reproduce the known and unravel other magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.

  13. [Initiation and inhibition of free-radical processes in biochemical peroxidase systems: a review].

    Metelitsa, D I; Karaseva, E I


    The role of complexes containing oxygen or peroxide in monooxygenase systems and models thereof, as well as in peroxidase- and quasi-peroxidase-catalyzed processes, has been reviewed. Pathways of conversion of these intermediate complexes involving single-electron (radical) and two-electron (heterolytic) mechanisms are dealt with. Coupled peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of aromatic amines and phenols is analyzed; inhibition and activation of peroxidase-catalyzed reactions are characterized quantitatively. Oxidation of chromogenic substrates (ABTS, OPD, and TMB) in the presence of phenolic inhibitors or polydisulfides of substituted phenols is characterized by inhibition constants (Ki, micromol). Activation of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of the same substrates is characterized by the degree (coefficient) of activation (alpha, M(-1)), which was determined for 2-aminothiazole, melamine, tetrazole, and its 5-substituted derivatives. Examples of applied use of peroxidase-catalyzed enzyme and model systems are given (oxidation of organic compounds, chemical analysis, enzyme immunoassay, tests for antioxidant activity of biological fluids).

  14. Increase in the free radical scavenging activities of American ginseng by heat processing and its safety evaluation.

    Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Hyun Young; Okamoto, Takuya; Sei, Yasuo; Yokozawa, Takako


    We previously reported the increase in free radical scavenging activities of Korean ginseng (KG, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by heat processing. In the United States, American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium L.) is a more commonly used herbal medicine than KG, but heat processing-induced chemical and activity changes of AG are not well known. Therefore, we compared the changes in ginsenosides, total phenolic contents, Maillard reaction product (MRP) levels, and several free radical scavenging activities of AG by heat processing. In addition, a short-term toxicity assessment in rats was also conducted for the identification of certain toxic effects of AG after heat processing. As a result, the ginsenosides were deglycosylated at carbon-20 and their total contents were lowered, but the total phenolic contents and MRP levels of AG were about 2.5 and 9.3 times increased, respectively, by heat processing. In addition, all free radical scavenging activities of AG were significantly increased by heat processing. Moreover, there were no toxic signs or decreases in renal and hepatic function parameters of rats administered heat-processed AG. Therefore, heat processing, as in KG, is a useful method to enhance the free radical scavenging activities of AG by the increases in total phenolic contents and MRP levels.

  15. Controllable Chemoselectivity in Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Four Diverse Aerobic Radical Cascade Reactions.

    Liu, Xinfei; Ye, Xinyi; Bureš, Filip; Liu, Hongjun; Jiang, Zhiyong


    Reported is the controllable selectivity syntheses of four distinct products from the same starting materials by visible-light photoredox catalysis. By employing a dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) as photoredox catalyst, an aerobic radical mechanism has been developed, and allows the reactions of N-tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) with N-itaconimides to through four different pathways, including addition-cyclization, addition-elimination, addition-coupling, and addition-protonation, with satisfactory chemoselectivity. The current strategy provide straightforward access to four different but valuable N-heterocyclic adducts in moderate to excellent yields. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.



    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules. The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation. Recent years have witnessed significant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs. This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.


    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Huiqi


    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules.The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation.Recent years have witnessed signifwant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs.This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.

  18. Modeling of continuous free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process by the Monte Carlo method

    T. A. Mikhailova


    Full Text Available In the paper the algorithm of modeling of continuous low-temperature free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process in emulsion based on the Monte-Carlo method is offered. This process is the cornerstone of industrial production butadiene – styrene synthetic rubber which is the most widespread large-capacity rubber of general purpose. Imitation of growth of each macromolecule of the formed copolymer and tracking of the processes happening to it is the basis of algorithm of modeling. Modeling is carried out taking into account residence-time distribution of particles in system that gives the chance to research the process proceeding in the battery of consistently connected polymerization reactors. At the same time each polymerization reactor represents the continuous stirred tank reactor. Since the process is continuous, it is considered continuous addition of portions to the reaction mixture in the first reactor of battery. The constructed model allows to research molecular-weight and viscous characteristics of the formed copolymerization product, to predict the mass content of butadiene and styrene in copolymer, to carry out calculation of molecular-weight distribution of the received product at any moment of conducting process. According to the results of computational experiments analyzed the influence of mode of the process of the regulator introduced during the maintaining on change of characteristics of the formed butadiene-styrene copolymer. As the considered process takes place with participation of monomers of two types, besides listed the model allows to research compositional heterogeneity of the received product that is to carry out calculation of composite distribution and distribution of macromolecules for the size and structure. On the basis of the proposed algorithm created the software tool that allows you to keep track of changes in the characteristics of the resulting product in the dynamics.

  19. Formation and decay of the peroxy radicals in the oxidation process of Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal and Hydroxyacetone in aqueous solution

    Schaefer, Thomas; Weller, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere in large amounts from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. For example, the semivolatile carbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal will be produced in the oxidation process of isoprene, while hydroxyacetone can be formed by the combustion of biomass. Additionally, these semivolatile carbonyl compounds might be important for the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by partitioning between gas- and liquid phase of pre-existing particles. In the gas phase as well as in the aqueous phase (cloud droplets, fog, rain and deliquescent particles) these compounds can be further oxidized, e.g., by radicals (OH and NO3) leading to peroxy radical and then to substitued organics. There are still uncertainties concerning the oxidation pathways of glyoxal, after H-atom abstraction by, e.g., OH radicals, via alkyl radical to the peroxy radical under addition of molecular oxygen. One concept[1] claims that for dilute solutions ( 1 mM the formation of the peroxy radicals is a minor reaction pathway because of a lower rate constant of k = 1 × 106 M-1 s-1 estimated after Guzman et al., 2006[3]. The difference in the rate constants of the oxygen addition is of about three orders of magnitude and thus leads to different oxidation products and yields in the aqueous solution. Laboratory studies of glyoxal oxidation under varying oxygen concentrations have been performed in order to investigate the importance of the peroxy radical formation and alkyl radical recombination in more detail. The formation and the decay of the formed glyoxyl radicals and glyoxyl peroxy radicals were studied in low and high concentrated oxygen solutions using a laser photolysis long path absorption setup (LP-LPA). Additionally, the Tdependent decay of the peroxy radicals formed in the oxidation of methyglyoxal and hydroxyacetone was also studied using the same experiment. 1 Buxton, G. V., Malone, T. N. und Salmon, G. A., J. Chem. Soc

  20. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.


    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  1. Quantum Control of Molecular Processes

    Shapiro, Moshe


    Written by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, this is a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles of coherent control, and to the underlying physics and chemistry.This fully updated second edition is enhanced by 80% and covers the latest techniques and applications, including nanostructures, attosecond processes, optical control of chirality, and weak and strong field quantum control. Developments and challenges in decoherence-sensitive condensed phase control as well as in bimolecular control are clearly described.Indispensable for atomic, molecular and chemical

  2. Optimal Control of Teaching Process

    BAO Man; ZHANG Guo-zhi


    The authors first put forward quadratic form performance index as a criterion of measuringmerits and demerits of teaching process. On this base, we got a low of optimal control after the quantificationof the teacher's functions. It must play a leading role on how the teacher fully controls the whole teachingprocess.

  3. Pre-treatment nomogram for biochemical control after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and radical radiotherapy for clinically localised prostate cancer

    Parker, C. C.; Norman, A R; Huddart, R A; Horwich, A; Dearnaley, D. P.


    Phase III studies have demonstrated the clinical benefit of adding neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation to radical radiotherapy for clinically localised prostate cancer. We have developed a nomogram to describe the probability of PSA control for patients treated in this way. Five hundred and seventeen men with clinically localised prostate cancer were treated with 3–6 months of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation and radical radiotherapy (64 Gy in 32#) between 1988 and 1998. Median presenting PSA ...

  4. Using Product Bundling to Facilitate the Adoption Process of Radical Innovations

    Reinders, M.J.; Frambach, R.T.; Schoormans, J.P.L.


    Generally, radical innovations are not easily adopted in the market. Potential adopters experience difficulties to comprehend and evaluate radical innovations due to their newness in terms of technology and benefits offered. Consequently, adoption intentions may remain low. This paper proposes bundl

  5. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun


    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  6. Radical Acceleration in Educational Process of Highly Gifted Students and the Situation of Turkey

    Hasan Said TORTOP


    Full Text Available A number of programs are implemented in order to meet cognitive, social and emotional needs of gifted students. One of them is the radical acceleration that ensures gifted students gaining access to university three or more years before than their peers. First performed in 1971, radical acceleration is currently implemented in many universities in United State and Asian and European countries. There are many researches on radical acceleration showing that it has no negative impacts on gifted students, rather it provides important outcomes. This study investigated radical acceleration and its outcomes on gifted students, as well as suggestions regarding to its application. Finally, situation of many countries in terms of radical acceleration, and legal regulations in Turkey's were presented.

  7. Process control using reliability based control charts

    J.K. Jacob


    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the method to monitor the mean time between failures (MTBF and detect anychange in intensity parameter. Here, a control chart procedure is presented for process reliability monitoring.Control chart based on different distributions are also considered and were used in decision making. Results anddiscussions are presented based on the case study at different industries.Design/methodology/approach: The failure occurrence process can be modeled by different distributions likehomogeneous Poisson process, Weibull model etc. In each case the aim is to monitor the mean time betweenfailure (MTBF and detect any change in intensity parameter. When the process can be described by a Poissonprocess the time between failures will be exponential and can be used for reliability monitoring.Findings: In this paper, a new procedure based on the monitoring of time to observe r failures is also proposedand it can be more appropriate for reliability monitoring.Practical implications: This procedure is useful and more sensitive when compared with the λ-chart although itwill wait until r failures for a decision. These charts can be regarded as powerful tools for reliability monitoring.λr gives more accurate results than λ-chart.Originality/value: Adopting these measures to system of equipments can increase the reliability and availabilityof the system results in economic gain. A homogeneous Poisson process is usually used to model the failureoccurrence process with certain intensity.

  8. Path modeling and process control

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.


    and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data.......Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...

  9. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.

    Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa


    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18) spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed.

  10. Process control under safety aspects

    Vollmer, T. E-mail:; Borcherding, K.; Hellriegel, G.; Penzhorn, R.-D


    The safety of people and the environment is increasingly important in the operation and, consequently, also in the project design of process equipment. Rules and regulations for safeguarding of industrial process plants (not-nuclear and nuclear) by means of process control engineering are either being developed or expanded. This includes the international harmonization of existing national codes. This article presents an introduction into the philosophy of ensuring plant safety by means of instrumentation and control protection systems. The methods of risk assessment are described, and various potential solutions are shown which are geared to achieving the necessary level of safety and, at the same time, allowing flexible operation to be maintained. Reference is made to the problems existing with respect to integrating people into this process, i.e. man-machine interaction, especially in view of possible interventions in emergencies.

  11. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    Ramos, Sergio


    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  12. Individualism, conservatism, and radicalism as criteria for processing political beliefs: a parametric fMRI study.

    Zamboni, Giovanna; Gozzi, Marta; Krueger, Frank; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela; Grafman, Jordan


    Politics is a manifestation of the uniquely human ability to debate, decide, and reach consensus on decisions affecting large groups over long durations of time. Recent neuroimaging studies on politics have focused on the association between brain regions and specific political behaviors by adopting party or ideological affiliation as a criterion to classify either experimental stimuli or subjects. However, it is unlikely that complex political beliefs (i.e., "the government should protect freedom of speech") are evaluated only on a liberal-to-conservative criterion. Here we used multidimensional scaling and parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify which criteria/dimensions people use to structure complex political beliefs and which brain regions are concurrently activated. We found that three independent dimensions explained the variability of a set of statements expressing political beliefs and that each dimension was reflected in a distinctive pattern of neural activation: individualism (medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction), conservatism (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and radicalism (ventral striatum and posterior cingulate). The structures we identified are also known to be important in self-other processing, social decision-making in ambivalent situations, and reward prediction. Our results extend current knowledge on the neural correlates of the structure of political beliefs, a fundamental aspect of the human ability to coalesce into social entities.

  13. Degradation mechanism of cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin by hydroxyl radicals in homogeneous UV/H₂O₂ process.

    He, Xuexiang; Zhang, Geshan; de la Cruz, Armah A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D


    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometry. Various byproducts identified indicated three common reaction pathways: hydroxyl addition (+16 Da), alcoholic oxidation or dehydrogenation (-2 Da), and elimination of sulfate (-80 Da). The initiation of the degradation was observed at the hydroxymethyl uracil and tricyclic guanidine groups; uracil moiety cleavage/fragmentation and further ring-opening of the alkaloid were also noted at an extended reaction time or higher UV fluence. The degradation rates of CYN decreased and less byproducts (species) were detected using natural water matrices; however, CYN was effectively eliminated under extended UV irradiation. This study demonstrates the efficiency of CYN degradation and provides a better understanding of the mechanism of CYN degradation by hydroxyl radical, a reactive oxygen species that can be generated by most AOPs and is present in natural water environment.

  14. Removal of dye by carboxymethyl cellulose, acrylamide and graphene oxide via a free radical polymerization process.

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi


    Carboxymethyl cellulose has been used for the design of novel engineered hydrogels in order to obtain effective three-dimensional structures for industrial applications. In this work, dye removal carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylamide-graphene oxide (CMC-AM-GO) hydrogels were prepared by a free-radical polymerization method. The GO was developed by the modified Hummers method. The CMC-AM-GO and GO were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM. The swelling and swelling kinetics were calculated using gravimetric process. The kinetic parameter, swelling exponent values [n=0.59-0.7507] explained the fact that the CMC-AM-GO hydrogles have super Case II diffusion transport mechanism. CMCx-AM-GO (x=1-4) and CMC-AM hydrogels were used for removal of Acid Blue-133. The result explains that composite hydrogels significantly removed the acid blue when compared to the neat hydrogel. The maximum AB absorption (185.45mg/g) capacity was found in the case of CMC2-AM-GO hydrogel. Therefore, cellulose-based GO hydrogels can be termed as smart systems for the abstraction of dye in water purification applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement in Liquid Chromatographic Performance of Organic Polymer Monolithic Capillary Columns with Controlled Free-Radical Polymerization.

    Gama, Mariana R; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Lee, Milton L; Bottoli, Carla B G


    Capillary columns containing butyl or lauryl methacrylate monoliths were prepared using two different free-radical polymerization methods: conventional free-radical polymerization and controlled/living free-radical polymerization, both initiated thermally, and these methods were compared for the first time. Both monolith morphology and chromatographic efficiency were compared for the synthesized stationary phases using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and capillary liquid chromatography, respectively. Columns prepared using controlled method gave better chromatographic performance for both monomers tested. The lauryl-based monolith showed 7-fold improvement in chromatographic efficiency with a plate count of 42,000 plates/m (corrected for dead volume) for a non-retained compound. Columns fabricated using controlled polymerization appeared more homogenous radially with fused small globular morphologies, evaluated by SEM, and lower column permeability. The columns were compared with respect to resolving power of a series of alkylbenzenes under isocratic and gradient elution conditions.

  16. A Radical Sodium Reduction Policy is not Supported by Randomized Controlled Trials or Observational Studies

    Graudal, Niels


    Several health institutions recommend sodium intake be reduced to below 2,300 mg, which means that 6-7 billion individuals should alter their diet to accommodate. Such a radical recommendation should be based on solid evidence. However, this review reveals that (i) there are no randomized...... controlled trials (RCTs) allocating individuals to below 2,300 mg and measuring health outcomes; (ii) RCTs allocating risk groups such as obese prehypertensive individuals and hypertensive individuals down to (but not below) 2,300 mg show no effect of sodium reduction on all-cause mortality; (iii) RCTs...... allocating individuals to below 2,300 mg show a minimal effect on blood pressure in the healthy population (less than 1mm Hg) and significant increases in renin, aldosterone, noradrenalin cholesterol, and triglyceride; and (iv) observational studies show that sodium intakes below 2,645 and above 4,945 mg...

  17. A Process Control Undergraduate Option.

    Hassler, J. C.; Mumme', K. I.


    Discusses a course sequence in process control in the chemical engineering department at the University of Maine. Various factors in teaching the sequence (which tends to be strongly applied in nature) are also discussed. These factors include texts, facilities, industrial response to the program, and others. (Author/JN)

  18. Interactive Control of Prototyping Process

    Luqi; Lee, Yuh-jeng


    We present the use of CAPS (Computer-aided Prototyping System) for the interactive construction, execution, debugging, modification, and controlling of software prototypes. We discuss the current version of CAPS, explicate its user interface for monitoring and coordinating the prototype development process, and depict the functioning of each of the integrated software tools.

  19. Correction of Hypoxia and Free Radical Oxidation Processes in Gastroduodenal Hemorrhages

    S. S. Morgunov


    Full Text Available The present investigation was to study the clinical efficacy of the substrate antihypoxant-antioxidant Reamberin used in the correction of tissue hypoxia and free radical oxidation (FRO in patients with severe blood loss of ulcerous etiology. The paper presents the results of the investigation of Reamberin used in the therapy of posthemorrhagic hypoxia, by simultaneously evaluating metabolism and the parameters of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidative system (AOS in patients with ulcerative gastroduodenal hemorrhage (UGDH.Materials and methods. Thirty-six patients with UGDH with a circulating blood volume (CBV deficit of 30—40% and a globular volume of 50—60% were examined. Systemic hemodynamics was examined by the integral body theography method by means of a Diamant rheoanalyzer. The values of blood oxygen-transport function were determined and calculated. For rapid expression and evaluation of the summary state of FRO, a procedure for the recording of activated H2O2 chemiluminescence was used in the presence of Fe2+. Metabolic disturbances were judged from the concentration of lactate and glucose.Results. Acute blood loss of ulcerous etiology has been found to cause significant systemic hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders and impairments of metabolism, oxygen balance, and tissue perfusion and to intensify FRO and LPO processes, and the use of 1.5% Reamberin in a volume of 800 ml/day substantially reduces the degree of specific cell metabolic disturbances in critical conditions, such as tissue hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction, FRO activation, LPO-AOS imbalance.Conclusion. Inclusion of Reamberin in the intensive care of acute blood loss diminishes the manifestations of tissue hypoxia and improves oxygen delivery and consumption. The agent activates the antioxidative system, inhibits LPO processes in the ischemic tissues, and reduces the severity of pathological effects of hypoxia during reperfusion and reoxygenation. 

  20. Peroxy Radical Chemistry and Partitioning under a Ponderosa Pine Canopy

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Kim, S.; Henry, S. B.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P. C.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Guenther, A. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y. J.; Keutsch, F. N.


    As the first intermediates in the OH-initiated oxidation of hydrocarbons, peroxy radicals are central to the photochemistry of the lower atmosphere. Peroxy radical abundance and partitioning controls relative rates of radical propagation and termination in low-NOx regimes, and the coupled cycling of these molecules lies at the heart of recently-highlighted deficiencies in traditional chemical mechanisms. Using observations of hydroperoxy (HO2) and total peroxy (HO2 + RO2) radicals acquired during the summer 2010 BEACHON-ROCs campaign, we explore the processes affecting radical-mediated chemistry within a rural Ponderosa pine forest in central Colorado. Steady-state and fully-coupled 0-D modeling studies are used to provide complementary perspectives on our understanding of the radical budget in this environment. Analysis will focus on the nature and impact of unidentified radical sources and sinks and on how the composition of the peroxy radical pool modulates radical regeneration.

  1. Peculiarities of the free radical processes in rat liver mitochondria under toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    G. P. Kopylchuk


    Full Text Available The rate of superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, the level of oxidative modification of mitochondrial proteins in the liver of rats with toxic hepatitis was investigated on the background of alimentary protein deficiency. We did not find significant increases of the intensity of free radical processes in liver mitochondria of rats maintained on the protein-deficient ration. The most significant intensification of free radical processes in liver mitochondria is observed under the conditions of toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of alimentary protein deprivation. Under these conditions the aggravation of all studied forms of reactive oxygen species generation was observed in liver mitochondria. The generation rates were increased as follows: O2 – by 1.7 times, Н2О2 – by 1.5 times, •ОН – practically double on the background of accumulation of oxidized mitochondria-derived proteins. The established changes in thiol groups’ redox status of respiratory chain proteins insoluble in 0.05 M sodium-phosphate buffer (pH 11.5, and changes of their carbonyl derivatives content may be considered as one of the regulatory factors of mitochondrial energy-generating function.

  2. Adygheya: Processes of Re-Islamisation and Challenges of Islamic Radicalism (1990-2015

    Neflyasheva Naima A.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the transformation of Islamic community of the Adygheya Republic during 1990-2015, new tendencies and actors. The author reveals new trends in the 2010s updated by the dynamics of the political background of Adygheya. The main focus is the factors constraining Muslims from radicalism in the 1990s – 2010s, as well as factors that may contribute to the spread of radical version of Islam today. According to the author, the factors of radicalization of Muslims in the Adygheya can be divided into two groups – federal and regional. The first concerns the many unresolved methodological issues relating to “New Muslims”. As practice shows, the state unequivocal support of the “traditional Muslim clergy” contributes to the isolation of Salafis, limits the possibilities of intraconfessional dialogue. The facts of destruction of mosques, injunction religious books, extra-judicial persecution of Muslims and ban on headscarves (hijabs in schools in the other regions of the Russian Federation forms the protest discourse. At the regional level a crisis of ethnic ideology Adyghe Khabze, economical crisis and broken social lifts contribute to the radicalization of Muslims. Islamic radicals are very active and professional in social networks, they create the groups whose target audience is youth. The activities of the radical “Internet imams”, electronic “religious authorities” are typical for Adygheya and for the whole North Caucasus outside the native region. Their influence, agitation and propaganda are destructive and will have a negative impact in the future. A new trend is the departure of the Adyghe Muslims in ISIL (about 21 people from the beginning of 2015.

  3. Supramolecular Photochemistry Controlling Photochemical Processes

    Ramamurthy, V


    This is the most updated, comprehensive collection of monographs on all aspects of photochemistry and photophysics related to natural and synthetic, inorganic, organic, and biological supramolecular systems. Supramolecular Photochemistry: Controlling Photochemical Processes addresses reactions in crystals, organized assemblies, monolayers, zeolites, clays, silica, micelles, polymers, dendrimers, organic hosts, supramolecular structures, organic glass, proteins and DNA, and applications of photosystems in confined media. This landmark publication describes the past, present, and future of this

  4. Release of reactive oxygen intermediates (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and peroxidase in germinating radish seeds controlled by light, gibberellin, and abscisic acid.

    Schopfer, P; Plachy, C; Frahry, G


    Germination of radish (Raphanus sativus cv Eterna) seeds can be inhibited by far-red light (high-irradiance reaction of phytochrome) or abscisic acid (ABA). Gibberellic acid (GA3) restores full germination under far-red light. This experimental system was used to investigate the release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by seed coats and embryos during germination, utilizing the apoplastic oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin to fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein as an in vivo assay. Germination in darkness is accompanied by a steep rise in ROI release originating from the seed coat (living aleurone layer) as well as the embryo. At the same time as the inhibition of germination, far-red light and ABA inhibit ROI release in both seed parts and GA3 reverses this inhibition when initiating germination under far-red light. During the later stage of germination the seed coat also releases peroxidase with a time course affected by far-red light, ABA, and GA3. The participation of superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in ROI metabolism was demonstrated with specific in vivo assays. ROI production by germinating seeds represents an active, developmentally controlled physiological function, presumably for protecting the emerging seedling against attack by pathogens.

  5. Radical-controlled Oscillations in BrO3--fructose-Mn2+-H2SO4 System

    He Xing LI; Chun Hua GE


    Sustained oscillations were observed in the BrO3--fructose-Mn2+-H2SO4 system.Unlike the classical BZ oscillations, the present oscillations might be considered as radicalcontrolled rather than bromide-controlled since no substance subjected to bromination was present.Addition of acetone induced dual-frequency oscillations comprised of both the radical-controlled and the bromide-controlled oscillations.

  6. High-Field Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Density Functional Theory Study of Stable Organic Radicals in Lignin: Influence of the Extraction Process, Botanical Origin, and Protonation Reactions on the Radical g Tensor.

    Bährle, Christian; Nick, Thomas U; Bennati, Marina; Jeschke, Gunnar; Vogel, Frédéric


    The radical concentrations and g factors of stable organic radicals in different lignin preparations were determined by X-band EPR at 9 GHz. We observed that the g factors of these radicals are largely determined by the extraction process and not by the botanical origin of the lignin. The parameter mostly influencing the g factor is the pH value during lignin extraction. This effect was studied in depth using high-field EPR spectroscopy at 263 GHz. We were able to determine the gxx, gyy, and gzz components of the g tensor of the stable organic radicals in lignin. With the enhanced resolution of high-field EPR, distinct radical species could be found in this complex polymer. The radical species are assigned to substituted o-semiquinone radicals and can exist in different protonation states SH3+, SH2, SH1-, and S2-. The proposed model structures are supported by DFT calculations. The g principal values of the proposed structure were all in reasonable agreement with the experiments.

  7. Treatment outcome and prognostic variables for local control and survival in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der


    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the outcome of radical radiotherapy in 292 patients with bladder cancer and to identify prognostic factors for local control and survival. Median age was 72.3 years (range 45-83 years). Median follow up was 66 months (range 18-121 months). All pa...

  8. Electroassisted Functionalization of Nitinol Surface, a Powerful Strategy for Polymer Coating through Controlled Radical Surface Initiation.

    Arrotin, Bastien; Delhalle, Joseph; Dubois, Philippe; Mespouille, Laetitia; Mekhalif, Zineb


    Coating Nitinol (NiTi) surfaces with a polymer layer has become very appealing in the past few years owing to its increased attraction in the biomedical field. Although its intrinsic properties helped ensure its popularity, its extensive implementation is still hampered by its nickel inclusion, making it sensitive to pitting corrosion and therefore leading to the release of carcinogenic Ni(2+) ions. Among all recent ways to modify NiTi surfaces, elaboration of self-assembled monolayers is of great interest as their high order confers a reinforcement of the metal surface corrosion resistance and brings new functionalities to the metal for postmodification processes. In this work, we compare the electroassisted and thermally assisted self-assembling of 11-(2-bromoisobutyrate)-undecyl-1-phosphonic acid (BUPA) to the classical immersion process on NiTi surfaces initially submitted to a hydrothermal treatment. Among all tested conditions, the electroassisted grafting of BUPA at room temperature appears to be the most promising alternative, as it allows grafting in very short times (5-10 min), thus preventing its degradation. The thus-formed layer has been proven to be sufficient to enable the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate.

  9. Spectroscopic detection, characterization and dynamics of free radicals relevant to combustion processes

    Miller, Terry [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Combustion chemistry is enormously complex. The chemical mechanisms involve a multitude of elementary reaction steps and a comparable number of reactive intermediates, many of which are free radicals. Computer simulations based upon these mechanisms are limited by the validity of the mechanisms and the parameters characterizing the properties of the intermediates and their reactivity. Spectroscopy can provide data for sensitive and selective diagnostics to follow their reactions. Spectroscopic analysis also provides detailed parameters characterizing the properties of these intermediates. These parameters serve as experimental gold standards to benchmark predictions of these properties from large-scale, electronic structure calculations. This work has demonstrated the unique capabilities of near-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy (NIR CRDS) to identify, characterize and monitor intermediates of key importance in complex chemical reactions. Our studies have focussed on the large family of organic peroxy radicals which are arguably themost important intermediates in combustion chemistry and many other reactions involving the oxidation of organic compounds. Our spectroscopic studies have shown that the NIR Ã - ˜X electronic spectra of the peroxy radicals allows one to differentiate among chemical species in the organic peroxy family and also determine their isomeric and conformic structure in many cases. We have clearly demonstrated this capability on saturated and unsaturated peroxy radicals and β-hydroxy peroxy radicals. In addition we have developed a unique dual wavelength CRDS apparatus specifically for the purpose of measuring absolute absorption cross section and following the reaction of chemical intermediates. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by measuring the cross-section and self-reaction rate constant for ethyl peroxy.

  10. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    Streefland, M.


    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the regul

  11. High Efficient of the Intermolecular Radical Reactions through three-Component Carbo-Oximation Process using new ready available Sulfonyl oxime.

    Shireen Mohammed


    Full Text Available Addition of functionalized carbon fragments across the olefinic π-system through a free-radical carbo-oximation process offers a straightforward access to valuable intermediates for organic synthesis. For this purpose, we designed a new protected sulfonyl oxime, which enable rapid radical addition with high yields under mild conditions.

  12. Surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) for controlling biological cells' adhesion using a scanning radical microjet

    Tan, Helen M.L. [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan); Fukuda, H. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, 350-8585 (Japan); Akagi, T. [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan); Center for NanoBio Integration, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan); Ichiki, T. [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan) and Center for NanoBio Integration, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    A scanning radical microjet (SRMJ) equipment using oxygen microplasma has been developed and successfully applied for controlling biological cells' attachment on biocompatible polymer material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The radical microjet has advantages in localized and high-rate surface treatment. Moreover, maskless hydrophilic patterning using SRMJ has been demonstrated to be applicable to patterned cell cultivation which is useful in emerging biotechnological field such as tissue engineering and cell-based biosensors. Since control of PDMS surface properties is an indispensable prerequisite for cells' attachment, effects of oxygen flow rates and treatment time on localized hydrophilic patterning of PDMS surfaces were first investigated for controlling HeLa cells' (human epitheloid carcinoma cell line) attachment. Relationships between surface conditions of treated PDMS films and attached cell density are also discussed based on surface properties analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  13. Multivariate Statistical Process Control Process Monitoring Methods and Applications

    Ge, Zhiqiang


      Given their key position in the process control industry, process monitoring techniques have been extensively investigated by industrial practitioners and academic control researchers. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is one of the most popular data-based methods for process monitoring and is widely used in various industrial areas. Effective routines for process monitoring can help operators run industrial processes efficiently at the same time as maintaining high product quality. Multivariate Statistical Process Control reviews the developments and improvements that have been made to MSPC over the last decade, and goes on to propose a series of new MSPC-based approaches for complex process monitoring. These new methods are demonstrated in several case studies from the chemical, biological, and semiconductor industrial areas.   Control and process engineers, and academic researchers in the process monitoring, process control and fault detection and isolation (FDI) disciplines will be inter...

  14. Comparison of Polymer Networks Synthesized by Conventional Free Radical and RAFT Copolymerization Processes in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Patricia Pérez-Salinas


    Full Text Available There is a debate in the literature on whether or not polymer networks synthesized by reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP processes, such as reversible addition-fragmentation radical transfer (RAFT copolymerization of vinyl/divinyl monomers, are less heterogeneous than those synthesized by conventional free radical copolymerization (FRP. In this contribution, the syntheses by FRP and RAFT of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethylene methacrylate (HEMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2, using Krytox 157 FSL as the dispersing agent, and the properties of the materials produced, are compared. The materials were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, swelling index (SI, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studies on ciprofloxacin loading and release rate from hydrogels were also carried out. The combined results show that the hydrogels synthesized by FRP and RAFT are significantly different, with apparently less heterogeneity present in the materials synthesized by RAFT copolymerization. A ratio of experimental (Mcexp to theoretical (Mctheo molecular weight between crosslinks was established as a quantitative tool to assess the degree of heterogeneity of a polymer network.

  15. Business Intelligence in Process Control

    Kopčeková, Alena; Kopček, Michal; Tanuška, Pavol


    The Business Intelligence technology, which represents a strong tool not only for decision making support, but also has a big potential in other fields of application, is discussed in this paper. Necessary fundamental definitions are offered and explained to better understand the basic principles and the role of this technology for company management. Article is logically divided into five main parts. In the first part, there is the definition of the technology and the list of main advantages. In the second part, an overview of the system architecture with the brief description of separate building blocks is presented. Also, the hierarchical nature of the system architecture is shown. The technology life cycle consisting of four steps, which are mutually interconnected into a ring, is described in the third part. In the fourth part, analytical methods incorporated in the online analytical processing and data mining used within the business intelligence as well as the related data mining methodologies are summarised. Also, some typical applications of the above-mentioned particular methods are introduced. In the final part, a proposal of the knowledge discovery system for hierarchical process control is outlined. The focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive view and to familiarize the reader with the Business Intelligence technology and its utilisation.

  16. Controlled grafting of comb copolymer brushes on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) films by surface-initiated living radical polymerizations.

    Yu, W H; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G


    Surface modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by well-defined comb copolymer brushes was carried out. Peroxide initiators were generated directly on the PTFE film surface via radio frequency Ar plasma pretreatment, followed by air exposure. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were first prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization from the peroxide initiators on the PTFE surface in the presence of a chain transfer agent. Kinetics study revealed a linear increase in the graft concentration of PGMA with the reaction time, indicating that the chain growth from the surface was consistent with a "controlled" or "living" process. alpha-Bromoester moieties were attached to the grafted PGMA by reaction of the epoxide groups with 2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid. The comb copolymer brushes were subsequently prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of two hydrophilic vinyl monomers, including poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and sodium salt of 4-styrenesulfonic acid. The chemical composition of the modified PTFE surfaces was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Ultra Low Power 14XM FinFET's Process-a Radical New Approach to Transistors

    Suhas K. V.


    Full Text Available FinFET technology is a radical new technology that has been proposed by the industry to overcome large leakage power occurring in low power VLSI circuits. In this paper, the working of the basic MOSFET, condition of operations for any transistor and the FinFET along with its structure is described. This paper mainly covers how FinFET can be an advantage compared to basic MOSFET and how leakage can be reduced in FinFET is explained with the comparison of basic MOSFET. The fabrication steps are briefly discussed

  18. ERP Implementation: An Integrated Process of Radical Change and Continuous Learning

    Jensen, Pernille Kræmmergaard; Boer, Harry; Møller, Charles


    This paper seeks to develop management theory that can be used to increase the likelihood of ERP implementation success. The paper argues and demonstrates that an ERP implementation can be understood as an intended radical change that can be managed to some extent. But during the use of the system......, incremental changes are bound to take place, which are unintended and difficult to manage. Using, therefore, and combining positivist and constructivist viewpoints, six different propositions on ERP implementation are developed. The paper reasons that organisations that understand these propositions are more...

  19. Direct oxidation of methyl radicals in OCM process deduced from correlation of product selectivities

    Zhiming Gao; Yuanyuan Ma


    Selectivity of hydrogen in reaction of oxidative coupling of methane(OCM)was evaluated over the MxOy-BaCO3(MxOy: La2O3,Sm2O3,MgO,CaO)catalysts.Correlation of product selectivities was thus discussed.From the correlation of product selectivities,it is revealed that the carbon oxides(CO and CO2)were most probably formed from the direct oxidation of methyl radicals under the conditions adopted in the present work.This is also in accordance with the OCM mechanism proposed in literature.

  20. Free Radical Reactions in Food.

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…


    Zhao-bin Zhang; Xiao-long Wan; Chun-pu Hu; Sheng-kang Ying


    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene catalyzed by cuprous (CuX)/1,10-phenanthroline (Phen)and CuX/CuX2/Phen was conducted in an aqueous dispersed system. A stable latex was obtained by using ionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS) or composite surfactants, such as SLS/polyoxyethylene nonyl phenyl ether (OP-10),SLS/hexadecanol and SLS/OP-10/hexadecanol. Among which SLS and SLS/OP-10/hexadecanol systems established better dispersed effect during the polymerization. It was found that Phen was a more suitable ligand than N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) to maintain an appropriate equilibrium of the activator Cu(Ⅰ) and the deactivator Cu(Ⅱ) between the organic phase and the water phase. The effect of several initiators (such as EBiB, CCl4 and 1-PEBr) and the temperature on such a kind of ATRP system was also observed. The number-average molar mass (Mn) of polystyrene (PS)increased with the conversion and the molar mass distribution (Mw/Mn) remained narrow. These experimental data show that the polymerization could be controlled except for the quick increase of monomer conversion and the number-average molar mass of PS in the initial stage of polymerization. Furthermore, the initiator efficiency was found to be low (~57%) in CuX/Phen catalyzed system. To overcome this problem, Cu(Ⅱ )X2 (20 mol%-50 mol% based on CuX) was introduced into the polymerization system. In this case, higher initiator efficiency (60%-90%), low Mw/Mn of PS (as low as 1.08) were achieved and the molar masses of the PS fit with the theoretical ones.

  2. Application of UV-Vis spectrophotometric process for the assessment of indoloacridines as free radical scavenger.

    Sridharan, Makuteswaran; Prasad, K J Rajendra; Madhumitha, G; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan


    A conventional approach has been used to synthesis Indole fused acridine, 4a-e. In this paper to achieve the target molecule, 4 the reaction was performed via two steps. In step 1, there was a reaction between Carbazolone, 1 and benzophenone, 2 to get dihydroindoloacridine, 3. In step 2, compound, 3 was treated with 5% Palladium/Carbon in the presence of diphenyl ether for 5h to give a dark brown product, 4. The column chromatography was used to purify final product, 4. All the synthesized compounds such as 3 and 4 were characterized by melting point, FTIR, (1)H NMR, and Mass spectra. Further to check the purity of the compounds it was subjected to CHN analyzer. The target molecules such as 3 and 4 were screened for antimicrobial studies against bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi); and fungi like Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus). The obtained results clearly proves that the target molecules shown reasonable activity against K. pneumonia and A. niger. Further the compounds were screened for free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The free radical scavenging property was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The results were compared with the standard BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene). Compounds, 4a and 4e were shown higher percentage of inhibition when compare to the standard. The result confirms that further research on indoloacridine will leads effective drug to the market.

  3. [Correction of free-radical processes in patients with chronic brain ischemia with intravenous laser irradiation of blood].

    Karneev, A N; Solov'eva, E Iu; Fedin, A I


    We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in 130 patients with chronic brain ischemia (CBI). Primary and secondary LPO products, oxidative and antioxidative enzymes were studied in the course of therapy with antioxidant drug cytoflavin and intravenous laser radiation of blood (ILRB). The latter proved to have a normalizing action on LPO and antioxidant defense. With progression of CBI, effects of ILRB on enzymatic activity weakens due to depletion of endogenic antioxidants. This necessitates administration of exogenic antioxidants (cytoflavin) for complex correction of free radical processes. This conclusion allows recommending combined schemes of therapy for patients with CBI stage II and III.

  4. Radical polymerization of styrene controlled by half-sandwich Mo(III)/Mo(IV) couples: all basic mechanisms are possible.

    Le Grognec, E; Claverie, J; Poli, R


    Density functional calculations of bond dissociation energies (BDEs) have been used as a guide to the choice of metal system suitable for controlling styrene polymerization by either the stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) or the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanism. In accord with the theoretical prediction, CpMo(eta(4)-C(4)H(6))(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2), 2, is not capable of yielding SFRP of styrene. Still in accord with theoretical prediction, CpMo(eta(4)-C(4)H(6))Cl(2), 1, CpMo(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2), 3, and CpMo(dppe)Cl(2) (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), 4, yield controlled styrene polymerization by the SFRP mechanism in the presence of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). This arises from the generation of a putative Mo(IV) alkyl species from the AIBN-generated radical addition to the Mo(III) compound. The controlled nature of the polymerizations is indicated by linear M(n) progression with the conversion in all cases and moderate polydispersity indices (PDIs). Controlled polymerization of styrene is also given by compounds 3 and 4 in combination with alkyl bromides. These complexes then operate by the ATRP mechanism, again in accord with the theoretical predictions. Controlled character is revealed by linear increase of M(n) versus conversion, low PDIs, a stop-and-go experiment, and (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF analyses of the polymer end groups. The same controlled polymerization is given by a "reverse" ATRP experiment, starting from AIBN and CpMo(PMe(3))(2)Cl(2)Br, 5. On the other hand, when compound 1 or 2 is used in combination with an alkyl bromide (as for an ATRP experiment), the isolated polystyrene shows by M(n), (1)H NMR, and MALDI-TOF analyses that catalytic chain transfer (CCT) radical polymerization takes place in this case. Kinetics simulations underscore the conditions regulating the radical polymerization mechanism and the living character of the polymerization. The complexes herein described are ineffective at controlling the

  5. Effects of N-[Imino(1-Piperidinyl)Methyl] Guanidine on the Intensity of Free Radical Processes, Aconitase Activity, and Citrate Level in the Tissues of Rats with Experimental Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Skliarova, E I; Popova, T N; Shulgin, K K


    Effects of a synthetic biguanide derivative N-[imino(1-piperidinyl)methyl] guanidine (NIPMG) on free radical homeostasis, aconitase activity, and citrate concentration were studied in the liver and blood serum of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Analysis of biochemiluminescence parameters showed that administration of this agent (10 mg/kg body weight) to animals with diabetes reduced the intensity of free radical processes in study tissues relative to the increased values in untreated diabetic animals. Under these conditions, aconitase activity, a principal target of ROS effects, and citrate level in the liver and blood serum of rats approached the control levels. The results show that NIPMG can positively regulate free radical homeostasis and reduce the intensity of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which was accompanied by normalization of the studied parameters.




    Full Text Available As an application of Plantwide control, where few papers have been published about the integrated process design and control of complete plants, the acetylene hydrogenation process has been considered as the goal of this research. Firstly, all plant units were controlled separately using PID controllers, then, complete plant control was based on the 15 steps of Luyben’s plantwide control strategy. An acceptable overall plant control behavior was achieved in terms of settling times and overshoot. An improvement was also, noticed on the plantwide control application when cascaded controllers are used for the developed control system. The improvement was clearly on the temperature control.

  7. A DFT Study Toward the Reaction Mechanisms of TNT With Hydroxyl Radicals for Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    He, Xi; Zeng, Qun; Zhou, Yang; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wei, Xianfeng; Zhang, Chaoyang


    The degradation pathway of environmental contaminant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated computationally at the SMD(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The dominant decomposition pathway of TNT → 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol → 4,6-dinitro-2-hydroxybenzylalcohol → 4,6-dinitro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde was provided, and the corresponding predicted products and their distributions are in a good agreement with available experimental data on TNT degradation by Fenton reaction. It was shown that the mechanism of addition-elimination is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The reaction of H atom abstraction is a minor competing pathway. The details on transition states, intermediate radicals, and free energy surfaces for all proposed reactions are given and make up for a lack of experimental knowledge.

  8. ERP implementation: an integrated process of radical change and continuous learning

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Møller, Charles; Boer, Harry


    This paper seeks to develop management theory that can be used to increase the likelihood of ERP implementation success. The paper argues and demonstrates that an ERP implementation can be understood as an intended radical change that can be managed to some extent. But during the use of the system......, incremental changes are bound to take place, which are unintended and difficult to manage. Using, therefore, and combining positivist and constructivist viewpoints, six different propositions on ERP implementation are developed. The paper reasons that organisations that understand these propositions are more...... likely to implement and use ERP successfully. The findings of a longitudinal case study of the implementation and use of BaaN in a Danish company support the propositions put forward in the paper. Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

  9. The use of a bulldog clamp to control the dorsal vein complex during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Tüfek, Ilter; Atuğ, Fatih; Argun, Burak; Keskin, Selçuk; Obek, Can; Coşkuner, Enis; Kural, Ali Riza


    Optimal control of the dorsal venous complex (DVC) is a critical step in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). If DVC is not controlled properly, bleeding may occur during the apical dissection. On the other hand, if it is controlled well, a bloodless field is attained and, thus, a precise apical dissection and urethral division is possible. Suture ligation is the most common technique used for dorsal vein control, while some authors recommend using an endovascular stapler. Recently, athermal division and selective suture ligation technique has been reported for DVC control. We describe a new technique: Use of a bulldog clamp to control the DVC during RARP. The control of the DVC with a bulldog clamp allows a bloodless field with precise apical dissection and provides preservation of maximum urethral length while avoiding sphincteral injury.

  10. [Intensity of cardiac free-radicals processes and expression of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes in rats with adrenaline].

    Iskusnykh, I Iu; Popova, T N; Musharova, O S


    The correlation between changes in activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in heart of rats during development of adrenaline myocarditis and intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters and the content of lipoperoxidation products was demonstrated. The maximal increase of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities (in 1.8 and 1.4 times accordingly) was observed t 24 h after the development of the pathological process; this coincided with the maximum intensity of prosesses of free radical oxidation. Using combination of reverse transcriptions with real-time polymerase chain reaction the cardiac mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes were determined during the development of adrenaline myocarditis in rats. Analysis of expression of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes showed, that the level of this transcripts demonstrated 2,8- and 7,3- increase in rats with adrenaline myocarditis, respectively. Obviously, overexpression of these enzymes can increase the resistance of cardiomyocites to oxidative stress.

  11. “Living”/controlled radical copolymerization of N-phenylmaleimide and styrene using Fréchet-type dendritic initiators

    ZHAO; Youliang(赵优良); JIANG; Jing(姜静); LIU; Hongwei(刘宏伟); CHEN; Chuanfu(陈传福); XI; Fu(习复)


    Polyarylether dendrons as macroinitiators for the "living"/controlled free radical copolymerization of N-phenylmaleimide (PhMI) and styrene (St) have been demonstrated. The copolymerization was carried out in bulk or anisole with CuBr/bipy catalyst at 100-130℃. It is found that the resulting copolymers possess predetermined molecular weights and narrower polydispersities (1.18 < Mw / Mn < 1.32). The effects of reaction temperature and monomer feed on the copolymerization kinetics were investigated in detail. By using the Fineman-Ross method, the apparent monomer reactivity ratios for the atom transfer radical copolymerization of PhMI and St were determined to be rPhMI = 0.0207, and rSt = 0.0484, respectively.

  12. Spin-blockade effect and coherent control of DNA-damage by free radicals: a proposal on bio-spintronics

    Abolfath, Ramin M


    Coherent control of OH-free radicals interacting with the spin-triplet state of a DNA molecule is investigated. A model Hamiltonian for molecular spin singlet-triplet resonance is developed. We illustrate that the spin-triplet state in DNA molecules can be efficiently populated, as the spin-injection rate can be tuned to be orders of magnitudes greater than the decay rate due to small spin-orbit coupling in organic molecules. Owing to the nano-second life-time of OH free radicals, a non-equilibrium free energy barrier induced by the injected spin triplet state that lasts approximately longer than one-micro second in room temperature can efficiently block the initial Hydrogen abstraction and DNA damage. For a direct demonstration of the spin-blockade effect, a molecular simulation based on an {\\em ab-initio} Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics is deployed.


    Jin-ying Yuan; Cai-yuan Pana


    Polymerization of three cyclic ketene acetals: i.e., 5,6-benzo-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (BMDO), 2-methylene-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane (MPDO) and 4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (DMMDO) were carried out in the presence of ethyl α-bromobutyrate/CuBr/2,2'-bipyridine respectively. The structures ofpoly(BMDO), poly(MPDO) and poly(DMMDO)were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The effects of monomer structure on the behavior of atom transfer free radical ring-opening polymerization were investigated and the mechanism of controlled free radical ring-opening polymerization was discussed.

  14. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.


    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  15. The effect of free radical inhibitor on the sensitized radiation crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of polyurethane shape memory polymers

    Hearon, Keith; Smith, Sarah E.; Maher, Cameron A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.


    The effects of free radical inhibitor on the electron beam crosslinking and thermal processing stabilization of novel radiation crosslinkable polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) blended with acrylic radiation sensitizers have been determined. The SMPs in this study possess novel processing capabilities—that is, the ability to be melt processed into complex geometries as thermoplastics and crosslinked in a secondary step using electron beam irradiation. To increase susceptibility to radiation crosslinking, the radiation sensitizer pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) was solution blended with thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs made from 2-butene-1,4-diol and trimethylhexamethylene diisocyanate (TMHDI). Because the thermoplastic melt processing methods such as injection molding are often carried out at elevated temperatures, sensitizer thermal instability is a major processing concern. Free radical inhibitor can be added to provide thermal stabilization; however, inhibitor can also undesirably inhibit radiation crosslinking. In this study, we quantified both the thermal stabilization and radiation crosslinking inhibition effects of the inhibitor 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) on polyurethane SMPs blended with PETA. Sol/gel analysis of irradiated samples showed that the inhibitor had little to no inverse effects on gel fraction at concentrations of 0-10,000 ppm, and dynamic mechanical analysis showed only a slight negative correlation between BQ composition and rubbery modulus. The 1,4-benzoquinone was also highly effective in thermally stabilizing the acrylic sensitizers. The polymer blends could be heated to 150 °C for up to 5 h or to 125 °C for up to 24 h if stabilized with 10,000 ppm BQ and could also be heated to 125 °C for up to 5 h if stabilized with 1000 ppm BQ without sensitizer reaction occurring. We believe this study provides significant insight into methods for manipulation of the competing mechanisms of radiation crosslinking and thermal stabilization of

  16. Forgotten Radicals in Biology


    Redox reactions play key roles in intra- and inter-cellular signaling, and in adaptative processes of tissues towards stress. Among the major free radicals with essential functions in cells are reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion (O2 •-), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (•NO). In this article, we review the forgotten and new radicals with potential relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Approximately 0.3% of O2 •- pres...

  17. New reagents for detecting free radicals and oxidative stress.

    Barzegar Amiri Olia, Mina; Schiesser, Carl H; Taylor, Michelle K


    Free radicals and oxidative stress play important roles in the deterioration of materials, and free radicals are important intermediates in many biological processes. The ability to detect these reactive species is a key step on the road to their understanding and ultimate control. This short review highlights recent progress in the development of reagents for the detection of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with broad application to materials science as well as biology.

  18. Free radical scavenger effect of rebamipide in sperm processing and cryopreservation

    NamCheolPark; HyunJunPark; KyeongMiLee; DongGilShin


    Alm:To study the effect of rebamipide added to semen samples and cryoprotectant on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Methods: Semen samples from 30 fertile and healthy volunteers were collected bymasturbation after 2 days-3 days of abstinence. After liquefaction, the specimens were diluted with sperm washmedia to a uniform density of 20×106/mL. Rebamipide was added to semen samples and cryoprotectant to a final concentration of 10μmol/L, 30μmol/L, 100μmol/L or 300μmol/L. Specimens were incubated at 37℃ in a 0.5 % CO2 incubator for I h or cryopreserved at -196℃ LN2 for 3 days. The sperm motility and viability and the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation of sperm membrance were assessed before and after incubation and cryopreservation by means of computer assisted semen analyzer, eosin-nigrosin stain, chemiluminescence and thiobarbituric acid assay,respectively. Results: The sperm motility was significantly increased after incubation with 100 gmol/L and 300gmol/L rebamipide (P0.05). The levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation in semen were significantly decreased in proportion to the concentrations of rebamipide both after incubation and cryopreservation (P<0.05). Conclusion: Rebamipide is an effective flee radical scavenger in semen in vitro. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Sep; 5: 195-201)

  19. High quality reduced graphene oxide flakes by fast kinetically controlled and clean indirect UV-induced radical reduction

    Flyunt, Roman; Knolle, Wolfgang; Kahnt, Axel; Halbig, Christian E.; Lotnyk, Andriy; Häupl, Tilmann; Prager, Andrea; Eigler, Siegfried; Abel, Bernd


    This work highlights a surprisingly simple and kinetically controlled highly efficient indirect method for the production of high quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flakes via UV irradiation of aqueous dispersions of graphene oxide (GO), in which the GO is not excited directly. While the direct photoexcitation of aqueous GO (when GO is the only light-absorbing component) takes several hours of reaction time at ambient temperature (4 h) leading only to a partial GO reduction, the addition of small amounts of isopropanol and acetone (2% and 1%) leads to a dramatically shortened reaction time by more than two orders of magnitude (2 min) and a very efficient and soft reduction of graphene oxide. This method avoids the formation of non-volatile species and in turn contamination of the produced rGO and it is based on the highly efficient generation of reducing carbon centered isopropanol radicals via the reaction of triplet acetone with isopropanol. While the direct photolysis of GO dispersions easily leads to degradation of the carbon lattice of GO and thus to a relatively low electric conductivity of the films of flakes, our indirect photoreduction of GO instead largely avoids the formation of defects, keeping the carbon lattice intact. Mechanisms of the direct and indirect photoreduction of GO have been elucidated and compared. Raman spectroscopy, XPS and conductivity measurements prove the efficiency of the indirect photoreduction in comparison with the state-of-the-art reduction method for GO (hydriodic acid/trifluoroacetic acid). The rapid reduction times and water solvent containing only small amounts of isopropanol and acetone may allow easy process up-scaling for technical applications and low-energy consumption.This work highlights a surprisingly simple and kinetically controlled highly efficient indirect method for the production of high quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flakes via UV irradiation of aqueous dispersions of graphene oxide (GO), in which the

  20. Mechanism and Kinetics of Nitroxide-Controlled Free Radical Polymerization (ORGANIC MATERIALS CHEMISTRY-Polymeric Materials)


    In the nitroxide-mediated free radical polymerization, the rate of polymerization is determined by the balance of the rates of thermal initiation and bialkyl termination, just like in the conventional system, while the polydispersity is determined by the dissociation-combination frequency of the polymer-nitroxyl adduct and the rate of decomposition of the adduct. These mechanisms were quantitatively confirmed by both experiments and computer simulations.

  1. Controlled Radical Polymerization as an Enabling Approach for the Next Generation of Protein-Polymer Conjugates.

    Pelegri-O'Day, Emma M; Maynard, Heather D


    Protein-polymer conjugates are unique constructs that combine the chemical properties of a synthetic polymer chain with the biological properties of a biomacromolecule. This often leads to improved stabilities, solubilities, and in vivo half-lives of the resulting conjugates, and expands the range of applications for the proteins. However, early chemical methods for protein-polymer conjugation often required multiple polymer modifications, which were tedious and low yielding. To solve these issues, work in our laboratory has focused on the development of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques to improve synthesis of protein-polymer conjugates. Initial efforts focused on the one-step syntheses of protein-reactive polymers through the use of functionalized initiators and chain transfer agents. A variety of functional groups such as maleimide and pyridyl disulfide could be installed with high end-group retention, which could then react with protein functional groups through mild and biocompatible chemistries. While this grafting to method represented a significant advance in conjugation technique, purification and steric hindrance between large biomacromolecules and polymer chains often led to low conjugation yields. Therefore, a grafting from approach was developed, wherein a polymer chain is grown from an initiating site on a functionalized protein. These conjugates have demonstrated improved homogeneity, characterization, and easier purification, while maintaining protein activity. Much of this early work utilizing CRP techniques focused on polymers made up of biocompatible but nonfunctional monomer units, often containing oligoethylene glycol meth(acrylate) or N-isopropylacrylamide. These branched polymers have significant advantages compared to the historically used linear poly(ethylene glycols) including decreased viscosities and thermally responsive behavior, respectively. Recently, we were motivated to use CRP techniques to develop polymers with

  2. Fuzzy Control in the Process Industry

    Jantzen, Jan; Verbruggen, Henk; Østergaard, Jens-Jørgen


    Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. Simple fuzzy controllers can...

  3. Process Control for Nanoimprint Lithography


    To tackle the demoulding and conglutinating problem with the resist and hard mold in the nanoimprint lithography process, a soft mould can be used to demould and reduce the macro or micro mismatch between mould bottom surface and wafer top surface. In nanoimprint lithography process, a mathematical equation is formulated to demonstrate the relation between the residual resist thickness and the pressing force during pressing the mould toward the resist-coated wafer.Based on these analytical studies, a new imprint process, which includes a pre-cure release of the pressing force, was proposed for the high-conformity transfer of nano-patterns from the mould to the wafer. The results of a series of imprint experiments showed that the proposed loading process could meet the requirements for the imprint of different patterns and feature sizes while maintaining a uniform residual resist and non-distorted transfer of nano-patterns from the mould to the resistcoated wafer.

  4. Contemporary Radical Prostatectomy

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have more surgical treatment options than in the past. This paper focuses on the procedures' oncological or functional outcomes and perioperative morbidities of radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. A MEDLINE/PubMed search of the literature on radical prostatectomy and other new management options was performed. Results. Compared to the open procedures, robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy has no confirmed significant difference in most literatures besides less blood loss and blood transfusion. Nerve sparing is a safe means of preserving potency on well-selected patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Positive surgical margin rates of radical prostatectomy affect the recurrence and survival of prostate cancer. The urinary and sexual function outcomes have been vastly improved. Neoadjuvant treatment only affects the rate of positive surgical margin. Adjuvant therapy can delay and reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of the high risk prostate cancer. Conclusions. For the majority of patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy remains a most effective approach. Radical perineal prostatectomy remains a viable approach for patients with morbid obesity, prior pelvic surgery, or prior pelvic radiation. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP has become popular among surgeons but has not yet become the firmly established standard of care. Long-term data have confirmed the efficacy of radical retropubic prostatectomy with disease control rates and cancer-specific survival rates.

  5. Stochastic MPC with applications to process control

    Jurado, I.; Millán, P.; Quevedo, D.; Rubio, F. R.


    This paper presents a model predictive control formulation for Networked Control Systems subject to independent and identically distributed delays and packet dropouts. The design takes into account the presence of a communication network in the control loop, resorting to a buffer at the actuator side to store and consistently apply delayed control sequences when fresh control inputs are not available. The proposed approach uses a statistical description of transmissions to optimise the expected future control performance conditioned upon the current system state, previously calculated control packets and transmission acknowledgements. Experimental studies using a quadruple tank process illustrate the applicability of the method to process control.

  6. Study On Machining Processing Technology Risk Control

    Li Xiqing


    In the industrial production process,only to ful y guarantee the machining production safety, it can been ensured that the smooth completion of machining process.Under this back ground,in the machining production process,the machinery processing safety would been ful y concerned,several factors, which may lead to the problem of mechanical processing and production process,were analyzed,and the relevant control strategies were researched.In view of this situation,this paper wil specifical y combined with the machining process characteristics to study the machining process manufacturability risk control.

  7. Robust CUSUM control charting for process dispersion

    Nazir, H.Z.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.


    Process monitoring through control charts is a quite popular practice in statistical process control. From a statistical point of view, a superior control chart is one that has an efficient design structure, but having resistance against unusual situations is of more practical importance. To have a

  8. Third Dutch Process Security Control Event

    Luiijf, H.A.M.


    On June 4th, 2009, the third Dutch Process Control Security Event took place in Amsterdam. The event, organised by the Dutch National Infrastructure against Cybercrime (NICC), attracted both Dutch process control experts and members of the European SCADA and Control Systems Information Exchange (Eur

  9. Constraint control of distillation processes

    Roffel, B.; Fontein, H.J.


    There is a growing interest to design and operate chemical processes for reduced energy consumption. As an example a comparison is made between the distillation of binary mixtures in a conventional distillation column, a vapour recompression system and a two column heat integrated system. For all

  10. The Radicalization Puzzle [video

    Mohammed Hafez; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School


    This 20 minute lecture, by Dr. Mohammad Hafez of the Naval Postgraduate School examines the driving factors behind the process of radicalization, turning seemingly ordinary men and women into potential terrorists. The lecture is based on the article "The Radicalization Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown Extremism" in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, by Mohammad Hafez and Creighton Mullins.

  11. Shining Light on Copper: Unique Opportunities for Visible-Light-Catalyzed Atom Transfer Radical Addition Reactions and Related Processes.

    Reiser, Oliver


    Visible-light photoredox catalysis offers exciting opportunities to achieve challenging carbon-carbon bond formations under mild and ecologically benign conditions. Desired features of photoredox catalysts are photostability, long excited-state lifetimes, strong absorption in the visible region, and high reduction or oxidation potentials to achieve electron transfer to substrates, thus generating radicals that can undergo synthetic organic transformations. These requirements are met in a convincing way by Ru(II)(phenanthroline)3- and Ir(III)(phenylpyridine)3-type complexes and, as a low-cost alternative, by organic dyes that offer a metal-free catalyst but suffer in general from lower photostability. Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes have been recognized for more than 30 years as photoresponsive compounds with highly negative Cu(I)* → Cu(II) oxidation potentials, but nevertheless, they have not been widely considered as suitable photoredox catalysts, mainly because their excited lifetimes are shorter by a factor of 5 to 10 compared with Ru(II) and Ir(III) complexes, their absorption in the visible region is weak, and their low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potentials might impede the closure of a catalytic cycle for a given process. Contrasting again with Ru(II)L3 and Ir(III)L3 complexes, Cu(I)L2 assemblies undergo more rapid ligand exchange in solution, thus potentially reducing the concentration of the photoactive species. Focusing on atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) reactions and related processes, we highlight recent developments that show the utility of Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes as photoredox catalysts, demonstrating that despite their short excited-state lifetimes and weak absorption such complexes are efficient at low catalyst loadings. Moreover, some of the inherent disadvantages stated above can even be turned to advantages: (1) the low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potential might efficiently promote reactions via a radical chain pathway, and (2

  12. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    approach is to tackle process design and controllability issues simultaneously, in the early stages of process design. This simultaneous synthesis approach provides optimal/near optimal operation and more efficient control of conventional (non-reactive binary distillation columns) as well as complex...... chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems...... design of the process as well as the controller structure. Through analytical, steady-state and closed-loop dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and energy requirement of the reactive distillation column is better than any other operation point...

  13. Effect of inorganic nanoparticles and organic complexes on their basis on free-radical processes in some model systems

    Averchenko K. A.


    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluation of free–radical activity of rare–earth based nanoparticles (NPs (orthovanadates and CeO2 with different geometrical parameters, and organic complexes formed on their base with methylene blue (MB photodynamic dye in abiotic and biotic systems (homogenate of liver, isolated mitochondria and isolated hepatocytes. Methods. Effects of NPs were estimated using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (ChL and by measurement of the final product of lipid peroxidation – malondialdehyde (MDA. Results. According to the ChL data in abiotic systems all NPs demonstrated antiradical activity. In biotic systems spherical extra small (1–2 nm NPs of both types showed prooxidant effects of different degree; CeO2 of 8–10 nm have demonstrated a week antioxidant effect. The data of ChL correlated with the measurements of MDA-level. The effects of «NP-MB» complexes were the same as the corresponding «bare» NPs in different examined systems. The most prooxidant NPs in the presence of glutathione (GSH did not aggravate free-radical processes. NPs demonstrated a more pronounced prooxidant effect in cells at pH 7.8 that may be a result of pH-dependent changes in protonated GSH. Conclusions. Differences in the effects of NPs in the biotic systems depend on their geometric parameters that determine their penetration and interaction with the cellular structures. This is also related to the processes on the NPs surface as well as in the near-surface layers.

  14. WRAP process area development control work plan

    Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.

  15. Thermal processing of foods: control and automation

    Sandeep, K. P


    .... In addition to validating new control systems, some food companies have started the more difficult task of validating legacy control systems that have been operating for a number of years on retorts or aseptic systems.Thermal Processing...

  16. Digitally Controlled Analog Signal Processing


    Self-Tuned Filters,’ Proc. 26th Mid- west Symp. Ckts Systems, Puebla , Mexico, 1983. V in V C Fig. 6. (Compensated) OTA Integrator. DigWitly ControlDW...Proc. WS Mid- filters obtained by cascading the proposed second-order wat Symp. Circuits Sjdanwk INAOE, Puebla , Mex- block is presently under...REF IN and the instru- ment has warmed up at least 20 minutes at the ambient temperature. FREOUENCY: * Mesursmeet Buale 20 Hz to 40.1 MHz ODiplayed 114

  17. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Genio, Anthony Del


    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  18. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    Lesh, F. H.


    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  19. HMI conventions for process control graphics.

    Pikaar, Ruud N


    Process operators supervise and control complex processes. To enable the operator to do an adequate job, instrumentation and process control engineers need to address several related topics, such as console design, information design, navigation, and alarm management. In process control upgrade projects, usually a 1:1 conversion of existing graphics is proposed. This paper suggests another approach, efficiently leading to a reduced number of new powerful process graphics, supported by a permanent process overview displays. In addition a road map for structuring content (process information) and conventions for the presentation of objects, symbols, and so on, has been developed. The impact of the human factors engineering approach on process control upgrade projects is illustrated by several cases.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of photoaccumulated radical anions: a litmus test to evaluate the efficiency of photoinduced electron transfer (PET processes

    Maurizio Fagnoni


    Full Text Available Steady-state irradiation in neat acetonitrile of some aromatic nitriles, imides and esters (10−5–10−3 M solution in the presence of tertiary amines allowed the accumulation of the corresponding radical anions, up to quantitative yield for polysubstituted benzenes and partially with naphthalene and anthracene derivatives. The condition for such an accumulation was that the donor radical cation underwent further evolution that precluded back electron transfer and any chemical reaction with the radical anion. In fact, no accumulation occurred with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO, for which this condition is not possible. The radical anions were produced from benzene polyesters too, but decomposition began early. Ipso substitution was one of the paths with secondary amines and the only reaction with tetrabutylstannane. The results fully support the previously proposed mechanism for electron transfer (ET mediated photochemical alkylation of aromatic acceptors via radical ions and radical intermediates.

  1. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    STAEHR, T.W.


    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  2. Metal-free carbon materials-catalyzed sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes: A review on heterogeneous catalysts and applications.

    Zhao, Qingxia; Mao, Qiming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Wei, Jianhong; Liu, Xiaocheng; Yang, Junying; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Hong; Chen, Hongbo; Tang, Lin


    In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially sulfate radical based AOPs have been widely used in various fields of wastewater treatment due to their capability and adaptability in decontamination. Recently, metal-free carbon materials catalysts in sulfate radical production has been more and more concerned because these materials have been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to conventional metal-based catalysts, but the review of metal-free catalysts is rare. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the generation of sulfate radical using metal-free catalysts including carbon nanotubes, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, activated carbon fiber, nanodiamond. The mechanism such as the radical pathway and non-radical pathway, and factors influencing of the activation of sulfate radical was also be revealed. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the perspectives on challenges related to metal-free catalyst, heterogeneous metal-free catalyst/persulfate systems and their potential in practical environmental remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial (E.O.R.T.C. trial 22911)

    Bolla, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire A Michallon, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, 38 - Grenoble (France); Van Poppel, H. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg, Dept. of Urology, Leuven (Belgium); Collette, L.; Haustermans, K. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Collette, L. [European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) data Center, Brussels (Belgium); Van Cangh, P. [Hopital Saint Luc, Dept. of Urology, Brussels (Belgium); Vekemans, K. [Virga Jesse Ziekenhuis, Dept. of Urology, Hasselt (Belgium); Da Pozzo, L. [Ospedale San Rafaele, Dept. of Urology, Milano (Italy); Reijke, T.M. de [Academisch Medisch Centrum, Dept. of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbaeys, A. [University Hospital, Dept. of Urology, Gent (Belgium); Bosset, J.F. [Hopital Jean Minjoz, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, 25 - Besancon (France); Van Velthoven, R. [Institut Jules Bordet, Dept. Urology, Brussels (Belgium); Marechal, J.M. [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Dept. of Urology, 69 - Lyon (France)


    Background - Local failure after prostatectomy can arise in patients with cancer extending beyond the capsule. We did a randomized controlled trial to compare radical prostatectomy followed by immediate external irradiation with prostatectomy alone for patients with positive surgical margin or pT3 prostate cancer. Methods - After undergoing radical retro-pubic prostatectomy, 503 patients were randomly assigned to a wait-and-see policy, and 502 to immediate postoperative radiotherapy (60 Gy conventional irradiation delivered over 6 weeks). Eligible patients had pNOMO tumours and one or more pathological risk factors: capsule perforation, positive surgical margins, invasion of seminal vesicles. Our revised primary endpoint was biochemical progression-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. bindings - The median age was 65 years (1QR 61-69). After a median follow-up of 5 years, biochemical progression-free survival was significantly improved in the irradiated group (74.0%, 98% CI 68.7-79.3 vs 52.6%, 46.6-58.5: p0.0001). Clinical progression-free survival was also significantly improved (p=0.0009). The cumulative rate of locoregional failure was significantly lower in the irradiated group (p<0.0001). Grade 2 or 3 late effects were significantly more frequent in the postoperative irradiation group (p=0.0005), but severe toxic toxicity (grade 3 or higher) were rare, with a 5-year rate of 2.6% in the wait-and-see group and 4.2% in the postoperative irradiation group (p=00726). Interpretation: Immediate external irradiation after radical prostatectomy improves biochemical progression-free survival and local control in patients with positive surgical margins or pT3 prostate cancer who are at high risk of progression. Further follow-up is needed to assess the effect on overall survival. (authors)

  4. Natural resources and control processes

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Hung, Yung-Tse; Shammas, Nazih


    This edited book has been designed to serve as a natural resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. This volume is part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. It complements two other books in the series including Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering and Integrated Natural Resources Management that serve as a basis for advanced study or specialized investigation of the theory and analysis of various natural resources systems. This book covers the management of many waste sources including those from agricultural livestock, deep-wells, industries manufacturing dyes, and municipal solid waste incinerators. The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for understanding the sources, treatment and control methods of toxic wastes shown to have harmful effects on the environment. Chapters provide information ...

  5. Quality Control in Production Processes

    Prístavka Miroslav


    Full Text Available The tools for quality management are used for quality improvement throughout the whole Europe and developed countries. Simple statistics are considered one of the most basic methods. The goal was to apply the simple statistical methods to practice and to solve problems by using them. Selected methods are used for processing the list of internal discrepancies within the organization, and for identification of the root cause of the problem and its appropriate solution. Seven basic quality tools are simple graphical tools, but very effective in solving problems related to quality. They are called essential because they are suitable for people with at least basic knowledge in statistics; therefore, they can be used to solve the vast majority of problems.

  6. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control

    May, Gary S


    A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...

  8. Hydroxyl radical reaction with trans-resveratrol: initial carbon radical adduct formation followed by rearrangement to phenoxyl radical.

    Li, Dan-Dan; Han, Rui-Min; Liang, Ran; Chen, Chang-Hui; Lai, Wenzhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H


    In the reaction between trans-resveratrol (resveratrol) and the hydroxyl radical, kinetic product control leads to a short-lived hydroxyl radical adduct with an absorption maximum at 420 nm and a lifetime of 0.21 ± 0.01 μs (anaerobic acetonitrile at 25 °C) as shown by laser flash photolysis using N-hydroxypyridine-2(1H)-thione (N-HPT) as a "photo-Fenton" reagent. The transient spectra of the radical adduct are in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing an absorption maximum at 442 or 422 nm for C2 and C6 hydroxyl adducts, respectively, and showing the lowest energy for the transition state leading to the C2 adduct compared to other radical products. From this initial product, the relative long-lived 4'-phenoxyl radical of resveratrol (τ = 9.9 ± 0.9 μs) with an absorption maximum at 390 nm is formed in a process with a time constant (τ = 0.21 ± 0.01 μs) similar to the decay constant for the C2 hydroxyl adduct (or a C2/C6 hydroxyl adduct mixture) and in agreement with thermodynamics identifying this product as the most stable resveratrol radical. The hydroxyl radical adduct to phenoxyl radical conversion with concomitant water dissociation has a rate constant of 5 × 10(6) s(-1) and may occur by intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer or by stepwise proton-assisted electron transfer. Photolysis of N-HPT also leads to a thiyl radical which adds to resveratrol in a parallel reaction forming a sulfur radical adduct with a lifetime of 0.28 ± 0.04 μs and an absorption maximum at 483 nm.

  9. [Effect of melaxen on free radical processes intensity and some antioxidant enzymes activity in rats liver and blood serum under type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Verevkin, A N; Popova, T N; Agarkov, A A; Semenikhina, A V


    The effect of melaxen on free radical processes and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been investigated. It was established that melaxen administration to diabetic rats caused a decrease of the intensity of free radical processes as evidenced a decrease of the lipid peroxidation primary products content and biochemiluminescence parameters. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes changed towards normal values. These effects were probably induced by the correction of the melatonin level at the result of the melaxen action.

  10. The Impact of Colleague Peer Review on the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Process in the Radical Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    Rooney, K P; McAleese, J; Crockett, C; Harney, J; Eakin, R L; Young, V A L; Dunn, M A; Johnston, R E; Hanna, G G


    Modern radiotherapy uses techniques to reliably identify tumour and reduce target volume margins. However, this can potentially lead to an increased risk of geographic miss. One source of error is the accuracy of target volume delineation (TVD). Colleague peer review (CPR) of all curative-intent lung cancer plans has been mandatory in our institution since May 2013. At least two clinical oncologists review plans, checking treatment paradigm, TVD, prescription dose tumour and critical organ tolerances. We report the impact of CPR in our institution. Radiotherapy treatment plans of all patients receiving radical radiotherapy were presented at weekly CPR meetings after their target volumes were reviewed and signed off by the treating consultant. All cases and any resultant change to TVD (including organs at risk) or treatment intent were recorded in our prospective CPR database. The impact of CPR over a 13 month period from May 2013 to June 2014 is reported. One hundred and twenty-two patients (63% non-small cell lung carcinoma, 17% small cell lung carcinoma and 20% 'clinical diagnosis') were analysed. On average, 3.2 cases were discussed per meeting (range 1-8). CPR resulted in a change in treatment paradigm in 3% (one patient proceeded to induction chemotherapy, two patients had high-dose palliative radiotherapy). Twenty-one (17%) had a change in TVD and one (1%) patient had a change in dose prescription. In total, 6% of patients had plan adjustment after review of dose volume histogram. The introduction of CPR in our centre has resulted in a change in a component of the treatment plan for 27% of patients receiving curative-intent lung radiotherapy. We recommend CPR as a mandatory quality assurance step in the planning process of all radical lung plans. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    B.P. Mahesh


    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  12. Model-Free Adaptive Heating Process Control

    Ivana LUKÁČOVÁ; Piteľ, Ján


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamic behaviour of a Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) heating process control. The MFA controller is designed as three layer neural network with proportional element. The method of backward propagation of errors was used for neural network training. Visualization and training of the artificial neural network was executed by Netlab in Matlab environment. Simulation of the MFA heating process control with outdoor temperature compensation has proved better resu...

  13. Memory-type control charts in statistical process control

    Abbas, N.


    Control chart is the most important statistical tool to manage the business processes. It is a graph of measurements on a quality characteristic of the process on the vertical axis plotted against time on the horizontal axis. The graph is completed with control limits that cause variation mark. Once

  14. Optimization and control of metal forming processes

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke


    Inevitable variations in process and material properties limit the accuracy of metal forming processes. Robust optimization methods or control systems can be used to improve the production accuracy. Robust optimization methods are used to design production processes with low sensitivity to the distu

  15. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    Zhang, Tao


    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Enhanced hydroxyl radical generation in the combined ozonation and electrolysis process using carbon nanotubes containing gas diffusion cathode.

    Wu, Donghai; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Qiuhong; Yan, Zhenhua; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi


    Combination of ozone together with electrolysis (ozone-electrolysis) is a promising wastewater treatment technology. This work investigated the potential use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based gas diffusion cathode (GDC) for ozone-electrolysis process employing hydroxyl radicals (·OH) production as an indicator. Compared with conventional active carbon (AC)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon black (CB)-PTFE cathodes, the production of ·OH in the coupled process was improved using CNTs-PTFE GDC. Appropriate addition of acetylene black (AB) and pore-forming agent Na2SO4 could enhance the efficiency of CNTs-PTFE GDC. The optimum GDC composition was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) analysis and was determined as CNTs 31.2 wt%, PTFE 60.6 wt%, AB 3.5 wt%, and Na2SO4 4.7 wt%. Moreover, the optimized CNT-based GDC exhibited much more effective than traditional Ti and graphite cathodes in Acid Orange 7 (AO7) mineralization and possessed the desirable stability without performance decay after ten times reaction. The comparison tests revealed that peroxone reaction was the main pathway of ·OH production in the present system, and cathodic reduction of ozone could significantly promote ·OH generation. These results suggested that application of CNT-based GDC offers considerable advantages in ozone-electrolysis of organic wastewater.



    Process calculations and rigorous dynamic model with detailed coke combustion kine-tics for two-stage regeneration FCC process were developed and integrated into the advanced process control(APC) context. The package was implemented in 6 SINOPEC commercial RFCCUs.Typical 0.5%~0.8% improvement of target product yields was achieved. Significant energy consumption was saved with tighter control over coke burning.

  18. Chemistry of the t-butoxyl radical: evidence that most hydrogen abstractions from carbon are entropy-controlled.

    Finn, Meghan; Friedline, Robert; Suleman, N Kamrudin; Wohl, Christopher J; Tanko, James M


    Absolute rate constants and Arrhenius parameters for hydrogen abstractions (from carbon) by the t-butoxyl radical ((t) BuO.) are reported for several hydrocarbons and tertiary amines in solution. Combined with data already in the literature, an analysis of all the available data reveals that most hydrogen abstractions (from carbon) by (t) BuO. are entropy controlled (i.e., TdeltaS > deltaH, in solution at room temperature). For substrates with C-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs) > 92 kcal/mol, the activation energy for hydrogen abstraction decreases with decreasing BDE in accord with the Evans-Polanyi equation, with alpha approximately 0.3. For substrates with C-H BDEs in the range from 79 to 92 kcal/mol, the activation energy does not vary significantly with C-H BDE. The implications of these results in the context of the use of (t) BuO. as a chemical model for reactive oxygen-centered radicals is discussed.

  19. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru


    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  20. Electron spin relaxation governed by Raman processes both for Cu²⁺ ions and carbonate radicals in KHCO₃ crystals: EPR and electron spin echo studies.

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K; Goslar, Janina; Lijewski, Stefan


    EPR studies of Cu²⁺ and two free radicals formed by γ-radiation were performed for KHCO₃ single crystal at room temperature. From the rotational EPR results we concluded that Cu²⁺ is chelated by two carbonate molecules in a square planar configuration with spin-Hamiltonian parameters g(||)=2.2349 and A(||)=18.2 mT. Free radicals were identified as neutral HOCO· with unpaired electron localized on the carbon atom and a radical anion CO₃·⁻ with unpaired electron localized on two oxygen atoms. The hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines by an interaction with a single hydrogen atom of HOCO· was observed with isotropic coupling constants a₀=0.31 mT. Two differently oriented radical sites were identified in the crystal unit cell. Electron spin-lattice relaxation measured by electron spin echo methods shows that both Cu²⁺ and free radicals relax via two-phonon Raman processes with almost the same relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate 1/T₁ is well described with the effective Debye temperature Θ(D)=175 K obtained from a fit to the Debye-type phonon spectrum. We calculated a more realistic Debye temperature value from available elastic constant values of the crystal as Θ(D)=246 K. This Θ(D)-value and the Debye phonon spectrum approximation give a much worse fit to the experimental results. Possible contributions from a local mode or an optical mode are considered and it is suggested that the real phonon spectrum should be used for the relaxation data interpretation. It is unusual that free radicals in KHCO₃ relax similarly to the well localized Cu²⁺ ions, which suggests a small destruction of the host crystal lattice by the ionizing irradiation allowing well coupling between radical and lattice dynamics.

  1. Electron spin relaxation governed by Raman processes both for Cu2+ ions and carbonate radicals in KHCO3 crystals: EPR and electron spin echo studies

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Goslar, Janina; Lijewski, Stefan


    EPR studies of Cu2+ and two free radicals formed by γ-radiation were performed for KHCO3 single crystal at room temperature. From the rotational EPR results we concluded that Cu2+ is chelated by two carbonate molecules in a square planar configuration with spin-Hamiltonian parameters g|| = 2.2349 and A|| = 18.2 mT. Free radicals were identified as neutral HOCOrad with unpaired electron localized on the carbon atom and a radical anion CO3·- with unpaired electron localized on two oxygen atoms. The hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines by an interaction with a single hydrogen atom of HOCOrad was observed with isotropic coupling constants ao = 0.31 mT. Two differently oriented radical sites were identified in the crystal unit cell. Electron spin-lattice relaxation measured by electron spin echo methods shows that both Cu2+ and free radicals relax via two-phonon Raman processes with almost the same relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate 1/T1 is well described with the effective Debye temperature ΘD = 175 K obtained from a fit to the Debye-type phonon spectrum. We calculated a more realistic Debye temperature value from available elastic constant values of the crystal as ΘD = 246 K. This ΘD-value and the Debye phonon spectrum approximation give a much worse fit to the experimental results. Possible contributions from a local mode or an optical mode are considered and it is suggested that the real phonon spectrum should be used for the relaxation data interpretation. It is unusual that free radicals in KHCO3 relax similarly to the well localized Cu2+ ions, which suggests a small destruction of the host crystal lattice by the ionizing irradiation allowing well coupling between radical and lattice dynamics.

  2. Discrete Control Processes, Dynamic Games and Multicriterion Control Problems

    Dumitru Lozovanu


    Full Text Available The discrete control processes with state evaluation in time of dynamical system is considered. A general model of control problems with integral-time cost criterion by a trajectory is studied and a general scheme for solving such classes of problems is proposed. In addition the game-theoretical and multicriterion models for control problems are formulated and studied.

  3. Markov processes and controlled Markov chains

    Filar, Jerzy; Chen, Anyue


    The general theory of stochastic processes and the more specialized theory of Markov processes evolved enormously in the second half of the last century. In parallel, the theory of controlled Markov chains (or Markov decision processes) was being pioneered by control engineers and operations researchers. Researchers in Markov processes and controlled Markov chains have been, for a long time, aware of the synergies between these two subject areas. However, this may be the first volume dedicated to highlighting these synergies and, almost certainly, it is the first volume that emphasizes the contributions of the vibrant and growing Chinese school of probability. The chapters that appear in this book reflect both the maturity and the vitality of modern day Markov processes and controlled Markov chains. They also will provide an opportunity to trace the connections that have emerged between the work done by members of the Chinese school of probability and the work done by the European, US, Central and South Ameri...

  4. Linearizing control of continuous anaerobic fermentation processes

    Babary, J.P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Simeonov, I. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Ljubenova, V. [Institute of Control and System Research, BAS (Country unknown/Code not available); Dochain, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Biotechnological processes (BTP) involve living organisms. In the anaerobic fermentation (biogas production process) the organic matter is mineralized by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) in the absence of oxygen. The biogas is an additional energy source. Generally this process is carried out as a continuous BTP. It has been widely used in life process and has been confirmed as a promising method of solving some energy and ecological problems in the agriculture and industry. Because of the very restrictive on-line information the control of this process in continuous mode is often reduced to control of the biogas production rate or the concentration of the polluting organic matter (de-pollution control) at a desired value in the presence of some perturbations. Investigations show that classical linear controllers have good performances only in the linear zone of the strongly non-linear input-output characteristics. More sophisticated robust and with variable structure (VSC) controllers are studied. Due to the strongly non-linear dynamics of the process the performances of the closed loop system may be degrading in this case. The aim of this paper is to investigate different linearizing algorithms for control of a continuous non-linear methane fermentation process using the dilution rate as a control action and taking into account some practical implementation aspects. (authors) 8 refs.

  5. Theoretical studies of nonadiabatic and spin-forbidden processes: Investigations of the reactions and spectroscopy of radical species relevant to combustion reactions and diagnostics

    Yarkony, D.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    This research program focusses on studies of spin-forbidden and electronically nonadiabatic processes involving radical species relevant to combustion reactions and combustion diagnostics. To study the electronic structure aspects of these processes a unique and powerful system of electronic structure programs, developed over the past nine years, the BROOKLYN codes, is employed. These programs enable the authors to address questions basic to the understanding of elementary combustion processes not tractable using more standard quantum chemistry codes.

  6. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted


    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  7. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Jens G. Balchen


    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  8. Controlled fabrication of theophylline imprinted polymers on multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Xu, Jianxiong; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming


    Theophylline imprinted polymers were synthesized on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization using brominated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an initiator. The nanotube-based initiator was prepared by directly reacting acyl chloride-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes with 2-hydroxylethyl-2'-bromoisobutyrate. The grafting copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-2-propenoate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of template theophylline led to thin molecularly imprinted polymer films coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The thickness of molecularly imprinted polymer films prepared in this study was about 5 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to follow the introduction of initiator groups as well as polymers on the carbon nanotube surfaces. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully grown from the carbon nanotube surfaces, with the final products having a polymer weight percentage of ca. 50 wt%. The adsorption properties, such as adsorption dynamics, special binding and selective recognition capacity, of the as-prepared molecularly imprinted polymer films were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the composite of molecularly imprinted polymers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes not only possessed a rapid dynamics but also exhibited a good selectivity toward theophylline, compared to caffeine.

  9. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Rahul Malhotra


    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  10. First Dutch Process Control Security Event

    Luiijf, H.A.M.


    Many organisations do not manage the information security of their process control systems (PCS). As risk is increasing, there is an urgent need for publicprivate collaboration against potential cyber crime in this domain.


    Yadavalli, J; Claasen, S.J; Singh, N


    .... To the author's best knowledge, no concrete attempts have been made so far to construct the control charts for such situations, particularly when the data arise from vector autoregressive-moving average (VARMA) processes...


    Djekic Ilija


    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the food packaging process in seven food companies in the dairy and confectionery sector. A total of 23 production runs have been analyzed regarding the three packers' rules outlined in the Serbian legislation and process capability tests related to statistical process control. None of the companies had any type of statistical process control in place. Results confirmed that more companies show overweight packaging compared to underfilling. Production runs are more accurate than precise, although in some cases the productions are both inaccurate and imprecise. Education / training of the new generation of food industry workers (both on operational and managerial level with courses in the food area covering elements of quality assurance and statistical process control can help in implementing effective food packaging.

  13. Optimal control of induction heating processes

    Rapoport, Edgar


    This book introduces new approaches to solving optimal control problems in induction heating process applications. Optimal Control of Induction Heating Processes demonstrates how to apply and use new optimization techniques for different types of induction heating installations. Focusing on practical methods for solving real engineering optimization problems, the text features a variety of specific optimization examples for induction heater modes and designs, particularly those used in industrial applications. The book describes basic physical phenomena in induction heating and induction

  14. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Stankov Stanko P.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  15. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted


    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  16. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.


    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  17. Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

    Yang Xiaoke


    Full Text Available Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

  18. Controlling Laboratory Processes From A Personal Computer

    Will, H.; Mackin, M. A.


    Computer program provides natural-language process control from IBM PC or compatible computer. Sets up process-control system that either runs without operator or run by workers who have limited programming skills. Includes three smaller programs. Two of them, written in FORTRAN 77, record data and control research processes. Third program, written in Pascal, generates FORTRAN subroutines used by other two programs to identify user commands with device-driving routines written by user. Also includes set of input data allowing user to define user commands to be executed by computer. Requires personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Also requires FORTRAN 77 compiler and device drivers written by user.

  19. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    Mears, Lisa

    There is increasing interest in applying more advanced control strategies to biological processes in order to optimise the operation of these complex systems. In the past years, the major increases in product titre have been achieved mainly by genetic engineering approaches, which has lead......? In order to develop control strategies a significant effort must be invested into developing process models and establishing process understanding. Both data-driven modelling and mechanistic modelling approaches are considered in this work. Firstly, multivariate analysis is applied to production scale data...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive...

  20. Intelligent Predictive Control of Nonlienar Processes Using

    Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Sørensen, Paul Haase; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    frequently been discussed in the neural network community. This paper proposes an approximate scheme, the approximate predictive control (APC), which facilitates the implementation and gives a substantial reduction in the required amount of computations. The method is based on a technique for extracting......This paper presents a novel approach to design of generalized predictive controllers (GPC) for nonlinear processes. A neural network is used for modelling the process and a gain-scheduling type of GPC is subsequently designed. The combination of neural network models and predictive control has...... linear models from a nonlinear neural network and using them in designing the control system. The performance of the controller is demonstrated in a simulation study of a pneumatic servo system...

  1. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    Su, Ziyi


    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  2. PID controller tuning for integrating processes.

    Ali, Ahmad; Majhi, Somanath


    Minimizing the integral squared error (ISE) criterion to get the optimal controller parameters results in a PD controller for integrating processes. The PD controller gives good servo response but fails to reject the load disturbances. In this paper, it is shown that satisfactory closed loop performances for a class of integrating processes are obtained if the ISE criterion is minimized with the constraint that the slope of the Nyquist curve has a specified value at the gain crossover frequency. Guidelines are provided for selecting the gain crossover frequency and the slope of the Nyquist curve. The proposed method is compared with some of the existing methods to control integrating plant transfer functions and in the examples taken it always gave better results for the load disturbance rejection whilst maintaining satisfactory setpoint response. For ease of use, analytical expressions correlating the controller parameters to plant model parameters are also given.

  3. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  4. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens


    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  5. Multivariable adaptive control of bio process

    Maher, M.; Bahhou, B.; Roux, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Maher, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique


    This paper presents a multivariable adaptive control of a continuous-flow fermentation process for the alcohol production. The linear quadratic control strategy is used for the regulation of substrate and ethanol concentrations in the bioreactor. The control inputs are the dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration. A robust identification algorithm is used for the on-line estimation of linear MIMO model`s parameters. Experimental results of a pilot-plant fermenter application are reported and show the control performances. (authors) 8 refs.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence in process control

    Krijgsman, A


    This book is the result of a united effort of six European universities to create an overall course on the appplication of artificial intelligence (AI) in process control. The book includes an introduction to key areas including; knowledge representation, expert, logic, fuzzy logic, neural network, and object oriented-based approaches in AI. Part two covers the application to control engineering, part three: Real-Time Issues, part four: CAD Systems and Expert Systems, part five: Intelligent Control and part six: Supervisory Control, Monitoring and Optimization.

  7. The Intensity of Free Radical Processes and the Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Seminal Fluid of Men with Different Types of Pathospermia - Personalized Approach

    Shkurat T


    Full Text Available Background: We studied the intensity of free-radical processes and the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid of men with normospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia. Results: An increased ability to generate reactive oxygen species in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was determined. Increased levels of testosterone and estradiol in semen were noted in pathospermia associated with reduced sperm motility. A positive correlation was found between the free-radical processes intensity and testosterone levels increase, and high correlation (r = 0.8 between the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was marked. Conclusion: The prooxidant and antioxidant processes conjugacy violation occurs in one of the pathospermia types - asthenozoospermia, which is reflected in the absence of all studied parameters correlation in the seminal fluid.

  8. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Monahan, Kevin M.


    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  9. The monitoring and control of TRUEX processes

    Regalbuto, M.C.; Misra, B.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.


    The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to design a flowsheet for the TRUEX solvent extraction process that would be used to determine its instrumentation and control requirements. Sensitivity analyses of the key process variables, namely, the aqueous and organic flow rates, feed compositions, and the number of contactor stages, were carried out to assess their impact on the operation of the TRUEX process. Results of these analyses provide a basis for the selection of an instrument and control system and the eventual implementation of a control algorithm. Volume Two of this report is an evaluation of the instruments available for measuring many of the physical parameters. Equations that model the dynamic behavior of the TRUEX process have been generated. These equations can be used to describe the transient or dynamic behavior of the process for a given flowsheet in accordance with the TRUEX model. Further work will be done with the dynamic model to determine how and how quickly the system responds to various perturbations. The use of perturbation analysis early in the design stage will lead to a robust flowsheet, namely, one that will meet all process goals and allow for wide control bounds. The process time delay, that is, the speed with which the system reaches a new steady state, is an important parameter in monitoring and controlling a process. In the future, instrument selection and point-of-variable measurement, now done using the steady-state results reported here, will be reviewed and modified as necessary based on this dynamic method of analysis.

  10. Neural PID Control Strategy for Networked Process Control

    Jianhua Zhang


    Full Text Available A new method with a two-layer hierarchy is presented based on a neural proportional-integral-derivative (PID iterative learning method over the communication network for the closed-loop automatic tuning of a PID controller. It can enhance the performance of the well-known simple PID feedback control loop in the local field when real networked process control applied to systems with uncertain factors, such as external disturbance or randomly delayed measurements. The proposed PID iterative learning method is implemented by backpropagation neural networks whose weights are updated via minimizing tracking error entropy of closed-loop systems. The convergence in the mean square sense is analysed for closed-loop networked control systems. To demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed strategies, a pressure-tank experiment is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method in network process control systems.

  11. A plasma process monitor/control system

    Stevenson, J.O.; Ward, P.P.; Smith, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Markle, R.J. [Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a system to monitor plasma processes for control of industrial applications. The system is designed to act as a fully automated, sand-alone process monitor during printed wiring board and semiconductor production runs. The monitor routinely performs data collection, analysis, process identification, and error detection/correction without the need for human intervention. The monitor can also be used in research mode to allow process engineers to gather additional information about plasma processes. The plasma monitor can perform real-time control of support systems known to influence plasma behavior. The monitor can also signal personnel to modify plasma parameters when the system is operating outside of desired specifications and requires human assistance. A notification protocol can be selected for conditions detected in the plasma process. The Plasma Process Monitor/Control System consists of a computer running software developed by Sandia National Laboratories, a commercially available spectrophotometer equipped with a charge-coupled device camera, an input/output device, and a fiber optic cable.

  12. Improving industrial process control systems security

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  13. Multiphase processing of organic hydroxynitrates in secondary organic aerosol from the radical-initiated oxidation of multi-olefinic monoterpenes

    Slade, J. H.; Lee, L. S.; Shepson, P. B.; De Perre, C.


    One of the greatest challenges facing atmospheric and climate science is understanding the impacts human activities have on the natural environment and atmospheric chemistry. The production of condensable organic compounds due to interactions between atmospheric oxidants, nitrogenous pollutants, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from the terrestrial biosphere can contribute significantly to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Aerosol particles influence atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud formation, and thus atmospheric temperatures. Due to their solubility in water and adsorptive nature, hydroxylated organic nitrates (HORONO2) may contribute significantly to the formation and chemical aging of SOA, and serve as an important sink for NOx (NO+NO2). We recently observed that a monoterpene β-hydroxy-organic nitrate (C10H17NO4), produced from the OH oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of NOx, undergoes rapid processing in the aerosol phase via an acid-catalyzed and pH-dependent hydrolysis mechanism, potentially impacting SOA growth and molecular composition. Further processing in the aerosol phase via polymerization and formation of organosulfates is expected, yet studies related to product identification and their formation mechanisms are limited. In this presentation, I will discuss recent laboratory-based reaction chamber studies of gas-phase organic nitrate production, SOA formation, and acidity-dependent aerosol-phase processing of organic nitrates produced from the NO3 oxidation of γ-terpinene. This BVOC is a diolefin, which as modeling studies suggest, may be an important nighttime organic nitrate precursor. Gas-phase organic nitrate compounds resulting from NO3 oxidation were qualitatively identified applying I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and quantified via calibration using synthetic standards generated in our laboratory. Aerosol-phase analysis was carried out employing Fourier transform

  14. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.


    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  15. Ultrasonic techniques for process monitoring and control.

    Chien, H.-T.


    Ultrasonic techniques have been applied successfully to process monitoring and control for many industries, such as energy, medical, textile, oil, and material. It helps those industries in quality control, energy efficiency improving, waste reducing, and cost saving. This paper presents four ultrasonic systems, ultrasonic viscometer, on-loom, real-time ultrasonic imaging system, ultrasonic leak detection system, and ultrasonic solid concentration monitoring system, developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the past five years for various applications.

  16. Competition of silene/silylene chemistry with free radical chain reactions using 1-methylsilacyclobutane in the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process.

    Badran, I; Forster, T D; Roesler, R; Shi, Y J


    The gas-phase reaction chemistry of using 1-methylsilacyclobutane (MSCB) in the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process has been investigated by studying the decomposition of MSCB on a heated tungsten filament and subsequent gas-phase reactions in a reactor. Three pathways exist to decompose MSCB on the filament to form ethene/methylsilene, propene/methylsilylene, and methyl radicals. The activation energies for forming propene and methyl radical, respectively, are determined to be 68.7 ± 1.3 and 46.7 ± 2.5 kJ·mol(-1), which demonstrates the catalytic nature of the decomposition. The secondary gas-phase reactions in the hot-wire CVD reactor are characterized by the competition between a free radical chain reaction and the cycloaddition of silene reactive species produced either from the primary decomposition of MSCB on the filament or the isomerization of silylene species. At lower filament temperatures of 1000-1100 °C and short reaction time (t ≤ 15 min), the free radical chain reaction is equally important as the silene chemistry. With increasing filament temperature and reaction time, silene chemistry predominates.

  17. Ventilation equations for improved exothermic process control.

    McKernan, John L; Ellenbecker, Michael J


    Exothermic or heated processes create potentially unsafe work environments for an estimated 5-10 million American workers each year. Excessive heat and process contaminants have the potential to cause acute health effects such as heat stroke, and chronic effects such as manganism in welders. Although millions of workers are exposed to exothermic processes, insufficient attention has been given to continuously improving engineering technologies for these processes to provide effective and efficient control. Currently there is no specific occupational standard established by OSHA regarding exposure to heat from exothermic processes, therefore it is important to investigate techniques that can mitigate known and potential adverse occupational health effects. The current understanding of engineering controls for exothermic processes is primarily based on a book chapter written by W. C. L. Hemeon in 1955. Improvements in heat transfer and meteorological theory necessary to design improved process controls have occurred since this time. The research presented involved a review of the physical properties, heat transfer and meteorological theories governing buoyant air flow created by exothermic processes. These properties and theories were used to identify parameters and develop equations required for the determination of buoyant volumetric flow to assist in improving ventilation controls. Goals of this research were to develop and describe a new (i.e. proposed) flow equation, and compare it to currently accepted ones by Hemeon and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Numerical assessments were conducted to compare solutions from the proposed equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow to those from the ACGIH and Hemeon. Parameters were varied for the dependent variables and solutions from the proposed, ACGIH, and Hemeon equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow were analyzed using a randomized complete block statistical

  18. Anion size control of the packing in the metallic versus semiconducting chiral radical cation salts (DM-EDT-TTF)2XF6 (X = P, As, Sb).

    Pop, Flavia; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Canadell, Enric; Avarvari, Narcis


    Control of the structural type in metallic enantiopure and racemic radical cation salts is achieved through hydrogen bonding interactions between the chiral donor DM-EDT-TTF and the XF6 anions (X = P, As, Sb), determined by the anion size and the chiral information.

  19. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Calmano Stefan


    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  20. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  1. Optimal control of a CSTR process

    A. Soukkou


    Full Text Available Designing an effective criterion and learning algorithm for find the best structure is a major problem in the control design process. In this paper, the fuzzy optimal control methodology is applied to the design of the feedback loops of an Exothermic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor system. The objective of design process is to find an optimal structure/gains of the Robust and Optimal Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy Controller (ROFLC. The control signal thus obtained will minimize a performance index, which is a function of the tracking/regulating errors, the quantity of the energy of the control signal applied to the system, and the number of fuzzy rules. The genetic learning is proposed for constructing the ROFLC. The chromosome genes are arranged into two parts, the binary-coded part contains the control genes and the real-coded part contains the genes parameters representing the fuzzy knowledge base. The effectiveness of this chromosome formulation enables the fuzzy sets and rules to be optimally reduced. The performances of the ROFLC are compared to these found by the traditional PD controller with Genetic Optimization (PD_GO. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed ROFLC and PD_GO has successfully met the design specifications.

  2. Environmental Process Control: Strategies and Implementation

    Jurgis Staniskis


    Full Text Available The structure and mathematical presentation of the optimal strategy for environmental process control is presented. This approach covers a wide variety of control systems, which have been constructed and analysed at the Institute of Environmental Engineering during the last fifteen years. Special attention is paid to the preventive environmental control and its tools: pollution prevention, life cycle assessment. The implementation results of preventive environmental control from more than 150 companies are presented in the paper.The investigations on water quality control issues are evaluated from the point of view of the interface between physico-ecological and socio-economical systems and decision support system based on river water quality model is suggested.


    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  4. A rationale of the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone to ε-caprolactone with hydrogen peroxide: unprecedented evidence for a radical mechanism controlling reactivity.

    Cavani, Fabrizio; Raabova, Katerina; Bigi, Franca; Quarantelli, Carla


    We demonstrate, for the first time, in the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone with aqueous hydrogen peroxide under conditions aimed at obtaining ε-caprolactone, that a thermally activated radical reaction leads to the concurrent formation of adipic acid, even when a stoichiometric amount of the oxidant is used. In fact, ε-caprolactone is the primary reaction product, but it is more reactive than cyclohexanone, and quickly undergoes consecutive transformations. When titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1) is used as a catalyst, the high concentration of hydroxy radicals within its pores accelerates the reaction rates, and the consecutive formation of adipic acid (and of lighter diacids as well) becomes largely kinetically preferred. The proper choice of the solvent, which also may act as a radical scavenger, both without catalyst and with TS-1, is a powerful tool for controlling the rates of the various reactions involved.

  5. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip


    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  6. Accurate, reliable control of process gases by mass flow controllers

    Hardy, J.; McKnight, T.


    The thermal mass flow controller, or MFC, has become an instrument of choice for the monitoring and controlling of process gas flow throughout the materials processing industry. These MFCs are used on CVD processes, etching tools, and furnaces and, within the semiconductor industry, are used on 70% of the processing tools. Reliability and accuracy are major concerns for the users of the MFCs. Calibration and characterization technologies for the development and implementation of mass flow devices are described. A test facility is available to industry and universities to test and develop gas floe sensors and controllers and evaluate their performance related to environmental effects, reliability, reproducibility, and accuracy. Additional work has been conducted in the area of accuracy. A gravimetric calibrator was invented that allows flow sensors to be calibrated in corrosive, reactive gases to an accuracy of 0.3% of reading, at least an order of magnitude better than previously possible. Although MFCs are typically specified with accuracies of 1% of full scale, MFCs may often be implemented with unwarranted confidence due to the conventional use of surrogate gas factors. Surrogate gas factors are corrections applied to process flow indications when an MFC has been calibrated on a laboratory-safe surrogate gas, but is actually used on a toxic, or corrosive process gas. Previous studies have indicated that the use of these factors may cause process flow errors of typically 10%, but possibly as great as 40% of full scale. This paper will present possible sources of error in MFC process gas flow monitoring and control, and will present an overview of corrective measures which may be implemented with MFC use to significantly reduce these sources of error.

  7. Fault Detection and Control of Process Systems

    Vu Trieu Minh


    Full Text Available This paper develops a stochastic hybrid model-based control system that can determine online the optimal control actions, detect faults quickly in the control process, and reconfigure the controller accordingly using interacting multiple-model (IMM estimator and generalized predictive control (GPC algorithm. A fault detection and control system consists of two main parts: the first is the fault detector and the second is the controller reconfiguration. This work deals with three main challenging issues: design of fault model set, estimation of stochastic hybrid multiple models, and stochastic model predictive control of hybrid multiple models. For the first issue, we propose a simple scheme for designing faults for discrete and continuous random variables. For the second issue, we consider and select a fast and reliable fault detection system applied to the stochastic hybrid system. Finally, we develop a stochastic GPC algorithm for hybrid multiple-models controller reconfiguration with soft switching signals based on weighted probabilities. Simulations for the proposed system are illustrated and analyzed.

  8. Process control systems: integrated for future process technologies

    Botros, Youssry; Hajj, Hazem M.


    Process Control Systems (PCS) are becoming more crucial to the success of Integrated Circuit makers due to their direct impact on product quality, cost, and Fab output. The primary objective of PCS is to minimize variability by detecting and correcting non optimal performance. Current PCS implementations are considered disparate, where each PCS application is designed, deployed and supported separately. Each implementation targets a specific area of control such as equipment performance, wafer manufacturing, and process health monitoring. With Intel entering the nanometer technology era, tighter process specifications are required for higher yields and lower cost. This requires areas of control to be tightly coupled and integrated to achieve the optimal performance. This requirement can be achieved via consistent design and deployment of the integrated PCS. PCS integration will result in several benefits such as leveraging commonalities, avoiding redundancy, and facilitating sharing between implementations. This paper will address PCS implementations and focus on benefits and requirements of the integrated PCS. Intel integrated PCS Architecture will be then presented and its components will be briefly discussed. Finally, industry direction and efforts to standardize PCS interfaces that enable PCS integration will be presented.

  9. Sensor fusion for intelligent process control.

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hill, Kevin (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hanekamp, David (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Haley, William F. (PPG Industries, Inc., Wichita Falls, TX); Gallagher, Robert J.; Gowin, Craig (PPG Industries, Inc., Batavia, IL); Farrar, Arthur R. (PPG Industries, Inc., Wichita Falls, TX); Sheaffer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Mark A. (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Bertram, Lee A.; Dodge, Craig (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Binion, Bruce (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Walsh, Peter M.; Houf, William G.; Desam, Padmabhushana R. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Tiwary, Rajiv (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Stokes, Michael R. (PPG Industries, Inc.); Miller, Alan J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Michael, Richard W. (PPG Industries, Inc., Lincoln, AL); Mayer, Raymond M. (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Jiao, Yu (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Smith, Philip J. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Arbab, Mehran (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hillaire, Robert G.


    An integrated system for the fusion of product and process sensors and controls for production of flat glass was envisioned, having as its objective the maximization of throughput and product quality subject to emission limits, furnace refractory wear, and other constraints. Although the project was prematurely terminated, stopping the work short of its goal, the tasks that were completed show the value of the approach and objectives. Though the demonstration was to have been done on a flat glass production line, the approach is applicable to control of production in the other sectors of the glass industry. Furthermore, the system architecture is also applicable in other industries utilizing processes in which product uniformity is determined by ability to control feed composition, mixing, heating and cooling, chemical reactions, and physical processes such as distillation, crystallization, drying, etc. The first phase of the project, with Visteon Automotive Systems as industrial partner, was focused on simulation and control of the glass annealing lehr. That work produced the analysis and computer code that provide the foundation for model-based control of annealing lehrs during steady state operation and through color and thickness changes. In the second phase of the work, with PPG Industries as the industrial partner, the emphasis was on control of temperature and combustion stoichiometry in the melting furnace, to provide a wider operating window, improve product yield, and increase energy efficiency. A program of experiments with the furnace, CFD modeling and simulation, flow measurements, and sensor fusion was undertaken to provide the experimental and theoretical basis for an integrated, model-based control system utilizing the new infrastructure installed at the demonstration site for the purpose. In spite of the fact that the project was terminated during the first year of the second phase of the work, the results of these first steps toward implementation

  10. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan


    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  11. Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; De Bock, Jeano; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, September). Processes mediating expertise in air traffic control. Poster presented at the European Association for Aviation Psychology Conference, Budapest.

  12. EWMA control charts in statistical process monitoring

    Zwetsloot, I.M.


    In today’s world, the amount of available data is steadily increasing, and it is often of interest to detect changes in the data. Statistical process monitoring (SPM) provides tools to monitor data streams and to signal changes in the data. One of these tools is the control chart. The topic of this

  13. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective.

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P


    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples.

  14. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes



    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  15. 汉字形声字声旁的语义加工%Semantic Processing of Phonetic Radicals in Reading Chinese Characters

    周晓林; WilliamMarslen-Wilson


    Most complex Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right, which may provide information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. A semantic judgement task was used to investigate whether sublexical processing of phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters is purely a phonological event, involving activation of phonological information associated with the phonetic radicals, or whether it is also a semantic event, involving activation of semantic properties related to the radicals, which are meaningful characters on their own. Significant inhibitory effects was found for complex characters whose phonetic radicals were semantically related to the other member of the consecutively presented pair of characters. The magnitude of the inhibitory effects was generally not influenced by the regularity of phonetic radicals in providing phonological information for the whole characters, nor by the presentation order of complex characters and semantic associates of the phonetic radicals. It is argued that, in reading Chinese, phonetic radicals embedded in complex characters are decomposed from visual input and used to activate their own phonological and semantic properties, in parallel to the processing of whole characters.%作为汉字书写系统和意义表达基本单位的汉字可分为独体字(占5%)和合体字(占95%)两大类.绝大多数合体字由两部分组成:义旁(通常在左边)和声旁(通常在右边).声旁能够为这些合体字提供语音信息.根据声旁的读音与整字的读音是否一致,可把合体字分为规则字和不规则字.本研究的目的在于考察合体字声旁的亚词汇加工是否仅仅是一个纯粹的语音事件,只涉及声旁的语音加工,还是同时也是一个语义事件,涉及到声旁语义信息的激活.要求被试对屏幕上先后呈现的合体字(如"冯")和与其声旁语义相关的字("牛")作语义相关判断.整字之

  16. The statistical process control methods - SPC

    Floreková Ľubica


    Full Text Available Methods of statistical evaluation of quality – SPC (item 20 of the documentation system of quality control of ISO norm, series 900 of various processes, products and services belong amongst basic qualitative methods that enable us to analyse and compare data pertaining to various quantitative parameters. Also they enable, based on the latter, to propose suitable interventions with the aim of improving these processes, products and services. Theoretical basis and applicatibily of the principles of the: - diagnostics of a cause and effects, - Paret analysis and Lorentz curve, - number distribution and frequency curves of random variable distribution, - Shewhart regulation charts, are presented in the contribution.

  17. Agents-based distributed processes control systems

    Adrian Gligor


    Full Text Available Large industrial distributed systems have revealed a remarkable development in recent years. We may note an increase of their structural and functional complexity, at the same time with those on requirements side. These are some reasons why there are involvednumerous researches, energy and resources to solve problems related to these types of systems. The paper addresses the issue of industrial distributed systems with special attention being given to the distributed industrial processes control systems. A solution for a distributed process control system based on mobile intelligent agents is presented.The main objective of the proposed system is to provide an optimal solution in terms of costs, maintenance, reliability and flexibility. The paper focuses on requirements, architecture, functionality and advantages brought by the proposed solution.

  18. Dynamics of activity free radical oxidation reactions in students with cerebral palsy results over the course of the educational process

    Makarova E.V.


    Full Text Available The dynamics of changes activity of reactions is studied freely radical oxidize for students with the consequences of child's cerebral paralysis. 20 students took part in an experiment. Found that the course of study they have more active free radical oxidation reactions and decreases the activity of antiradical protection. Given the use of additional physical activity in aerobic training indicators intracellular antioxidant defense system increased, decreased content of reaction products of lipid peroxidation. However, increased rates of maximum oxygen consumption and increased tolerance of students with cerebral palsy to the consequences of physical activity. It is set that the pathological changes of metabolism for students ground the necessity of application of the differentiated physical loadings. The optimum forms of physical rehabilitation of the aerobic training is the dosed walking, medical swimming, dosed after distance, sometimes and by the corner of getting up pedestrian ascents. Loading is increased due to a volume, but not intensity of exercises.

  19. Reputation-controlled business process workflows

    Aziz, Benjamin; Hamilton, G


    This paper presents a model solution for controlling the execution of BPEL business processes based on reputation constraints at the level of the services, the service providers and the BPEL workflow. The reputation constraints are expressed as part of a service level agreement and are then enforced at runtime by a reputation monitoring system. We use our model to demonstrate how trust requirements based on such reputation constraints can be upheld in a real world example of a distributed map...

  20. Studies on Hydroxyl Radical Formation and Correlated Photoflocculation Process Using Degraded Wood Leachate as a CDOM Source

    Luni eSun; Kenneth eMopper


    The iron-poor leachate from decaying wood can be an important source of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in natural waters. In this study, we examined hydroxyl radical (•OH) formation with respect to photoreactivity of wood leachate DOM, the Fenton reaction, and photoflocculation. The relationship of •OH photoproduction rate and leachate optical properties (UV-visible absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMS) coupled with PARAFAC analysis) were studied during irra...

  1. Modelling and control of a flotation process

    Ding, L.; Gustafsson, T. [Control Engineering Group, Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)


    A general description of a flotation process is given. The dynamic model of a MIMO nonlinear subprocess in flotation, i. e. the pulp levels in five compartments in series is developed and the model is verified with real data from a production plant. In order to reject constant disturbances five extra states are introduced and the model is modified. An exact linearization has been made for the non-linear model and a linear quadratic gaussian controller is proposed based on the linearized model. The simulation result shows an improved performance of the pulp level control when the set points are changed or a disturbance occur. In future the controller will be tested in production. (author)

  2. Free radicals and antioxidants at a glance using EPR spectroscopy.

    Spasojević, Ivan


    The delicate balance between the advantageous and detrimental effects of free radicals is one of the important aspects of human (patho)physiology. The controlled production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has an essential role in the regulation of various signaling switches. On the other hand, imbalanced generation of radicals is highly correlated with the pathogenesis of many diseases which require the application of selected antioxidants to regain the homeostasis. In the era of growing interest for redox processes, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is arguably the best-suited technique for such research due to its ability to provide a unique insight into the world of free radicals and antioxidants. Herein, I present the principles of EPR spectroscopy and the applications of this method in assessing: (i) the oxidative status of biological systems, using endogenous long-lived free radicals (ascorbyl radical (Asc(•)), tocopheroxyl radical (TO(•)), melanin) as markers; (ii) the production of short-lived radicals (hydroxyl radical (OH(•)), superoxide radical anion (O(2)(•-)), sulfur- and carbon-centered radicals), which are implicated in both, oxidative stress and redox signaling; (iii) the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO(•)); (iv) the antioxidative properties of various drugs, compounds, and natural products; (v) other redox-relevant parameter. Besides giving a comprehensive survey of up-to-date literature, I also provide illustrative examples in sufficient detail to provide a means to exploit the potential of EPR in biochemical/physiological/medical research. The emphasis is on the features and characteristics (both positive and negative) relevant for EPR application in clinical sciences. My aim is to encourage fellow colleagues interested in free radicals and antioxidants to expand their base knowledge or methods used in their laboratories with data acquired by EPR or some of the EPR techniques outlined in this review, in order to

  3. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha


    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions.

  4. Peroxy radical chemistry and the control of ozone photochemistry at Mace Head, Ireland during the summer of 2002

    Z. L. Fleming


    Full Text Available Peroxy radical (HO2+ΣRO2 measurements, using the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA technique at the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment (NAMBLEX at Mace Head in summer 2002, are presented and put into the context of marine, boundary-layer chemistry. A suite of other chemical parameters (NO, NO2, NO3, CO, CH4, O3, VOCs, peroxides, photolysis frequencies and meteorological measurements, are used to present a detailed analysis of the role of peroxy radicals in tropospheric oxidation cycles and ozone formation. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 10 to 40 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. Using a box model based on the master chemical mechanism the average model measurement agreement was 2.5 across the campaign. The addition of halogen oxides to the model increases the level of model/measurement agreement, apparently by respeciation of HOx. A good correlation exists between j(HCHO.[HCHO] and the peroxy radicals indicative of the importance of HCHO in the remote atmosphere as a HOx source, particularly in the afternoon. The peroxy radicals showed a strong dependence on [NO2] with a break point at 0.1 ppbv, where the radicals increased concomitantly with the reactive VOC loading, this is a lower value than seen at representative urban campaigns. The HO2/(HO2+ΣRO2 ratios are dependent on [NOx] ranging between 0.2 and 0.6, with the ratio increasing linearly with NOx. Significant night-time levels of peroxy radicals were measured up to 25 pptv. The contribution of ozone-alkenes and NO3-alkene chemistry to night-time peroxy radical production was shown to be on average 59 and 41%. The campaign mean net ozone production rate was 0.11±0.3 ppbv h-1. The ozone production rate was strongly dependent on [NO] having linear sensitivity (dln(P(O3/dln(NO=1.0. The results imply that the N(O3 (the in-situ net photochemical rate of ozone

  5. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Ahring, B.K.; Angelidaki, I. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)


    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  6. Radical prostatectomy

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare oncological and functional outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) during the initial phase with RALP at a large university hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient and tumour...... surgery and at follow-up and they were asked to report their use of pads/diapers. Potency was defined as an IIEF-5 score of at least 17 with or without phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. Positive surgical margins, blood...... loss and functional outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 453 patients were treated with RRP and 585 with RALP. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, the type of surgery did not affect surgical margins (p = 0.96) or potency at 12 months (p = 0.7). Patients who had undergone...

  7. Process window control using CDU master

    Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Toki, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Daishi; Sato, Maki; Kosugi, Junichi; Tanaka, Rika; Sakasai, Naruo; Ohashi, Toshio; Nakasone, Ryoko; Tokui, Akira


    As double patterning techniques such as spacer double/quadruple patterning mature, ArF water immersion lithography is expected to be applied down to the 1x nm hp node or beyond. This will necessitate precise process control solutions to accommodate extremely small process windows. In the case of spacer double/quadruple patterning in particular, CD uniformity of the final feature is strongly related to the lithography performance of the initial pre-spacer feature. CD uniformity of the resist image is affected by many sources. In the case of the exposure tool, CD error on the reticle, as well as exposure dose and focus errors are the key factors. For the resist process, heterogeneity of the stacked resist film thickness, post exposure bake (PEB) plate temperature, and development all have an impact. Furthermore, the process wafer also has error sources that include under-layer non-uniformities or wafer flatness. Fortunately, the majorities of these non-uniformities are quite stable in a volume production process. To improve and maintain the CD uniformity, a technique to calculate exposure dose and focus correction values simultaneously using the measured resist image feature was reported previously [1]. Further, a demonstration of a correction loop using a neural network calculation model was reported in SPIE 2010 [2], and the corrected CD uniformity was less than 1.5 nm (3 sigma) within a wafer. For further improvement, a demonstration of precise dose and focus control using high order field-by-field correction was then reported at SPIE 2011[3]. In that work, the interand intra-field CD uniformities reported were less than 1 nm (3 sigma) respectively. A key aspect of this method is the simultaneous compensation of dose and focus offsets, which successfully maximizes the process margin of a target pattern. The Nikon CDU Master then derives the optimal control parameters for each compensation function in the scanner using the exposure dose and focus correction data

  8. Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism.

    Wood, George H.


    An alternative is presented to counter current radical arguments that the schools cannot bring about social change because they are instruments of capitalism. The works of Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Louis Althusser are discussed. Henry Giroux's "Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling" provides an alternative to cynicism.…

  9. Homegrown religious radicalization

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  10. Gesture Controlled Robot using Image Processing

    Harish Kumar Kaura


    Full Text Available Service robots directly interact with people, so finding a more natural and easy user interface is of fundamental importance. While earlier works have focused primarily on issues such as manipulation and navigation in the environment, few robotic systems are used with user friendly interfaces that possess the ability to control the robot by natural means. To facilitate a feasible solution to this requirement, we have implemented a system through which the user can give commands to a wireless robot using gestures. Through this method, the user can control or navigate the robot by using gestures of his/her palm, thereby interacting with the robotic system. The command signals are generated from these gestures using image processing. These signals are then passed to the robot to navigate it in the specified directions.

  11. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector


    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  12. Multivariate Process Control with Autocorrelated Data

    Kulahci, Murat


    As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control and monitoring. This new high dimensional data...... often exhibit not only cross-­‐correlation among the quality characteristics of interest but also serial dependence as a consequence of high sampling frequency and system dynamics. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through what is called the Hotelling’s T2 statistic...

  13. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Scott Decker


    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  14. Control of fumonisin: effects of processing.

    Saunders, D S; Meredith, F I; Voss, K A


    Of about 10 billion bushels of corn that are grown each year in the United States, less than 2% is processed directly into food products, and about 18% is processed into intermediates such as high-fructose corn syrup, ethanol, and cornstarch. The vast majority of the annual crop is used domestically for animal feed (60%), and about 16% is exported. Thus, any program for controlling residues of fumonisin (FB) in food must recognize that most of the crop is grown for something other than food. Studies on the effects of wet milling on FB residues found these residues nondetectable in cornstarch, the starting material for high-fructose corn syrup and most other wet-milled food ingredients. Similar effects are noted for the dry-milling process. FB residues were nondetectable or quite low in dry flaking grits and corn flour, higher in corn germ, and highest in corn bran. Extrusion of dry-milled products reduces FB concentrations by 30-90% for mixing-type extruders and 20-50% for nonmixing extruders. Cooking and canning generally have little effect on FB content. In the masa process measurable FB is reduced following the cooking, soaking, and washing steps, with little conversion of FB to the hydrolyzed form. Sheeting, baking, and frying at commercial times and temperatures generally have no effect. In summary, all available studies on the effects of processing corn into food and food ingredients consistently demonstrate substantial reductions in measurable FB. No studies have shown a concentration in FB residues in food products or ingredients.

  15. Free radicals and related reactive species as mediators of tissue injury and disease: implications for Health.

    Kehrer, James P; Klotz, Lars-Oliver


    A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normal products of many metabolic pathways. Some exist in a controlled (caged) form as they perform essential functions. Others exist in a free form and interact with various tissue components. Such interactions can cause both acute and chronic dysfunction, but can also provide essential control of redox regulated signaling pathways. The potential roles of endogenous or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in several human pathologies have stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. In recent years, improvements in analytical methodologies, as well as the realization that subtle effects induced by free radicals and oxidants are important in modulating cellular signaling, have greatly improved our understanding of the roles of these reactive species in toxic mechanisms and disease processes. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive, and a consequence as well as a cause of injury, whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains unclear. This concern is supported by the fact that the bulk of antioxidant defenses are enzymatic and the findings of numerous studies showing that exogenously administered small molecule antioxidants are unable to affect the course of most toxicities and diseases purported to have a free radical mechanism. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents, and provides examples of selected disease processes that may have a free radical component.

  16. Automated control system for a mashing process

    Teterin, E.; Rudnickiy, V.


    The goal of this paper is to describe a system for a mashing process, which is the first part of brewing beer. The mashing is a procedure where the fermentable (and some nonfermentable) sugars are extracted from malts. The program part based on LabVIEW, which is used to control NI CompactRIO. The main target of the project is to reach a predefined levels of the temperatures and maintain it during the pauses. When the necessary break time is ended the system is ready to go to the new value. The precise control of the temperatures during the breaks is one of the critical factors that define the texture and alcohol content of the beer. The system has two tanks with resistors PT'00 in both of them, heat exchanger (coil), heater and pump. The first tank has heating element in order to rise the temperature in the other one. This project has practical solution with all explanations and graphs which are proven working ability of this control system.

  17. Test and inspection for process control of monolithic circuits

    Spangenberg, E.


    Report details the test and inspection procedures for the mass production of high reliability integrated circuits. It covers configuration control, basic fundamentals of quality control, control charts, wafer process evaluation, general process evaluation, evaluation score system, and diffusion evaluation.

  18. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  19. Chloride anion effect on the advanced oxidation processes of methidathion and dimethoate: role of Cl2(·-) radical.

    Caregnato, Paula; Rosso, Janina A; Soler, Juán M; Arques, Antonio; Mártire, Daniel O; Gonzalez, Mónica C


    The reaction of phosphor-containing pesticides such as methidathion (MT) and dimethoate (DM) with dichloride radical anions (Cl(2)(·-)) was investigated. The second order rate constants (1.3 ± 0.4) × 10(8) and (1.1 ± 0.4) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) were determined for the reaction of Cl(2)(·-) with MT and DM, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving an initial charge transfer from the sulfide groups of the insecticides to Cl(2)(·-) is proposed and supported by the identified transient intermediates and reaction products. The formation of chlorinated byproducts was determined. The unexpected consequences of an efficient Cl(2)(·-) reactivity towards MT and DM on the degradation capacity by Advanced Oxidation Procedures applied to polluted waters containing the insecticides and Cl(-) anions is discussed.

  20. System and method to control h2o2 level in advanced oxidation processes


    The present invention relates to a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and a method of in-situ production and removal of H2O2 using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES). Further, the invention relates to a method for in-situ control of H2O2 content in an aqueous system of advanced oxidation...... processes (AOPs) involving in-situ generation of hydroxyl radical (OH) by using such a bio-electrochemical system (BES) and to a method for treatment of wastewater and water disinfection. The bio-electrochemical system (BES) according to the invention comprises: - an aqueous cathode compartment comprising...

  1. Gamma radiation as a microbiological control process

    O' Sullivan, E.T.; Stein, M.H.


    Since the approval of the NDA for radiation sterilization of tetracycline ophthalmic ointment submitted by Lederle Laboratories, many other companies have initiated programs to obtain the necessary data for an NDA filling. This paper outlines the factors to be considered in such filling, i.e., choice of radiation exposure, microbiological efficacy, evaluation of possibility of chemical change, establishment of maximum exposure, effect of maximum ratio, etc. Using radiation to control the bacterial level of incoming raw material is also discussed both from the standpoint of reducing the challenge to the sterilization process and as an adjunct to GMP for maintaining the equivalent to aseptic handling cleanliness for those products which do not require sterility or high degrees of sterility assurance.

  2. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.


    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  3. Neural Networks for Signal Processing and Control

    Hesselroth, Ted Daniel

    Neural networks are developed for controlling a robot-arm and camera system and for processing images. The networks are based upon computational schemes that may be found in the brain. In the first network, a neural map algorithm is employed to control a five-joint pneumatic robot arm and gripper through feedback from two video cameras. The pneumatically driven robot arm employed shares essential mechanical characteristics with skeletal muscle systems. To control the position of the arm, 200 neurons formed a network representing the three-dimensional workspace embedded in a four-dimensional system of coordinates from the two cameras, and learned a set of pressures corresponding to the end effector positions, as well as a set of Jacobian matrices for interpolating between these positions. Because of the properties of the rubber-tube actuators of the arm, the position as a function of supplied pressure is nonlinear, nonseparable, and exhibits hysteresis. Nevertheless, through the neural network learning algorithm the position could be controlled to an accuracy of about one pixel (~3 mm) after two hundred learning steps. Applications of repeated corrections in each step via the Jacobian matrices leads to a very robust control algorithm since the Jacobians learned by the network have to satisfy the weak requirement that they yield a reduction of the distance between gripper and target. The second network is proposed as a model for the mammalian vision system in which backward connections from the primary visual cortex (V1) to the lateral geniculate nucleus play a key role. The application of hebbian learning to the forward and backward connections causes the formation of receptive fields which are sensitive to edges, bars, and spatial frequencies of preferred orientations. The receptive fields are learned in such a way as to maximize the rate of transfer of information from the LGN to V1. Orientational preferences are organized into a feature map in the primary visual

  4. Peroxy radical chemistry and the control of ozone photochemistry at Mace Head, Ireland during the summer of 2002

    Z. L. Fleming


    Full Text Available Peroxy radical (HO2+ΣRO2 measurements, using the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA technique at the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment (NAMBLEX at Mace Head in summer 2002, are presented and put into the context of marine, boundary-layer chemistry. A suite of other chemical parameters (NO, NO2, NO3, CO, CH4, O3, VOCs, peroxides, photolysis frequencies and meteorological measurements, are used to present a detailed analysis of the role of peroxy radicals in tropospheric oxidation cycles and ozone formation. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 10 to 40 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. Using a box model based on the master chemical mechanism the average model measurement agreement was 2.5 across the campaign. The addition of halogen oxides to the model increases the level of model/measurement agreement, apparently by respeciation of HOx. A good correlation exists between j(HCHO.[HCHO] and the peroxy radicals indicative of the importance of HCHO in the remote atmosphere as a HOx source, particularly in the afternoon. The peroxy radicals showed a strong dependence on [NOx] with a break point at 0.1 ppbv, where the radicals increased concomitantly with the reactive VOC loading, this is a lower value than seen at representative urban campaigns. The HO2/(HO2+ΣRO2 ratios are dependent on [NOx] ranging between 0.2 and 0.6, with the ratio increasing linearly with NOx. Significant night-time levels of peroxy radicals were measured up to 25 pptv. The contribution of ozone-alkenes and NO3-alkene chemistry to night-time peroxy radical production was shown to be on average 59 and 41%. The campaign mean net ozone production rate was 0.11±0.3 ppbv h−1

  5. Understanding Control Function and Failure From a Process Perspective

    Heussen, Kai; Lind, Morten


    In control design, fault-identification and fault tolerant control, the controlled process is usually perceived as a dynamical process, captured in a mathematical model. The design of a control system for a complex process, however, begins typically long before these mathematical models become...... behaviour and its function. This paper presents a formal methodology for the qualitative representation of control functions in relation to their process context. Different types of relevant process and control abstractions are introduced and their application to formal analysis of control failure modes...... relevant and available. To consider the role of control functions in process design, a good qualitative understanding of the process as well as of control functions is required. As the purpose of a control function is closely tied to the process functions, its failure has a direct effects on the process...

  6. Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.

    Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A


    Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning.

  7. Thermionic power system power processing and control

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.


    Thermionic power systems are being considered for space-based miltary applications because of their survivability and high efficiency. Under the direction of the Air Force, conceptual designs were generated for two thermionic power systems to determine preliminary system performance data and direct future component development. This paper discusses the power processing and control (PP&C) subsystem that conditions the thermionic converter power and controls the operation of the reactor and thermionic converter subsystems. The baseline PP&C design and design options are discussed, mass and performance data are provided, and technology needs are identified. The impact on PP&C subsystem mass and efficiency of alternate power levels and boom lengths is also presented. The baseline PP&C subsystem is lightweight and reliable, and it uses proven design concepts to minimize development and testing time. However, the radiation dosages specified in the program research and development announcement (PRDA) are 10 to 100 times the capabilities of present semiconductor devices. While these levels are aggressive, they are considered to be achievable by 1995 if the Air Force and other government agencies continue to actively develop radiation resistant electronics devices for military applications.

  8. [Effects of low power laser radiation of blue, green and red ranges on free radical processes in rat blood in endotoxic shock].

    Machneva, T V; Kosmacheva, N V; Vladimirov, Iu A; Osipov, A N


    This study was performed to investigate the effects of low power laser radiation in blue (441.2 nm), green (532.5 nm) and red (632.8 nm) wavelength ranges on free radical processes in experimental endotoxic shock in rats. The experimental model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysacharide B (25 mg/kg) (LPS). The following parameters were assayed in the study: the chemiluminescent assay (to evaluate the free radical production by blood leukocytes), nitro blue tetrazolium assay (to monitor the superoxide dismutase activity of plasma) and cis-parinaric acid fluorescence (to estimate the intensity of lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes). It was found that the low power laser radiation significantly influenced all investigated processes, in animals both treated and untreated without LPS injection. The most pronounced effects were observed in all groups of animals subjected to the low power laser radiation: at the dose of 0.75 J/cm2 green laser was most effective and at the dose of 1.5 J/cm2 green and red lasers provided maximal effects. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  9. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  10. Security of legacy process control systems : Moving towards secure process control systems

    Oosterink, M.


    This white paper describes solutions which organisations may use to improve the security of their legacy process control systems. When we refer to a legacy system, we generally refer to old methodologies, technologies, computer systems or applications which are still in use, despite the fact that ne

  11. Security of legacy process control systems : Moving towards secure process control systems

    Oosterink, M.


    This white paper describes solutions which organisations may use to improve the security of their legacy process control systems. When we refer to a legacy system, we generally refer to old methodologies, technologies, computer systems or applications which are still in use, despite the fact that

  12. Statistical process control for IMRT dosimetric verification.

    Breen, Stephen L; Moseley, Douglas J; Zhang, Beibei; Sharpe, Michael B


    Patient-specific measurements are typically used to validate the dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To evaluate the dosimetric performance over time of our IMRT process, we have used statistical process control (SPC) concepts to analyze the measurements from 330 head and neck (H&N) treatment plans. The objectives of the present work are to: (i) Review the dosimetric measurements of a large series of consecutive head and neck treatment plans to better understand appropriate dosimetric tolerances; (ii) analyze the results with SPC to develop action levels for measured discrepancies; (iii) develop estimates for the number of measurements that are required to describe IMRT dosimetry in the clinical setting; and (iv) evaluate with SPC a new beam model in our planning system. H&N IMRT cases were planned with the PINNACLE treatment planning system versions 6.2b or 7.6c (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) and treated on Varian (Palo Alto, CA) or Elekta (Crawley, UK) linacs. As part of regular quality assurance, plans were recalculated on a 20-cm-diam cylindrical phantom, and ion chamber measurements were made in high-dose volumes (the PTV with highest dose) and in low-dose volumes (spinal cord organ-at-risk, OR). Differences between the planned and measured doses were recorded as a percentage of the planned dose. Differences were stable over time. Measurements with PINNACLE3 6.2b and Varian linacs showed a mean difference of 0.6% for PTVs (n=149, range, -4.3% to 6.6%), while OR measurements showed a larger systematic discrepancy (mean 4.5%, range -4.5% to 16.3%) that was due to well-known limitations of the MLC model in the earlier version of the planning system. Measurements with PINNACLE3 7.6c and Varian linacs demonstrated a mean difference of 0.2% for PTVs (n=160, range, -3.0%, to 5.0%) and -1.0% for ORs (range -5.8% to 4.4%). The capability index (ratio of specification range to range of the data) was 1.3 for the PTV data, indicating that almost

  13. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.


    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  14. An Introduction to Controller Performance Assessment in Process Control Class through Stiction in Control Valves

    Srinivasan, Ranganathan; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan; Harris, Sandra


    In this paper, we discuss a simple liquid level experiment that can be used to teach nonlinear phenomena in process control through stiction in control valves. This experiment can be used to introduce the undergraduate students to the area of Controller Performance Assessment (CPA). The experiment is very easy to set-up and demonstrate. While…

  15. Effects of various extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the free radical processes, natural antioxidant system and respiratory burst system activities in the heart and liver tissues.

    Canseven, Ayse Gulnihal; Coskun, Sule; Seyhan, Nesrin


    Magnetic fields (MFs) can affect biological systems by increasing the release of free radicals that are able to alter cell defense systems and breakdown tissue homeostasis. In the present study, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) were investigated on free radical levels, natural antioxidant systems and respiratory burst system activities in heart and liver tissues of guinea pigs exposed to 50 Hz MFs of 1, 2 and 3 mT for 4 h/day and 8 h/day for 5 days by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. A total of sixty-two male guinea pigs, 10-12 weeks old were studied in seven groups as control and exposure groups: Group I (control), II (1 mT, 4 h/day), III (1 mT, 8 h/day), IV (2 mT, 4 h/day), V (2 mT, 8 h/day), VI (3 mT, 4 h/day), and VII (3 mT, 8 h/day). Controls were kept under the same conditions without any exposure to MF. MDA levels increased in liver in groups II and IV, but decreased in group VII for both liver and heart tissues. NOx levels declined in heart in groups II and III and in liver in groups III, V, and VI, but increased in liver in group VII. GSH levels increased in heart in groups II, IV, V, and in liver in groups V and VI and VI, but decreased in groups II and IV in liver. MPO activity decreased in liver in groups III, IV, VI and VII with respect to controls and in heart tissues in groups II, III and IV; however, there was a significant increase MPO activity in heart in group VII. From the results, it can be concluded that the intensity and exposure duration of MFs are among the effective conditions on the formation of free radicals and behaviour of antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Synthesis of Glycopolymer Architectures by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    Ali Ghadban


    Full Text Available This review summarizes the state of the art in the synthesis of well-defined glycopolymers by Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization (RDRP from its inception in 1998 until August 2012. Glycopolymers architectures have been successfully synthesized with four major RDRP techniques: Nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP, cyanoxyl-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. Over 140 publications were analyzed and their results summarized according to the technique used and the type of monomer(s and carbohydrates involved. Particular emphasis was placed on the experimental conditions used, the structure obtained (comonomer distribution, topology, the degree of control achieved and the (potential applications sought. A list of representative examples for each polymerization process can be found in tables placed at the beginning of each section covering a particular RDRP technique.

  17. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on hydroxyl radical formation and correlated photoflocculation process using degraded wood leachate as a CDOM source

    Luni eSun


    Full Text Available The iron-poor leachate from decaying wood can be an important source of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM in natural waters. In this study, we examined hydroxyl radical (•OH formation with respect to photoreactivity of wood leachate DOM, the Fenton reaction, and photoflocculation. The relationship of •OH photoproduction rate and leachate optical properties (UV-visible absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMS coupled with PARAFAC analysis were studied during irradiation in a UV solar simulator. The results showed that the •OH photochemical formation rate is strongly related to humic-like fluorescence as characterized by EEMS-PARAFAC analyses, and these fluorescence components are more photolabile than most of the other CDOM components. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR indicates the photodegradation of lignin-related structures. To examine the role of iron, Fe speciation (particulate Fe, organically-complexed Fe(II, organically-complexed Fe(III, free Fe(II, and free Fe(III were measured in the leachate samples amended with Fe. The addition of Fe accelerated •OH production substantially, and Fe was rapidly photochemically cycled between Fe(II and Fe(III. The photodegradation of iron complexing ligands appears to play an important role in DOM photoflocculation.

  19. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    Wang, Yuru


    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  20. Intensification of volatile organic compounds mass transfer in a compact scrubber using the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: kinetic study and hydroxyl radical tracking.

    Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Renner, Christophe; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre


    This study assesses the potential of ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) to enhance the dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) mass transfer in a compact chemical scrubber developed for air treatment applications. Theoretical calculations, through Hatta number and enhancement factor evaluations for two parallel irreversible reactions, were compared to experimental data and enabled the description of the mass transfer mechanisms. These calculations required the determination of the kinetic constant of the DMDS oxidation by molecular ozone ( [Formula: see text] ) and the measurement of the hydroxyl radical concentration within the scrubber. The competitive kinetic method using the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) enabled to determine a value of the kinetic constant [Formula: see text] of 1.1×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at 293K. Then, experiments using para-chlorobenzoic acid in solution allowed measuring the average hydroxyl concentration in the scrubber between the inlet and the outlet depending on the chemical conditions (pH and inlet O(3) and H(2)O(2) concentrations). High hydroxyl radical concentrations (10(-8)M) and ratio of the HO°-to-O(3) exposure (R(ct)≈10(-4)) were put in evidence.

  1. Neuro-fuzzy Control of Integrating Processes

    Anna Vasičkaninová


    Full Text Available Fuzzy technology is adaptive and easily applicable in different areas.Fuzzy logic provides powerful tools to capture the perceptionof natural phenomena. The paper deals with tuning of neuro-fuzzy controllers for integrating plant and for integrating plantswith time delay. The designed approach is verified on three examples by simulations and compared plants with classical PID control.Designed fuzzy controllers lead to better closed-loop control responses then classical PID controllers.


    Zeynep Kaya


    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  3. Comparison Analysis of Model Predictive Controller with Classical PID Controller For pH Control Process

    V. Balaji


    Full Text Available pH control plays a important role in any chemical plant and process industries. For the past four decades the classical PID controller has been occupied by the industries. Due to the faster computing   technology in the industry demands a tighter advanced control strategy. To fulfill the needs and requirements Model Predictive Control (MPC is the best among all the advanced control algorithms available in the present scenario. The study and analysis has been done for First Order plus Delay Time (FOPDT model controlled by Proportional Integral Derivative (PID and MPC using the Matlab software. This paper explores the capability of the MPC strategy, analyze and compare the control effects with conventional control strategy in pH control. A comparison results between the PID and MPC is plotted using the software. The results clearly show that MPC provide better performance than the classical controller.

  4. Probability and radical behaviorism

    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

  5. Probability and radical behaviorism

    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforc...

  6. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van


    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  7. Geophysical Processes - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  8. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh


    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  9. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    Most advanced process control systems are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). In this paper we discuss three critical issues for the practical implementation of linear MPC for process control applications. The rst issue is related to oset free control and disturbance models; the second issue...... implications for process control. If the control and evaluation intervals are chosen too short, the predicted behaviour of the controllers may have unstable characteristics. Depending of the degrees of freedom, oset-free control of a number of the controlled variables can be achieved by introduction of noise...... models and integration of the innovation errors. If the disturbances increases, oset-free control cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function is used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of soft constraints for process output...

  10. Hierarchical Process Control of Chemical Vapor Infiltration.


    in these variables with reference to Figure 8. Conventional PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level in order to retain achieve minimum controlled-variable variations. PID controllers are beneficially employed at this level to retain industry standard functions useful

  11. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts


    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  12. Effect of metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with hydrogen atom donors. Fine control on hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by Lewis acid-base interactions.

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo


    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of metal ions (M(n+)) on hydrogen abstraction reactions from C-H donor substrates by the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out in acetonitrile. Metal salt addition was observed to increase the CumO(•) β-scission rate constant in the order Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+). These effects were explained in terms of the stabilization of the β-scission transition state determined by Lewis acid-base interactions between M(n+) and the radical. When hydrogen abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene was studied in the presence of LiClO(4) and Mg(ClO(4))(2), a slight increase in rate constant (k(H)) was observed indicating that interaction between M(n+) and CumO(•) can also influence, although to a limited extent, the hydrogen abstraction reactivity of alkoxyl radicals. With Lewis basic C-H donors such as THF and tertiary amines, a decrease in k(H) with increasing Lewis acidity of M(n+) was observed (k(H)(MeCN) > k(H)(Li(+)) > k(H)(Mg(2+))). This behavior was explained in terms of the stronger Lewis acid-base interaction of M(n+) with the substrate as compared to the radical. This interaction reduces the degree of overlap between the α-C-H σ* orbital and a heteroatom lone-pair, increasing the C-H BDE and destabilizing the carbon centered radical formed after abstraction. With tertiary amines, a >2-order of magnitude decrease in k(H) was measured after Mg(ClO(4))(2) addition up to a 1.5:1 amine/Mg(ClO(4))(2) ratio. At higher amine concentrations, very similar k(H) values were measured with and without Mg(ClO(4))(2). These results clearly show that with strong Lewis basic substrates variations in the nature and concentration of M(n+) can dramatically influence k(H), allowing for a fine control of the substrate hydrogen atom donor ability, thus providing a convenient method for C-H deactivation. The implications and generality of these findings are discussed.

  13. The Research and Application of Prediction Control in Multi-variable Control Process

    WEI Shuangying


    The modern industrial control objects become more and more complicated, and higher control quality is required, so a series of new control strategies appear, applied, modified and develop quickly. This paper researches a new control strategy-prediction control-and its application in Multi-Variable Control Process. The research result is worthy for automatic control in process industry.


    I. Osoba


    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  15. Ignorance Radicalized

    Gergo Somodi


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. I criticize Michael Devitt's linguistic---as opposed to Chomsky's psychological---conception of linguistics on the one hand, and I modify his related view on linguistic intuitions on the other. I argue that Devitt's argument for the linguistic conception is in conflict with one of the main theses of that very conception, according to which linguistics should be about physical sentence tokens of a given language rather than about the psychologically real competence of native speakers. The basis of this conflict is that Devitt's view on language, as I will show, inherits too much from the criticized Chomskian view. This is also the basis of Devitt's strange claim that it is the linguist, and not the ordinary speaker, whose linguistic intuition should have an evidential role in linguistics. I will argue for the opposite by sketching a view on language that is more appropriate to the linguistic conception. That is, in criticizing Devitt, I am not defending the Chomskian approach. My aim is to radicalize Devitt's claims.

  16. Control of oxygen free radical formation from mitochondrial complex I: roles for protein kinase A and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Raha, Sandeep; Myint, A Tomoko; Johnstone, Leslie; Robinson, Brian H


    Human NADH CoQ oxidoreductase is composed of a total of 43 subunits and has been demonstrated to be a major site for the production of superoxide by mitochondria. Incubation of rat heart mitochondria with ATP resulted in the phosphorylation of two mitochondrial membrane proteins, one with a M(r) of 6 kDa consistent with the NDUFA1 (MWFE), and one at 18kDa consistent with either NDUFS4 (AQDQ) or NDUFB7 (B18). Phosphorylation of both subunits was enhanced by cAMP derivatives and protein kinase A (PKA) and was inhibited by PKA inhibitors (PKAi). When mitochondrial membranes were incubated with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, phosphorylation of an 18kDa protein but not a 6kDa protein was observed. NADH cytochrome c reductase activity was decreased and superoxide production rates with NADH as substrate were increased. On the other hand, with protein kinase A-driven phosphorylation, NADH cytochrome c reductase was increased and superoxide production decreased. Overall there was a 4-fold variation in electron transport rates observable at the extremes of these phosphorylation events. This suggests that electron flow through complex I and the production of oxygen free radicals can be regulated by phosphorylation events. In light of these observations we discuss a potential model for the dual regulation of complex I and the production of oxygen free radicals by both PKA and PDH kinase.

  17. Terrorism, radicalization, and de-radicalization

    Doosje, B.; Moghaddam, F.M.; Kruglanski, A.W.; de Wolf, A.; Mann, L.; Feddes, A.R.


    In this article, we review the literature and present a model of radicalization and de-radicalization. In this model, we distinguish three phases in radicalization: (1) a sensitivity phase, (2) a group membership phase and (3) an action phase. We describe the micro-level, meso-level and macro-level

  18. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.


    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a statisti

  19. Global satisfactory control for nonlinear integrator processes with long delay

    Yiqun YANG; Guobo XIANG


    Integrator processes with long delay are difficult to control. Nonlinear characteristics of actuators make the control problem more challenging. A technique is proposed in this paper for global satisfactory control (GSC) of such processes with relay-type nonlinearity. An oscillatory control signal is injected into the nonlinear process; the amplitude and frequency of the oscillatory signal are designed to linearise the nonlinear process in the sense of harmonic analysis; and a state feedback controller is configured to implement GSC over the linearised process. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Plug-and-play process control

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob


    An important issue in the area of reconfigurable systems is how to respond correctly if new components are added. We consider the problem of improving control performance for a system where a new set of sensors becomes available. It is assumed that a complete re-design of the control system is un...

  1. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    Armstrong, R.E.


    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA.

  2. Construction Process Control of Large Extra Caissons

    HU Shaowei; WANG Hongxia; FAN Jiansheng


    The complexity of geotechnical engineering and variability in construction circumstances of large extra caissons make the problem of maintaining appropriate sink attitude quite difficult, especially in keeping sink uniformity and achieving the expected final sink depth. A new construction control method is presented using (H∞) theory, considering uncertainties in the mechanics model and external noise in the construction site parameters. The design method of an (H∞) controller has consequently been obtained for large extra caissons. Control results using only constructor experiences are compared with simulation results using the (H∞) controller for a practical engineering situation, which indicates that the (H∞) controller is successful in maintaining sink uniformity, avoiding sink as well as in achieving the expected final sink depth.

  3. Study on mechanism of C-H radicals' recombination into acetylene in the process of coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma

    Li, M.D.; Fan, Y.S.; Dai, B.; Deng, W.W.; Liu, X.L. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing, (China). Dept. of Engineering Mechanics


    According to computation results of C-K equilibrium systems, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H are the main hydrocarbons in the C-H equilibrium system at the temperature of approximately 3500 K. Because hydrogen plasma has the advantage of high temperature (over 3500 K), acetylene can be directly produced by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma. In order to obtain high yields of acetylene, a quenching process is needed to fix the acetylene produced at high temperature. A dynamic chemical method is employed to study the mechanism of C{sub 2}H radicals' recombination into acetylene in the quenching process. Primary experiments have also been carried out to study the process of coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma. It is shown by the calculation results that: (1) the reaction that really has an effect on acetylene yield in the quenching process is the recombination of C{sub 2}H and H{sub 2}, and not that of C{sub 2}H and H in traditional opinions; (2) if the recombination of C{sub 2}H and H{sub 2} is taken into account, the total mass content of acetylene in the quenched gas may increase from 58% to 78% at the quenching rate which can prevent acetylene from decomposing.

  4. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  5. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R


    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.


    Lei Yulong; Gao Bingzhao; Tian Hua; Ge Anlin; Yan Su


    Combining with the development of automated manual transmission (AMT), the various throttle control demands are analyzed under different working conditions of AMT such as tracking acceleration pedal, start, shift and so on. Based on simulation, the responding throttle control strategies are proposed, and a simple but effective throttle control method is presented. The testing results have proved that the strategies are effective for improving the pedal tracking precision and the qualities of start and shift.

  7. Design and development of expert system for controlling sintering process


    The general structure of expert system for controlling sintering process has been proposed. It includes knowledge base, inference engine, data acquisition system, learning system, knowledge base management system, explanation system and so on. The control functions consist of sintering chemical composition control centered on basicity and sintering process state control centered on permeability. The adaptive prediction of sintering chemical composition, the control strategy centered on basicity, the control strategy centered on permeability, the judgement of permeability and the prediction of burn through point were studied. The software of system, which includes about 1000 expert rules, was successfully applied in off-line control of sintering process in a sintering plant.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Well-Defined MDMO-PPV Containing (TriBlock—Copolymers via Controlled Radical Polymerization and CuAAC Conjugation

    Neomy Zaquen


    Full Text Available A systematic investigation into the chain transfer polymerization of the so-called radical precursor polymerization of poly(p-phenylene vinylene (PPV materials is presented. Polymerizations are characterized by systematic variation of chain transfer agent (CTA concentration and reaction temperature. For the chain transfer constant, a negative activation energy of −12.8 kJ·mol−1 was deduced. Good control over molecular weight is achieved for both the sulfinyl and the dithiocarbamate route (DTC. PPVs with molecular weights ranging from thousands to ten thousands g·mol−1 were obtained. To allow for a meaningful analysis of the CTA influence, Mark–Houwink–Kuhn–Sakurada (MHKS parameters were determined for conjugated MDMO-PPV ([2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy]-1,4-phenylenevinylene to α = 0.809 and k = 0.00002 mL·g−1. Further, high-endgroup fidelity of the CBr4-derived PPVs was proven via chain extension experiments. MDMO-PPV-Br was successfully used as macroinitiator in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP with acrylates and styrene. A more polar PPV counterpart was chain extended by an acrylate in single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP. In a last step, copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC was used to synthesize block copolymer structures. Direct azidation followed by macromolecular conjugation showed only partial success, while the successive chain extension via ATRP followed by CuAAC afforded triblock copolymers of the poly(p-phenylene vinylene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol (PPV-b-PtBuA-b-PEG.

  9. Controlling photo-oxidation processes of a polyfluorene derivative: The effect of additives and mechanism

    Ferreira, G.R. [Laboratory of Polymers and Electronic Properties of Materials – UFOP, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Nowacki, B. [Paulo Scarpa Polymer Laboratory – UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Magalhães, A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, E.R. de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Sá, E.L. de [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Akcelrud, L.C. [Paulo Scarpa Polymer Laboratory – UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bianchi, R.F., E-mail: [Laboratory of Polymers and Electronic Properties of Materials – UFOP, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)


    The control of the photo degradation of a fluorene–vinylene–phenylene based-polymer, poly(9,9-di-hexylfluorenediylvinylene-alt-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (LaPPS16) was achieved by addition of a radical scavenger (RS) (enhancing photo resistance) or a radical initiator (RI) (reducing photo resistance). Photoluminescence, UV–Vis absorption, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopies and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) revealed that the incorporating small amounts of RS or RI is an efficient way to control the rates of the photo-oxidation reactions, and thus to obtain the conjugated polymer with foreseeable degradation rates for applications in blue-light sensitive detectors for neonatal phototherapy. - Highlights: • Photo degradation control of a fluorene–vinylene–phenylene based polymer was achieved. • A radical scavenger enhanced photo resistance and radical initiator decreased it. • Color change rate with irradiation dose provided a basis for dosimeter construction.

  10. Bioinspired terpene synthesis: a radical approach.

    Justicia, José; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Jakoby, Verena; Gansäuer, Andreas; Cuerva, Juan M


    This tutorial review highlights the development of radical-based bioinspired synthesis of terpenes from the initial proposal to the development of modern catalytic methods for performing such processes. The power of the radical approach is demonstrated by the straightforward syntheses of many natural products from readily available starting materials. The efficiency of these processes nicely complements the described cationic polyolefin cyclisations and even suggests that modern radical methods provide means to improve upon nature's synthetic pathways.

  11. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  12. Development of Expert Controller for Plasma Spraying Process

    LIChun-xu; CHENKe-xuan; LIHe-qi; LIDe-wu


    Aiming at the plasma spraying process control, the control system model is developed on the basis of analyzing control parameters and coating properties and their correlation, and the corresponding control method and regulations are also given. With the developed expert controller for plasma spraying process, stable spraying can be realized using ordinary spraying powder and the coating of compaction, homogeneity and high bonding strength can be obtained.

  13. Ewmareg control chart applied in the monitoring of industrial processes

    Danilo Cuzzuol Pedrini


    Full Text Available If the process quality characteristics are dependent of control variables, and these vary during the process operation, the basic assumptions of control charts are violated. If the values of the control variables are known, it’s possible to apply the regression control chart. One of the most recent works in this area is the EWMAREG chart, which is the monitoring of the standardized residuals using exponentially weighted moving average control chart. In this paper, we present a systematic application of the EWMAREG control chart in monitoring a simulated process of chemical industry. The process characteristic monitored was the corrosion rate of steel pipe in function of four process control variables. The tool applied demonstrated high potential to detect change in surveillance of corrosion rate, ensuring stability process.

  14. Numerical Controlled Rolling Process of Thick Metal Plate


    Thick metal plate rolling process has become more and more important in building a flat roof of drilling on the bottom at sea. This is because not only the product quality requirement higher and higher but also the marketing competition. To improve the process of thick metal plate rolling and to increase productivity a numerical controlled rolling process is developed, which include the process planning, the mathematical model establishment and the numerical control system development. The process is for ...

  15. Maximum process problems in optimal control theory

    Goran Peskir


    Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.

  16. The application of mean control chart in managing industrial processes

    Papić-Blagojević Nataša


    Full Text Available Along with the advent of mass production comes the problem of monitoring and maintaining the quality of the product, which stressed the need for the application of selected statistical and mathematical methods in the control process. The main objective of applying the methods of statistical control is continuous quality improvement through permanent monitoring of the process in order to discover the causes of errors. Shewart charts are the most popular method of statistical process control, which performs separation of controlled and uncontrolled variations along with detection of increased variations. This paper presents the example of Shewart mean control chart with application in managing industrial process.

  17. Operator's Influence on the Safety of the Controlled Process

    Peter Nagy


    Full Text Available An analysis of risks related to controlled process and related hazards identification is an important activity during the development of the safety related control system (SRCS. The mistake of the operational staff during the execution of the safety relevant operations related to controlled process can be the cause of hazard. Influence of the operator on controlled process safety depends on operation mode of the SRCS and on technical safety of the SRCS. This contribution deals with the issue of the safety assessment of the operator effect on the safety of the controlled process.


    R. G. SILVA


    Full Text Available A new algorithm for model predictive control is presented. The algorithm utilizes a simultaneous solution and optimization strategy to solve the model's differential equations. The equations are discretized by equidistant collocation, and along with the algebraic model equations are included as constraints in a nonlinear programming (NLP problem. This algorithm is compared with the algorithm that uses orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The equidistant collocation algorithm results in simpler equations, providing a decrease in computation time for the control moves. Simulation results are presented and show a satisfactory performance of this algorithm.

  19. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function can be used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of hard and soft constraints for process input constraints in the MPC controllers, ensures feasible solutions. The computational load...... as function of controllers type, Model dimension and constraint type will be discussed. Finally the special requirements set by processes including a pure integration dynamics will be illustrated by a linearised CSTR process. The simulated results presented, will later on be implemented on and demonstrated...

  20. Globally stable control systems for processes with input multiplicities

    Lee, Jietae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Edgar, Thomas F. [University of Texas, Austin (United States)


    A nonlinear process with input multiplicity has two or more input values for a given output at the steady state, and the process steady state gain changes its sign as the operating point changes. A control system with integral action will be unstable when both signs of the process gain and the controller integral gain are different, and its stability region will be limited to the boundary where the process steady state gain is zero. Unlike processes with output multiplicities, feedback controllers cannot be used to correct the sign changes of process gain. To remove such stability limitation, a simple control system with parallel compensator is proposed. The parallel compensator can be easily designed based on the process steady state gain information and tuned in the field. Using the two time scale method, the stability of proposed control systems for processes with input multiplicities can be checked.

  1. Chlorophyll-quinone photochemistry in liposomes: mechanisms of radical formation and decay

    Hurley, J.K.; Tollin, G.


    Laser flash photolysis has been used to investigate the mechanism of formation and decay of the radical species generated by light induced electron transfer from chlorophyll a triplet to quinone in egg phosphatidyl choline bilayer vesicles. Chlorophyll triplet quenching by quinone is controlled by diffusion occurring within the bilayer membrane and reflects bilayer viscosity. Radical formation via separation of the intermediate ion pair is also inhibited by increased bilayer viscosity. Cooperativity is observed in this process due to an enhancement of radical separation by electron transfer from semiquinone anion radical to a neighboring quinone molecule. Two modes of radical decay are observed, a rapid recombination occurring within the bilayer and a much slower recombination occurring across the bilayer. The slow decay is only observed with quinones which are not tightly anchored into the bilayer, and is probably the result of electron transfer from semiquinone anion radical formed within the bilayer to a quinone molecule residing at the bilayer-water interface. With benzoquinone, approximately 60% of the radical decay occurs via the slow mode. Triplet to radical conversion efficiencies in the bilayer systems are comparable to those obtained in fluid solution (approx. 60%). However, radical recombination, at least for the slow decay mechanism, is considerably retarded.

  2. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A


    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p


    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  4. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    Laan, Marten Derk van der


    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of

  5. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda


    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  6. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    Laan, Marten Derk van der


    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of major importance for the overall performance of a system. ... Zie: Summary

  7. Signal sampling techniques for data acquisition in process control

    Laan, Marten Derk van der


    In computing sytems employed for data acquisition and process control, communication with the controlled processes is mainly taking place via analog signal lines. In this situation, the quality of data acquired by A/D-converters and the generation of analog control signals by D/A-converters is of ma

  8. Parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control

    Hayasaki Yoshio


    Full Text Available Parallel femtosecond laser processing with a computer-generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator, has the advantages of high throughput and high energy-use efficiency. for further increase of the processing efficiency, we demonstrated parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control that is based on polarization control using a pair of spatial light modulators.

  9. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control


    In this project. process analysis of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was carried out and adaptive process control models were developed. In addition, a...aforementioned work in three separate sections: (1) process analysis and adaptive control modeling, (2) manufacturing of non-invasive sensor, end (3) list of publications resulting from this project.

  10. Process for control of cell division

    Cone, C. D., Jr. (Inventor)


    A method of controlling mitosis of biological cells was developed, which involved inducing a change in the intracellular ionic hierarchy accompanying the cellular electrical transmembrane potential difference (Esubm) of the cells. The ionic hierarchy may be varied by imposing changes on the relative concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-), or by directly imposing changes in the physical Esubm level across the cell surface.

  11. Modeling of Reaction Processes Controlled by Diffusion

    Revelli, J


    Stochastic modeling is quite powerful in science and technology.The technics derived from this process have been used with great success in laser theory, biological systems and chemical reactions.Besides, they provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental results on the field of particle's diffusion in ordered and disordered materials.In this work we analyze transport processes in one-dimensional fluctuating media, which are media that change their state in time.This fact induces changes in the movements of the particles giving rise to different phenomena and dynamics that will be described and analyzed in this work.We present some random walk models to describe these fluctuating media.These models include state transitions governed by different dynamical processes.We also analyze the trapping problem in a lattice by means of a simple model which predicts a resonance-like phenomenon.Also we study effective diffusion processes over surfaces due to random walks in the bulk.We consider differe...

  12. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    , the nitriding result is determined largely by the kinetics of the process. The nitriding kinetics have been shown to be characterised by the occurring local near-equilibria and stationary states at surfaces and interfaces, and the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in the various phases, for which new data have...

  13. SeqControl: process control for DNA sequencing.

    Chong, Lauren C; Albuquerque, Marco A; Harding, Nicholas J; Caloian, Cristian; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; de Borja, Richard; Fraser, Michael; Denroche, Robert E; Beck, Timothy A; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Bristow, Robert G; McPherson, John D; Boutros, Paul C


    As high-throughput sequencing continues to increase in speed and throughput, routine clinical and industrial application draws closer. These 'production' settings will require enhanced quality monitoring and quality control to optimize output and reduce costs. We developed SeqControl, a framework for predicting sequencing quality and coverage using a set of 15 metrics describing overall coverage, coverage distribution, basewise coverage and basewise quality. Using whole-genome sequences of 27 prostate cancers and 26 normal references, we derived multivariate models that predict sequencing quality and depth. SeqControl robustly predicted how much sequencing was required to reach a given coverage depth (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.993), accurately classified clinically relevant formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, and made predictions from as little as one-eighth of a sequencing lane (AUC = 0.967). These techniques can be immediately incorporated into existing sequencing pipelines to monitor data quality in real time. SeqControl is available at

  14. Kinetic solvent effects on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with tertiary amides. Control over the hydrogen atom transfer reactivity and selectivity through solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding.

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; Bietti, Massimo


    A laser flash photolysis study on the role of solvent effects on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N-formylpyrrolidine (FPRD), and N-acetylpyrrolidine (APRD) to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out. From large to very large increases in the HAT rate constant (kH) were measured on going from MeOH and TFE to isooctane (kH(isooctane)/kH(MeOH) = 5-12; kH(isooctane)/kH(TFE) > 80). This behavior was explained in terms of the increase in the extent of charge separation in the amides determined by polar solvents through solvent-amide dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding, where the latter interactions appear to play a major role with strong HBD solvents such as TFE. These interactions increase the electron deficiency of the amide C-H bonds, deactivating these bonds toward HAT to an electrophilic radical such as CumO(•), indicating that changes in solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding can provide a convenient method for deactivation of the C-H bond of amides toward HAT. With DMF, a solvent-induced change in HAT selectivity was observed, suggesting that solvent effects can be successfully employed to control the reaction selectivity in HAT-based procedures for the functionalization of C-H bonds.

  15. From self psychology to selves in relationship: a radical process of micro and macro expansion in conceptual experience.

    Knoblauch, Steven H


    This article traces four shifts in conceptualization marking the theoretical/clinical journey of this author's developmental movement from a self psychologist to a selves-in-relationship psychoanalyst. It commences with a recognition that the analyst's conceptualizations, building blocks of organizing activity, are actions that impact self and other. Psychoanalysis was initiated as a practice in open-systems thinking, the hallmark of scientific observation and meaning making. Continuing in this tradition requires careful attention to clinical experiences anomalous to what a particular conceptualization might lead one to expect or to how that conceptualization might inform one's response. Such anomalous experiences, as Kohut demonstrated, can require expansion or emendation in conceptualization as central to the analyst's clinical activity. Four key concepts emerging in the self-psychological tradition are revisited for conceptual expansion: mirroring, self, attunement, and rupture repair. Each reformulation impacts on and is constituted, in part, by the other, hence the nonlinear relationship between these concepts. Each reformulation is grounded in a clinical illustration and marks a shift from structural conceptualization to process conceptualization characterized by attention to, and narration of, the analyst's as well as the analysand's subjective experience and contribution to the clinical interaction. Furthermore, clinical attention is expanded to the micro dimensions of nonsymbolic-embodied experiences and the macro dimensions of how different cultural beliefs and customs, shaped by both local as well as professional identifications, can influence the meaning-making process of the analyst's subjective organizations of self, other, and intersubjective processes. In the clinical illustrations narrated, these reconceptualizations are demonstrated to have significant impact on how analyst and analysand interact.

  16. Nonlinear Markov Control Processes and Games


    further research we indicated possible extensions to state spaces with nontrivial geometry, to the controlled nonlinear quantum dynamic semigroups nonlinear Markov semigroup is a one-parameter semigroup of (possibly nonlinear) transformations of the unit simplex in n-dimensional Euclidean...certain mixing property of nonlinear transition probabilities. In case of the semigroup parametrized by continuous time one defines its generator as the

  17. Multivariate Process Control with Autocorrelated Data

    Kulahci, Murat


    . For high dimensional data with excessive amount of cross correlation, practitioners are often recommended to use latent structures methods such as Principal Component Analysis to summarize the data in only a few linear combinations of the original variables that capture most of the variation in the data....... In this paper, we discuss the effect of autocorrelation (when it is ignored) on multivariate control charts based on these methods and provide some practical suggestions and remedies to overcome this problem....

  18. Control and signal processing by transcriptional interference


    A transcriptional activator can suppress gene expression by interfering with transcription initiated by another activator. Transcriptional interference has been increasingly recognized as a regulatory mechanism of gene expression. The signals received by the two antagonistically acting activators are combined by the polymerase trafficking along the DNA. We have designed a dual-control genetic system in yeast to explore this antagonism systematically. Antagonism by an upstream activator bears ...

  19. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    Dasgupta, Dipankar [ORNL; Ali, Mohammad Hassan [University of Memphis; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Carvalho, Marco [Institute of Human and Machine Cognition


    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  20. Automatic/Control Processing and Attention.


    experiments. American Scientist, 1969, 57, 421-457. (a) Sternberg, S. The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donder’s method . In W. G. Koster...Research Institute, Alexandria, VA H. O’Neil, Army Research Institute, Alexandria, VA R. Sasmor, Army Reseach Institute, Alexandria, VA J. Ward, U.S...DARPA, Arlington, VA P. Chapin, Linguistics Program, NSF, Washington, DC S. Chipman, National Institute of Education, Washington, DC W. McLaurin, Camp

  1. Design and Application of Economical Process Control Charts

    S.S.N. Murthy


    Full Text Available Statistical quality control techniques are useful in monitoring the process behaviour. Attribute control charts are widely used in process control. The selection of sample size, sampling interval and control width of the control chart is important in minimising the quality costs. Control chart parameters, like 3delta controlimits and fixed fraction sampling at conveniently selected sampling intervals result in deplovable cost penalties in quality control. The best selection of these parameters depends on several process parameters,like frequency of occupancy of a shift in the process, cost of sampling, cost of investigation for finding assignable cause, probability of false alarms, penalty cost of defectives and process correction cost. A general model has been developed to determine the total quality cost as a function of these parameters. Probability of not identifying a process shift (Beeta-risk and probability of wrongly. concluding the process got shifted (alpha-risk are considered in developing the model. This cost equation is optimised to determine optimum values control chart parameters. Fibonacci search is used to quicken the analytical method or determining optimum sampling size and control width. The proposals made by Duncan, Montgomery, Gibra and Chiu for determining the optimum control chart parameters are critically examined and compared with the present model. Case studies were conducted in two foundries. Optimum control chart parameters in casting of cylinder liners and cast plates are determined. It has been found that quality costs are considerably reduced by using optimally designed control chart parameters with proposed method.

  2. [The effect of fenofibrate on expression of genes involved in fatty acids beta-oxidation and associated free-radical processes].

    Gureev, A P; Shmatkova, M L; Bashmakov, V Yu; Starkov, A A; Popov, V N


    Fenofibrate is a synthetic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors subtype alpha (PPARa); it is used for the treatment of a wide range of metabolic diseases such as hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes and various neurodegenerative diseases. We have studied the effect of fenofibrate on b-oxidation of fatty acids and related free-radical processes. The most effective concentration of fenofibrate (0.3%) added to the chow caused a significant decrease of the body weight of mice. The data obtained by quantitative PCR demonstrated increased hepatic gene expression responsible for b-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes and mitochondria. Enhancement of oxidative processes caused a 2-fold increase in the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as evidenced by determination of the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products in the liver. Mitochondrial antioxidant systems are more sensitive to elevated ROS production, as they respond by increased expression of SOD2 and PRDX3 genes, than cytoplasmic and peroxisomal antioxidant systems, where expression of CAT1, SOD1, PRDX5 genes remained unaltered.

  3. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

    Bahir ahmad


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  4. Comb-Type Grafted Hydrogels of PNIPAM and PDMAEMA with Reversed Network-Graft Architectures from Controlled Radical Polymerizations

    Sheng-Qi Chen


    Full Text Available Dual thermo- and pH-responsive comb-type grafted hydrogels of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM with reversed network-graft architectures were synthesized by the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization and click chemistry. Two kinds of macro-cross-linkers with two azido groups at one chain-end and different chain length [PNIPAM–(N32 and PDMAEMA–(N32] were prepared with N,N-di(β-azidoethyl 2-halocarboxylamide as the ATRP initiator. Through RAFT copolymerization of DMAEMA or NIPAM with propargyl acrylate (ProA using dibenzyltrithiocarbonate as a chain transfer agent, two network precursors with different content of alkynyl side-groups [P(DMAEMA-co-ProA and P(NIPAM-co-ProA] were obtained. The subsequent azido-alkynyl click reaction of macro-cross-linkers and network precursors led to the formation of the network-graft hydrogels. These dual stimulus-sensitive hydrogels exhibited rapid response, high swelling ratio and reproducible swelling/de-swelling cycles under different temperatures and pH values. The influences of cross-linkage density and network-graft architecture on the properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The release of ceftriaxone sodium from these hydrogels showed both thermal- and pH-dependence, suggesting the feasibility of these hydrogels as thermo- and pH-dependent drug release devices.

  5. Development of Cooling Process Control Technique in Hot Strip Mill

    HAN Bin; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong; SHE Guang-fu


    In order to ensure required mechanical properties of steel strip, various innovations in the cooling process control on the run-out table of a hot strip mill were actively promoted. The recent progress of process mathematical model and the new cooling strategy and equipment were discussed. The computer control system of high performance was introduced. The development trend in cooling process control was given.

  6. Control and systems concepts in the innovation process


    Allan Kjaer is an electrical engineer who arned master's and Ph.D.degrees in control nd system identification. He then began work n control, information, and production processes in the steel industry. Leading a team of evelopers at the Danish Steel Company, Dr. Kjaer applied systems thinking to the wider issues of process and information integration to achieve a tightly integrated production and business process. His article is important because it directly shows how control-systems

  7. Instrumentation and Control for Fossil-Energy Processes

    Mark, A., Jr.


    Instrumentation and control requirements for fossil-energy processes discussed in working document. Published to foster advancement of instrumentation and control technology by making equipment suppliers and others aware of specifications, needs, and potential markets.

  8. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)


    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  9. Nanorack Compatible Standardized Data Processing, Communication, and Control Module Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I study will design and develop a NanoRacks Control Module (NCM) that provides communications, control functions and data processing in a NanoRacks...

  10. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.


    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  11. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten


    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  12. Memory-type control charts for monitoring the process dispersion

    Abbas, N.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.


    Control charts have been broadly used for monitoring the process mean and dispersion. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts are memory control charts as they utilize the past information in setting up the control structure. This makes CUSUM and EWMA-t

  13. Memory-type control charts for monitoring the process dispersion

    Abbas, N.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.


    Control charts have been broadly used for monitoring the process mean and dispersion. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts are memory control charts as they utilize the past information in setting up the control structure. This makes CUSUM and EWMA-t

  14. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  15. The controlled vitrification/crystallisation process applied

    Romero, M.


    Full Text Available The glass-ceramic process, as well as the usual processing of ceramic and vitreous materials, is being investigated as a promising way for isolation and recycling of both mineral wastes (debris and mineral residues, clearings in public works and inorganic industrial wastes (muds, slags, fly ashes. Synthetic materials with useful properties to be used as building materials have been prepared from inorganic wastes of different type (red muds from zinc hydrometalurgy, fly ashes from power thermal stations, slags and fly ashes from domiciliary incinerators as well as from mixtures of such wastes with other raw materials. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the ceramic and glass-ceramic processes are outlined as an useful alternative to solve the social and environmental problems associated to wastes production.

    El proceso vitrocerámico, así como el procesado habitual de materiales cerámicos y vítreos, está siendo actualmente investigado como una prometedora vía para el aislamiento, inertización e incluso el reciclado de residuos minerales (escombreras y estériles de minas, desmontes de Obras Públicas, etc... e industriales (lodos, fangos, escorias, cenizas, etc.... A partir de residuos inorgánicos de diferente naturaleza (lodos de la hidrometalurgia del zinc, cenizas de centrales térmicas, escorias y cenizas de plantas incineradoras así como de mezclas de los mismos con otras materias primas, se están obteniendo materiales sintéticos con amplias aplicaciones en la Construcción y en Obras Públicas. Los resultados que se están consiguiendo permiten concluir que los procesos cerámico y vitrocerámico se perfilan como una alternativa real y útil para resolver, al menos parcialmente, los problemas sociales y medioambientales asociados a la producción de dichos residuos.

  16. Predictive functional control of integrating process based on impulse response

    Bin ZHANG; Ping LI; Weidong ZHANG


    The predictive model is built according to the characteristics of the impulse response of integrating process. In order to eliminate the permanent offset between the setpoint and the process output in the presence of the load disturbance, a novel error compensation method is proposed. Then predictive functional control of integrating process is designed. The method given generates a simple control structure, which can significantly reduce online computation. Furthermore, the tuning of the controller is fairly straightforward. Simulation results indicate that the designed control system is relatively robust to the parameters variation of the process.

  17. Cascaded process model based control: packed absorption column application.

    Govindarajan, Anand; Jayaraman, Suresh Kumar; Sethuraman, Vijayalakshmi; Raul, Pramod R; Rhinehart, R Russell


    Nonlinear, adaptive, process-model based control is demonstrated in a cascaded single-input-single-output mode for pressure drop control in a pilot-scale packed absorption column. The process is shown to be nonlinear. Control is demonstrated in both servo and regulatory modes, for no wind-up in a constrained situation, and for bumpless transfer. Model adaptation is demonstrated and shown to provide process insight. The application procedure is revealed as a design guide to aid others in implementing process-model based control.

  18. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    HUANG Zhi-rong; MA Liu-bao; LI Pei-ning; XU Hong


    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD)and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  19. A Controlled New Process of Pack Aluminization

    HUANGZhi-rong; MALiu-bao; LIPei-ning; XUHong


    Aluminum diffusion coatings are often prepared by a pack aluminization technique, which is a specific variety of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The coating process takes place in a bed containing a mixed powder that serves as a source of the coatings forming element. The phase composition of the diffusion layer obtained depends on the activity of the Al during the pack aluminization processing. In this work, the proportion of Al to special additive powder in the pack and the treatment temperature are adjusted to achieve the desired surface composition of aluminized layer. The aluminized 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microsclerometer. The results showed that the desired FeAl, Fe3Al and NiAl were respectively formed on the 20 plain carbon steel and HK40 austenitic steel, and the aluminides FeAl3, Fe2Al5 or Ni2Al3, NiAl3 could be inhibited.

  20. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    STAEHR, T.W.


    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  1. Robust control of lithographic process in semiconductor manufacturing

    Kang, Wei; Mao, John


    In this paper, a stability analysis is conducted for several feedback controllers of photolithography processes. We emphasize the stability of process controllers in the presence of model mismatch, and other uncertainties such as system drift and unknown noise. Real data of critical dimension (CD) in shallow trench isolation area from an Intel manufacturing fab is used for model analysis. The feedbacks studied in this paper include a controller based on an adaptive model, and several controllers based on existing estimation methods such as EWMA, extended EWMA, and d-EWMA. Both theoretical analysis and computer simulations are presented to show the stability of the controlled process under these feedbacks.

  2. Free Radicals and Their Role in Different Clinical Conditions: An Overview

    Abheri Das Sarma


    Full Text Available Free Radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron and are important intermediates in natural processes involving cytotoxicity, control of vascular tone, and neurotransmission. Free radicals are very unstable and react quickly with other compounds, and try to capture the needed electron to gain stability. A chain reaction thus gets started. Once the process is started, it can cascade, and inally results in the disruption of a living cell. Generally, harmful effects of reactive oxygen species on the cell are most often like damage of DNA, oxidations of polydesaturated fatty acids in lipids, oxidations of amino acids in proteins, oxidatively inactivate specific enzymes by oxidation of co-factors. Free radicals cause many human diseases like cancer Alzheimer’s disease, cardiac reperfusion abnormalities, kidney disease, fibrosis, etc. The free radicals formed in our body are combated by antioxidants that safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Excessive exercise has been found to increase the free radical level in the body and causes intense damage to the Regular physical exercise enhances the antioxidant defense system and protects against exercise induced free radical damage. Apart from the destructive effects of free radical they are also responsible for some vital actions like destroy the bacteria and other cells of foreign matter, kill cancer cells, turning on and off of genes and fight infection, to keep our brain alert and in focus.

  3. Plausible mechanisms of the fenton-like reactions, M = Fe(II) and Co(II), in the presence of RCO2(-) substrates: are OH(•) radicals formed in the process?

    Kornweitz, Haya; Burg, Ariela; Meyerstein, Dan


    DFT calculations concerning the plausible mechanism of Fenton-like reactions catalyzed by Fe(II) and Co(II) cations in the presence of carboxylate ligands suggest that hydroxyl radicals are not formed in these reactions. This conclusion suggests that the commonly accepted mechanisms of Fenton-like reactions induced oxidative stress and advanced oxidation processes have to be reconsidered.

  4. Co(III)-Carbene Radical Approach to Substituted 1H-Indenes.

    Das, Braja Gopal; Chirila, Andrei; Tromp, Moniek; Reek, Joost N H; Bruin, Bas de


    A new strategy for the catalytic synthesis of substituted 1H-indenes via metalloradical activation of o-cinnamyl N-tosyl hydrazones is presented, taking advantage of the intrinsic reactivity of a Co(III) carbene radical intermediate. The reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of functionalized 1H-indene derivatives. The cheap and easy to prepare low spin cobalt(II) complex [Co(II)(MeTAA)] (MeTAA = tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene) proved to be the most active catalyst among those investigated, which demonstrates catalytic carbene radical reactivity for a nonporphyrin cobalt(II) complex, and for the first time catalytic activity of [Co(II)(MeTAA)] in general. The methodology has been successfully applied to a broad range of substrates, producing 1H-indenes in good to excellent yields. The metallo-radical catalyzed indene synthesis in this paper represents a unique example of a net (formal) intramolecular carbene insertion reaction into a vinylic C(sp(2))-H bond, made possible by a controlled radical ring-closure process of the carbene radical intermediate involved. The mechanism was investigated computationally, and the results were confirmed by a series of supporting experimental reactions. Density functional theory calculations reveal a stepwise process involving activation of the diazo compound leading to formation of a Co(III)-carbene radical, followed by radical ring-closure to produce an indanyl/benzyl radical intermediate. Subsequent indene product elimination involving a 1,2-hydrogen transfer step regenerates the catalyst. Trapping experiments using 2,2,6,6-tetra-methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical or dibenzoylperoxide (DBPO) confirm the involvement of cobalt(III) carbene radical intermediates. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic spin-trapping experiments using phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) reveal the radical nature of the reaction.

  5. Thermodynamics, kinetics and process control of nitriding

    Mittemeijer, Eric J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    As a prerequisite for the predictability of properties obtained by a nitriding treatment of iron based workpieces, the relation between the process parameters and the composition and structure of the surface layer produced must be known. At present, even the description of thermodynamic equilibrium...... of pure Fe-N phases has not been fully achieved. It is shown that taking into account the ordering of nitrogen in the epsilon and gamma' iron nitride phases leads to an improved understanding of the Fe-N phase diagram. Although consideration of thermodynamics indicates the state the system strives for...... of the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering held in Brighton, UK on 1-5 September 1996. (C) 1997 The Institute of Materials....

  6. Gravimetric control of active volcanic processes

    Saltogianni, Vasso; Stiros, Stathis


    Volcanic activity includes phases of magma chamber inflation and deflation, produced by movement of magma and/or hydrothermal processes. Such effects usually leave their imprint as deformation of the ground surfaces which can be recorded by GNSS and other methods, on one hand, and on the other hand they can be modeled as elastic deformation processes, with deformation produced by volcanic masses of finite dimensions such as spheres, ellipsoids and parallelograms. Such volumes are modeled on the basis of inversion (non-linear, numerical solution) of systems of equations relating the unknown dimensions and location of magma sources with observations, currently mostly GNSS and INSAR data. Inversion techniques depend on the misfit between model predictions and observations, but because systems of equations are highly non-linear, and because adopted models for the geometry of magma sources is simple, non-unique solutions can be derived, constrained by local extrema. Assessment of derived magma models can be provided by independent observations and models, such as micro-seismicity distribution and changes in geophysical parameters. In the simplest case magmatic intrusions can be modeled as spheres with diameters of at least a few tens of meters at a depth of a few kilometers; hence they are expected to have a gravimetric signature in permanent recording stations on the ground surface, while larger intrusions may also have an imprint in sensors in orbit around the earth or along precisely defined air paths. Identification of such gravimetric signals and separation of the "true" signal from the measurement and ambient noise requires fine forward modeling of the wider areas based on realistic simulation of the ambient gravimetric field, and then modeling of its possible distortion because of magmatic anomalies. Such results are useful to remove ambiguities in inverse modeling of ground deformation, and also to detect magmatic anomalies offshore.

  7. Performance of magnetic activated carbon composite as peroxymonosulfate activator and regenerable adsorbent via sulfate radical-mediated oxidation processes.

    Oh, Wen-Da; Lua, Shun-Kuang; Dong, Zhili; Lim, Teik-Thye


    Magnetic activated carbon composite (CuFe2O4/AC, MACC) was prepared by a co-precipitation-calcination method. The MACC consisted of porous micro-particle morphology with homogeneously distributed CuFe2O4 and possessed high magnetic saturation moment (8.1 emu g(-1)). The performance of MACC was evaluated as catalyst and regenerable adsorbent via peroxymonosulfate (PMS, Oxone(®)) activation for methylene blue (MB) removal. Optimum CuFe2O4/AC w/w ratio was 1:1.5 giving excellent performance and can be reused for at least 3 cycles. The presence of common inorganic ions, namely Cl(-) and NO3(-) did not exert significant influence on MB degradation but humic acid decreased the MB degradation rate. As a regenerable adsorbent, negligible difference in regeneration efficiency was observed when a higher Oxone(®) dosage was employed but a better efficiency was obtained at a lower MACC loading. The factors hindering complete MACC regeneration are MB adsorption irreversibility and AC surface modification by PMS making it less favorable for subsequent MB adsorption. With an additional mild heat treatment (150 °C) after regeneration, 82% of the active sites were successfully regenerated. A kinetic model incorporating simultaneous first-order desorption, second-order adsorption and pseudo-first order degradation processes was numerically-solved to describe the rate of regeneration. The regeneration rate increased linearly with increasing Oxone(®):MACC ratio. The MACC could potentially serve as a catalyst for PMS activation and regenerable adsorbent.

  8. Case Studies in Modelling, Control in Food Processes.

    Glassey, J; Barone, A; Montague, G A; Sabou, V


    This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product. The second case study highlights the economic benefits of tighter control of an important process parameter, moisture content, in potato crisp (chips) manufacture. The final case study describes the use of NIR spectroscopy in ensuring effective mixing of dry multicomponent mixtures and pastes. Practical implementation tips and infrastructure requirements are also discussed.

  9. The Process Controller for the LHCb On-LIne Farm

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V


    The Process Controller is a tool of the LHCb FMC (Farm Monitoring and Control System) in charge of keeping a list of applications up and running on the farm nodes. It tipically runs on a few control PCs each one watching ~200 farm nodes and performs its task by maintaining the list of scheduled applications for each controlled farm node and by interacting with the Task Manager Servers running on the farm nodes to start processes, to obtain the notification of process termination, to re-spawn the terminated processes (if requested) and to stop processes. Processes can be added to or removed from the scheduled application list for one or more nodes by means of DIM commands, while DIM services provide the list of scheduled applications for each controlled farm node together with their properties, the number of re-spawns and the re-spawn times.


    D. Horvat


    Full Text Available Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are defined. There are many institutions in Croatia that work in accordance with these standards. Implementation of statistical process control and usage of a control charts can greatly help in convergence to the standards and in decreasing of production costs. To illustrate the above mentioned we tested a work quality of a nozzle at the eighteen meter clutch sprayer.

  11. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block versus serratus plane block for modified radical mastectomy: A randomised, controlled trial

    Kapil Gupta


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM may be associated with severe post-operative pain, leading to chronic pain syndrome. We compared the post-operative analgesic profile of two ultrasound-guided nerve blocks: Paravertebral block (PVB and serratus plane block (SPB. Methods: This double-blind, randomised study was conducted on fifty adult females, scheduled for MRM with axillary dissection. After inducing general anaesthesia with intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1–2 mg/kg and vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg, patients were administered either ultrasound-guided thoracic PVB at T4 (n = 25 or SPB at 5th rib (n = 25 with 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine, both as a single level injection. Time to first rescue analgesia and morphine consumption in 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by PCA pump, visual analogue scale score and any adverse effects were recorded. Quantitative variables were compared using the unpaired t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test between the two groups. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: The duration of analgesia (mean ± Standard deviation [SD] was significantly longer in the PVB group compared to SPB group (346 ± 57 min vs. 245.6 ± 58 min, P< 0.001. The post-operative 24 h morphine consumption (mean ± SD was significantly higher in the SPB group (9.7 ± 2.1 mg compared to PVB group (6.5 ± 1.5 mg (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided SPB is an alternative analgesic technique to thoracic PVB for MRM although PVB provides a longer duration of analgesia.

  12. Fast-track surgery protocol in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Liu G


    Full Text Available Guozheng Liu,1 Fengguo Jian,2 Xiuqin Wang,2 Lin Chen1 1Department of General Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Department of General Surgery, Changyi People’s Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Aim: To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC patients.Methods: Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21, FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21, conventional perioperative care (CC + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21, and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21. Observation indicators include intrasurgery indicators, postoperative recovery indicators, nutritional status indicators, and systemic stress response indicators.Results: Preoperative and intraoperative baseline characteristics showed no significant differences between patients in each group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences between each group in nausea and vomiting, intestinal obstruction, urinary retention, incision infection, pulmonary infection, and urinary tract infection after operation (P>0.05. Time of first flatus and postoperative hospital stay time of FTS Group A were the shortest, and total medical cost of this group was the lowest. For all groups, serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin significantly decreased, while CRP and interleukin 6 were significantly increased postoperative day 1. From postoperative day 4–7, all indicators of the four groups gradually recovered, but compared with other three groups, those of Group A recovered fastest.Conclusion: FTS combined with laparoscopic surgery can promote faster postoperative recovery, improve early postoperative nutritional status, and more

  13. Control and signal processing by transcriptional interference

    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Ungricht, Rosemarie; Kelemen, János Z; Shetty, Chetak; Ratna, Prasuna; Becskei, Attila


    A transcriptional activator can suppress gene expression by interfering with transcription initiated by another activator. Transcriptional interference has been increasingly recognized as a regulatory mechanism of gene expression. The signals received by the two antagonistically acting activators are combined by the polymerase trafficking along the DNA. We have designed a dual-control genetic system in yeast to explore this antagonism systematically. Antagonism by an upstream activator bears the hallmarks of competitive inhibition, whereas a downstream activator inhibits gene expression non-competitively. When gene expression is induced weakly, the antagonistic activator can have a positive effect and can even trigger paradoxical activation. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium models of transcription shed light on the mechanism by which interference converts signals, and reveals that self-antagonism of activators imitates the behavior of feed-forward loops. Indeed, a synthetic circuit generates a bell-shaped response, so that the induction of expression is limited to a narrow range of the input signal. The identification of conserved regulatory principles of interference will help to predict the transcriptional response of genes in their genomic context. PMID:19690569

  14. Control of the aseptic processing environment.

    Frieben, W R


    Methods used by industry with applications to hospital pharmacy for maintaining an aseptic environment in production of sterile pharmaceutical products are discussed. A major source of product contamination is airborne microorganisms. The laminar-airflow workbench with a high-efficiency particulate air filter provides an ultraclean environment for preparation of sterile products. However, the workbench does not guarantee sterility of products and is not effective if not properly installed and maintained or if the operator uses poor aseptic technique. The laminar-airflow workbench should be tested for leaks, airflow velocity, and airflow patterns when installed, and the workbench should be checked periodically thereafter. The workbench should be placed in a cleanroom where traffic and air disturbances that might affect the laminar airflow are eliminated. A major source of airborne microbial contamination in cleanrooms is people. Personnel movement through an area and presence of personnel without lint-free, nonshedding protective garments increase the levels of microbial contaminants in an area. The transport of nonsterile products (bottles, boxes, paper products) into a cleanroom should be minimized. The cleanroom itself should be sanitized and should be immaculate. Microbial or particulate monitoring should be conducted in the cleanroom using a quantitative method, and corrective-action limits should be set. Hospital pharmacists should examine industrial sterile-processing techniques and apply them to the preparation of sterile products.

  15. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van, M.M.L.


    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a statistical analysis was conducted. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit results on 26,953 dairy farms and all conducted lab tests of bulk-milk samples two, six or 12 months before the audit. Lab results in...

  16. Diffusive confinement of free radical intermediates in the OH radical oxidation of semisolid aerosols.

    Wiegel, Aaron A; Liu, Matthew J; Hinsberg, William D; Wilson, Kevin R; Houle, Frances A


    Multiphase chemical reactions (gas + solid/liquid) involve a complex interplay between bulk and interface chemistry, diffusion, evaporation, and condensation. Reactions of atmospheric aerosols are an important example of this type of chemistry: the rich array of particle phase states and multiphase transformation pathways produce diverse but poorly understood interactions between chemistry and transport. Their chemistry is of intrinsic interest because of their role in controlling climate. Their characteristics also make them useful models for the study of principles of reactivity of condensed materials under confined conditions. In previous work, we have reported a computational study of the oxidation chemistry of a liquid aliphatic aerosol. In this study, we extend the calculations to investigate nearly the same reactions at a semisolid gas-aerosol interface. A reaction-diffusion model for heterogeneous oxidation of triacontane by hydroxyl radicals (OH) is described, and its predictions are compared to measurements of aerosol size and composition, which evolve continuously during oxidation. These results are also explicitly compared to those obtained for the corresponding liquid system, squalane, to pinpoint salient elements controlling reactivity. The diffusive confinement of the free radical intermediates at the interface results in enhanced importance of a few specific chemical processes such as the involvement of aldehydes in fragmentation and evaporation, and a significant role of radical-radical reactions in product formation. The simulations show that under typical laboratory conditions semisolid aerosols have highly oxidized nanometer-scale interfaces that encapsulate an unreacted core and may confer distinct optical properties and enhanced hygroscopicity. This highly oxidized layer dynamically evolves with reaction, which we propose to result in plasticization. The validated model is used to predict chemistry under atmospheric conditions, where the OH

  17. Multi-level Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Study of Ring Opening Process of Guanine Damage by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution.

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Qiong; Niu, Meixing; Wang, Dunyou


    Combining multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water model, we investigated the ring opening process of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution. The detailed, atomic-level ring-opening mechanism along the reaction pathway was revealed in aqueous solution at the CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. The potentials of mean force in aqueous solution were calculated at both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of the theory. Our study found that the aqueous solution has a significant effect on this reaction in solution. In particular, by comparing the geometries of the stationary points between in gas phase and in aqueous solution, we found that the aqueous solution has a tremendous impact on the torsion angles much more than on the bond lengths and bending angles. Our calculated free-energy barrier height 31.6 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory agrees well with the one obtained based on gas-phase reaction profile and free energies of solvation. In addition, the reaction path in gas phase was also mapped using multi-level quantum mechanics theories, which shows a reaction barrier at 19.2 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, agreeing very well with a recent ab initio calculation result at 20.8 kcal/mol.

  18. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes Using Control Flow Reconstruction

    Pol, van de Jaco; Timmer, Mark; Liu, Z.; Ravn, A.P.


    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  19. State Space Reduction of Linear Processes using Control Flow Reconstruction

    Pol, van de Jaco; Timmer, Mark


    We present a new method for fighting the state space explosion of process algebraic specifications, by performing static analysis on an intermediate format: linear process equations (LPEs). Our method consists of two steps: (1) we reconstruct the LPE's control flow, detecting control flow parameters

  20. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    Meeuse, F.M.


    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite

  1. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    Coy, Steven P.


    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  2. Using Statistical Process Control to Enhance Student Progression

    Hanna, Mark D.; Raichura, Nilesh; Bernardes, Ednilson


    Public interest in educational outcomes has markedly increased in the most recent decade; however, quality management and statistical process control have not deeply penetrated the management of academic institutions. This paper presents results of an attempt to use Statistical Process Control (SPC) to identify a key impediment to continuous…

  3. Integrated Modeling and Intelligent Control Methods of Grinding Process

    Jie-sheng Wang


    Full Text Available The grinding process is a typical complex nonlinear multivariable process with strongly coupling and large time delays. Based on the data-driven modeling theory, the integrated modeling and intelligent control method of grinding process is carried out in the paper, which includes the soft-sensor model of economic and technique indexes, the optimized set-point model utilizing case-based reasoning, and the self-tuning PID decoupling controller. For forecasting the key technology indicators (grinding granularity and mill discharge rate of grinding process, an adaptive soft-sensor modeling method based on wavelet neural network optimized by the improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. Then, a set point optimization control strategy of grinding process based on case-based reasoning (CBR method is adopted to obtain the optimized velocity set-point of ore feed and pump water feed in the grinding process controlled loops. Finally, a self-tuning PID decoupling controller optimized is used to control the grinding process. Simulation results and industrial application experiments clearly show the feasibility and effectiveness of control methods and satisfy the real-time control requirements of the grinding process.

  4. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, van G.; Deventer, van H.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.


    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability imp

  5. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    Meeuse, F.M.


    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite easily

  6. A radical approach to radical innovation

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  7. A radical approach to radical innovation

    Deichmann, Dirk; van der Ende, Jan


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  8. Nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process

    Shen, Wenhao; Tao, Erpan; Chen, Xiaoquan; Liu, Dawei [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hongbin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    We studied nitrate control strategies in an activated sludge wastewater treatment process (WWTP) based on the activated sludge model. Two control strategies, back propagation for proportional-integral-derivative (BP-PID) and adaptive-network based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), are applied in the WWTP. The simulation results show that the simple local constant setpoint control has poor control effects on the nitrate concentration control. However, the ANFIS (4*1) controller, which considers not only the local constant setpoint control of the nitrate concentration, but also three important indices in the effluent--ammonia concentration, total suspended sludge concentration and total nitrogen concentration--demonstrates good control performance. The results also prove that ANFIS (4*1) controller has better control performance than that of the controllers PI, BP-PID and ANFIS (2*1), and that the ANFIS (4*1) controller is effective in improving the effluent quality and maintaining the stability of the effluent quality.

  9. Laparoscopy-assisted versus open D2 radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion: a case control study

    Chen Qi-Yue


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains questionable on account of technical difficulty of D2 lymphadenectomy, and there has been few large-scale follow-up results regarding the oncological adequacy of laparoscopic surgery compared with that of open surgeries for AGC. The aim of this study is to evaluate technical feasibility and oncological efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion. Methods From January 2008 to December 2012, 1114 patients with gastric cancer underwent D2 gastrectomy, including 336 T2 and T3 patients in term of depth of invasion. Of all 336 patients, 224 underwent LAG, while open gastrectomy (OG performed on the other 112 patients. The comparison was based on the clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcome, and follow-up results. Results There are not significant differences in clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups (P > 0.05. The operation time and first ambulation time was similar in the two groups. However, estimated blood loss, bowel function recovery time and duration of hospital stay were significantly less in the LAG group. No significant difference in morbidity and mortality was found between the LAG group and OG group (11.1% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.266; 0.9% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.859. The mean number of resected lymph nodes (LNS between the LAG group and OG group was similar (30.6 ± 10.1 vs. 30.3 ± 8.6, P = 0.786. Furthermore, the mean number of removed LNS in each station was not significantly different in the distal gastrectomy and total gastrectomy (P > 0.05. No statistical difference was seen in 1 year survival rate (91.5% vs. 89.8% P > 0.05 and the survival curve after surgery between the LAG group and OG group. Conclusion Laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy is feasible, effective and has comparative oncological efficacy compared with



    One important step in zinc hydrometallurgy is the leaching process, which involves the dissolving of zinc-bearing material in dilute sulfuric acid to form zinc sulfate solution. The key problem in the process control is to determine the optimal pHs of the overflows of the continuous leaches and track them. An expert control system for the leaching process was designed to solve the key problem. A methodology is proposed for determining and tracking the optimal pHs with an expert control strategy based on a combination of steadystate mathematical models and rule models of the process.

  11. The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging: a critical view.

    Sanz, Alberto; Stefanatos, Rhoda K A


    The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) proposes that mitochondrial free radicals, produced as by-products during normal metabolism, cause oxidative damage. According to MFRTA, the accumulation of this oxidative damage is the main driving force in the aging process. Although widely accepted, this theory remains unproven, because the evidence supporting it is largely correlative. For example, long-lived animals produce fewer free radicals and have lower oxidative damage levels in their tissues. However, this does not prove that free radical generation determines life span. In fact, the longest-living rodent -Heterocephalus glaber- produces high levels of free radicals and has significant oxidative damage levels in proteins, lipids and DNA. At its most orthodox MFRTA proposes that these free radicals damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in turn provoke mutations that alter mitochondrial function (e.g. ATP production). According to this, oxidative damage to mtDNA negatively correlates with maximum life span in mammals. However, in contrast to MFRTA predictions, high levels of oxidative damage in mtDNA do not decrease longevity in mice. Moreover, mice with alterations in polymerase gamma (the mitochondrial DNA polymerase) accumulate 500 times higher levels of point mutations in mtDNA without suffering from accelerated aging. Dietary restriction (DR) is the only non-genetic treatment that clearly increases mean and maximum life span. According to MFRTA caloric restricted animals produce fewer mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). However, DR alters more than free radical production (e.g. it decreases insulin signalling) and therefore the increase in longevity cannot be exclusively attributed to a decrease in mtROS generation. Thus, moderate exercise produces similar changes in free radical production and oxidative damage without increasing maximum life span. In summary, available data concerning the role of free radicals in longevity control are

  12. Melatonin as a free radical scavenger in experimental head trauma.

    Cirak, B; Rousan, N; Kocak, A; Palaoglu, O; Palaoglu, S; Kilic, K


    Head trauma causes two kinds of injury in the neural tissue. One is the primary injury which occurs at the time of impact. The other one is a secondary injury and is a progressive process. Free radicals are produced during oxidative reactions formed after trauma. They have been thought to be responsible in the mechanism of the secondary injury. Some studies have been conducted to demonstrate the role of free oxygen radicals in neuronal injury. The alterations in the free radical level during the early posttraumatic period and the effect of a free radical scavenger on these alterations have not been studied as a whole. We aimed to demonstrate the free oxygen radical level changes in the early posttraumatic period and the effect of melatonin, which is a potent free radical scavenger, on the early posttraumatic free radical level. A two-staged experimental head trauma study was designed. In stage one, posttraumatic free radical level changes were determined. In the second stage, the effect of melatonin on the free radical level changes in the posttraumatic period was studied. Two main groups of rats each divided into four subgroups were studied. Rats in one of the main groups underwent severe head trauma, and malondealdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in the contused cerebral tissue at different time points. Rats in the other main group also underwent the same type of trauma, and melatonin was injected intraperitoneally at different time points after trauma. The MDA level alteration in the tissue was determined after the injection of melatonin. The MDA level increased rapidly in the early posttraumatic period. But in time, it decreased in the groups with only trauma. In the melatonin-treated group, the MDA level decreased after the injection of melatonin, when injected in the early posttraumatic period, compared to the control and trauma groups. However, melatonin increased MDA to a higher level than in the groups with only trauma and the control group when injected

  13. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    Meeuse, F.M.


    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite easily. In the literature two different classes of approaches are being described that consider the control performance of the design alternatives from the earliest design stages: (i) Anticipating sequen...

  14. Process Control System Cyber Security Standards - An Overview

    Robert P. Evans


    The use of cyber security standards can greatly assist in the protection of process control systems by providing guidelines and requirements for the implementation of computer-controlled systems. These standards are most effective when the engineers and operators, using the standards, understand what each standard addresses. This paper provides an overview of several standards that deal with the cyber security of process measurements and control systems.

  15. Iterative Controller Tuning for Process with Fold Bifurcations

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    Processes involving fold bifurcation are notoriously difficult to control in the vicinity of the fold where most often optimal productivity is achieved . In cases with limited process insight a model based control synthesis is not possible. This paper uses a data driven approach with an improved...... version of iterative feedback tuning to optimizing a closed loop performance criterion, as a systematic tool for tuning process with fold bifurcations....

  16. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Beuter, W.


    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  17. Simulation research on control algorithm of differential pressure casting process

    Chai Yan; Jie Wanqi; Yang Bo


    To improve the precision of the filling pressure curve of differential pressure casting controlled with PID controller,the model of differential pressure casting process is established and two pressure-difference control systems using PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm are separately designed in MATLAB. The scheduled pressure curves controlled with PID algorithm and Dahlin algorithm,respectively,are comparatively simulated in MATLAB.The simulated pressure curves obtained show that the control precision with Dahlin algorithm is higher than that with PID algorithm in the differential pressure casting process,and it was further verified by production practice.

  18. Integrated quality control architecture for multistage machining processes

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Guixiong


    To solve problems concerning the process quality prediction control for the multistage machining processes, a integrated quality control architecture is proposed in this paper. First, a hierarchical multiple criteria decision model is established for the key process and the weight matrix method stratified is discussed. Predictive control of the manufacturing quality is not just for on-site monitoring and control layer, control layer in the enterprise, remote monitoring level of quality exists a variety of target predictive control demand, therefore, based on XML to achieve a unified description of manufacturing quality information, and in different source of quality information between agencies to achieve the transfer and sharing. This will predict complex global quality control, analysis and diagnosis data to lay a good foundation to achieve a more practical, open and standardized manufacturing quality with higher levels of information integration system.

  19. Model Based Monitoring and Control of Chemical and Biochemical Processes

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    This presentation will give an overview of the work performed at the department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering related to process control. A research vision is formulated and related to a number of active projects at the department. In more detail a project describing model estimation...... and controller tuning in Model Predictive Control application is discussed....

  20. Genetic Algorithm Optimisation of PID Controllers for a Multivariable Process

    Wael Alharbi


    Full Text Available This project is about the design of PID controllers and the improvement of outputs in multivariable processes. The optimisation of PID controller for the Shell oil process is presented in this paper, using Genetic Algorithms (GAs. Genetic Algorithms (GAs are used to automatically tune PID controllers according to given specifications. They use an objective function, which is specially formulated and measures the performance of controller in terms of time-domain bounds on the responses of closed-loop process.A specific objective function is suggested that allows the designer for a single-input, single-output (SISO process to explicitly specify the process performance specifications associated with the given problem in terms of time-domain bounds, then experimentally evaluate the closed-loop responses. This is investigated using a simple two-term parametric PID controller tuning problem. The results are then analysed and compared with those obtained using a number of popular conventional controller tuning methods. The intention is to demonstrate that the proposed objective function is inherently capable of accurately quantifying complex performance specifications in the time domain. This is something that cannot normally be employed in conventional controller design or tuning methods.Finally, the recommended objective function will be used to examine the control problems of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO processes, and the results will be presented in order to determine the efficiency of the suggested control system.

  1. Situation awareness in process control; designing the human interface

    Passenier, P.O.; Delft, J.H. van


    Through the introduction of process automation, the supervision of multiple functions becomes more and more the role of a single human operator, the 'process manager', assisted by a process information and control system. Consequently, the level of direct involvement of the human operator with the a

  2. Long term (five-year survival following radical surgical treatment plus adjuvant chemotherapy (FAM in advanced gastric cancer: a controlled study

    Bresciani Cláudio


    Full Text Available Several drugs and their associations are being used for adjuvant or complementary chemotherapy with the aim of improving results of gastric cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to verify the impact of these drugs on nutrition and on survival rate after radical treatment of 53 patients with gastric cancer in stage III of the TNM classification. A control group including 28 patients who had only undergone radical resection was compared to a group of 25 patients who underwent the same operative technique followed by adjuvant polychemotherapy with FAM (5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin C. In this latter group, chemotherapy toxicity in relation to hepatic, renal, cardiologic, neurological, hematologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatological functions was also studied. There was no significant difference on admission between both groups in relation to gender, race, macroscopic tumoral type of tumor according to the Borrmann classification, location of the tumor in the stomach, length of the gastric resection, or response to cutaneous tests on delayed sensitivity. Chemotherapy was started on average, 2.3 months following surgical treatment. Clinical and laboratory follow-up of all patients continued for 5 years. The following conclusions were reached: 1 The nutritional status and incidence of gastrointestinal manifestation were similar in both groups; 2 There was no occurrence of cardiac, renal, neurological, or hepatic toxicity or death due to the chemotherapeutic method per se; 3 Dermatological alterations and hematological toxicity occurred exclusively in patients who underwent polychemotherapy; 4 There was no significant difference between the rate and site of tumoral recurrence, the disease-free interval, or the survival rate of both study groups; 5 Therefore, we concluded, after a 5-year follow-up, chemotherapy with the FAM regimen did not increase the survival rate.

  3. Radical Reactions and Its Synthetic Application

    Takeaki Naito


    @@ 1Introduction Strategies involving radical reactions have become preeminent tools in organic synthesis. Free radical-mediated cyclization has developed as a powerful method for preparing various types of cyclic compounds via carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. In order to develop effective and convenient methods for the synthesis of biologically active cyclic amines, we have focused our efforts on radical reactions using aldehydes, ketones,and C-C multiple bonds as a radical precursor and/or an oxime ether, hydrazone, and nitrone as a radical acceptor. In this lecture, I would like to talk on radical addition-cyclization of oxime ether and its application to the synthesis of martinellines.

  4. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Rogers, C. J.


    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  5. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Rogers, C. J.


    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  6. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Hamprommarat Chumpol


    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control


    Process Analysis Via Accuracy Control U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration in cooperation with Todd Pacific Shipyards...AUG 1985 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program Process Analysis, retraining work- ers, or other such approaches. This product of A/C is called process or method analysis. Process analysis involves a

  8. Process Control of Pink Guava Puree Pasteurization Process: Simulation and Validation by Experiment

    W. M. F. Wan Mokhtar


    Full Text Available Recently, process control has been applied extensively in many food processes include pasteurization process. The purpose is to control and maintain the product temperature at desired value. In order to be able to control the process properly, the model of the process needs to be obtained. This research aims to obtain the empirical model and to determine the best control strategy in pasteurization process of pink guava puree. The PID controller tuned by different tuning methods was simulated using Simulink and closed loop responses were observed. Simulation results revealed that PID controller tuned by minimizing of integral absolute error (IAE method were satisfactory adaptable in this process in term of faster settling time, less overshoot, smallest values of IAE and ISE that less than 1. Then, experiment was performed using this method in order to validate simulation results. In general, a good agreement was achieved between experimental data and dynamic simulation result in control of pasteurization temperature process with  R2=0.83. As the conclusion, the results obtained can be used as the recommendation for a suitable control strategy for the pasteurization process of pink guava puree in the industry.

  9. Part 3. Triethylborane-air: a suitable initiator for intermolecular radical additions of S-2-oxoalkyl-thionocarbonates (S-xanthates to olefins

    Nguyen Van Tai


    Full Text Available Abstract Under carefully controlled conditions, the triethylborane-air combination proves to be an efficient radical initiator that allows intermolecular radical additions of S-2-oxoalkyl-thionocarbonates (S-xanthates to olefins. Depending on both the structures of the xanthate and the olefin, the addition process can be achieved at room temperature or slightly higher.

  10. Structural effects on the reactivity 1,4-dihydropyridines with alkylperoxyl radicals and ABTS radical cation.

    Yáñez, C; López-Alarcón, C; Camargo, C; Valenzuela, V; Squella, J A; Núñez-Vergara, L J


    A series of eight commercial C-4 substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and other synthesized related compounds were tested for direct potential scavenger effect towards alkylperoxyl radicals and ABTS radical cation in aqueous Britton-Robinson buffer pH7.4. A direct quenching radical species was established. The tested 1,4-dihydropyridines were 8.3-fold more reactive towards alkylperoxyl radicals than ABTS cation radical, expressed by their corresponding kinetic rate constants. Furthermore, NPD a photolyte of nifedipine and the C-4 unsubstituted 1,4-DHP were the most reactive derivatives towards alkylperoxyl radicals. The pyridine derivative was confirmed by GC/MS technique as the final product of reaction. In consequence, the reduction of alkylperoxyl and ABTS radicals by 1,4-dihydropyridines involved an electron transfer process. Also, the participation of the hydrogen of the 1-position appears as relevant on the reactivity. Results of reactivity were compared with Trolox.

  11. Guidance on Design of Internet-based Process Control Systems



    Internet-based process control is becoming new generations of control systems, in which the Internet is used as a platform for global remote monitoring and control. The obvious benefit is to enable global collaboration between operators from geographically dispersed locations, data sharing and data provision for remote monitoring and control. However, connection to an open network and the use of universal technology present new problems that did not exist with the conventional design and construction of control systems, such as time delay and data loss in Internet transmission and security. This paper reviews the latest research results and presents design guidance of Internet based monitoring and control systems.

  12. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis.

    Sebren, Leanne J; Devery, James J; Stephenson, Corey R J


    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes.

  13. Dynamic control of crystallinity in polymer film casting process

    Thananchai Leephakpreeda


    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for dynamic control of crystallinity in polymer film casting process. As known, the transients of crystallization dictate the microstructures of semi-crystalline polymer during solidification. In turn, the properties of finished products can be determined by adjustable variables in polymer film casting process such as temperature of chill roll. In this work, an experimental model of the solidification in film casting process is derived by a system identification technique. This model is used to design a digital feedback controller including a state estimator. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control technique on an extruded film.

  14. Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process Control: An MMLE Approach

    Bandla Sreenivasa Rao


    Full Text Available This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation based scheme to estimatesoftware reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks ofsoftware reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs. The MMLE givesanalytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper weproposed SPC (Statistical Process Control Charts mechanism to determine the software quality usinginter failure times data. The Control charts can be used to measure whether the software process isstatistically under control or not.

  15. Treatment outcome and prognostic variables for local control and survival in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer

    Fokdal, Lars; Høyer, Morten; Maase, Hans von der


    patients were treated by use of a standard 3-field technique with 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the tumor and the bladder. The elective lymph nodes were treated with doses in the range from 46 Gy to 60 Gy. Complete response was obtained in 52% of the patients at 3-month control. However, 41% of all patients...

  16. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...

  17. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...

  18. Radical theory of rings

    Gardner, JW


    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  19. Effects of Tadalafil Once-Daily or On-Demand vs Placebo on Return to Baseline Erectile Function After Bilateral Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy - Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial (REACTT)

    Mulhall, John P; Brock, Gerald; Oelke, Matthias;


    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled REACTT trial suggested that treatment with tadalafil once daily (OaD) started early after bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP) for prostate cancer may contribute to erectile function ...

  20. Living/controlled free radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethene and butyl vinyl ether under 60Co γ-ray irradiation in the presence of S-benzyl O-ethyl dithiocarbonate.

    Liu, Lei; Lu, Dan; Wang, Hu; Dong, Qibao; Wang, Pucheng; Bai, Ruke


    Living/controlled free radical copolymerization of chlorotrifluoroethene and butyl vinyl ether has been successfully achieved at room temperature under (60)Co γ-ray irradiation in the presence of S-benzyl O-ethyl dithiocarbonate. The alternating and block copolymers have been obtained with well-defined molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions.

  1. Software control and system configuration management - A process that works

    Petersen, K. L.; Flores, C., Jr.


    A comprehensive software control and system configuration management process for flight-crucial digital control systems of advanced aircraft has been developed and refined to insure efficient flight system development and safe flight operations. Because of the highly complex interactions among the hardware, software, and system elements of state-of-the-art digital flight control system designs, a systems-wide approach to configuration control and management has been used. Specific procedures are implemented to govern discrepancy reporting and reconciliation, software and hardware change control, systems verification and validation testing, and formal documentation requirements. An active and knowledgeable configuration control board reviews and approves all flight system configuration modifications and revalidation tests. This flexible process has proved effective during the development and flight testing of several research aircraft and remotely piloted research vehicles with digital flight control systems that ranged from relatively simple to highly complex, integrated mechanizations.

  2. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies

    Szekely, Julian


    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  3. Dynamics and control strategies for a butanol fermentation process.

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Costa, Caliane Bastos Borba; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Atala, Daniel Ibraim Pires; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Maciel Filho, Rubens


    In this work, mathematical modeling was employed to assess the dynamic behavior of the flash fermentation process for the production of butanol. This process consists of three interconnected units as follows: fermentor, cell retention system (tangential microfiltration), and vacuum flash vessel (responsible for the continuous recovery of butanol from the broth). Based on the study of the dynamics of the process, suitable feedback control strategies [single input/single output (SISO) and multiple input/multiple output (MIMO)] were elaborated to deal with disturbances related to the process. The regulatory control consisted of keeping sugar and/or butanol concentrations in the fermentor constant in the face of disturbances in the feed substrate concentration. Another objective was the maintenance of the proper operation of the flash tank (maintenance of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the liquid and vapor phases) considering that oscillations in the temperature in the tank are expected. The servo control consisted of changes in concentration set points. The performance of an advanced controller, the dynamic matrix control, and the classical proportional-integral controller was evaluated. Both controllers were able to regulate the operating conditions in order to accommodate the perturbations with the lowest possible alterations in the process outputs. However, the performance of the PI controller was superior because it showed quicker responses without oscillations.

  4. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo


    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...... separator on one of the Danish north-sea platform. A hierarchical pump-speed control strategy is developed for the considered system by minimizing the pump power consumption subject to keeping a satisfactory system performance. The proposed control strategy consists of online estimation of some system...... operating parameters, optimization of pump configurations, and a real-time feedback control. Comparing with the current control strategy at the considered system, where the pump system is on/off controlled, and the seawater flows are controlled by a number of control valves, the proposed control strategy...

  5. An Unified Approach for Process Quality Analysis and Control

    Prof.Chandrakanth Biradar,Aruna Kawdi


    Full Text Available Abstract— The process in a company finally results in product of the company, which represents the company standard. Hence, during the process execution time quality of the process needs to be taken care before and after the work done. In this paper, an unified approach to quality analysis and control of a process development is presented. This approach gives an overview of what the task the company assigned to the employers. The process is defined as the set of action items to achieve the work completion. Quality means grade of excellence. Quality analysis of a process is an improvement of the process and making sure that all the standard procedures are followed. An unified approach designed in this paper is a combination of software cost estimation and a financial market forecasting with the support of historical data, statistical data mining technique and artificial neural networks, which helps the developers as well as investors in strategic planning and investment decision making. Therefore, the paper describes a recommended process to develop software (SW cost estimates for software managers, perform financial market forecasting to control quality of process development. As a result, the improvement and analysis of the process quality can be performed from basic level to the corporate level. By this work, we conclude that the process quality control can be made easier and efficient compared to the old graphical analytics technique.

  6. [Lavoisier and radicals].

    Lafont, Olivier


    Lavoisier and his co-workers (Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, Fourcroy) considered that acids were constituted of oxygen and of something else that they called radicals. These radicals were known in some cases, i.e. nitrogen for nitrous acid, carbon for carbonic acid, phosphorus for phosphoric acid. In the case of sulfur, the sulfuric radical could be associated with different quantities of oxigen leading to sulfuric or sulfurous acids. In other cases radicals remained unknown at the time i.e. muriatic radical for muriatic acid, or benzoyl radical for benzoic acid. It is interesting to notice that Lavoisier evoked the case of compound radicals constituted of different substances such as carbon and hydrogen.

  7. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    Liu, Chongyang


    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  8. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    Sozański, Krzysztof


    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  9. Controlling Contagion Processes in Time-Varying Networks

    Liu, Suyu; Karsai, Marton; Vespignani, Alessandro


    The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion processes on networks considers the connectivity pattern of the system as either quenched or annealed. However, in the real world many networks are highly dynamical and evolve in time concurrently to the contagion process. Here, we derive an analytical framework for the study of control strategies specifically devised for time-varying networks. We consider the removal/immunization of individual nodes according the their activity in the network and develop a block variable mean-field approach that allows the derivation of the equations describing the evolution of the contagion process concurrently to the network dynamic. We derive the critical immunization threshold and assess the effectiveness of the control strategies. Finally, we validate the theoretical picture by simulating numerically the information spreading process and control strategies in both synthetic networks and a large-scale, real-world mobile telephone call dataset

  10. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted


    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...... results in a feasible and reliable design of the process as well as the controller structure....

  11. VPLS Based Quality and Cost Control for Tennessee Eastman Process

    宋凯; 王海清; 李平


    Product quality and operation cost control obtain increasing emphases in modern chemical system engineering. To improve the fault detection power of the partial least square (PLS) method for quality control, a new QRPV statistic is proposed in terms of the VP (variable importance in projection) indices of monitored process variables, which is significantly advanced over and different from the conventional Q statistic. QRPV is calculated only by the residuals of the remarkable process variables (RPVs). Therefore, it is the dominant relation between quality and RPV not all process variables (as in the case of the conventional PLS) that is monitored by this new VP-PLS (VPLS) method. The combination of QRPV and T2 statistics is applied to the quality and cost control of the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process, and weak faults can be detected as quickly as possible. Consequently, the product quality of TE process is guaranteed and operation costs are reduced.

  12. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun


    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Process control and optimization with simple interval calculation method

    Pomerantsev, A.; Rodionova, O.; Høskuldsson, Agnar


    the series of expanding PLS/SIC models in order to support the on-line process improvements. This method helps to predict the effect of planned actions on the product quality and thus enables passive quality control. We have also considered an optimization approach that proposes the correcting actions......Methods of process control and optimization are presented and illustrated with a real world example. The optimization methods are based on the PLS block modeling as well as on the simple interval calculation methods of interval prediction and object status classification. It is proposed to employ...... for the quality improvement in the course of production. The latter is an active quality optimization, which takes into account the actual history of the process. The advocate approach is allied to the conventional method of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) as it also employs the historical process...

  14. Instrumentation and control for fossil-energy processes


    The 1982 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil energy processes was held June 7 through 9, 1982, at Adam's Mark Hotel, Houston, Texas. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy; Argonne National Laboratory; and the Society for Control and Instrumentation of Energy Processes. Fifty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; eleven papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Inorganic nanoparticles for the spatial and temporal control of organic reactions: Applications to radical degradation of biopolymer networks

    Walker, Joan Marie

    Nanoparticles of gold and iron oxide not only possess remarkable optical and magnetic properties, respectively, but are also capable of influencing their local environment with an astounding degree of precision. Using nanoparticles to direct the reactivity of organic molecules near their surface provides a unique method of spatial and temporal control. Enediynes represent an exceptional class of compounds that are thermally reactive to produce a diradical intermediate via Bergman cycloaromatization. While natural product enediynes are famously cytotoxic, a rich chemistry of synthetic enediynes has developed utilizing creative means to control this reactivity through structure, electronics, metal chelation, and external triggering mechanisms. In a heretofore unexplored arena for Bergman cyclization, we have investigated the reactivity of enediynes in connection with inorganic nanoparticles in which the physical properties of the nanomaterial are directly excited to thermally promote aromatization. As the first example of this methodology, gold nanoparticles conjugated with (Z)-octa-4-en-2,6-diyne-1,8-dithiol were excited with 514 nm laser irradiation. The formation of aromatic and polymeric products was confirmed through Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Water soluble analogues Au-PEG-EDDA and Fe3O4-PEG-EDDA (EDDA = (Z)-octa-4-en-2,6-diyne-1,8-diamine) show similar reactivity under laser irradiation or alternating magnetic field excitation, respectively. Furthermore, we have used these functionalized nanoparticles to attack proteinaceous substrates including fibrin and extracellular matrix proteins, capitalizing on the ability of diradicals to disrupt peptidic bonds. By delivering a locally high payload of reactive molecules and thermal energy to the large biopolymer, network restructuring and collapse is achieved. As a synthetic extension towards multifunctional nanoparticles, noble metal seed-decorated iron oxides have also been prepared and assessed for

  16. A DFT Study of R-X Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of Relevance to the Initiation Process of Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Gillies, Malcolm Bjørn; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Norrby, Per-Ola


    DFT calculations at the B3P86/6-31G** level have been carried out to derive the bond dissociation energies (BDE) and free energies for a number of R-X systems (X ) Cl, Br, I, N3, and S2-CNMe2) that have been or can potentially be used as initiators for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP......). For selected systems, a conformational search was carried out for R-X and R by using semiempirical (PM3) and molecular mechanics (MM+ augmented with appropriately optimized parameters for the radical systems) methods. The MM+ technique is more suited to search for the most stable conformations. The computed...

  17. Thermomechanically-controlled Processing for Producing Ship-building Steels

    B. Basu


    Full Text Available The thermomechanically-controlled processing of a newly developed high-strength lowalloy steel has been designed in such a way that the problems, normally faced in producing thequench and tempered steels, have been mitigated and the final product (steel plates are available in as rolled condition rather than quench and tempered steels.A low-carbon, low-alloy steel having nickel, chromium, copper, niobium, boron, has been designed for ease of welding, improved weldability over the conventional steels, and responsiveto the thermomechanically-controlled processing. A number of laboratory-scale batches of the alloy were made with different combinations of thermomechanically-controlled processingparameters. The different thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters studied include (i slab-reheating temperature,~ (ii. def.orm ation above recrvstallisation temperature, (iiideformation below recrystallisation temperature, and (iv finish-rolling temperature. The thermomechanically-processed steel plates, under certain combinations of  thermomechanically-controlled ~rocessi-ne.o arameters. showed excellent combination of imvact and tensile n.r on. erties. In this paper, the microstructure-property correlation has been made to throw light on the type of microstructure required to obtain such superior package of mechanical properties. Further, the optimised laboratory-scale thermomechanically-controlled processing parameters, which were used to process newer hatches of the steel made through industrial route, have delivered encouraging results.

  18. Particle electrophoresis for quality assurance and process control.

    Seaman, G V; Knox, R J


    Process control is an increasingly important issue as life science companies world-wide strive for recognition of their manufacturing and product development quality measures according to International Standards Organization (ISO) or good manufacturing practices (GMP) standards. Analytical particle electrophoresis (APE) has the potential for significant contributions, not just to basic research, but also in process development and control in manufacturing environments. An important feature of colloidal (small) particles, which controls their behavior, is their surface charge. Optimization of life science products and process conditions involving small particles (>100 nm) may be approached by a variety of strategies based upon direct measurements of the charge properties of process particles or "reporter" particles. The availability of increasingly powerful instruments and control particle preparations (National Institute of Standards and Technology ((NIST) and others) for validation of instrument operation make the method more attractive than ever. We summarize highly flexible electrophoretic strategies for assessing process consistency both from the perspective of particles being processed as well as the processing environment and describe principles for the use of polymer microspheres both as control particles for validation of instrument operation as well as for probes of the assay medium.

  19. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Shuyun Li


    Full Text Available This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials and energy. The implemented control strategy combines a biologically-inspired method with optimal control concepts for finding more sustainable operating trajectories. The sustainability assessment of process operating points is carried out by using the U.S. EPA’s Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator (GREENSCOPE tool that provides scores for the selected indicators in the economic, material efficiency, environmental and energy areas. The indicator scores describe process performance on a sustainability measurement scale, effectively determining which operating point is more sustainable if there are more than several steady states for one specific product manufacturing. Through comparisons between a representative benchmark and the optimal steady states obtained through the implementation of the proposed controller, a systematic decision can be made in terms of whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous fermentation process for fuel production, whose material and energy time variation models are characterized by multiple steady states and oscillatory conditions.

  20. Formation of free radicals during phacoemulsification.

    Holst, A; Rolfsen, W; Svensson, B; Ollinger, K; Lundgren, B


    During phacoemulsification cavitation bubbles are formed. These bubbles are believed to be one source of damage to corneal endothelium seen after phacoemulsification. Free radicals are induced whenever cavitation bubbles implode. The aim of this study was to confirm the initiation of free radicals by phacoemulsification and to correlate the power of ultrasound in the phacoemulsification process to the amount of free radicals formed, using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. The formation of free radicals was determined by adding luminol to a buffer and measuring the chemoluminescence in vitro and in rabbit eyes (Lumacounter 2080 or a single-photon-counting apparatus) during phacoemulsification. The data obtained show that free radicals are formed during phacoemulsification and that the amount of free radicals correlates with the power of ultrasound. Furthermore, the radical formation could be inhibited by the radical scavengers SOD, Healon and Healon GV. These results were achieved both in vitro in the test tube and in vivo in rabbit eyes. By showing that the addition of SOD to the irrigation buffer during phacoemulsification decreases the corneal endothelial cell damage, we show that free radicals could have a role in postoperative complications seen clinically.

  1. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    Hadžiosmanović, Dina


    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  2. Stabilizing control for a class of delay unstable processes.

    Lee, See Chek; Wang, Qing-Guo; Nguyen, Le Binh


    The stabilization of unstable first-order plus time-delay processes with a zero by means of simple controllers is investigated in detail. Explicit stabilizability conditions are established. And the computational methods for determining stabilizing controller parameters are also presented with illustrative examples.

  3. Dynamic modelling and process control of ZnS precipitation

    König, J.; Keesman, K.J.; Veeken, A.H.M.; Lens, P.N.L.


    This paper presents the dynamic modelling and design of a control strategy for the ZnS precipitation process. During lab¿scale experiments, the sulfide concentration in a precipitator was controlled at a prespecified pS value by manipulating the flow from a buffer vessel. Batch tests showed that the

  4. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    Hadziosmanovic, D.


    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  5. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  6. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.


    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  7. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández


    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2*=HO2+ΣRO2, R= organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PerCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  8. Identification & Control of Special Processes in Civil Engineering Construction



    @@ A lot ot special processes exist in operation of construction enterprises. Construction enterprises are categorized as of high risks in certification under the quality management system. Taking civil engineering construction of building projects as an example, the writer analyzes how construction enterprises shall identify and control the special processes.

  9. The role of analytical chemistry in process quality control

    van der Linden, W.E.; de Niet, G.; Bos, M.


    The growing need for quality supervision and control in production processes is briefly outlined. After a summary of available process analytical devices, and a short discussion of their possibilities and limitations, an alternative approach is discussed. This approach is based on the development of

  10. The Possibilities of WWW Utilization for Process Control

    Roškanin Martin


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the possibilities of www technology utilization in real time process control and describes the representation of this information on client site in the www page form. The communication between client and process over web server and socket connection is discussed. The application of one of this method is illustrated.

  11. Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice

    Velazquez, Carlos; Cardona-Martinez, Nelson; Velazquez, Edwin


    The pressure on world-wide manufacturing industries to meet tougher demands and regulations has forced companies to focus on improving manufacturing using tools like process automation. This focus requires better-prepared students. The process control course of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez has…

  12. Statistical Process Control for Evaluating Contract Service at Army Installations


    Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 12a. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILTY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for...requirements. In addition to their usage in fault diagnosis and process improvement, process control methods are recommended for supporting acceptance

  13. Closing the Gap Between Process Control Theory and Practice

    Velazquez, Carlos; Cardona-Martinez, Nelson; Velazquez, Edwin


    The pressure on world-wide manufacturing industries to meet tougher demands and regulations has forced companies to focus on improving manufacturing using tools like process automation. This focus requires better-prepared students. The process control course of the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez has…

  14. Dynamic control of crystallinity in polymer film casting process

    Thananchai Leephakpreeda


    This paper presents an approach for dynamic control of crystallinity in polymer film casting process. As known, the transients of crystallization dictate the microstructures of semi-crystalline polymer during solidification. In turn, the properties of finished products can be determined by adjustable variables in polymer film casting process such as temperature of chill roll. In this work, an experimental model of the solidification in film casting process is derived by a system identificatio...

  15. Control and Systems Concepts in the Innovation Process


    The idea for this article and the associated feature articles in this special section come from two sources. The first is the opinion, shared by many control experts, that, while our subject has achieved much in its short history, it is now time to seek new directions and a new identity. The second source is my experience over the past 30 years with multidisciplinary R&D; I have seen that control systems methods can contribute to the development of new products and processes in a broader sense than the traditional design of feedback control loops.In some specific incidents, key innovative steps were made by taking a generalized control systems view. Interestingly, in most cases the control analyst, rather than making the key inventive steps, acted as a scientific facilitator by linking the skills of team members via the common languages of control systems, including modeling, simulation, and dynamic analysis. These experiences led me to reflect on searches for new directions in control and to question whether control systems analysts and educators should reposition control as a general systems science that can assist innovation in our industries, much in the same way that Wiener placed control at the heart of his cybernetic vision. This idea led to a further questioning of the sense in which innovation itself is a systematic process and therefore susceptible to control systems analysis.

  16. Kinetic analysis-based quantitation of free radical generation in EPR spin trapping.

    Samouilov, Alexandre; Roubaud, Valerie; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Zweier, Jay L


    Because short-lived reactive oxygen radicals such as superoxide have been implicated in a variety of disease processes, methods to measure their production quantitatively in biological systems are critical for understanding disease pathophysiology. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping is a direct and sensitive technique that has been used to study radical formation in biological systems. Short-lived oxygen free radicals react with the spin trap and produce paramagnetic adducts with much higher stability than that of the free radicals. In many cases, the quantity of the measured adduct is considered to be an adequate measure of the amount of the free radical generated. Although the intensity of the EPR signal reflects the magnitude of free radical generation, the actual quantity of radicals produced may be different due to modulation of the spin adduct kinetics caused by a variety of factors. Because the kinetics of spin trapping in biochemical and cellular systems is a complex process that is altered by the biochemical and cellular environment, it is not always possible to define all of the reactions that occur and the related kinetic parameters of the spin-trapping process. We present a method based on a combination of measured kinetic data for the formation and decay of the spin adduct alone with the parameters that control the kinetics of spin trapping and radical generation. The method is applied to quantitate superoxide trapping with 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DEPMPO). In principle, this method is broadly applicable to enable spin trapping-based quantitative determination of free radical generation in complex biological systems.

  17. Variation Analysis and Stability Control for Measurement Process

    ZHAO Feng-yu; MA Yi-zhong; Bo Bergman; XU Ji-chao


    Based on a two-section measuring method, a data collection sheet is formed. According to the data collected, the variation sources of a measurement process are analyzed and general guidelines for variation diagnosis are suggested. In our previous study, a method is presented to control the deviation of measurement system, but it is not sensitive to mean value variation and mean value drift. In this paper, a simplified data collection scheme via two-section measuring method is introduced to control both variation and center drift of measurement process. Based on this scheme, traditional SPC charts for variation control and EWMA chart for mean value drift are given.

  18. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Wang Yongheng


    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  19. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej


    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  20. Platform for 3D inline process control in additive manufacturing

    Preissler, Marc; Zhang, Chen; Rosenberger, Maik; Notni, Gunther


    3D - Inline - Process - Control is getting more attention in any fields of manufacturing processes to increase productivity and quality. Sensor systems are necessary to capture the currently process status and are basement for Inline-Process- Control. The presented work is a possibility to get inline information's about the additive manufacturing process Fused Filament Fabrication. The requirement is the ability to manipulate the machine code to get free field of view to the topside of the object after every manufactured layer. The adaptable platform layout makes possible to create different approaches for inline process control. One approach is the single camera layout from bird view to get 2,5D information's about the manufactured object and the other one is the active stereoscopic camera layout with pattern projection. Both approaches are showing a possibility to get information's of the manufactured object in process. Additional this cases allow a view inside the manufactured object and defects can be located. Deviations in the manufacturing process can be corrected and relevant parameters can be adapted during slicing process to increase the manufacturing quality.

  1. Density functional theory investigation of competitive free-radical processes during the thermal cracking of methylated polyaromatics: estimation of kinetic parameters.

    Leininger, J-Philippe; Minot, Christian; Lorant, François; Behar, Françoise


    Density functional B3LYP and BH&HLYP calculations with the 6-31G** basis set have been performed to investigate elementary reactions playing an important role in the pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene. The pathways describing the destiny of the main radicals, H, methyl, hydromethylnaphthyl and methylnaphthyl, have been studied. At low temperature, addition of H atoms on the aromatic ring is favored over hydrogen abstraction. Except at low temperature (below 400 K), the hydromethylnaphthyl radical undergoes preferentially a loss of hydrogen rather than a bimolecular hydrogen transfer with methylnaphthalene or addition reaction on methylnaphthalene forming a hydrogenated dimer. In the range 400-750 K, the formation of methane by hydrogen abstraction of methyl radical on methylnaphthalene is predominant compared to the formation of hydrodimethylnaphthalenes by addition reaction. Rate constants of reactions describing the formation of heavy products like methyldinaphthylmethanes or dimethylbinaphthalenes have been calculated and discussed. They are also compared to recombination reactions from the literature. Rate constants of these reactions have been computed using transition state theory and can be integrated in kinetic radical schemes of methylated polyaromatic compounds pyrolysis from geological to laboratory conditions.

  2. A systematic framework for design of process monitoring and control (PAT) systems for crystallization processes

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist


    for generation of the supersaturation set-point for supersaturation control, as well as a tool for design of a process monitoring and control system (also called Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system). This systematic design allows one to generate the necessary problem-chemical system specific model......A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations.The systematic design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling toolbox, a tool......, the necessary supersaturation set-point as well as a PAT system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce the desired target product properties notably crystal size distribution (CSD) and shape for a wide range of crystallization processes. Application...


    Ivan T Ćirić


    Full Text Available In this paper modelling and control approaches for fluidized bed combustion process have been considered, that are based on the use of computational intelligence. Proposed adaptive neuro-fuzzy-genetic modelling and intelligent control strategies provide for efficient combining of available expert knowledge with experimental data. Firstly, based on the qualitative information on the desulphurization process, models of the SO2 emission in fluidized bed combustion have been developed, which provides for economical and efficient reduction of SO2 in FBC by estimation of optimal process parameters and by design of intelligent control systems based on defined emission models. Also, efficient fuzzy nonlinear FBC process modelling strategy by combining several linearized combustion models has been presented. Finally, fuzzy and conventional process control systems for fuel flow and primary air flow regulation based on developed models and optimized by genetic algorithms have also been developed. Obtained results indicate that computationally intelligent approach can be successfully applied for modelling and control of complex fluidized bed combustion process.

  4. Radicals and ions controlling by adjusting the antenna-substrate distance in a-Si:H deposition using a planar ICP for c-Si surface passivation

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, S.; Xu, M.; Xu, L. X.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiang, Y.; Xiao, S. Q.


    Being a key issue in the research and fabrication of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation is theoretically and technologically intricate due to its complicate dependence on plasma characteristics, material properties, and plasma-material interactions. Here amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by a planar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor working under different antenna-substrate distances of d was used for the surface passivation of low-resistivity p-type c-Si. It is found that the microstructures (i.e., the crystallinity, Si-H bonding configuration etc.) and passivation function on c-Si of the deposited a-Si:H were profoundly influenced by the parameter of d, which primarily determines the types of growing precursors of SiHn/H contributing to the film growth and the interaction between the plasma and growing surface. c-Si surface passivation is analyzed in terms of the d-dependent a-Si:H properties and plasma characteristics. The controlling of radical types and ion bombardment on the growing surface through adjusting parameter d is emphasized.

  5. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos


    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  6. Adaptive control method for nonlinear time-delay processes


    Two complex properties,varying time-delay and block-oriented nonlinearity,are very common in chemical engineering processes and not easy to be controlled by routine control methods.Aimed at these two complex properties,a novel adaptive control algorithm the basis of nonlinear OFS(orthonormal functional series) model is proposed.First,the hybrid model which combines OFS and Volterra series is introduced.Then,a stable state feedback strategy is used to construct a nonlinear adaptive control algorithm that can guarantee the closed-loop stability and can track the set point curve without steady-state errors.Finally,control simulations and experiments on a nonlinear process with varying time-delay are presented.A number of experimental results validate the efficiency and superiority of this algorithm.

  7. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson


    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  8. Cognitive control modulates preferential sensory processing of affective stimuli.

    Steinhauser, Marco; Flaisch, Tobias; Meinzer, Marcus; Schupp, Harald T


    Adaptive human behavior crucially relies on the ability of the brain to allocate resources automatically to emotionally significant stimuli. This ability has consistently been demonstrated by studies showing preferential processing of affective stimuli in sensory cortical areas. It is still unclear, however, whether this putatively automatic mechanism can be modulated by cognitive control processes. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether preferential processing of an affective face distractor is suppressed when an affective distractor has previously elicited a response conflict in a word-face Stroop task. We analyzed this for three consecutive stages in the ventral stream of visual processing for which preferential processing of affective stimuli has previously been demonstrated: the striate area (BA 17), category-unspecific extrastriate areas (BA 18/19), and the fusiform face area (FFA). We found that response conflict led to a selective suppression of affective face processing in category-unspecific extrastriate areas and the FFA, and this effect was accompanied by changes in functional connectivity between these areas and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, preferential processing of affective face distractors was unaffected in the striate area. Our results indicate that cognitive control processes adaptively suppress preferential processing of affective stimuli under conditions where affective processing is detrimental because it elicits response conflict.

  9. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki


    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  10. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    Sozanski, Krzysztof


    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  11. Adaptive Clutch Engaging Process Control for Automatic Mechanical Transmission

    LIU Hai-ou; CHEN Hui-yan; DING Hua-rong; HE Zhong-bo


    Based on detail analysis of clutch engaging process control targets and adaptive demands, a control strategy which is based on speed signal, different from that of based on main clutch displacement signal, is put forward. It considers both jerk and slipping work which are the most commonly used quality evaluating indexes of vehicle starting phase. The adaptive control system and its reference model are discussed profoundly.Taking the adaptability to different starting gears and different road conditions as examples, some proving field test records are shown to illustrate the main clutch adaptive control strategy at starting phase. Proving field test gives acceptable results.

  12. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun


    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  13. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian


    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  14. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.


    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  15. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian


    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  16. Flow manipulation and control methodologies for vacuum infusion processes

    Alms, Justin B.

    Vacuum Infusion Processes (VIPs) are very attractive composite manufacturing processes since large structures such as fuselages and wind blades can be fabricated in a cost effective manner. In VIPs, the fabric layers are placed on a one sided mold which is closed by enveloping the entire mold with a thin plastic film and evacuating the air out. The vacuum compresses the fabric and when a resin inlet is opened, resin flows into the mold. The resin is allowed to cure before demolding the structure. However, VIPs causes non-repeatable and problematic resin filling patterns due to the heterogeneous nature of the material, nesting between various layers, and the hand labor utilized for laying up the fabric. The design of the manufacturing process routinely involves a trial and error model which make manufacturing costs and development time difficult to estimate. The clear solution to improving the reliability and robustness of VIPs is to implement a system capable of on-line flow control. While on-line flow control has been studied and developed for other composite manufacturing processes, the VIPs have been largely ignored as there are few process parameters that lend themselves to effective flow control. In this work, two new processes were discovered with the goal of on-line control of VIPs in mind. These two processes referred to as Flow Flooding Chamber (FFC) and Vacuum Induced Preform Relaxation (VIPR) will be discussed. They both employ an external vacuum chamber to influence the permeability of the fabric temporarily which allows one to redirect the resin flow to resin starved regions of the mold. The VIPR process in addition uses a low and regulated vacuum pressure in the external chamber to increase the permeability of the fabric in a controllable manner. The objective is to understand how the VIPR process affects the resin flow in order to implement it into a complete flow control and automated environment which will reduce or eliminate the variability

  17. New Robust Nonlinear Controller Design Based on Predictive Control for Industrial Processes

    Hossein Esfroghy


    Full Text Available In this paper a new sliding mode controller based on predictive control is used for the first order system, which is a good model for the industrial process. In this method a developed predictive control is used to optimize the sliding mode control including sliding surface and switching function coefficient at every moment. A new smooth function is used to reduce the chattering problems. Simulation results show the high effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  18. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Krutova A.S.


    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  19. Research on Production Process Control Method Combined Stochastic Process Algebra and Stochastic Petri Nets

    LIU Chang; SHI Haibo


    A hierarchical closed-loop production control scheme integrating scheduling, control and performance evaluation is discussed. Firstly, the production process is divided into two main hierarchies: the lower level is the physical operation level and the upper one is the management level. Secondly, the schedule template for the management level and the activity template for the physical operation level are constructed separately, the tasks in the schedule have the ability to make partial decisions, and the performance parameters are introduced into activity template. Thirdly, the two levels use different model representations: stochastic process algebra for the management level whose output is the control commands and stochastic Petri net for the physical operation level which is the execution of the control commands. Then, the integration of the two levels is the control commands mapping into the lower physical operations and the responses feeding back to the upper decision-making that are defined by some transition functions. Under the proposed scheme, the production process control of a flexible assembly is exemplified. It is concluded that the process control model has partial ability to make decision on-line for uncertain and dynamic environments and facilitates reasoning about the behaviors of the process control, and performance evaluation can be done online for real-time scheduling to ensure the global optimization.

  20. Intelligent supervisory-level control of industrial processes

    Jaervensivu, M. [Pronyx Control Software (Finland); Juuso, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Control Engineering Lab.


    Faced by intense competition, the pulp and paper industry is aiming for higher profitability by raising productivity and lowering costs. On the global scale, the industry has to meet increasing market demands for higher product quality, more specialty products, greater production flexibility and a higher standard of environmental protection. For these reasons, extensive research is being conducted to improve existing processes. One option that is gaining increasing attention within the industry is to improve control of existing processes by means of intelligent systems. In this paper, an intelligent kiln control system is presented. The system consists of two parts: the stabilizing control is based on a new LECont concept which uses a novel linguistic equation approach, while the targets are determined by a StabOpti concept on the optimisation level. Nonlinear models obtained from process data are used for optimisation and compensation of load disturbances. According to test results from on industrial pulp mill, operational flexibility was improved and both economic and ecological benefits were obtained. The overall control system provides a better insight into the process and extends the scope of both fuzzy logic control and advanced extensions of classical control. (orig.)

  1. Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in mission control.

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Oglesby, James M; O'Keefe, William S; Salas, Eduardo


    NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) is responsible for control of the International Space Station (ISS), which includes responding to problems that obstruct the functioning of the ISS and that may pose a threat to the health and well-being of the flight crew. These problems are often complex, requiring individuals, teams, and multiteam systems, to work collaboratively. Research is warranted to examine individual and collaborative problem-solving processes in this context. Specifically, focus is placed on how Mission Control personnel-each with their own skills and responsibilities-exchange information to gain a shared understanding of the problem. The Macrocognition in Teams Model describes the processes that individuals and teams undertake in order to solve problems and may be applicable to Mission Control teams. Semistructured interviews centering on a recent complex problem were conducted with seven MCC professionals. In order to assess collaborative problem-solving processes in MCC with those predicted by the Macrocognition in Teams Model, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the interview transcriptions. Findings are supported with excerpts from participant transcriptions and suggest that team knowledge-building processes accounted for approximately 50% of all coded data and are essential for successful collaborative problem solving in mission control. Support for the internalized and externalized team knowledge was also found (19% and 20%, respectively). The Macrocognition in Teams Model was shown to be a useful depiction of collaborative problem solving in mission control and further research with this as a guiding framework is warranted.

  2. The interplay between spontaneous and controlled processing in creative cognition

    Leh Woon eMok


    Full Text Available Neural studies of creativity have yielded relatively little consistent results. For example, in functional neuroanatomical studies, the prefrontal cortex (PFC has often been implicated as a critical neural substrate. However, results in electrophysiological (EEG studies have been inconsistent as to the role of the PFC. EEG results have more often implicated widespread alpha synchronization, particularly in posterior regions, in creative cognition. Recent fMRI evidence has indicated that the PFC may be activated as a part of and together with other components of a deliberate control brain network. Controlled processing is neurologically dissociated from, but may co-occur with, spontaneous cognition mediated by a subset of the default-mode network (e.g., the angular gyrus [BA 39] in the posterior parietal cortex, which has been increasingly implicated in creative cognition. When the demand for controlled processing is substantially increased, default-mode processing may be suppressed. There is now preliminary evidence to suggest an association between alpha synchronization and default-mode processing. Creative cognition likely emerges from an optimal balance between spontaneous processing and controlled processing.

  3. Internal Control of Enterprise Capital Turnover under the Integration Processes

    Kaminska Tetiana H.


    Full Text Available The article tries to build methods of internal control of the capital turnover, which would meet modern integration processes in Ukraine and in the world. First of all it states that internal control should ensure realisation of interests of the enterprise owner. It marks out that despite the existing methods, the enterprise control should be started not with assets, but from the sources of their formation – own capital and obligations, and only then go to the enterprise property control. The author offers relevant methods of capital turnover control, which takes into account its stages – acquisition, production and sales – and gives practical recommendations on its use at enterprises. Special attention is paid to the capital turnover control at the stage of production, which should keep track of both quantitative and qualitative parameters. Acquisition and sales control, except for internal controllers, is carried out by marketing, logistics and other services. Generalisation of results of the control should be done in forms that, on the one hand, have evidential force and, on the other, accessible for comprehension and use in the process of making managerial decisions by managers of various levels.

  4. Automatic and controlled processing in the corticocerebellar system.

    Ramnani, Narender


    During learning, performance changes often involve a transition from controlled processing in which performance is flexible and responsive to ongoing error feedback, but effortful and slow, to a state in which processing becomes swift and automatic. In this state, performance is unencumbered by the requirement to process feedback, but its insensitivity to feedback reduces its flexibility. Many properties of automatic processing are similar to those that one would expect of forward models, and many have suggested that these may be instantiated in cerebellar circuitry. Since hierarchically organized frontal lobe areas can both send and receive commands, I discuss the possibility that they can act both as controllers and controlled objects and that their behaviors can be independently modeled by forward models in cerebellar circuits. Since areas of the prefrontal cortex contribute to this hierarchically organized system and send outputs to the cerebellar cortex, I suggest that the cerebellum is likely to contribute to the automation of cognitive skills, and to the formation of habitual behavior which is resistant to error feedback. An important prerequisite to these ideas is that cerebellar circuitry should have access to higher order error feedback that signals the success or failure of cognitive processing. I have discussed the pathways through which such feedback could arrive via the inferior olive and the dopamine system. Cerebellar outputs inhibit both the inferior olive and the dopamine system. It is possible that learned representations in the cerebellum use this as a mechanism to suppress the processing of feedback in other parts of the nervous system. Thus, cerebellar processes that control automatic performance may be completed without triggering the engagement of controlled processes by prefrontal mechanisms.

  5. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    This thesis describes the development and application of a new systematic modelbased methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) of chemical processes. The new methodology is simple to apply, easy to visualize and efficient to solve. Here, the IPDC problem...... and verification. Using thermodynamic and process insights, a bounded search space is first identified. This feasible solution space is further reduced to satisfy the process design and controller design constraints in sub-problems 2 and 3, respectively, until in the final sub-problem all feasible candidates...... are ordered according to the defined performance criteria (objective function). The final selected design is then verified through rigorous simulation. In the pre-analysis sub-problem, the concepts of attainable region and driving force are used to locate the optimal process-controller design solution...

  6. A Generic Framework for Systematic Design of Process Monitoring and Control System for Crystallization Processes

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Sin, Gürkan


    A generic framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed in order to obtain the desired end-product properties notably the crystal size distribution (CSD). The design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling...... tool-box, a tool for design of operational policies as well as a tool for design of process monitoring and control systems. Through this framework, it is possible for a wide range of crystallization processes to generate the necessary problem-system specific model, the necessary operational policy...... and a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce a desired product with its corresponding target properties. Application of the framework is highlighted through a case study involving the system potassium dihydrogen...

  7. Dual Control with Active Learning using Gaussian Process Regression

    Alpcan, Tansu


    In many real world problems, control decisions have to be made with limited information. The controller may have no a priori (or even posteriori) data on the nonlinear system, except from a limited number of points that are obtained over time. This is either due to high cost of observation or the highly non-stationary nature of the system. The resulting conflict between information collection (identification, exploration) and control (optimization, exploitation) necessitates an active learning approach for iteratively selecting the control actions which concurrently provide the data points for system identification. This paper presents a dual control approach where the information acquired at each control step is quantified using the entropy measure from information theory and serves as the training input to a state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression (Bayesian learning) method. The explicit quantification of the information obtained from each data point allows for iterative optimization of both identifica...

  8. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Karr, C. L.


    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  9. Controlled rejuvenation of amorphous metals with thermal processing.

    Wakeda, Masato; Saida, Junji; Li, Ju; Ogata, Shigenobu


    Rejuvenation is the configurational excitation of amorphous materials and is one of the more promising approaches for improving the deformability of amorphous metals that usually exhibit macroscopic brittle fracture modes. Here, we propose a method to control the level of rejuvenation through systematic thermal processing and clarify the crucial feasibility conditions by means of molecular dynamics simulations of annealing and quenching. We also experimentally demonstrate rejuvenation level control in Zr(55)Al(10)Ni(5)Cu(30) bulk metallic glass. Our local heat-treatment recipe (rising temperature above 1.1T(g), followed by a temperature quench rate exceeding the previous) opens avenue to modifying the glass properties after it has been cast and processed into near component shape, where a higher local cooling rate may be afforded by for example transient laser heating, adding spatial control and great flexibility to the processing.

  10. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment


    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A Knowledge...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud : A Knowledge...capable processes, and effective internal controls result in the DoD having a higher level of vulnerability for procurement fraud (Rendon & Rendon, in

  11. Can we (control) Engineer the degree learning process?

    White, A. S.; Censlive, M.; Neilsen, D.


    This paper investigates how control theory could be applied to learning processes in engineering education. The initial point for the analysis is White's Double Loop learning model of human automation control modified for the education process where a set of governing principals is chosen, probably by the course designer. After initial training the student decides unknowingly on a mental map or model. After observing how the real world is behaving, a strategy to achieve the governing variables is chosen and a set of actions chosen. This may not be a conscious operation, it maybe completely instinctive. These actions will cause some consequences but not until a certain time delay. The current model is compared with the work of Hollenbeck on goal setting, Nelson's model of self-regulation and that of Abdulwahed, Nagy and Blanchard at Loughborough who investigated control methods applied to the learning process.

  12. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)


    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  13. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Marroquín–Prado E.


    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  14. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick


    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  15. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick


    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  16. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen


    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  17. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    Isaacs, Steven Howard


    determined. The effects of the strategies on short term nitrogen dynamics are explained in terms of the potential and capacity of denitrification. The relative effectiveness of the strategies are compared and where the strategies would be located in a hierarchical control structure is discussed. Copyright (C......Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length......, and the dissolved oxygen level during aerobic periods. All three strategies attempt to satisfy a common control criterion representing optimal performance over the time length of one process cycle (typically I to 3 hours) and are based on models developed from simple mass balances or which have been experimentally...

  18. Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing

    Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning


    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  19. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner


    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  20. Modelling and control of dynamic systems using gaussian process models

    Kocijan, Juš


    This monograph opens up new horizons for engineers and researchers in academia and in industry dealing with or interested in new developments in the field of system identification and control. It emphasizes guidelines for working solutions and practical advice for their implementation rather than the theoretical background of Gaussian process (GP) models. The book demonstrates the potential of this recent development in probabilistic machine-learning methods and gives the reader an intuitive understanding of the topic. The current state of the art is treated along with possible future directions for research. Systems control design relies on mathematical models and these may be developed from measurement data. This process of system identification, when based on GP models, can play an integral part of control design in data-based control and its description as such is an essential aspect of the text. The background of GP regression is introduced first with system identification and incorporation of prior know...