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Sample records for radical d2 na

  1. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Dracatos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2 are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An O-mannosyltransferase (pmt knockout (KO mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC. An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2.

  2. Differential and integral cross sections for the rotationally inelastic scattering of methyl radicals with H2 and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkáč, Ondřej; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Ma, Qianli; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Rusher, Cassandra A.; Greaves, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of experimental and theoretical studies of the rotationally inelastic scattering of CD 3 radicals with H 2 and D 2 collision partners at respective collision energies of 680 ± 75 and 640 ± 60 cm −1 . Close-coupling quantum-mechanical calculations performed using a newly constructed ab initio potential energy surface (PES) provide initial-to-final CD 3 rotational level (n, k → n′, k′) integral and differential cross sections (ICSs and DCSs). The DCSs are compared with crossed molecular beam and velocity map imaging measurements of angular scattering distributions, which serve as a critical test of the accuracy of the new PES. In general, there is very good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculations. The DCSs for CD 3 scattering from both H 2 and D 2 peak in the forward hemisphere for n′ = 2–4 and shift more to sideways and backward scattering for n′ = 5. For n′ = 6–8, the DCSs are dominated by backward scattering. DCSs for a particular CD 3 n → n′ transition have a similar angular dependence with either D 2 or H 2 as collision partner. Any differences between DCSs or ICSs can be attributed to mass effects because the PES is unchanged for CD 3 −H 2 and CD 3 –D 2 collisions. Further comparisons are drawn between the CD 3 –D 2 scattering and results for CD 3 –He presented in our recent paper [O. Tkáč, A. G. Sage, S. J. Greaves, A. J. Orr-Ewing, P. J. Dagdigian, Q. Ma, and M. H. Alexander, Chem. Sci. 4, 4199 (2013)]. These systems have the same reduced mass, but are governed by different PESs

  3. Photodissociaton of allyl-d2 iodide excited at 193 nm: Stability of highly rotationally excited H2CDCH2 radicals to C-D fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, D.E.; Liu, Y.; McCullagh, M.J.; Butler, L.J.; Shu, J.

    2003-01-01

    The photodissociation of allyl-d2 iodide (H2C=CDCH2I) and the dynamics of the nascent allyl-d2 radical (H2CCDCH2) were studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. A previous study found the allyl radical stable at internal energies up to 15 kcal/mol higher than the 60 kcal/mol barrier to allene + H formation as the result of a centrifugal barrier. The deuterated allyl radical should then also show a stability to secondary dissociation at internal energies well above the barrier due to centrifugal effects. A comparison in this paper shows the allyl-d2 radical is stable to allene + D formation at energies of 2-3 kcal/mol higher than that of the non-deuterated allyl radical following photolysis of allyl iodide at 193 nm. This is most likely a result of a combination of the slight raising of the barrier from the difference in zero-point levels and a reduction of the impact parameter of the dissociative fragments due to the decrease in frequency of the C-D bending modes, and the refore allene + D product orbital angular momentum. Integrated signal taken at m/e = 40 (allene) and m/e = 41 (allene-d1 and propyne-d3) shows a minor fraction of the allyl-d2 radicals isomerize to the 2-propenyl radical, in qualitative support of earlier conclusions of the domination of direct allene + H formation over isomerization

  4. Predicting treatment response from dopamine D2/3 receptor bnding potential? - A study in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus

    of antipsychotic compounds on the positive symptoms. Furthermore, blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors have in studies shown to associate negatively with subjective well-being. Our main aim was to explore a possible predictive value of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) for treatment...... of 29 antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 26 matched healthy controls, SPECT with [123l]-IBZM was used to examine the BPP of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptors. The participants were examined at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment with a selective D2/3 receptor antagonist, amisulpride....... Results: We found a significant inverse correlation between the striatal BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms (p=0.046; R squared = 0.152) after six weeks of treatment with amisulpride. There was no association between the blockade of the D2/3 receptors and improvement of positive symptoms...

  5. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.

    1987-01-01

    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific [3H]ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart

  6. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.

    1987-02-01

    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific (3H)ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart.

  7. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Allerup, Peter; Bak, Nikolaj; Rasmussen, Hans; Frandsen, Erik; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 26 controls were included in the study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [123I]iodobenzamide ([123I]-IBZM) was used to examine striatal D2/3 receptor BPp. Patients were examined before and after 6 weeks of treatment with the D2/3 receptor antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp in the responders. At follow-up, the patients demonstrated a negative correlation between the blockade and functioning, whereas no associations between blockade and negative symptoms or subjective well-being were observed. The results show an association between striatal BPp of dopamine D2/3 receptors in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and treatment response. Patients with a low BPp have a better treatment response than patients with a high BPp. The results further suggest that functioning may decline at high levels of dopamine receptor blockade. PMID:25698711

  8. The radical right ineurope, between slogans and voting behavior A direita radical na Europa, entre slogans e comportamento de voto

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    Nicolò Conti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the radical right’s attitudes toward the EU focusing in particular on the level of congruence between the programmatic statements of their central offices and the voting behavior of their MEPs. It shows that although radical right parties are a source of opposition to the EU, within the EP they express their dissent by abiding by the rules of the game, voting with the opposition more than the other forces do, but also voting almost as often with the majority. The radical right’s MEPs engage in the legislative process and cooperate with parties on both sides of the political spectrum more than the Eurosceptic rhetoric and statements of their central offices lead the public to believe.O artigo analisa as atitudes da direita radical em relação à UE, focando-se, em particular, no nível de congruência entre as afirmações programáticas dos seus dirigentes e o comportamento de voto dos seus membros no parlamento europeu. Demonstra que apesar de os partidos radicais de direita constituírem um foco de oposição à UE, quando no parlamento europeu expressam o seu desacordo dentro das regras do jogo, votando com a oposição mais do que as outras forças, mas votando também com a maioria quase com igual regularidade. Os grupos parlamentares inserem-se no processo legislativo e são mais colaborantes com outros partidos de toda a gama ideológica do que a retórica e as afirmações dos dirigentes centrais fazem crer.

  9. Depression of membrane-bound Na+-K+-ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A.

    1988-01-01

    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na + -K + -ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H 2 O 2 for either 15 or 30 min at 37 degree C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na + -K + -ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H 2 O 2 and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na + -K + -ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na + K + -ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4 degree C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na + -K + -ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney

  10. Depression of membrane-bound Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1988-02-01

    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for either 15 or 30 min at 37{degree}C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4{degree}C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney.

  11. Apparent molar volumes for dilute solutions of NaClO4 and [Co(en) 3](ClO4)3 in D2O and H2O at 278-318 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, G.A.; Glossop, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes for dilute solutions of NaClO 4 and [Co(en) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 3 in D 2 O and H 2 O were measured by using a dilatometry technique at 278, 298 and 318K. Comparison of limiting slopes with the Debye-Huckel predictions from the dielectric constant and compressibility of H 2 O and D 2 O is complicated by ion pairing. The apparent molar volumes for NaClO 4 were less in D 2 O than in H 2 O. The complex [Co(en) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 3 when studied in D 2 O had its amine protons exchanged by deuterium; this did not allow a direct comparison of the apparent molar volumes of the protonated complex in each solvent system, but revealed a large isotope effect. The apparent molar volumes of the [Co(en) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 3 showed a much larger temperature dependence than that of NaClO 4

  12. Isolation and characterization of ScGluD2, a new sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase D family gene induced by Sporisorium scitamineum, ABA, H2O2, NaCl, and CdCl2 stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Su

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39, commonly known as pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, play an important role not only in plant defense against fungal pathogens but also in plant physiological and developmental processes. However, only a limited number of sugarcane beta-1,3-glucanase genes have been isolated. In the present study, we identified and characterized a new beta-1,3-glucanase gene ScGluD2 (GenBank Acc No. KF664181 from sugarcane. An X8 domain was present at the C terminal region of ScGluD2, suggesting beta-1,3-glucan-binding function. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted ScGluD2 protein was classified into subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase. Localization of the ScGluD2 protein in the plasma membrane was determined by tagging it with green fluorescent protein. The expression of ScGluD2 was more up-regulated in sugarcane smut-resistant cultivars in the early stage (1 d or 3 d than in the susceptible ones after being challenged by the smut pathogen, revealing that ScGluD2 may be involved in defense against the invasion of Sporisorium scitamineum. Transient overexpression of ScGluD2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced a defense response and exhibited antimicrobial action on the tobacco pathogens Pseudomonas solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, further demonstrating that ScGluD2 was related to the resistance to plant pathogens. However, the transcripts of ScGluD2 partially increased (12 h under NaCl stress, and were steadily up-regulated from 6 h to 24 h upon ABA, H2O2, and CdCl2 treatments, suggesting that ABA may be a signal molecule regulating oxidative stress and play a role in the salt and heavy metal stress-induced stimulation of ScGluD2 transcripts. Taken together, ScGluD2, a novel member of subfamily D beta-1,3-glucanase, was a stress-related gene of sugarcane involved in plant defense against smut pathogen attack and salt and heavy metal stresses.

  13. Diffusion coefficients of D2 and HT in the medium of gaseous protium and in crystals of NaX zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Coefficients of HT diffusion (absent in literature) in gaseous protium medium and in crystals of the NaX zeolite compared with similar values of these coefficients for deuterium are determined on the basis of analysis of experimental data on effect NaX zeolite grain size and of H 2 -HT gaseous mixture consumption in the sorption column at separation of hydrogen atoms on the value of transfer unit. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Effects of Blocking D2/D3 Receptors on Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude of Initially Antipsychotic Naïve, First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Oranje, Bob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude have been suggested to be among the core deficits in schizophrenia since the late 1970s. Blockade of dopamine D2 receptors play an important role in the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition, there is some evidence indicating that deficits...... reduced P3a amplitude compared with healthy controls, but no differences in mismatch negativity. Although the treatment with amisulpride significantly improved the patients' psychopathological (PANSS) and functional (GAF) scores, it did not influence their mismatch negativity amplitude, while also...... clinically and functionally, it had no effect on either mismatch negativity or P3a amplitude. This suggests that even though there is a dopaminergic involvement in global functioning and symptomatology in schizophrenia, there is no such involvement in these particular measures of early information processing....

  15. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  16. ON SOFT D2-ALGEBRA AND SOFT D2-IDEALS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subramanian; S. Seethalaksmi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied some characterization of soft D2-algebra, kernel, intersection, image, quotient D2-algebra’s and relations ship between D2-algebra and D2-ideals with suitable examples.

  17. Favoring D2-Lymphadenectomy in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavokyros, Ioannis; Michalinos, Adamantios

    2018-01-01

    The role of extended lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer has been debated for many years. So far six prospective randomized trials and a number of meta-analyses comparing D 1 - to D 2 -lymphadenectomy in open surgery have been published with contradicting results. The possible oncologic benefit of radical lymphadenectomy has been blurred by a number of reasons. In most of the trials the strategies under comparison were made similar after protocol violations. Imperfect design of the trials could not exclude the influence of cofounding factors. Inappropriate endpoints could not detect evidently the difference between the two surgical strategies. On the other hand radical lymphadenectomy was characterized by increased morbidity and mortality. This was mostly caused by the addition of pancreatico-splenectomy in all D 2 -dissections, even when not indicated. A careful analysis of the available evidence indicates that D 2 -lymphadenectomy performed by adequately trained surgeons without resection of the pancreas and/or spleen, unless otherwise indicated, decreases Gastric Cancer Related Deaths and increases Disease Specific Survival. This evidence is not compelling but cannot be ignored. D 2 -lymphadendctomy is nowadays considered to be the standard of care for resectable gastric cancer.

  18. Supersymmetric D2 anti-D2 Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Dongsu; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    We consider the flat supersymmetric D2 and anti-D2 system, which follows from ordinary noncommutative D2 anti-D2 branes by turning on an appropriate worldvolume electric field describing dissolved fundamental strings. We study the strings stretched between D2 and anti-D2 branes and show explicitly that the would-be tachyonic states become massless. We compute the string spectrum and clarify the induced noncommutativity on the worldvolume. The results are compared with the matrix theory descri...

  19. SO4--SO3- radical pair formation in Ce doped and Ce, U co-doped K3Na(SO4)2: EPR evidence and its role in TSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Seshagiri, T.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Sastry, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies were carried out on cerium doped and cerium-uranium co-doped K 3 Na(SO 4 ) 2 samples after γ-irradiation. Three glow peaks around 352, 415 and 475 K were observed and their spectral characteristics have shown that Ce 3+ and UO 2 2+ act as the emission centres in K 3 Na(SO 4 ) 2 :Ce and K 3 Na(SO 4 ) 2 :Ce, U, respectively. In Ce-U co-doped sample, energy transfer from cerium to uranium takes place. The commonly occurring radiation-induced centres in sulphates, viz SO 3 - and SO 4 - were observed by EPR and SO 4 - radical ion was found to take part in the TSL emission at 415 K. The hitherto unknown information, however, is the formation of SO 4 - -SO 3 - radical pair creating deep traps in these lattices, apparently assisted by the dopants. This is the first observation of such radical pair formation leading to the identification of deep traps in this lattice. The radical pair, (SO 3 - -SO 4 - ) which is stable up to 970 K, decreases the intensity of the peak at 415 K due to the depletion of SO 4 - centres

  20. Do all the European surgeons perform the same D2? The need of D2 audit in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, Maria; Verlato, Giuseppe; Mengardo, Valentina; Weindelmayer, Jacopo; Allum, William H

    2018-06-04

    Although D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard of care for radical intent surgical treatment of gastric cancer, the real compliance with D2 dissection in Europe is still unknown. The aim of the present study is to analyze the variation in lymph-node harvesting reported after D2 dissection in European series and to present a European project aiming at evaluating the real compliance with D2 lymphadenectomy. A PubMed search for papers using the key words "D2 lymphadenectomy" and "gastric cancer" from 2008 to 2017 was undertaken. Only studies by European authors in English language reporting the number of retrieved lymph nodes after D2 lymphadenectomy were included. The results of literature review were descriptively reported. The literature survey yielded 16 studies: 2 RCTs, 3 observational multicentre studies, and 11 observational monocentric studies. A large variability was found in the number of retrieved nodes, which, overall, was the lowest in the surgical series from Eastern Europe (16.6 and 19.9 in the Lithuanian and Hungarian series, respectively) and the highest in an Italian RCT. The within-study variability was also quite high, especially in multicentre RCTs and observational studies. Sample size tended to have a larger effect on the variability of lymph nodes retrieved than on its actual value. However, in both cases, the relation was not significant, due to the low number of studies considered. There is a large variability in the number of retrieved nodes after D2 dissection in European series. This reflects, at least partly, different approaches to D2 lymphadenectomy by European surgeons and may be responsible of the different outcomes observed in patients with gastric cancer across Europe. Therefore, there is the need to standardize the practice of D2 gastrectomy in Europe and to define possible variations of D2 procedures according to tumour's characteristics.

  1. Radicalismos, violências e integração política na Turquia Radicalisms, violence and political integration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Bozarsian

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os principais obstáculos a serem enfrentados para a integração política na Turquia. Mostra que o radicalismo e a violência originam-se em três fontes: a oposição curdo-turca; a oposição alevita-sunita e o avanço do islamismo político, com sua recusa de abandonar a referência religiosa. Contribuíram para a atual fragmentação política as contradições da doutrina kemalista, na qual ainda se assenta a legitimidade do Estado turco; os sucessivos golpes militares de Estado, que obrigam a constantes realinhamentos das formações partidárias; e a militarização de vastas regiões da Turquia em resposta às sucessivas ondas curdas e alevitas de contestação violenta, conduzindo à autonomização dos grupos armados que tendem a perpetuar a contestação e a repressão violentas. Diante desse quadro, o futuro da Turquia depende, por um lado, da integração social das identificações e convicções (curdas, alevitas e islamitas pelo reconhecimento das culturas regionais e, por outro lado, da adoção do princípio de não-politização das convicções religiosas e do abandono do conservadorismo social por oposição à ocidentalidade.This article analyses the main obstacles to be faced for the political integration in Turkey. It shows that radicalism and violence spring from three sources; the Turkish-Kurd opposition; the Sunite-Alevite opposition and the rise of political Islamism, with its refusal to abandon religious reference.What has contributed to the present political fragmentation are the contradictions of the Kemalist doctrine, on which the legitimacy of the Turkish State is based; the successive military coups d'etat that cause constant party realignements; and the militarization of vast regions of Turkey to hold back the successive waves of Kurdish and Alevite violent uprisings, which, in turn, give autonomy to armed groups that tend to perpetuate the violent contends and repression. From this

  2. M2 to D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    We examine the recently proposed ''3-algebra'' field theory for multiple M2-branes and show that when a scalar field valued in the 3-algebra develops a vacuum expectation value, the resulting Higgs mechanism has the novel effect of promoting topological (Chern-Simons) to dynamical (Yang-Mills) gauge fields. This leads to a precise derivation of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on multiple D2-branes and thereby provides a relationship between 3-algebras and Yang-Mills theories. We discuss the physical interpretation of this result.

  3. ESR study of the anion radicals of 5-nitropyrimidines: conversion to iminoxy radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Clark, C.; Failor, R.

    1976-01-01

    The anion radicals of a number of 5-nitropyrimidines have been investigated by ESR spectroscopy. The anions are formed by electrolysis in dimethylformamide and by electron attachment in aqueous glasses, 12 M LiCl--D 2 O and 8 M NaOD. The electrolysis of 5-nitrouracil and 5-nitro-6-methyluracil results in relatively stable anion radicals. The results for 5-nitrouracil give evidence for two or perhaps three anions which differ only by the degree of ring nitrogen protonation. The results for 5-nitro-6-methyluracil suggest that the nitro group of the anion is twisted so that it is coupled only weakly to the ring π-electron system. The anions of 5-nitrouracil, 5-nitroorotic acid, 5-nitrobarbituric acid, and 5-nitro-6-methyluracil have been produced in the alkaline and neutral aqueous glasses. The anisotropic spectra found have been analyzed with the aid of computer simulations which assume axial symmetry. For example, the analysis of the spectrum of 5-nitrouracil anion in 12 M LiCl yields A/sub parallel//sup N/ = 33; A/sub perpendicular to//sup N/ = 5, a 6 /sup H/ = 5.5 G, g/sub parallel/ = 2.0016, and g/sub perpendicular to/ = 2.0059. A concentration dependence in the splittings is noted and discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of the anions of 5-nitro-6-methyluracil and 5-nitrobarbituric acid results in the formation of iminoxy radicals. Mechanisms of formation of the iminoxy radicals are discussed and results found in this work are compared to results found in single crystals and aqueous solution

  4. Radical Evil

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    Carlos Manrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an aporia in Kant’s analysis of evil: he defines radical evilas an invisible disposition of the will, but he also demands an inferential connection between visible evil actions and this invisible disposition. This inference,however, undermines the radical invisibility of radical evil according to Kant’s own definition of the latter. Noting how this invisibility of moral worth is a distinctive feature of Kant’s approach to the moral problem, the paper then asks why, in the Groundwork, he nonetheless forecloses a question about evil that seems to be consistent with this approach. It is argued that to account for this aporia and this foreclosure, one has to interrogate the way in which the category of religion orients Kant’s incipient philosophy of history in Die Religion.

  5. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  6. Machado: do discurso romântico da nacionalidade à crítica radical da nação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hernesto Weber

    Full Text Available O artigo se detém, inicialmente, numa leitura da camada aparente de "Instinto de nacionalidade", destacando sua vinculação com as teses românticas sobre o sentido de "nação" e "literatura nacional", insistindo Machado na literatura indigenista, na cor local, na feição americana como paradigma para detectar a nacionalidade do texto literário. Em outra camada de leitura, apontam-se as reticências, as negações, o estilo carregado de adversativas que permeiam o texto, a ponto de Machado vir a negar as teses românticas em sua exclusividade, para, finalmente, abrir o leque do que poderia significar "literatura nacional": tudo é matéria de poesia. Na sequência, analisa-se a formação do Machado ficcionista, quando viria a exercitar o que já se encontrava, em tese, no "Instinto". Por fim, lançam-se algumas questões sobre a importância do ensaio para a crítica e a historiografia literária locais.

  7. Sobre a observação enquanto procedimento metodológico na análise do comportamento: positivismo lógico, operacionismo e behaviorismo radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dittrich

    Full Text Available A Análise do Comportamento adota duas posições distintas sobre a observação enquanto procedimento metodológico. Na análise experimental, tende-se a aceitar apenas a descrição de relações funcionais entre variáveis observáveis. Na análise interpretativa, contudo, relações funcionais entre variáveis observáveis e não-observáveis são inferidas. A posição da filosofia behaviorista radical sobre a questão torna-se mais clara quando examinada a partir da influência do operacionismo sobre a Psicologia, em especial nas décadas de 30 e 40. O presente artigo propõe-se a realizar tal exame, apoiando-se na literatura dedicada ao assunto e nos escritos de Skinner. Concluiu-se que a análise de eventos privados, proposta por Skinner: (1 é de natureza interpretativa; (2 refere-se, pelo menos em parte, a eventos inobserváveis publicamente; (3 lança mão, em alguma medida, da introspecção enquanto método; (4 lança mão, em alguma medida, de inferências sobre o mundo privado do outro.

  8. Reorientation dynamics of cyclohexadienyl radicals in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmar, M.; Roduner, E.; Dilger, H.; Himmer, U.; Shelley, M.; Reid, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of the muonium substituted cyclohexadienyl radical adsorbed on silicalite and NaZSM-5 is investigated by means of avoided level crossing muon spin resonance. The influence of benzene loading on the mobility of the radical is studied. At low loadings the radicals were found to be located on a single adsorption site where they undergo a wobbling type of motion. With increasing loading an additional species adsorbed on a different site is observed

  9. Photoionization of the OH radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most thoroughly studied free radicals because of its importance in atmospheric chemistry, combustion processes, and the interstellar medium. Detailed experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the ground electronic state (X 2 PI/sub i/) and on the four lowest bound excited electronic states (A 2 Σ + , B 2 Σ + , D 2 Σ - , and C 2 Σ + ). However, because it is difficult to distinguish the spectrum of OH from the spectra of the various radical precursors, the absorption spectrum in the wavelength region below 1200 A has not been well characterized. In the present work, the spectrum of OH has been determined in the wavelength region from 750 to 950 A using the technique of photoionization mass spectrometry. This technique allows complete separation of the spectrum of OH from that of the other components of the discharge and permits the unambiguous determination of the spectrum of OH

  10. Interactions between simple radicals and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Suardiaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A.; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of the simple radicals CH 3 , NH 2 , OH, and F with water have been studied by DFT (UB3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) and ab initio (RHF-UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(2d,2p)) methods. In this order the number of lone pairs (from zero to three), the electronegativity, and the strength of the X-H bonds increase (X = C, N, and O). The various minima of the radical-water complexes were located using the multiple minima hypersurface (MMH) approach which had previously been proven to be useful for closed-shell molecules. The role of the unpaired electron in hydrogen bonding was investigated using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. A considerable contribution of the unpaired electron to the complex stabilization was only found for the methyl radical and the fluorine atom, whereas in the aminyl and the hydroxyl radical the role of the unpaired electron is negligible

  11. Fragmentation characteristics of the unstable [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals generated by neutralization of [CH3CO]+ cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, C. E. C. A.; Holmes, J. L.

    1991-03-01

    The stability and fragmentation characteristics of [CH3 CO][radical sign] radicals, generated by vertical charge exchange between acetyl cations and permanent gases or metal vapours (He, Xe, NO, Cd, Na and K), were examined mass spectrometrically. Two dissociation reactions were observed, the losses of CH[radical sign]3 and H[radical sign]. The H[radical sign] loss reaction, the higher energy dissociation, became of greater importance as the exothermicity of the charge exchange was increased. Based on the analysis of the kinetic energy releases it was concluded that these decompositions arose from the population of two excited states of the [CH3 CO][radical sign] radical.

  12. Radical fashion and radical fashion innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, D.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of the related concepts of radical fashion and radical fashion innovation. Radical fashions are defined here as those that may never enter the market at all, and exist primarily on runway shows, in exhibitions and in publicity; by contrast, radical fashion innovations may be very

  13. D2O-induced cell excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andjus, P.R.; Vucelic, D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) on giant internodal cells of the fresh water alga Chara gymnophylla, were investigated. D 2 O causes membrane excitation followed by potassium leakage. The primary effect consists of an almost instantaneous membrane depolarization resembling an action potential with incomplete repolarization. A hypothesis was proposed which deals with an osmotic stress effect of D 2 O on membrane ion channels followed by the suppression of the electrogenic pump activity. The initial changes (potential spike and rapid K+ efflux) may represent the previously undetected link between the D 2 O-induced temporary arrest of protoplasmic streaming and the early events triggered at the plasma membrane level as the primary site of D 2 O action

  14. Efeito do treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico associado ou não à eletroestimulação na incontinência urinária após prostatectomia radical Effect of functional training for the pelvic floor muscles with or without electrical stimulation in cases of urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CT Kakihara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura sobre fisioterapia do assoalho pélvico no tratamento da incontinência urinária após prostatectomia radical é escassa e relata técnicas diferentes de tratamento fisioterapêutico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento fisioterapêutico na recuperação da continência urinária de pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical utilizando treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico acompanhado ou não da eletroestimulação. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 20 pacientes com incontinência urinária pós-prostatectomia radical. Os pacientes foram distribuídos ao acaso em grupos controle e de investigação. O grupo de investigação, composto por 10 pacientes, recebeu como tratamento fisioterapêutico o treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico e a eletroestimulação. O grupo controle, composto por 10 pacientes, recebeu como tratamento fisioterapêutico o treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico. Todos os pacientes foram reavaliados 3 meses, 6 meses e 12 meses após o início do tratamento por meio de "pad test", Escala Visual Análoga (EVA da incontinência, Escala Visual Análoga (EVA do problema e número de fraldas utilizadas. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição estatisticamente significante entre a avaliação inicial e o 12º mês do "pad test", da EVA incontinência, da EVA problema e do número de fraldas no grupo controle e no grupo de investigação. Entretanto, não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparadas as mesmas variáveis entre os dois grupos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: Não houve melhora adicional no tratamento com treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico associado à eletroestimulação quando comparado com o tratamento apenas com treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico. Entretanto, nos dois grupos, houve melhora significante da incontinência urinária.INTRODUCTION: Literature on physical therapy for the pelvic floor muscles to treat urinary incontinence following

  15. Cocaine-induced adaptation of dopamine D2S, but not D2L autoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brooks G; Condon, Alec F; Radl, Daniela; Borrelli, Emiliana; Williams, John T; Neve, Kim A

    2017-11-20

    The dopamine D2 receptor has two splice variants, D2S (Short) and D2L (Long). In dopamine neurons, both variants can act as autoreceptors to regulate neuronal excitability and dopamine release, but the roles of each variant are incompletely characterized. In a previous study we used viral receptor expression in D2 receptor knockout mice to show distinct effects of calcium signaling on D2S and D2L autoreceptor function (Gantz et al., 2015). However, the cocaine-induced plasticity of D2 receptor desensitization observed in wild type mice was not recapitulated with this method of receptor expression. Here we use mice with genetic knockouts of either the D2S or D2L variant to investigate cocaine-induced plasticity in D2 receptor signaling. Following a single in vivo cocaine exposure, the desensitization of D2 receptors from neurons expressing only the D2S variant was reduced. This did not occur in D2L-expressing neurons, indicating differential drug-induced plasticity between the variants.

  16. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  17. Measurement of the hyperfine structure of the 31D2, 41D2, 51D2 levels of helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemery, H.; Hamel, J.; Barrat, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that, in a discharge in 3 He, the nuclear spins in the ground state can be oriented through metastability exchange, by optical pumping of the metastable 2 3 S 1 atoms. The orientation is transmitted to the other levels excited in the discharge. If the nuclear spins in the ground state are submitted to magnetic resonance, the light emitted from these excited states is modulated at the R.F. field frequency. The degree of modulation is important only near a level crossing, in zero field or in non-zero field. This method has been used to determine the hyperfine structure of the 3 1 D 2 , 4 1 D 2 , 5 1 D 2 levels. The results are in good agreement with those of previous measurements and with theoretical predictions [fr

  18. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action; Efeito da complexacao de metais aos antiinflamatorios na acao contra agentes oxidativos e radicais livres: acao do cetoprofeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio [UEPG, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Analises Clinicas eToxicologicas, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi [IFG, Instituto Federal de Goias, Campus de Formosa, Formosa - GO (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de [UFGD, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados-MS (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciencias de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  19. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, Martijn; Struys, Eduard A; Gibson, K Michael

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular, enzyme, and metabolic studies in 50 patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) who accumulated D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) in physiological fluids. Presumed pathogenic mutations were detected in 24 of 50 patients in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGD...

  20. On d=2 Regge calculus without triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, D.

    1987-01-01

    The supersymmetric version of a previously developed Regge calculus for d=2 euclidean gravity is given. In the context of string theory, a continuum theory is likely to exist for D<2 external space-time dimensions, just like in the bosonic case and essentially in agreement with the weak coupling regime D≤1 found by Gervais and Neveu for Liouville theory and its supersymmetric extension. The techniques developed here are intended to be of use, eventually, in lowering the critical dimensions of string theories. (orig.)

  1. O conceito de mal radical The concept of radical evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A noção de mal radical aparece em Kant no contexto da discussão da religião nos limites da simples razão e busca dar conta da complexa relação entre o respeito pela lei moral e o amor-próprio na definição do móbil para a ação. Na busca por identificar o fundamento da propensão para o mal no homem, Kant se vê diante da dificuldade de ter de articular natureza e liberdade, e ainda que a noção de mal radical possa conservar algumas ambigüidades, permite conceber uma noção de responsabilidade compatível com uma inata propensão para o mal. Neste texto busco explicitar alguns passos fundamentais na construção do conceito por Kant.The concept of radical evil appears in Kant's theory when he discusses the religion in the limits of the mere reason and aims explain the complex relationship between respect for the moral law and the self-love, for establish the motive of the action. By aiming identify the basis of human inclination to evil, Kant is faced with the trouble of have to put nature and freedom in connection. Despite of the concept of radical evil retain some ambiguity, it allows conceive a notion of responsibility suitable to an inherent inclination to evil. In this paper is my purpose to explain some basic moments of Kantian formulation of that notion.

  2. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design...

  3. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Weather factors were recorded, and a principal component analysis was performed to study which factors were important for the formation of vitamin D(2). The results suggest that a combination of weather factors is involved and that the contents of ergosterol...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  4. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  5. 24,25,28-Trihydroxyvitamin D2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D2: Novel metabolites of vitamin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.S.; Tserng, K.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding of the inactivation pathways of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , the two physiologically significant monohydroxylated metabolites of vitamin D 2 , is of importance, especially during hypervitaminosis D 2 . At present, little information is available regarding the inactivation pathway of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 except its further metabolism into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 . In our present study, the authors investigated the metabolic fate of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the isolated perfused rat kidney and demonstrated its conversion not only into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2 but also into two other new metabolites, namely, 24,25,28-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 . The structure identification of the new metabolites was established by the techniques of ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry and by the characteristic nature of each new metabolite's susceptibility to sodium metaperiodate oxidation. In order to demonstrate the physiological significance of the two new trihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , induced hypervitaminosis D 2 in a rat using [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 and analyzed its plasma for the various [3α- 3 H]vitamin D 2 metabolites on two different high-pressure liquid chromatography systems. The results indicate that both 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 and 24,25,26-trihydroxyvitamin D 2 circulate in the vitamin D 2 intoxicated rat in significant amounts along with other previously identified monohydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D 2 , namely, 24-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 , and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 2

  6. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2·4xD2O (x≅(1/3))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D.G.; Burley, J.C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O and its anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 . The anhydrous parent compound Na 0.61(1) CoO 2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO 2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na-Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D 2 O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D 2 O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO 2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D 2 O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO 2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D 2 O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D 2 O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has T c =4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na 0.31(3) CoO 2 ·1.25(2)D 2 O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D 2 O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D 2 O (H 2 O) in Na x CoO 2 ·D 2 O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D 2 O concentration, but studies of T c and other physical properties vs Na or D 2 O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study

  7. Crystal structure of the sodium cobaltate deuterate superconductor NaxCoO2ṡ4xD2O (x≈1/3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2 has two partially occupied Na sites sandwiched, in the same plane, between CoO2 layers. When Na is removed to make the superconducting composition, the Na site that experiences the strongest Na Co repulsion is emptied while the occupancy of the other Na site is reduced to about one third. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each remaining Na ion in a way that gives Na O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2O molecule is hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom in the CoO2 plane and the oxygen atom and the second deuteron of each D2O molecule lie approximately in a plane between the Na layer and the CoO2 layers. This coordination of Na by four D2O molecules leads in a straightforward way to ordering of the Na ions and D2O molecules consistent with the observation of additional shorter-range scattering features in the diffraction data. The sample studied here, which has Tc=4.5 K, has a refined composition of Na0.31(3)CoO2ṡ1.25(2)D2O, in agreement with the expected 1:4 ratio of Na to D2O. These results show that the optimal superconducting composition should be viewed as a specific hydrated compound, not a solid solution of Na and D2O (H2O) in NaxCoO2ṡD2O. The hydrated superconducting compound may be stable over a limited range of Na and D2O concentration, but studies of Tc and other physical properties vs Na or D2O composition should be viewed with caution until it is verified that the compound remains in the same phase over the composition range of the study.

  8. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  9. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  10. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rubaiey Najem A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silylenes (silanediyls have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2 are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using

  11. Teoria laneana: a univocidade radical aliada à dialética-materialista na criação da psicologia social histórico-humana Lanean theory: the radical unambiguousness allied with the dialectic-materialist in creating historical-human social psycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Burihan Sawaia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta o corpo teórico-metodológico que Sílvia Lane criou, ressaltando os seus pressupostos epistemológicos e ontológicos e demarcando os grandes momentos do seu processo de configuração. Um processo dialético que avança incorporando novos conhecimentos sem abandonar o anterior, mas unindo-os na produção de algo novo. Essa metodologia "prático-crítica-revolucionária, inicialmente intuitiva, foi se burilando cientificamente a partir de pesquisas empíricas, segundo Lane, fundamentais para a crítica dos conceitos e avanço da teoria. A tarefa do texto é fácil porque Sílvia registrou cada mudança em seus principais interesses, categorias analíticas e reflexões filosóficas, em seus livros. São quatro os momentos a serem destacados, todos eles de aprofundamento da sua radical superação teórica: a transição de um referencial configurado na interface entre Lewin, Mead, Skinner ao marxismo: (a dos anos 70, marcado pelo diálogo privilegiado com a teoria das representações e pela preocupação com a linguagem e grupos sociais; (b dos anos 80, momento das vigorosas reflexões sobre uma nova concepção de homem para a psicologia, com ênfase nas categorias de consciência e alienação, orientada pela escola de psicologia soviética e por neo-marxistas (Politzer e Heller; (c dos anos 90, caracterizado pela reflexão sobre o papel da subjetividade/afetividade na conscientização social e na ação transformadora, superando o aprisionamento do sujeito à exterioridade e à pura repetição e o expurgo da singularidade, e pela reafirmação da pesquisa participante e da práxis comunitária; (d a do novo milênio, dedicado a desvelar os segredos da criatividade humana. Emoção, arte e criação são os temas que passaram a mediar a sua incessante reflexão crítica das teorias e das conseqüências práticas da psicologia para a condição social da América Latina. Espera-se, assim, apresentar a processualidade de

  12. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  13. Crystal Structure of the Sodium Cobaltate Deuterate Superconductor NaxCoO2o4xD2O (x=1/3)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J. D.; Avdeev, M.; Hinks, D. G.; Burley, J. C.; Short, S.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and x-ray powder diffraction have been used to investigate the crystal structures of a sample of the newly-discovered superconducting sodium cobaltate deuterate compound with composition Na0.31(3)CoO2o1.25(2)D2O and its anhydrous parent compound Na0.61(1)CoO2. The deuterate superconducting compound is formed by coordinating four D2O molecules (two above and two below) to each Na ion in a way that gives Na-O distances nearly equal to those in the parent compound. One deuteron of the D2...

  14. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  15. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test......BACKGROUND: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored.......56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association...

  16. Weighted linear regression using D2H and D2 as the independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Michael S. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Several error structures for weighted regression equations used for predicting volume were examined for 2 large data sets of felled and standing loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). The generally accepted model with variance of error proportional to the value of the covariate squared ( D2H = diameter squared times height or D...

  17. Evidence of radicals created by plasma in bacteria in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Bok; Na, Young Ho; Hong, Tae-Eun; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han S.; Baik, Ku Youn; Kwon, Gichung

    2014-01-01

    Heavy water (D 2 O) was introduced into a non-thermal plasma-jet (NTPJ) device to generate deuterium monoxide (OD) radicals at room temperature. Owing to the similar reactivity and low prevalence of deuterium in nature, OD radicals can be utilized to visualize the OH radical interactions with water and living cells. Escherichia coli in water were treated with OD radicals, and D atom incorporation into cells was visualized using time-of-flight SIMS and Nano-SIMS. The results show that D atoms from NTPJ reach the cytoplasm of E. coli in H 2 O, indicating the usefulness of this OD-tracking method for the study of radical interactions with living cells.

  18. Differential regulation of striatal motor behavior and related cellular responses by dopamine D2L and D2S isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; Chiacchiaretta, Martina; Lewis, Robert G; Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Arcuri, Ludovico; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2018-01-02

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a major component of the dopamine system. D2R-mediated signaling in dopamine neurons is involved in the presynaptic regulation of dopamine levels. Postsynaptically, i.e., in striatal neurons, D2R signaling controls complex functions such as motor activity through regulation of cell firing and heterologous neurotransmitter release. The presence of two isoforms, D2L and D2S, which are generated by a mechanism of alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene, raises the question of whether both isoforms may equally control presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Here, we addressed this question by comparing behavioral and cellular responses of mice with the selective ablation of either D2L or D2S isoform. We establish that the presence of either D2L or D2S can support postsynaptic functions related to the control of motor activity in basal conditions. On the contrary, absence of D2S but not D2L prevents the inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and, thereby, of dopamine synthesis, supporting a major presynaptic role for D2S. Interestingly, boosting dopamine signaling in the striatum by acute cocaine administration reveals that absence of D2L, but not of D2S, strongly impairs the motor and cellular response to the drug, in a manner similar to the ablation of both isoforms. These results suggest that when the dopamine system is challenged, D2L signaling is required for the control of striatal circuits regulating motor activity. Thus, our findings show that D2L and D2S share similar functions in basal conditions but not in response to stimulation of the dopamine system.

  19. 21 CFR 172.379 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D2. 172.379 Section 172.379 Food and Drugs... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.379 Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 may be used safely in foods as a... prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical 9,10-seco(5Z,7E,22E)-5,7...

  20. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  1. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  2. Radicals in arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Palenstijn (Willem Jan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractLet K be a field. A radical is an element of the algebraic closure of K of which a power is contained in K. In this thesis we develop a method for determining what we call entanglement. This describes unexpected additive relations between radicals, and is encoded in an entanglement

  3. Radicals in arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstijn, Willem Jan

    2014-01-01

    Let K be a field. A radical is an element of the algebraic closure of K of which a power is contained in K. In this thesis we develop a method for determining what we call entanglement. This describes unexpected additive relations between radicals, and is encoded in an entanglement group. We give

  4. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-2 - Payee certification failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payee certification failure. 31.3406(d)-2 Section 31.3406(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-2 Payee certification failure. (a) Requirement to...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5950 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin D2. 582.5950 Section 582.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5950 Vitamin D2. (a) Product. Vitamin D2. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. Muonium and muonic radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Geeson, D.; Symons, M.C.R.

    1985-01-01

    An energetic positive muon which is injected in a liquid sample of substrate molecules (S) creates an ionization track consisting of substrate cations (S + ) and electrons. Near the end of this track the muon may combine with an electron to form muonium (Mu) which is observable in inert liquids, but which reacts by addition to form a radical. Alternatively, the electron can add to S to form S - , which then combines with the muon to form the radical. Furthermore, instead of ending up in Mu or in a radical the muon may stay in a diamagnetic environment as a solvated muon, or as a muon substituting a proton in a molecule. Of interest in these schemes are the mechanisms and rates of formation of muonated radicals and in particular the rate constants for their reactions to products. Investigations are based on the observation of Mu and the radical by means of the μSR technique in transverse magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  7. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  8. [D2 lymph node dissection in gastric cancer surgery: long term results--analysis of an experience with 227 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Herlea, V; Tidor, S; Ivanov, B; Stănciulea, Oana; Mănuc, M; Gheorghe, C; Ionescu, M; Diculescu, M; Popescu, I

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to evaluate the postoperative mortality and 5 year survival in gastric cancer patients undergoing a minimum of D2 lymphadenectomy. A retrospective study was conducted on 1170 patients operated for gastric adenocarcinoma in the Department of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation of Fundeni Clinical Institute, between 1997 and April 2005. Only 443 patients underwent a curative resection, from which 216 patients had D1 resection and in 227 cases a D2 or D3/D4 lymphadenectomy was performed. Information about survival was available for 189 patients of those who had a D1 resection and for 210 of those who underwent a D2 or D3/D4 lymphadenectomy. Postoperative mortality was 6.5% in the group of curative resection, with 9.2% for D1 and 3.9% for D2/D3 D4. Five year survival according to Kaplan Meier curves was 32 % in the D1 group vs. 51,8% in D2/D3-D4 (p <0.0001). Significant differences were noted in the median survival-- D2/D3-D4 group 63 months vs. 28 months in D1 group. Our data support the gastric resection with a minimum of D2 lymphadenectomy in the radical surgery of gastric cancer. However, an accurate interpretation of the statistical interpretation between the different groups of patients is difficult, mainly because of the retrospective character of the study.

  9. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  10. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    and radical feminism would easily fall under this definition. There is, however, one major difference: since radical feminism is a relatively recent phenomenon which also benefited from modern modes of text production and preservation, almost all of the sources are still with us. This, in turn, may allow us...... to use radical feminism to make certain aspects of ancient Gnosticism re-emerge from their long submersion, provided that enough similarities can be independently drawn between the two phenomena to merit such a comparison. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concepts and positions...

  11. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  12. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-29

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  13. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgenii T.; Solodova, S. L.; Denisova, Taisa G.

    2010-12-01

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  14. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G

    2010-01-01

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  15. Radical's view of sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: General concept in radiation biology is that free radicals are highly reactive and they can damage vital cellular molecules leading to injurious effects. However, in this talk, evidence will be presented through the techniques of electron paramagnetic resonance ( EPR ) and pulse radiolysis that free radicals can be highly selective in their reaction with the target molecules. In addition, attempts will be made to present a brief account of emerging scenario of free radical generation, identification and their involvement in radiation damage mechanisms in chemical and biological systems

  16. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-29

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  17. The signaling pathway of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation using normal mode analysis (NMA) and the construction of pharmacophore models for D2R ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Stein, Matthias; Yurtsever, Mine; Seeman, Philip; Erol, Ismail; Mestanoglu, Mert; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are targets of more than 30% of marketed drugs. Investigation on the GPCRs may shed light on upcoming drug design studies. In the present study, we performed a combination of receptor- and ligand-based analysis targeting the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). The signaling pathway of D2R activation and the construction of universal pharmacophore models for D2R ligands were also studied. The key amino acids, which contributed to the regular activation of the D2R, were in detail investigated by means of normal mode analysis (NMA). A derived cross-correlation matrix provided us an understanding of the degree of pair residue correlations. Although negative correlations were not observed in the case of the inactive D2R state, a high degree of correlation appeared between the residues in the active state. NMA results showed that the cytoplasmic side of the TM5 plays a significant role in promoting of residue-residue correlations in the active state of D2R. Tracing motions of the amino acids Arg219, Arg220, Val223, Asn224, Lys226, and Ser228 in the position of the TM5 are found to be critical in signal transduction. Complementing the receptor-based modeling, ligand-based modeling was also performed using known D2R ligands. The top-scored pharmacophore models were found as 5-sited (AADPR.671, AADRR.1398, AAPRR.3900, and ADHRR.2864) hypotheses from PHASE modeling from a pool consisting of more than 100 initial candidates. The constructed models using 38 D2R ligands (in the training set) were validated with 15 additional test set compounds. The resulting model correctly predicted the pIC 50 values of an additional test set compounds as true unknowns.

  18. Moderate and Radical Islam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the statement of Angel Rabasa, PhD, Senior Policy Analyst, The RAND Corporation, to the Committee on Armed Services, Defense Review Terrorism and Radical Islam Gap Panel, United...

  19. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks...... within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?...

  20. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, C.; D'Hoker, E.; Estes, J.; Krym, D.

    2014-01-01

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 x R 2 , modulo discrete identifications of the flat R 2 , and (ii) that solutions with γ 4 /Z 2 or AdS 7 ' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS 4 /Z 2 for γ 0 solutions with highly curved M5-brane regions, which are the formal continuation of the self-dual string solutions across the decompactification point at γ = 0. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Amphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2 Autoreceptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [35S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction. PMID:24513972

  2. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure Unite mixte (UMR 8549) du CNRS et de l' ENS, Paris (France); D' Hoker, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Estes, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Krym, D. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2014-03-06

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x R {sup 2}, modulo discrete identifications of the flat R {sup 2}, and (ii) that solutions with γ < 0 cannot have more than one asymptotic higher-dimensional AdS region. We classify the allowed singularities of h and G near the boundary of Σ, and identify four local solutions: asymptotic AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} or AdS{sub 7}' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ <0, and the Janus solution for γ > 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} for γ < 0, and conjecture that they are a different superconformal limit of the self-dual string. Finally, we construct exactly γ > 0 solutions with highly curved M5

  3. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Gabriel J; Ramirez, Pedro T; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old female with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix who desired future fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The operative time was 340 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology showed no evidence of residual disease, and all pelvic lymph nodes were negative. At 20 mo of follow-up, the patient is having regular menses but has not yet attempted to become pregnant. There is no evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a young woman who desires future fertility may also be an alternative technique in the treatment of early cervical cancer in developing countries.

  4. Photoactivation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins: involvement of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Gommers, F.J.; Smits, L.; Fuchs, A.; Vries, F.W. de

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins phaseollin, 3.6a. 9-trihydroxypterocarpan, glyceollin, tuberosin and pisatin, but not medicarpin, brought about inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in an in vitro assay system. Photoinactivation of the enzyme by photoactivated pisatin in air-saturated solutions was hardly affected by singlet oxygen quenchers such as NaN 3 , bovine serum albumin, histidine or methionine. Neither addition of the hydroxyl radical scavengers mannitol, Na-benzoate and ethanol nor the presence of catalase or superoxide dismutase protected the enzyme against photoinactivation, suggesting that OHradical, H 2 O 2 and O 2 radical are not the reactive oxygen species involved. However, the free radical scavenger S-(2-amino-ethyl)isothiouronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) protected the enzyme against inactivation by photoactivated pisatin. Direct evidence for the generation of free radicals was obtained by ESR measurements of solutions of phaseollin, pisatin and medicarpin in hexane irradiated with ultraviolet light in the presence or absence of O 2 . Phaseollin produced the most stable free radicals, whereas medicarpin hardly gave rise to free radical formation; pisatin took a somewhat intermediate position by producing a strong ESR signal which, however, decayed rather quickly. These results indicate free radical formation as the cause for photoinactivation of enzymes by photoactivated isoflavonoid phytoalexins. (author)

  5. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”. D is for “Dirichlet”, the boundary conditions which fix the ends of open strings onto a surface. 2 is for a 2-dimensional surface, a membrane. So we say that open string theory has D2-branes among its excitations. Notes:

  6. Dopamine D2 receptors in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw van Weenen, Judith Elisabeth de

    2011-01-01

    Extensive literature links the dopamine receptor D2 to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. However, many aspects of the functional relationship remain unclear. In this thesis we focused on unraveling the characteristics of the interplay between dopamine D2 receptors and glucose

  7. Flibe-D2 Permeation Experiment and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Schuetz, S.T.; O'Brien, J.E.; Nishimura, H.; Hatano, Y.; Terai, T.; Petti, D.A.; Sze, D.-K.; Tanaka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of D 2 permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment is proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ni/Flibe/D 2 permeation experiment, and (vii) Ni/Flibe/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describes results of the single and dual Ni/D 2 permeation experiments in detail

  8. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Jingxia; Gu, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; Groome, Lynn J.; Alexander, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placentas, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We studied D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin were determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n=6) and preeclamptic (n=5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder. PMID:21095001

  9. Radical dematerialization and degrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos

    2017-05-01

    The emission targets agreed in Paris require a radical reduction of material extraction, use and disposal. The core claim of this article is that a radical dematerialization can only be part and parcel of degrowth. Given that capitalist economies are designed to grow, this raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, the inevitable `degrowth' can become socially sustainable. Three economic policies are discussed in this direction: work-sharing, green taxes and public money. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  10. Muon substituted free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Gygax, F.N.; Brinkman, G.A.; Louwrier, P.W.F.; McKenna, D.; Ramos, M.; Webster, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spin polarized energetic positive muons are injected as magnetic probes into unsaturated organic liquids. They are implemented via fast chemical processes ( -10 s) in various molecules. Of particular interest among these are muonium substituted free radicals. The technique allows determination of accurate rate coefficients for fast chemical reactions of radicals. Furthermore, radiochemical processes occuring in picoseconds after injection of the muon are studied. Of fundamental interest are also the structural and dynamical implications of substituting a proton by a muon, or in other terms, a hydrogen atom by a muonium atom. Selected examples for each of these three types of experiments are given. (Auth.)

  11. 生椎茸中のプレビタミンD_2およびビタミンD_2の同定

    OpenAIRE

    高村, 一知; 星野, 浩子; 叶多, 謙蔵; タカムラ, カズノリ; ホシノ, ヒロコ; カノウタ, ケンゾウ; KAZUNORI, TAKAMURA; HIROKO, HOSHINO; KENZO, KANOHTA

    1993-01-01

    Pre-vitamin D_2(pre-D_2)and vitamin D_2(D_2)in raw shiitake mushroom were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with modified plasmaspray. 1. Pre-D_2 and D_2 in raw shiitake mushroom were separated by LC. 2. Pre-D_2 was confirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+)to scan number 259 of total ion chromatogram. 3. D_2 was cofirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+) to scan number 296 of total ion chromatogram. 4. We have succeeded in obtaining mass spectra of pre-D_2 and D_2 that does ...

  12. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  13. Study of the effects of D2O circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, N.S.; Poon, A.W.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been collecting data since November 1999. The study of whether or not the D 2 O circulation affects the data is an important part of understanding how the SNO detector behaves. This report looks at several characteristics of the data to determine to what extent the D 2 O circulation affects the data. We found that there is no evidence for any dependence of event rates in the cleaned data sets on the state of D 2 O circulation

  14. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  15. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    incontinence in relation to sexual activity after surgery. This can present at the time of orgasm (ie, climacturia) or arise during arousal. In general, the problem subsides with time and pelvic floor training and tension penile loops can be used as treatments. Orgasmic disturbances after radical prostatectomy...

  17. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    radicalization through cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom...cyberspace, Bangladesh mostly implements hard powers such as removing contents and restricting access to the internet. However, freedom of speech...67 An Organizational Approach to Implement the Measures........................................ 69 Formation of

  19. Cation radicals of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinato, Mary Grace I; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Deal, Cailin; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2007-10-01

    Carotenes and xanthophylls are well known to act as electron donors in redox processes. This ability is thought to be associated with the inhibition of oxidative reactions in reaction centers and light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, cation radicals of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, and lycopene were generated in solution using ferric chloride as an oxidant and then studied by absorption spectroscopy. The investigation provides a view toward understanding the molecular features that determine the spectral properties of cation radicals of carotenoids. The absorption spectral data reveal a shift to longer wavelength with increasing pi-chain length. However, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin exhibit cation radical spectra blue-shifted compared to that of beta-carotene, despite all of these molecules having 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. CIS molecular orbital theory quantum computations interpret this effect as due to the hydroxyl groups in the terminal rings selectively stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbitals of preferentially populated s-trans-isomers. The data are expected to be useful in the analysis of spectral results from PSII pigment-protein complexes seeking to understand the role of carotene and xanthophyll cation radicals in regulating excited state energy flow, in protecting PSII reaction centers against photoinhibition, and in dissipating excess light energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms but not used for photosynthesis.

  20. Free radical transfer in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von; Bothe, E.; Ulanski, P.

    1998-01-01

    For the present study of free-radical transfer in polymers pulse radiolysis and product studies have been carried out in aqueous solutions using thus far only the water-soluble polymers polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. When OH radicals, generated in the radiolysis of N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions, react with polymers the lifetime of the polymer radical thus created very much depends on the number of radicals per polymer chain. When there are a large number of radicals per chain their bimolecular decay may be faster than the corresponding (diffusion controlled) decay of monomeric radicals, but when the macromolecule contains only few or even just one radical their lifetime is considerably prolonged. Highly charged polymers such as polyacrylic acid at high pH attain a rod-like conformation which again favors a long lifetime of the radicals. Under such conditions, radical transfer reactions can occur. For example, in polyacrylic acid OH radicals generate two kinds of radicals side by side. The radical in β-position to the carboxylate group converts into the thermodynamically more stable α-radicals by an H-transfer reaction as can be followed by spectrophotometry. Besides radical transfer reactions β-fragmentation reactions occur causing chain scission. Such reactions can be followed in a pulse radiolysis experiment by conductometry, because counter ions are released upon chain scission. Such a process is especially effective in the case of polymethacrylic acid, where it results in a chain depolymerization. An intramolecular H-abstraction is also observed in the γ-radiolysis of polyacrylic acid with the corresponding peroxyl radicals. This causes a chain reaction to occur. The resulting hydroperoxides are unstable and decarboxylate given rise to acetylacetone-like products. In polyvinyl alcohol the peroxyl radicals in α-position to the alcohol function undergo HO 2 -elimination. This prevents a scission of the polymer chain in the

  1. Physical limit of stability in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S. B.; Ely, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory of homogeneous nucleation was applied for calculating the physical boundary of metastable states, the kinetic spinodal, in supercooled D2O and D2O+H2O mixtures. The kinetic spinodal in our approach is completely determined by the surface tension and equation of state of the supercooled liquid. We developed a crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O, which predicts a second critical point of low density water-high density water equilibrium, CP2, and represents all available experimental data in supercooled D2O within experimental accuracy. Using Turnbull's expression for the surface tension we calculated with the crossover equation of state for supercooled D2O the kinetic spinodal, TKS, which lies below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH. We show that CP2 always lies inside in the so-called "nonthermodynamic habitat" and physically does not exist. However, the concept of a second "virtual" critical point is physical and very useful. Using this concept we have extended this approach to supercooled D2O+H2O mixtures. As an example, we consider here an equimolar D2O+H2O mixture in normal and supercooled states at atmospheric pressure, P=0.1 MPa.

  2. Reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in myoclonus-dystonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukers, R.J.; Weisscher, N.; Tijssen, M.A.J.; Booij, J.; Zijlstra, F.; Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van

    2009-01-01

    To study striatal dopamine D 2 receptor availability in DYT11 mutation carriers of the autosomal dominantly inherited disorder myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Fifteen DYT11 mutation carriers (11 clinically affected) and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were studied using 123 I-IBZM SPECT. Specific striatal binding ratios were calculated using standard templates for striatum and occipital areas. Multivariate analysis with corrections for ageing and smoking showed significantly lower specific striatal to occipital IBZM uptake ratios (SORs) both in the left and right striatum in clinically affected patients and also in all DYT11 mutation carriers compared to control subjects. Our findings are consistent with the theory of reduced dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) availability in dystonia, although the possibility of increased endogenous dopamine, and consequently, competitive D2R occupancy cannot be ruled out. (orig.)

  3. The melting curve of tetrahydrofuran hydrate in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, H.J.M.; Meyers, G.J.; White, J.W.; Sloan, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Melting points for the tetrahydrofuran/D 2 O hydrate in equilibrium with the air-saturated liquid at atmospheric pressure are reported. The melting points were measured by monitoring the absorbance of the solution. Overall, the melting-point phase boundary curve is about 2.5 K greater than the corresponding curve for the H 2 O hydrate, with a congruent melting temperature of 281 ± 0.5 K at a D 2 O mole fraction of 0.936. The phase boundary is predicted to within 5% if the assumption is made that the THF occupancy in the D 2 O and H 2 O hydrates is the same. The authors measure an occupancy of 99.9%. The chemical potential of the empty lattice in D 2 O is estimated to be 5% greater than in H 2 O

  4. Dopamine D2 receptors photolabeled by iodo-azido-clebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Dumbrille-Ross, A; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-04-19

    Iodo-azido-clebopride, a photoaffinity compound for dopamine D2 receptors, had high affinity for canine brain striatal dopamine D2 receptors with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 14 nM. Irradiation of striatal homogenate with iodo-azido-clebopride irreversibly inactivated 50% of dopamine D2 receptors at 20 nM (as indicated by subsequent [3H]spiperone binding). Dopamine agonists and antagonists prevented this photo-inactivation with the appropriate rank-order of potency. Striatal dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors were not significantly inactivated following irradiation with iodo-azido-clebopride. Thus, iodo-azido-clebopride is a selective photoaffinity probe for dopamine D2 receptors, the radiolabelled form of which may aid in the molecular characterization of these proteins.

  5. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  6. Muonium-containing vinyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.J.; Symons, M.C.R.; Roduner, E.; Heming, M.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure of trimethylsilylacetylene and bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene to positive muons gave radicals whose muon-electron hyperfine coupling constants establish that the corresponding vinyl radicals were formed. (author)

  7. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  8. GC-MS analysis of ethanol solution with D2O as solvent implanted by low energy N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    2001-10-01

    Low energy ions were produced by N 2 glow-discharge. The positive ones were accelerated into ethanol solution with D 2 O as solvent to induce chemical reactions. GC-MS analysis showed that DCH 2 CH 2 OH, HOCH 2 CH 2 OD were produced by such kind of implantation. Thus, it was proved that the reaction was mainly caused by radicals generated by decomposition of water molecules, D . and . OD played an important role in the process. Meanwhile, CH 3 COOD and HOCH 2 CH 2 ND 2 were also found in the products, so it was concluded that the reaction was carried out under an oxidative atmosphere, which was thought to be probably related to . OD radicals, too. The capture of D from D 2 O by N + to form . ND 2 radicals was not only an initial step to produce HOCH 2 CH 2 ND 2 but also served as a probable pattern for 'nitrogen deposition'. All these were helpful to reveal the mechanism of the reaction induced by low energy N + implanting into solution samples

  9. Photodissociation of the OD radical at 226 and 243 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenovic, Dragana C.; Roij, Andre J.A. van; Chestakov, Dmitri A.; Eppink, Andre T.J.B.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Parker, David H.; Loo, Mark P.J. van der; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; Greenslade, Margaret E.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2003-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of state selected OD radicals has been examined at 243 and 226 nm using velocity map imaging to probe the angle-speed distributions of the D( 2 S) and O( 3 P 2 ) products. Both experiment and complementary first principle calculations demonstrate that photodissociation occurs by promotion of OD from high vibrational levels of the ground X 2 Π state to the repulsive 1 2 Σ - state

  10. Presence of hydrogen peroxide, a source of hydroxyl radicals, in acid electrolyzed water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mokudai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acid electrolyzed water (AEW, which is produced through the electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride (NaCl or potassium chloride solution, is used as a disinfectant in various fields because of its potent antimicrobial activity. The hydroxyl radical, an oxygen radical species, is often suggested as a putative active ingredient for AEW antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present study is to detect hydroxyl radicals in AEW. The hydroxyl radicals in AEW prepared under different conditions were determined using an electron spin resonance (ESR technique. A signal from 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO-OH, an adduct of DMPO and the hydroxyl radical, was detected in AEW prepared by double or triple electrolyses of 1% NaCl but not of 0.1% NaCl solution. Then the presence of hydrogen peroxide as a proposed source of hydroxyl radicals was examined using a combination of ESR and a Fenton reaction. The DMPO-OH signal was clearly detected, even in AEW prepared by single electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl solution, when ferrous sulfate was added to induce a Fenton reaction, indicating the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the AEW. Since sodium formate, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, did not affect the bactericidal activity of AEW, it is concluded that the radical is unlikely to contribute to the antimicrobial activity of AEW, although a small amount of the radical is produced from hydrogen peroxide. Dimethyl sulfoxide, the other hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the present study, canceled the bactericidal activity of AEW, accompanied by complete depletion of free available chlorine, suggesting that hypochlorous acid is probably a major contributor to the antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that although hydrogen peroxide is present in AEW as a source of hydroxyl radicals, the antimicrobial activity of AEW does not depend on these radicals.

  11. Preparation of [123I]- and [125I]epidepride: a dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanton, J.A.; Schmidt, D.E.; Ansari, M.S.; Manning, R.G.; Kessler, R.M.; Paulis, T. de; Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN; Baldwin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    (S)-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[ 123 I] iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (TDP 517) (proposed generic name, [ 123 I]epidepride) is the iodine-123 substituted analogue of isoremoxipride (FLB 457), both of which are very potent dopamine D-2 antagonists (epidepride K D 0.024 nM). [ 123 I] Epidepride was radioiodinated in 60-70% radiochemical yields in 35 min from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using Na 123 I with a specific radioactivity of 3000 Ci/mmol, and oxidized in situ with chloramine-T. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. Alternatively, using no carrier-added Na 125 I as the radioisotope, [ 125 I] epidepride at 2000 Ci/mmol specific radioactivity was prepared in 86% radiochemical yield and 99% radiochemical purity after purification by reverse phase HPLC in ethanolic phosphate buffer. (author)

  12. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  13. Trends in radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James; Tokuda, Yuji; Scardino, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The surgical treatment of prostate cancer ideally removes the entire cancer, avoids excessive blood loss or serious perioperative complications, and results in complete recovery of continence and potency. To achieve this, the surgeon must excise sufficient periprostatic tissue to cure the cancer while preserving the cavernosal nerves required for erectile function and the neuromusculature required for normal urinary and bowel function. Here we will examine recent trends in radical prostatectomy, focusing on surgical technique.

  14. Deixando o preconceito de lado e entendendo o Behaviorismo Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto Guimarães

    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner é muitas vezes criticado de forma indevida e até preconceituosa. Muitas destas críticas, na verdade, são críticas da psicologia de Watson e não do Behaviorismo Radical. O entendimento das diferenças entre os modos idealista e materialista de pensar ajuda a esclarecer a maneira de estudar e compreender o comportamento para o Behaviorismo Radical, bem como a sua posição anti-mentalista. O estudo da história da evolução do Behaviorismo é necessário para possibilitar o entendimento das diferenças entre o Behaviorismo Metodológico de Watson e o Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner, bem como das suas respectivas contribuições para a psicologia.

  15. O Behaviorismo Radical como filosofia da mente Radical Behaviorism as philosophy of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de B. F. Skinner é constantemente acusado de eliminar a mente de sua explicação do comportamento humano. Uma análise do livro The Concept of Mind, de Gilbert Ryle, sugere a possibilidade de defender a existência de uma mente relacional, diferente da categoria de existência da mente defendida em interpretações cartesianas (mente substancial. A análise de alguns textos de Skinner sugere que o conceito de uma mente relacional também pode ser defendido no Behaviorismo Radical. Esse fato, culminaria na possibilidade de que, além de filosofia da Ciência do Comportamento, o Behaviorismo Radical, também pode ser uma filosofia da mente, o que traria conseqüências ao estudo e à aplicação da Análise do Comportamento.B. F. Skinner's Radical Behaviorism has been repeatedly accused of eliminating the mind from its explanation of human behavior. An analysis of Gilbert Ryle's book, The Concept of Mind, suggests the possibility of defending the existence of a relational mind, different from the category of existence of mind defended in Cartesian interpretations (substantial mind. The analysis of some texts of Skinner suggests that the concept of a relational mind can also be defended in Radical Behaviorism. This fact would lead to the possibility that, beyond a philosophy of Behavior Science, Radical Behaviorism may also be a philosophy of mind, which would bring consequences to the study and application of Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Musical Expression with the D2MMG Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Distribution in Multiple Musical Gestures (D2MMG) uses a robust interface for detecting simple drawing gestures. The gestures affect low- and high-level aspects of sound and music through inherent modes organized as primary and secondary gestures. This enables expressive live performance...... and improvisation with sequence creation where musical elements such as tonality, chromaticity, rhythm patterns, and melodical sequences can be affected in real-time. We introduce a utility for procedurally controlling note density and chordal alignment. Future papers will focus on D2MMG’s progressive learning......, multi-user, and unconventional performance usage as well as novel aspects of its methods for gesture detection and sound synthesis....

  17. Acute D2/D3 dopaminergic agonism but chronic D2/D3 antagonism prevents NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Nuri B; Nemmers, Brian; Noguchi, Kevin K

    2006-09-15

    Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, most likely by producing disinhibtion in complex circuits, acutely produce psychosis and cognitive disturbances in humans, and neurotoxicity in rodents. Studies examining NMDA Receptor Hypofunction (NRHypo) neurotoxicity in animals, therefore, may provide insights into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Dopaminergic D2 and/or D3 agents can modify psychosis over days to weeks, suggesting involvement of these transmitter system(s). We studied the ability of D2/D3 agonists and antagonists to modify NRHypo neurotoxicity both after a one-time acute exposure and after chronic daily exposure. Here we report that D2/D3 dopamine agonists, probably via D3 receptors, prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely. The protective effect with D2/D3 agonists is not seen after chronic daily dosing. In contrast, the antipsychotic haloperidol does not affect NRHypo neurotoxicity when given acutely at D2/D3 doses. However, after chronic daily dosing of 1, 3, or 5 weeks, haloperidol does prevent NRHypo neurotoxicity with longer durations producing greater protection. Understanding the changes that occur in the NRHypo circuit after chronic exposure to dopaminergic agents could provide important clues into the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

  18. Behaviorismo radical e discurso pós-moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Damásio Abib

    Full Text Available Argumenta-se neste ensaio que o behaviorismo radical não apoia nenhum destes pressupostos do discurso moderno: fundacionismo na epistemologia, representacionismo na linguagem e as metanarrativas do progresso do Ocidente. Argumenta-se ainda que o behaviorismo radical é solidário com estas tendências do discurso pós-moderno: pragmatismo epistemológico, anti-representacionismo na linguagem e dissolução das metanarrativas do progresso científico, social, político e cultural do Ocidente. Sugere-se, finalmente, que o pensamento de Skinner rompe decisivamente com o discurso moderno e aproxima-se do discurso pós-moderno.

  19. Morbidity and Mortality of Laparoscopic Versus Open D2 Distal Gastrectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanfeng; Huang, Changming; Sun, Yihong; Su, Xiangqian; Cao, Hui; Hu, Jiankun; Xue, Yingwei; Suo, Jian; Tao, Kaixiong; He, Xianli; Wei, Hongbo; Ying, Mingang; Hu, Weiguo; Du, Xiaohui; Chen, Pingyan; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Fenglin; Yu, Jiang; Li, Ziyu; Zhao, Gang; Chen, Xinzu; Wang, Kuan; Li, Ping; Xing, Jiadi; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-20

    The safety and efficacy of radical laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LG) with D2 lymphadenectomy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remain controversial. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare laparoscopic and conventional open distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissections for AGC. Between September 2012 and December 2014, 1,056 patients with clinical stage T2-4aN0-3M0 gastric cancer were eligible for inclusion. They were randomly assigned to either the LG with D2 lymphadenectomy group (n = 528) or the open gastrectomy (OG) with D2 lymphadenectomy group (n = 528). Fifteen experienced surgeons from 14 institutions in China participated in the study. The morbidity and mortality within 30 days after surgery between the LG (n = 519) and the OG (n = 520) groups were compared on the basis of the modified intention-to-treat principle. Postoperative complications were stratified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The compliance rates of D2 lymphadenectomy were similar between the LG and OG groups (99.4% v 99.6%; P = .845). The postoperative morbidity was 15.2% in the LG group and 12.9% in OG group with no significant difference (difference, 2.3%; 95% CI, -1.9 to 6.6; P = .285). The mortality rate was 0.4% for the LG group and zero for the OG group (difference, 0.4%; 95% CI, -0.4 to 1.4; P = .249). The distribution of severity was similar between the two groups (P = .314). Experienced surgeons can safely perform LG with D2 lymphadenectomy for AGC. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Dextran iron in anemic lambs: effects on reticulocytosis and free radical production Ferro dextrano em cordeiros anêmicos: efeitos na reticulocitose e produção de radicais livres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Xavier da Rocha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to worm infection is a major cause of loss in the sheep industry, due to deaths, drop in average daily gains and long recovery time following treatment. The present experiment was aimed at evaluating the oxidative status and the recovery of red blood cell (RBC profile in lambs with induced anemia by bleeding, treated or not with dextran iron. Ten ram lambs 5 to 7 months old were used. Blood samples were drawn every other day and when reached packed cell volume (PCV of 15% were randomly allocated (day zero to one of the experimental groups. Treated group received a single dose of 25mg per kg body weight of a commercial formulation of dextran iron, the control group received no treatment. Blood samples were taken on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. On days 7 an 21 treated animals presented higher thyobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS values, reduced non-protein thiol groups (NPTH levels were found in the treated group on days 7, 14 and 21. Erythrocyte membrane resistance to osmotic challenge was improved on day 7 in treated animals. Recovery to normal values for the RBC profile was faster in the treated group with significant differences starting on day 7. It was conclude that althouth the iron treatment increased the oxidative stress, it also accelerated recovery of the hematological profile. Moreover, it did not increase hemolysis in anemic blood by the action of oxygen reactive species upon biological membranes.A anemia verminótica é a principal causa de perdas na ovinocultura, incluindo diminuição no ganho médio diário, demora no tempo de recuperação pós-tratamento e óbito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o status oxidativo e a recuperação do quadro hematológico de cordeiros com anemia induzida por flebotomia e suplementados ou não com ferro dextrano. Foram utilizados dez cordeiros machos entre cinco e sete meses de idade. O dia zero do experimento foi considerado quando cada animal atingiu o hemat

  1. Manipulating radicals: Using cobalt to steer radical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chirilă, A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes research aimed at understanding and exploiting metallo-radical reactivity and explores reactions mediated by square planar, low-spin cobalt(II) complexes. A primary goal was to uncover novel reactivity of discrete cobalt(III)-bound carbene radicals generated upon reaction of the cobalt(II) catalysts with carbene precursors. Another important goal was to replace cobalt(II)-porphyrin catalysts with cheaper and easier to prepare metallo-radical analogues. Therefore the cata...

  2. Predicting treatment response in Schizophrenia: the role of stratal and frontal dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the best validated findings in schizophrenia is an association between increased presynaptic striatal dopaminergic activity and psychotic symptoms. We have previously reported an association between positive symptoms and dopamine D2 receptor binding potentials (BPs) in frontal...... cortex in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode male schizophrenia patients(1). Preclinical studies suggest an inverse relationship between frontal and striatal dopamine activity. This activity can indirectly be expressed by the BP of dopamine receptors using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT......) where low striatal BP is believed to reflect high dopamine availability. We aim to assess the association between D2 receptor BPs in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and their response to the first treatment with an antipsychotic compound. We hypothesise that patients with low...

  3. Surface tension of H2O and D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargaftik, N.B.; Voljak, L.D.; Volkov, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    There is a great number of works on surface tension of clean water (H 2 O) at temperatures up to 100 deg C and very few above the boiling point. Works on surface tension of heavy water (D 2 O) are insufficient. A review of works on surface tension of both kinds of water is given

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF DREDGING AND DISPOSAL (E2-D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site for the "Environmental Effects of Dredging and Disposal" ("E2-D2") searchable database of published reports and studies about environmental impacts associated with dredging and disposal operations. Many of the reports and studies are ava...

  5. On the sign of d2H/dt2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-11-01

    For a system with a given energy that has N different possible states, the H function (of thermodynamics) satisfies d 2 H/dt 2 >0 if N( 2 H/dt 2 may be both positive and negative if N(>=)5. The case of N=4 remains undetermined

  6. Characterizing the D2 statistic: word matches in biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forêt, Sylvain; Wilson, Susan R; Burden, Conrad J

    2009-01-01

    Word matches are often used in sequence comparison methods, either as a measure of sequence similarity or in the first search steps of algorithms such as BLAST or BLAT. The D2 statistic is the number of matches of words of k letters between two sequences. Recent advances have been made in the characterization of this statistic and in the approximation of its distribution. Here, these results are extended to the case of approximate word matches. We compute the exact value of the variance of the D2 statistic for the case of a uniform letter distribution, and introduce a method to provide accurate approximations of the variance in the remaining cases. This enables the distribution of D2 to be approximated for typical situations arising in biological research. We apply these results to the identification of cis-regulatory modules, and show that this method detects such sequences with a high accuracy. The ability to approximate the distribution of D2 for both exact and approximate word matches will enable the use of this statistic in a more precise manner for sequence comparison, database searches, and identification of transcription factor binding sites.

  7. Study on dopamine D2 binding capacity in vascular parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashi, Hiroo; Nagata, Ken; Hirata, Yutaka; Hatazawa, Jun; Utsumi, Hiroya

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the striatal dopamine receptor function is involved in the development of vascular parkinsonism (VP), a positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted on 9 patients with VP by using [ 11 C] N-methylspiperone as the tracer. The rate of binding availability in the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor (k 3 ) was determined semiquantitatively, and the values were compared to the predicted normal values based on the results from 7 normal volunteers. Of 9 patients with VP, the normalized D 2 receptor binding [%k 3 ] was more than 90% in 5 patients, 89 to 87% in 3, and 75% in one. These values showed no evident correlation with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. The laterality of the striatal %k 3 did not correspond to that of the parkinsonism. Thus, the striatal dopamine D 2 receptor binding was not severely impaired and did not correlate with the neurological status in patients with VP. This may indicate that striatal dopamine D 2 receptor function is not primarily associated with the development of the parkinsonism in VP. (author)

  8. Cellular modifications produced by D2O in yeast culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihancea, I.; Mircea, R.Al.

    1996-01-01

    The cellular cycle of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, chosen as experimental object, is unmodified by the presence in the culture medium of D 2 O at different concentrations. An increased concentration of D 2 O in the culture medium leads to a decrease of the number of budded cells, to metabolic alterations, to DNA structure modification as well as to enzymatic changes produced by blocking. Other anomalies appear, as a function of the cell defence capacity and of the influence of the factors from the nutrient substrate or exterior medium. Due to D 2 O, the medium's pH changes and modifications at the enzyme level and of the cell microstructure and morphology occur. The enzymatic reactions take place in D 2 O slower than in H 2 O. Three-dimensional modifications appear in the organic components of the live cell which, in turn, produce profound modifications in the cell growth and division. Due to the kinetic and isotopic effects, modifications of the biochemical reactions affecting the cell integrity happen

  9. 17 CFR 240.15d-2 - Special financial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special financial report. 240....15d-2 Special financial report. (a) If the registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 did... registration statement, file a special report furnishing certified financial statements for such last full...

  10. Vibrational excitation of D2 by low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Phelps, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Excitation coefficients for the production of vibrationally exicted D 2 by low energy electrons have been determined from measurements of the intensity of infrared emission from mixtures of D 2 and small concentrations of CO 2 or CO. The measurements were made using the electron drift tube technique and covered electric field to gas density ratios (E/n) from (5 to 80) x 10 -21 V m 2 , corresponding to mean electron energies between 0.45 and 4.5 eV. The CO 2 and CO concentrations were chosen to allow efficient excitation transfer from the D 2 to the carbon containing molecule, but to minimize direct excitation of the CO 2 or CO. The measured infrared intensities were normalized to predicted values for N 2 --CO 2 and N 2 --CO mixtures at E/n where the efficiency of vibrational excitation is known to be very close to 100%. The experimental excitation coefficients are in satisfactory agreement with predictions based on electron--D 2 cross sections at mean electron energies below 1 eV, but are about 50% too high at mean energies above about 2 eV. Application of the technique to H 2 did not yield useful vibrational excitation coefficients. The effective coefficients in H 2 --CO 2 mixtures were a factor of about 3 times the predicted values. For our H 2 --CO mixtures the excitation of CO via excitation transfer from H 2 is small compared to direct electron excitation of CO molecules. Published experiments and theories on electron--H 2 and electron--D 2 collisions are reviewed to obtain the cross sections used in the predictions

  11. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, scanned with single-photon emission computerized tomography using the dopamine D2/3 receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, and scanned with MRI. After 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (n=13) or zuclopenthixol (n=9), 22 patients were reexamined. Blockade of extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors was correlated with decreased attentional focus (r = -0.615, P=.003) and planning time (r = -0.436, P=.048). Moreover, baseline frontal dopamine D2/3 binding potential and positive symptom reduction correlated positively (D2/3 receptor binding potential left frontal cortex rho = 0.56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association between severity of cognitive disturbances and a poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. Additionally, the findings support associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential at baseline and the effect of antipsychotic treatment on positive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. 17 CFR 270.12d2-1 - Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2) and 12(g) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.12d2-1 Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of insurance company for purposes of sections 12(d)(2) and 12(g) of the Act. 270.12d2-1 Section 270.12d2-1 Commodity...

  13. Presynaptic D2 dopamine receptors control long-term depression expression and memory processes in the temporal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Jill; Isingrini, Elsa; Dal Bo, Gregory; Sagheby, Sara; Menegaux, Aurore; Tronche, François; Levesque, Daniel; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain; Wong, Tak Pan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Giros, Bruno

    2015-03-15

    Dysfunctional mesocorticolimbic dopamine signaling has been linked to alterations in motor and reward-based functions associated with psychiatric disorders. Converging evidence from patients with psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics suggests that imbalance of dopamine signaling deeply alters hippocampal functions. However, given the lack of full characterization of a functional mesohippocampal pathway, the precise role of dopamine transmission in memory deficits associated with these disorders and their dedicated therapies is unknown. In particular, the positive outcome of antipsychotic treatments, commonly antagonizing D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs), on cognitive deficits and memory impairments remains questionable. Following pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of dopamine transmission, we performed anatomic, neurochemical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral investigations to uncover the role of D2Rs in hippocampal-dependent plasticity and learning. Naïve mice (n = 4-21) were used in the different procedures. Dopamine modulated both long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the temporal hippocampus as well as spatial and recognition learning and memory in mice through D2Rs. Although genetic deletion or pharmacologic blockade of D2Rs led to the loss of long-term potentiation expression, the specific genetic removal of presynaptic D2Rs impaired long-term depression and performances on spatial memory tasks. Presynaptic D2Rs in dopamine fibers of the temporal hippocampus tightly modulate long-term depression expression and play a major role in the regulation of hippocampal learning and memory. This direct role of mesohippocampal dopamine input as uncovered here adds a new dimension to dopamine involvement in the physiology underlying deficits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoneutron cross sections for D2O and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, H.F.; Woods, F.J.; Baumann, N.P.

    1975-01-01

    The photodissociation cross section by 24 Na gamma rays was measured for deuterium in order to resolve a discrepancy between earlier measurements (1.43 to 1.59 millibarns) and a more recently reported one (1.34 mb). The measurement of the beryllium (γ,n) cross section for 24 Na gamma rays was also included as a check. Results for deuterium (1.54 mb) are in agreement with the earlier values

  15. Fast, controlled stepping drive for D2 filament ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenda, W.; Lang, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Centrifugal pellet injectors are required to refuel plasma machines. The pellet feed into the centrifuge should, if possible, be direct to keep the exit angle divergence small. The D 2 filaments used are first stored in a cryostat and then rapidly transported to the intake region of the centrifuge. An intermittent drive for fast, controlled ejection of D 2 filaments is described here. Mean filament speed of up to 0.6 m/s per step (1.2 mm) are achieved for the centrifugal pellet injector which refuels the ASDEX tokamak at Garching. The timing of the (81) step shifts can be synchronized with the rotor motion. The drive allows rates of up to 50 pellets per second. The drive method also seems to be suitable for direct feeding of other known centrifugal pellet injectors

  16. The separation of U and Y by D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi-Biyantoro; Subagiono, R.; Rosyidin; Kris-Tri-Basuki; Tri-Handini; Purwoto

    1996-01-01

    The separation of uranium and yttrium in hydrochloric acid was extracted by D 2 EHPA in dodecane. This process used liquid-liquid extraction method. The variables studied were the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the concentration of extractant, time of extraction, and the temperature of extraction. The data evaluation of the research showed that the optimum condition was as follows: the concentration of HCI = 0.2 M, the concentration of extractant = 0.15 M D 2 EHPA, the time of extraction = 15 minutes, and the temperature of extraction = 20 o C. It was found that the distribution coefficient of uranium was = 34.43, the distribution coefficient of yttrium was = 2.20, and the separation factor of U-Y= 15.65

  17. Electrochemical boriding and characterization of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, V.; Kahvecioglu, O.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Erdemir, A.; Timur, S.

    2011-01-01

    D2 is an air-hardening tool steel and due to its high chromium content provides very good protection against wear and oxidation, especially at elevated temperatures. Boriding of D2 steel can further enhance its surface mechanical and tribological properties. Unfortunately, it has been very difficult to achieve a very dense and uniformly thick boride layers on D2 steel using traditional boriding processes. In an attempt to overcome such a deficiency, we explored the suitability and potential usefulness of electrochemical boriding for achieving thick and hard boride layers on this tool steel in a molten borax electrolyte at 850, 900, 950 and 1000 °C for durations ranging from 15 min to 1 h. The microstructural characterization and phase analysis of the resultant boride layers were performed using optical, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Our studies have confirmed that a single phase Fe 2 B layer or a composite layer consisting of FeB + Fe 2 B is feasible on the surface of D2 steel depending on the length of boriding time. The boride layers formed after shorter durations (i.e., 15 min) mainly consisted of Fe 2 B phase and was about 30 μm thick. The thickness of the layer formed in 60 min was about 60 μm and composed mainly of FeB and Fe 2 B. The cross sectional micro-hardness values of the boride layers varied between 14 and 22 GPa, depending on the phase composition.

  18. Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel during rapid solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad Khatibi, Pooya

    Solidification is considered as a key processing step in developing the microstructure of most metallic materials. It is, therefore, important that the solidification process can be designed and controlled in such a way so as to obtain the desirable properties in the final product. Rapid solidification refers to the system's high undercooling and high cooling rate, which can yield a microstructure with unique chemical composition and mechanical properties. An area of interest in rapid solidification application is high-chromium, high-carbon tool steels which experience considerable segregation of alloying elements during their solidification in a casting process. In this dissertation, the effect of rapid solidification (undercooling and cooling rate) of D2 tool steel on the microstructure and carbide precipitation during annealing was explored. A methodology is described to estimate the eutectic and primary phase undercooling of solidifying droplets. The estimate of primary phase undercooling was confirmed using an online measurement device that measured the radiation energy of the droplets. The results showed that with increasing primary phase and eutectic undercooling and higher cooling rate, the amount of supersaturation of alloying element in metastable retained austenite phase also increases. In the case of powders, the optimum hardness after heat treatment is achieved at different temperatures for constant periods of time. Higher supersaturation of austenite results in obtaining secondary hardness at higher annealing temperature. D2 steel ingots generated using spray deposition have high eutectic undercooling and, as a result, high supersaturation of alloying elements. This can yield near net shape D2 tool steel components with good mechanical properties (specifically hardness). The data developed in this work would assist in better understanding and development of near net shape D2 steel spray deposit products with good mechanical properties.

  19. 3D2 pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1996-01-01

    The superfluid 3 D 2 pairing instability in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is studied, using the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as an input. It is found that the critical temperature associated with the transition to the superfluid phase becomes strongly suppressed with increasing isospin asymmetry, and vanishes for asymmetry parameter values α (≡(n n -n p )/(n n +n p )) that are larger than several percent. It is shown that for neutron star models based on relativistic, field-theoretical equations of state, a large fraction of their interior may exist in a 3 D 2 -paired superfluid phase. The implications of such a 3 D 2 superfluid in massive neutron stars is discussed with respect to observable pulsar phenomena. Another interesting phenomenon, discussed in the paper, concerns the numerical finding of two critical superfluid temperatures for a given density in the case of isospin-asymmetric matter. Using the BCS cut-off ansatz, a mathematical expression for the critical temperature is derived which confirms this finding analytically. (orig.)

  20. Hyperdorsoanterior embryos from Xenopus eggs treated with D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, S.R.; Rowning, B.; Wu, M.; Gerhart, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Excessively dorsalized embryos of Xenopus laevis develop from eggs treated with 30-70% D 2 O for a few minutes within the first third of the cell cycle following fertilization. As the concentration of D 2 O and the duration of exposure are increased, the anatomy of these embryos shifts in the direction of enlarged dorsal and anterior structures and reduced ventral and posterior ones. Twinning of dorsoanterior structures is frequent. Intermediate forms include embryos with large heads but no trunks or tails. The limit form of the series has cylindrical symmetry, with circumferential bands of eye pigment and cement gland, a core of notochord-like tissue, and a centrally located beating heart. D 2 O treatment seems to increase the egg's sensitivity to the dorsalizing effects of cortical rotation and to stimulate the egg to initiate two or more directions of rotation. Such eggs probably establish thereafter a widened and/or duplicated Nieuwkoop center in the vegetal hemisphere, with the subsequent induction of a widened and/or duplicated Spemann organizer region in the marginal zone, which leads to excessive dorsal development. The existence of these anatomical forms indicates the potential of the egg to undertake dorsal development at all positions of its circumference and suggests that normal patterning depends on the limited and localized activation or disinhibition of this widespread potential

  1. Hydroxyl radical reactivity with diethylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.; Lii, R.R.; Saunders, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA) reacts with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals on every third collision, whereas the corresponding reaction in aqueous solution is considerably slower. The high gas-phase reactivity explains the predicted inhibitory effect of DEHA in atmospheric smog processes. Results from the studies in the aqueous phase are helpful in predicting the mechanism of the reaction of DEHA with hydroxyl radicals

  2. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Brodovitch, Jean-Claude; Ghandi, Khashayar; Percival, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and 14 N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and 14 N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy

  3. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Iain [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Percival, Paul W. [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: percival@sfu.ca

    2006-03-31

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and {sup 14}N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and {sup 14}N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy.

  4. Voltammetric Studies on Vitamins D2 and D3 in Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Ya Yun; Yue, Yanni; Webster, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vitamins D 2 and D 3 undergo a chemically irreversible oxidation process. • The electrochemical oxidation occurs via one-electron on short (CV) time-scales. • On long time scales (electrolysis) the oxidation occurs via two-electrons. • Chemical oxidation was performed using two molar equivalents of NO + . • Oxidation occurs at the triene moiety. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of vitamins D 2 and D 3 were examined by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and chemical oxidation in aprotic organic solvents. Both vitamins were electrochemically oxidized in dichloromethane and acetonitrile (E p ox ∼ +0.8 vs. (Fc/Fc + )/V, where E p ox is the anodic peak potential and Fc = ferrocene) via a one-electron chemically irreversible process on the short voltammetric time scale (≤ seconds). Varying the scan rate (0.1 V s −1 to 20 V s −1 ) and temperature (233 K to 293 K) did not strongly affect the voltammetric response recorded on platinum and glassy carbon electrode surfaces with the oxidation process remaining chemically irreversible over the range of scan rates and temperatures tested, indicating that the initially formed cation radical was not long-lived. Repetitive CV experiments indicated that the oxidized product partially adsorbed onto the electrode surface, resulting in diminishing peak currents with multiple scans. Bulk controlled potential electrolysis of the vitamin D compounds performed by alternating several cycles of oxidative electrolysis and reductive pulsed stripping proved to be effective in stripping the adsorbed species off the electrode surfaces. Longer time scale bulk electrolysis experiments led to the detection of a new oxidation peak appearing at less positive potentials as the electrolysis progressed, suggesting that the compounds underwent oxidation on long time scales (minutes to hours) via a two electron process. The vitamins were most

  5. ESR and spin-trapping study of room-temperature radicals in γ-irradiated polycrystalline pyrimidine nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Kuwabara, M.; Yoshii, G.

    1983-01-01

    Free radicals produced in γ-irradiated polycrystalline 5'-dCMP (free acid and 2Na), 3'-CMP (free acid and Li), and 5'-UMP (2Na) were studied by ESR and spin-trapping. The results were compared with those of previous single-crystal studies. Furthermore, attempts to identify free radicals in γ-irradiated 5'-dUMP (2Na), 5'-CMP (free acid and 2Na), and 3'-UMP (Na), which have not been the subject of single-crystal studies to date, were made. After γ-irradiation at room temperature to a dose of 100 kGy, the polycrystalline samples were dissolved in aqueous solutions of t-nitrosobutane in the presence or absence of oxygen. The presence or absence of oxygen was helpful in analyzing the presence of more than one radical species. Thus two types of radicals could be established for all samples. Radical -C 5 H-C 6 H 2 -, formed by H addition to the double bond of the base, was observed in the presence of oxygen, and radical -C/sub 5'/H 2 , formed by the transformation of the radical due to loss of an H atom at the C/sub 5'/ position of the sugar moiety, was observed in the absence of oxygen. In some cases, radicals located at the C/sub 1'/, C/sub 4'/, and C/sub 5'/ of the sugar moiety were tentatively identified. For the ESR spectrum associated with radical at C/sub 1'/ the possibility of another explanation was also discussed in relation to the spectrum due to radical at C 5 of the base. Radical -C 5 H 2 -C 6 H-, formed by H addition to the double bond of the base, was not identified

  6. Single-electron capture in He2+-D2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Dagnac, R.

    1994-01-01

    Doubly differential cross sections of single-electron capture were measured for He 2+ impinging on a molecular deuterium target. The investigated collision energies are 4, 6 and 8 keV and the scattering angles range from 10' to 2 o 30' (laboratory frame). The exothermic capture leading to He + (1s) + D 2 +* was found to be the most important process at low energies and angles, whereas the endothermic channels leading to dissociative capture become the main processes at high scattering angles, i.e. at small impact parameters. (author)

  7. Uranium reextraction from D2EHPA-TOPO solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Neto, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study for recovering uranium from the solvent D 2 EHPA-TOPO (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid - tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) with ammonium carbonate and sodium carbonate solutions has been made. The paper discusses the precipitation of iron during stripping and the extracctant solubilization in the aqueous phases. Continuous tests showed that uranium is efficiently stripped from the solvent by using both solutions and that the choice of a specific system is dependent on the uranium precipitation mechanism to be employed. (Author) [pt

  8. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  9. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Della Porta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  10. Redox properties of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neta, P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of electron transfer reactions observed and monitored by pulse radiolysis are reported. This technique allows determination of the first one-electron reduction or oxidation of a compound rather than the overall two-electron transfer usually reported. Pulse radiolysis allows the determination of absolute rate constants for reactions of free radicals and helps elucidate the mechanisms involved. Studies using this technique to study radicals derived from quinones, nitro compounds, pyridines, phenols, and anilines are reported. Radicals of biochemical interest arising from riboflavin, ascorbic acid, vitamin K 3 , vitamin E, MAD + , porphyrins, etc. have also been studied

  11. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  12. Ion pairing of radical ions of aromatic alkenes and alkynes studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hayashi, Koichiro

    1991-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane solutions of trans,trans-1,4-bis(2-phenylethenyl)benzene and 1,4-bis(2-phenylethynyl)benzene was undertaken in the presence of Bu 4 NPF 6 (Bu=butyl) to investigate the effect of ion pairing of the solute radical cations with PF 6 - . It was also undertaken for the tetrahydrofuran solutions of the above compounds in the presence of Bu 4 NPF 6 and NaBPh 4 , where the solute radical anions are generated and form ion pairs with Bu 4 N + and Na + . The decay of the radical ions, which is due to neutralization, is retarded by the ion pairing. The rate constants for the neutralization reactions in the free-ion and ion-paired states were determined. Also presented are the data for the radical ions of trans-stilbene, diphenylacetylene, trans,trans-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene, and diphenylbutadiene. The radical ions of the aromatic alkynes are less stabilized by the ion pairing than those of the aromatic alkenes having the same carbon skeletons probably because of more extensive charge delocalization of the former radical ions. Spectral shifts to shorter wavelengths caused by the ion pairing are appreciable for the radical anions. Dependence of the spectral shifts on the size of the radical anions is described. (author)

  13. Joint Secrecy for D2D Communications Underlying Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2018-01-15

    In this work, we investigate the ergodic secrecy rate region of a block-fading spectrum-sharing system, where a D2D communication is underlying a cellular channel. We consider that both the primary and the secondary transmissions require their respective transmitted messages to be kept secret from a common eavesdropper under a joint secrecy constraint. The presented results are for three different scenarios, each corresponding to a particular requirement of the cellular system. First, we consider the case of a fair cellular system, and we show that the impact of jointly securing the transmissions can be balanced between the primary and the secondary systems. The second scenario examines the case when the primary network is demanding and requires the secondary transmission to be at a rate that is decodable by the primary receiver, while the last scenario assumes a joint transmission of artificial noise by the primary and the secondary transmitters. For each scenario, we present an achievable ergodic secrecy rate region that can be used as an indicator for the cellular and the D2D systems to agree under which terms the spectrum will be shared.

  14. Structure of solid H2-D2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupskij, I.N.; Kovalenko, S.I.; Krajnyukova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The structure of vapor deposited H 2 -D 2 solid mixtures is investigated. The electron-diffraction examination has been carried out in the temperature range from 2.3K up to the sample sublimation temperature, taking place in case of H 2 at T approximately 5K and D 2 -at T approximately 7K. On the basis of the difractogramm obtained it is shown that in solid films of pure components a FCC structure with parameters asub(Hsub(2))=5.310+-0.01A and asub(Osub(2))=5.100+-0.005A is realized, the structure being metastable in the temperature range. The existence of non-limitted solubility in solid two-component condensates is stated. The decay absence at T approximately 5K, when molecula mobility is enough for the transition of metastable FCC structure into HCP, is in good agreement with the results of experimental and theoretical estimations, according to which the decay critical temperature should not exceed 4K. The existance of the continuous series of solutions at lower temperatures is explained by a small coefficient value of a volumetric and surface diffusion of molecula as well

  15. CONTINENT RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.

  16. CONTINENT RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.

  17. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... Radical change by entrepreneurial design then becomes the focal point, in order to acquaint the reader with the strategies and tactics of well-known entrepreneurs who have been successful in molding...

  18. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...

  19. Radical prostatectomy. Results and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is the surgical curative treatment of localized prostate cancer. The survival is good in young patients (<70) with T2 N0M0 tumors and more than 10 year's life expectancy. Side-effects are urinary incontinence, impotence and anastomosis stricture. Quality of life should be considered as an important factor for the choice of the patient between radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and follow-up. (author)

  20. Radical Islamism and Failed Developmentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnema, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    The rise of radical Islamism in recent years does not limit the applicability of the concept of cultural nationalism. Rather the two are intertwined in ways which this article will attempt to highlight. Islam took specific national forms as modern nation-states arose and the contemporary resurgence of radical Islamism also follows that modern pattern. I examine the emergence of the three most important movements in the Islamic world, namely, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Jama'at-e Islami i...

  1. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K(a) = 0 and K(a) = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N2-D2O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC-D2O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC-D2O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm(-1) from that of the v2 band of the D2O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm(-1) for N2-D2O. The tunneling splitting of N2-D2O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm(-1), which is about five times that of OC-D2O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N2-D2O and 23% for OC-D2O, respectively, upon excitation of the D2O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K(a).

  2. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy: key points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Perlin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radical cystectomy remains the golden standard for treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer. Objective: to duplicate with highest accuracy the open radical cystectomy procedure, which we successfully utilized earlier in our clinic, in the of laparoscopic conditions in order to preserve the advantages of minimally invasive procedures and retain the reliability of the tried and tested open surgery.Materials and methods. In the report were included 35 patients (27 men and 8 women with bladder cancer, who underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy in Volgograd Regional Center of Urology and Nephrology between April 2013 and March 2016. Only the patients who had been submitted to full intracorporal ileal conduits were included.Results. The mean operative time was 378 minutes, the mean blood loss was 285 millilitres, the mean length of hospital stay was 12.4 days, only 20 % of patients required the narcotic anesthetics. The postoperative complication rate was 11.4 %. However, the majority of the patients were successfully treated with minimally invasive procedures. Generally, our results were similar to other reported studies.Conclusion. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a safe and efficient modality of treatment of bladder cancer. However, it needs more procedures and longer observation period to establish laparoscopic radical cystectomy as an alternative to open radical cystectomy.

  3. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  4. Algebraization of Jaśkowski’s Paraconsistent Logic D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuciura Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an algebraic approach to Jaśkowski’s paraconsistent logic D2. We present: a D2-discursive algebra, Lindenbaum- Tarski algebra for D2 and D2-matrices. The analysis is mainly based on the results obtained by Jerzy Kotas in the 70s.

  5. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, C.; De Bruin, K.; Beekman, F.J.; Booij, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [123I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [123I]IBZM

  6. On relating multiple M2 and D2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Nilsson, B.E.W; Petersson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the difficulties of finding superconformal Lagrangian theories for multiple M2-branes, we will in this paper instead focus on the field equations. By relaxing the requirement of a Lagrangian formulation we can explore the possibility of having structure constants f ABC D satisfying the fundamental identity but which are not totally antisymmetric. We exemplify this discussion by making use of an explicit choice of a non-antisymmetric f ABC D constructed from the Lie algebra structure constants f ab c of an arbitrary gauge group. Although this choice of f ABC D does not admit an obvious Lagrangian description, it does reproduce the correct SYM theory for a stack of N D2-branes to leading order in g YM -1 upon reduction and, moreover, it sheds new light on the centre of mass coordinates for multiple M2-branes.

  7. Inoenue-Wigner contraction and D = 2 + 1 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodriguez, E.K. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Vina del Mar (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Valdivia (Chile); Fierro, O. [Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-01-15

    We present a generalization of the standard Inoenue-Wigner contraction by rescaling not only the generators of a Lie superalgebra but also the arbitrary constants appearing in the components of the invariant tensor. The procedure presented here allows one to obtain explicitly the Chern-Simons supergravity action of a contracted superalgebra. In particular we show that the Poincare limit can be performed to a D = 2 + 1 (p,q) AdS Chern-Simons supergravity in presence of the exotic form. We also construct a new three-dimensional (2,0) Maxwell Chern-Simons supergravity theory as a particular limit of (2,0) AdS-Lorentz supergravity theory. The generalization for N = p + q gravitinos is also considered. (orig.)

  8. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen G.; Schnitzer, Howard J.

    2005-01-01

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N 2 D2-branes and N 6 D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N 2 ) gauge theory with N 6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N 2 3/2 N 6 1/2 T H 2 , is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N 2 similar to N 6

  9. Polarizability tensor invariants of H2, HD, and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ankit; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Witek, Henryk A.

    2018-03-01

    We report an exhaustive compilation of wavelength-dependent matrix elements over the mean polarizability (α ¯ ) and polarizability anisotropy (γ) operators for the rovibrational states of the H2, HD, and D2 molecules together with an accompanying computer program for their evaluation. The matrix elements can be readily evaluated using the provided codes for rovibrational states with J = 0-15 and v = 0-4 and for any laser wavelengths in the interval 182.25-1320.6 nm corresponding to popular, commercially available lasers. The presented results substantially extend the scope of the data available in the literature, both in respect of the rovibrational transitions analyzed and the range of covered laser frequencies. The presented detailed tabulation of accurate polarizability tensor invariants is essential for successful realization of our main long-term goal: developing a universal standard for determining absolute Raman cross sections and absolute Raman intensities in experimental Rayleigh and Raman scattering studies of molecules.

  10. Analysis of ν2 of D 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James R.; Blatherwick, Ronald D.; Bonomo, Francis S.

    1985-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of ν2 of D 2S was recorded from 740 to 1100 cm -1 on the University of Denver 50-cm FTIR spectrometer system. We have assigned 655 transitions from D 232S and 129 from D 234S, and have analyzed them using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian evaluated in the I r representation. We used the recently published D 232S and D 234S ground state Hamiltonian constants [C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, L. Lechuga-Fossat and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc.109, 300-333 (1985)]. Upper state Hamiltonian constants were obtained from a fit of the ν2 transitions, keeping the ground state constants fixed while varying the upper state constants. The standard deviation of the D 232S ν2 fit is 0.0025 cm -1. The standard deviation of the D 234S ν2 fit is 0.0041 cm -1.

  11. D2-H2 equilibration over γ-irradiated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Wichterlova, B.

    1987-01-01

    D 2 -H 2 equilibration was studied at 77 and 298 K over HY, AlHY, HZSM-5 and Alsub(x)Osub(y)HZSM-5 zeolites which had been γ-irradiated at 77 and/or 298 K. The exchange rate was found to be higher at the lower temperature regardless of the temperature of irradiation. Moreover, at 77 K the exchange rates were similar and more stable over the individual zeolites than at 298 K, thus indicating a common reaction path at 77 K. The exchange rate at 298 K depended on the zeolite type: it was more stable and higher over HZSM-5 than over HY, and extra-lattice Al increased both these properties on HY as well as on HZSM-5. The reaction mechanism is discussed in connection with the nature of defects generated by γ-irradiation. (author)

  12. The games radicals play : special issue on free radicals and radical ions

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, J.C.; Williams, F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and a...

  13. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Khan, Abdulaziz M.; Tang, Yu; Nguyen, Luan; Ziani, Ahmed; Jacobs, Benjamin W; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Sarathy, S Mani; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2017-01-01

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  15. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-26

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  16. Conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Hayakawa, N.; Kuriyama, I.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of alkyl radicals, the conversion of alkyl radicals to allyl radicals and the trapping of allyl radicals in irradiated single crystal mats of polyethylene have been studied by electron spin resonance (e.s.r.). It has been suggested that in the crystal core alkyl radicals react with trans-vinylene double bonds and are converted into trans-vinylene allyl radicals; at the crystal surface, alkyl radicals react with vinyl end groups and are converted into allyl radicals with vinyl end groups. The decay of radical pairs and the formation of trans-vinylene double bonds are discussed. (author)

  17. 17.9.3 Radical cations of diazo compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.

    This document is part of Subvolume E2 `Phosphorus-Centered Radicals, Radicals Centered on Other Heteroatoms, Organic Radical Ions' of Volume 26 `Magnetic Properties of Free Radicals' of Landolt-Börnstein Group II `Molecules and Radicals'.

  18. Each individual isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor protects from lactotroph hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela; De Mei, Claudia; Chen, Eric; Lee, Hyuna; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine acting through D2 receptors (D2Rs) controls lactotroph proliferation and prolactin (PRL) levels. Ablation of this receptor in mice results in lactotroph hyperplasia and prolactinomas in aged females. Alternative splicing of the Drd2 gene generates 2 independent isoforms, a long (D2L) and a short (D2S) isoform, which are present in all D2R-expressing cells. Here, we addressed the role of D2L and D2S on lactotroph physiology through the generation and analysis of D2S-null mice and their comparison with D2L-null animals. These mice represent a valuable tool with which to investigate dopamine-dependent isoform-specific signaling in the pituitary gland. We sought to assess the existence of a more prominent role of D2L or D2S in controlling PRL expression and lactotroph hyperplasia. Importantly, we found that D2L and D2S are specifically linked to independent transduction pathways in the pituitary. D2L-mediated signaling inhibits the AKT/protein kinase B kinase activity whereas D2S, in contrast, is required for the activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Under normal conditions, presence of only 1 of the 2 D2R isoforms in vivo prevents hyperprolactinemia, formation of lactotroph's hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis that is observed when both isoforms are deleted as in D2R-/- mice. However, the protective function of the single D2R isoforms is overridden when single isoform-knockout mice are challenged by chronic estrogen treatments as they show increased PRL production and lactotroph hyperplasia. Our study indicates that signaling from each of the D2R isoforms is sufficient to maintain lactotroph homeostasis in physiologic conditions; however, signaling from both is necessary in conditions simulating pathologic states.

  19. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  20. Indikatorski pokazatelji rada dizel motora sa dizel gorivom D-2, biodizelom RME i njihovim mešavinama / Pressure analyse indicatory diagrams of diesel engine with diesel fuel D-2, biodiesel RME and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bukvić

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available S obzirom na to da su rezerve nafte, odnosno goriva mineralnog porekla ograničene, sve je aktuelniji trend istraživanja obnovljivih izvora goriva radi supstitucije konvencionalnih goriva. Uposlednje vreme u svetu je aktuelna tendencija supstitucije mineralnih goriva za dizel motore gorivima na bazi biljnih kultura. Direktiva Evropske unije ukazuje na neophodnost supstitucije fosilnog dizel goriva sa 0,75% biogoriva godišnje. U ukupnoj potrošnji biogorivo treba da učestvuje sa 5,75% do 2010. godine, a do 2020. godine sa 20%. U radu su prikazane tehnologije dobijanja biodizela i rezultati ispitivanja dizel motora S-44 sa primenom dizel goriva D-2, biodizela RME i njihovih mešavina. Rezultati navode na konstataciju da je potrebno dalje poboljšavati kvalitet takvih goriva, a naročito njihovih fizičko-hemijskih karakteristika, u skladu sa predloženim standardom za biodizel. / In view of the fact that the reserves of petroleum, i.e. of fuels mineral origin are limited, the trend of research of renewable sources is more and more actual, with the aim to substitute conventional fuels. During the last years, the trend of substituting gasohol of mineral origin with the fuels deriving from vegetable culture is actual world-wide. EU directives are pointed out that is necessary to substitute fossil diesel with 0,75% of biofuel per year. In total consumption of fuels for transportation, to 2010 the biofuel should participate with 5,75% and with 20% to 2020. In this review are technology of biodiesel production and research diesel-motor S-44 with use diesel D-2 fuel, biodiesel RME and their mixtures. The results of the researches suggest that further improvement of such fuels is necessary, and particularly of the physical and chemical characteristics, according to the proposed standard/or biodiesel.

  1. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  2. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu

    2005-05-02

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  3. Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12–15 μm diameter injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr. The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (γe of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09 using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  4. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  5. Theoretical studies of the reaction dynamics of the matrix-isolated F2+cis-d2 -ethylene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    1991-12-01

    The molecular dynamics of the F2+cis-d2 -ethylene addition reaction and the subsequent decomposition dynamics of the vibrationally excited 1,2-difluoroethane-d2 product isolated in Ar or Xe matrices at 12 K are investigated using trajectory methods that incorporate nonstatistical sampling to enhance the reaction probabilities. The matrix is represented by a face-centered-cubic crystal containing 125 unit cells with 666 lattice atoms in a cubic (5×5×5) arrangement. Both interstitial and substitutional sites for the F2/cis-d2 -ethylene pair are examined. Transport effects of the bulk are simulated using the velocity reset method introduced by Riley, Coltrin, and Diestler [J. Chem. Phys. 88, 5934 (1988)]. The potential-energy hypersurface for the system is written as the separable sum of a lattice potential, a lattice-substrate interaction, and a gas-phase potential for 1,2-difluoroethane-d2. The first two of these have pairwise form, while the 1,2-difluoroethane-d2 potential is identical to that employed previously to study the unimolecular reaction dynamics of matrix-isolated 1,2-difluoroethane-d4 [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 3160 (1990)]. The major F2+cis-d2 -ethylene reaction mechanism involves a four-center, concerted αβ addition across the C=C double bond. A small contribution from an atomic addition mechanism that initially forms fluoroethyl and fluorine radicals is observed in a xenon matrix, but not in argon. Subsequent to the formation of 1,2-difluoroethane-d2, the observed dynamic processes are vibrational relaxation to the lattice phonon modes, orientational exchange, and HF or DF elimination reactions. Vibrational relaxation is found to be very similar to that observed previously for 1,2-difluoroethane-d4. The process is well described by a first-order rate law with rate coefficients in the range 0.046-0.069 ps-1. The distribution of rate coefficients, as well as the averages, are nearly identical for Ar and Xe lattices. Very little difference is found between

  6. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  7. Radical feminists & trans activists truce

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, F.

    2014-01-01

    #GenderWeek: Truce! When radical feminists and trans feminists empathise\\ud Feminist Times\\ud By Finn Mackay \\ud read all #GenderWeek articles.\\ud We wanted to explore the ground between the polarised, entrenched positions in the so-called “TERF-war”. Radical feminists on one pole, trans-inclusionary feminists and trans activists on the other. The disputed territory being women-only space, language and the ever changing legal framework surrounding gender.\\ud Entrenchment leads to stalemate. S...

  8. Definitive difference among [DS-D2O], [DS-H2O] and [Bulk-D2O] cells in the deuterization and deuterium-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue Chang

    2000-01-01

    We observed a new phenomena that the enormous amount of deuterium/hydrogen can be absorbed quickly as a 'solute-atom' into fine metal powders embedded inside a double-structure (DS) cathode in the electrolyses of D 2 O and H 2 O-electrolytes, respectively, but such highly deuterated powders can be produced only using DS-cathode immersed in D 2 O-electrolyte; [DS-D 2 O], and never generated in H 2 O-electrolyte even using the DS-cathode; [DS-H 2 O]. On the other hand, [Bulk-D 2 O] with bulk-cathode made by the bulk Pd metal never produces highly deuterated metal as mentioned above even though using D 2 O-electrolyte. In short, the deuterium-concentration generating in [Bulk-D 2 O] is found to be much lower than that in [DS-D 2 O]. As a result, because of reason mentioned above, in marked contrast to the case with the [DS-D 2 O], neither excess heat nor 4 He production are observed with both [DS-H 2 O] and [Bulk-D 2 O]. (author)

  9. n-Dopants Based on Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals: Structures and Mechanism of Redox Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Naab, Benjamin D; Jucov, Evgheni V; Parkin, Sean; Evans, Eric G B; Millhauser, Glenn L; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bao, Zhenan; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R

    2015-07-20

    Dimers of 2-substituted N,N'-dimethylbenzimidazoline radicals, (2-Y-DMBI)2 (Y=cyclohexyl (Cyc), ferrocenyl (Fc), ruthenocenyl (Rc)), have recently been reported as n-dopants for organic semiconductors. Here their structural and energetic characteristics are reported, along with the mechanisms by which they react with acceptors, A (PCBM, TIPS-pentacene), in solution. X-ray data and DFT calculations both indicate a longer C-C bond for (2-Cyc-DMBI)2 than (2-Fc-DMBI)2 , yet DFT and ESR data show that the latter dissociates more readily due to stabilization of the radical by Fc. Depending on the energetics of dimer (D2 ) dissociation and of D2 -to-A electron transfer, D2 reacts with A to form D(+) and A(-) by either of two mechanisms, differing in whether the first step is endergonic dissociation or endergonic electron transfer. However, the D(+) /0.5 D2 redox potentials-the effective reducing strengths of the dimers-vary little within the series (ca. -1.9 V vs. FeCp2 (+/0) ) (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) due to cancelation of trends in the D(+/0) potential and D2 dissociation energy. The implications of these findings for use of these dimers as n-dopants, and for future dopant design, are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. n-Dopants Based on Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals: Structures and Mechanism of Redox Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Siyuan

    2015-06-18

    Dimers of 2-substituted N,N\\'-dimethylbenzimidazoline radicals, (2-Y-DMBI)2 (Y=cyclohexyl (Cyc), ferrocenyl (Fc), ruthenocenyl (Rc)), have recently been reported as n-dopants for organic semiconductors. Here their structural and energetic characteristics are reported, along with the mechanisms by which they react with acceptors, A (PCBM, TIPS-pentacene), in solution. X-ray data and DFT calculations both indicate a longer C-C bond for (2-Cyc-DMBI)2 than (2-Fc-DMBI)2, yet DFT and ESR data show that the latter dissociates more readily due to stabilization of the radical by Fc. Depending on the energetics of dimer (D2) dissociation and of D2-to-A electron transfer, D2 reacts with A to form D+ and A- by either of two mechanisms, differing in whether the first step is endergonic dissociation or endergonic electron transfer. However, the D+/0.5D2 redox potentials-the effective reducing strengths of the dimers-vary little within the series (ca. -1.9V vs. FeCp2+/0) (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) due to cancelation of trends in the D+/0 potential and D2 dissociation energy. The implications of these findings for use of these dimers as n-dopants, and for future dopant design, are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. n-Dopants Based on Dimers of Benzimidazoline Radicals: Structures and Mechanism of Redox Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Siyuan; Naab, Benjamin D.; Jucov, Evgheni V.; Parkin, Sean; Evans, Eric G B; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Bao, Zhenan; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-01-01

    Dimers of 2-substituted N,N'-dimethylbenzimidazoline radicals, (2-Y-DMBI)2 (Y=cyclohexyl (Cyc), ferrocenyl (Fc), ruthenocenyl (Rc)), have recently been reported as n-dopants for organic semiconductors. Here their structural and energetic characteristics are reported, along with the mechanisms by which they react with acceptors, A (PCBM, TIPS-pentacene), in solution. X-ray data and DFT calculations both indicate a longer C-C bond for (2-Cyc-DMBI)2 than (2-Fc-DMBI)2, yet DFT and ESR data show that the latter dissociates more readily due to stabilization of the radical by Fc. Depending on the energetics of dimer (D2) dissociation and of D2-to-A electron transfer, D2 reacts with A to form D+ and A- by either of two mechanisms, differing in whether the first step is endergonic dissociation or endergonic electron transfer. However, the D+/0.5D2 redox potentials-the effective reducing strengths of the dimers-vary little within the series (ca. -1.9V vs. FeCp2+/0) (Cp=cyclopentadienyl) due to cancelation of trends in the D+/0 potential and D2 dissociation energy. The implications of these findings for use of these dimers as n-dopants, and for future dopant design, are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Satisfactory surgical outcome of T2 gastric cancer after modified D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liang, Han

    2017-04-01

    Though D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), the modified D2 (D1 + 7, 8a and 9) lymphadenectomy may be more suitable than D2 dissection for T2 stage GC. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether the surgical outcome of modified D2 lymphadenectomy was comparable to that of standard D2 dissection in T2 stage GC patients. A retrospective cohort study with 77 cases and 77 controls matched for baseline characteristics was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the extent of lymphadenectomy: the modified D2 group (mD2) and the standard D2 group (D2). Surgical outcome and recurrence date were compared between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 71.4% for patients accepted mD2 lymphadenectomy and 70.1% for those accepted standard D2, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that curability, tumor size, TNM stage and postoperative complications were independently prognostic factors for T2 stage GC patients. Patients in the mD2 group tended to have less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001) and shorter operation time (P<0.001) than those in the D2 group. While there were no significant differences in recurrence rate and types, especially lymph node recurrence, between the two groups. The surgical outcome of mD2 lymphadenectomy was equal to that of standard D2, and the use of mD2 instead of standard D2 can be a better option for T2 stage GC.

  13. Dopamine D2L receptor-interacting proteins regulate dopaminergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Shioda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor family proteins include seven transmembrane and trimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Among them, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R is most extensively studied. All clinically used antipsychotic drugs serve as D2R antagonists in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and their ability to block D2R signaling is positively correlated with antipsychotic efficiency. Human genetic studies also show a significant association of DRD2 polymorphisms with disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms, the long isoform (D2LR and the short isoform (D2SR, which differ in a 29-amino acid (AA insert in the third cytoplasmic loop. Importantly, previous reports demonstrate functional diversity between the two isoforms in humans. In this review, we focus on binding proteins that specifically interact with the D2LR 29AA insert. We discuss how D2R activities are mediated not only by heterotrimeric G proteins but by D2LR-interacting proteins, which in part regulate diverse D2R activities. Keywords: Dopamine D2L receptor, Antipsychotic drugs, DRD2 polymorphisms, Alternatively spliced isoforms, D2LR-interacting proteins

  14. Microstructural Quantification of Rapidly Solidified Undercooled D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valloton, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Henein, H.; Sediako, D.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of D2 tool steel is investigated experimentally using electromagnetic levitation (EML) under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions and impulse atomization (IA), a drop tube type of apparatus. IA produces powders 300 to 1400 μm in size. This allows the investigation of a large range of cooling rates ( 100 to 10,000 K/s) with a single experiment. On the other hand, EML allows direct measurements of the thermal history, including primary and eutectic nucleation undercoolings, for samples 6 to 7 mm in diameter. The final microstructures at room temperature consist of retained supersaturated austenite surrounded by eutectic of austenite and M7C3 carbides. Rapid solidification effectively suppresses the formation of ferrite in IA, while a small amount of ferrite is detected in EML samples. High primary phase undercoolings and high cooling rates tend to refine the microstructure, which results in a better dispersion of the eutectic carbides. Evaluation of the cell spacing in EML and IA samples shows that the scale of the final microstructure is mainly governed by coarsening. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of IA samples reveals that IA powders are polycrystalline, regardless of the solidification conditions. EBSD on EML samples reveals strong differences between the microstructure of droplets solidified on the ground and in microgravity conditions. While the former ones are polycrystalline with many different grains, the EML sample solidified in microgravity shows a strong texture with few much larger grains having twinning relationships. This indicates that fluid flow has a strong influence on grain refinement in this system.

  15. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, H.; Davies, M.J.; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  16. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielik, T.; Karovic, M.; Trska, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing procedure with the aim to provide adequate oncological safety to patients with cervical cancer while preserving their fertility. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate, in a series of 3 patients, the feasibility, morbidity, and safety of laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy for early cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Three non consecutive patients with FIGO stage IA1 and IB1 cervical cancer was evaluated in a period of years 2008 - 2011. The patients underwent a laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and radical parametrectomy class II procedure according to the Piver classification. The section of vaginal cuff, trachelectomy, permanent cerclage and isthmo-vaginal anastomosis ware realised by vaginal approach. Results: The median operative time, the median blood loss and the mean number of resected pelvic nodes was comparable with published data. Major intraoperative complications did not occur and no patient required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up time was 33 (38-59) months. One vaginal recurrence occurred in 7 months after primary surgery. The patient was underwent a radicalisation procedure and adjuvant oncologic therapy and now is free of disease. Conclusions: Laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical trachelectomy (LAVRT)may be an alternative in fertility-preserving surgery for early cervical cancer. The procedure offers patients potential benefits of minimally invasive surgery with adequate oncological safety, but it should be reserved for oncologic surgeons trained in advanced laparoscopic procedures. (author)

  17. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return...

  18. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  19. Ultrasound-induced radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Sonochemistry comprises all chemical effects that are induced by ultrasound. Most of these effects are caused by cavitations, ie, the collapse of microscopic bubbles in a liquid. The chemical effects of ultrasound include the formation of radicals and the enhancement of reaction rates at ambient

  20. Erectile function after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Frey, Anders; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    collected database and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in patients following radical prostatectomy. Erectile function was assessed with the IIEF-5 and the question "Is your erectile function as good as before the surgery (yes/no)". Patients were included if they were sexually active before...

  1. Transfer of π- from hydrogen to deuterium in H2O + D2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislaus, S.; Measday, D.F.; Vetterli, D.; Weber, P.; Aniol, K.A.; Harston, M.R.; Armstrong, D.S.

    1989-07-01

    The transfer of stopping π - mesons from hydrogen to deuterium has been investigated in mixtures of H 2 O+D 2 O as a function of D 2 O concentration. The concentration dependence of the transfer probability is similar to that observed for the gas mixtures of H 2 and D 2 but slightly more transfer is found for H 2 O+D 2 O. (Author) 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  2. For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

    The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone

  3. Verification experiment of EPR paradox by (d, 2He) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    FBR paradox which was brought forward by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is expressed by Bell's inequality of spin correlation theoretically. In principle it is possible to verify the inequality by measuring spin correlation between two particles having spin 1/2 from a decay of 1 S 0 experimentally. Most of the past experiments to verify the inequality, however, have been performed by using photons. On the other hand, only one experiment by using hadron system was carried out by Lamehi and Mitting, where the [ 1 S 0 ] state was produced by proton-proton scattering at first, and then the spin orientations after the scattering were measured. Unfortunately, there exit some sources of ambiguity to reach definite conclusion from their result because the experiment was done at rather high energy of 13.5 MeV. In the experiment planned by the present author it is designed to overcome the experimental difficulties, which Lamehi and Mitting encountered, by (1) generating high purity singlet [ 1 S 0 ] state of two protons by (d, 2 He) type nuclear reaction at intermediate energy range, and by (2) developing high performance spin-correlation polarimeter which can analyze spins of two protons simultaneously to minimize the systematic errors. The excitation energy of 2 He corresponding to the proton-proton relative energy can be experimentally controlled. An idea singlet is realized by choosing the state with sufficiently small relative energy. It is planned to measure the spin correlation function by using SMART (Swinger and Magnetic Analyzer with Rotator and Twister) at RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility. Einstein POLarimeter (EPOL) to be installed on the second focal plane of SMART is under development, with which high precision measurements of spin orientations of two high energy protons simultaneously coming into limited space from 2 He decay are made selecting the subject events from very many background events. Monte Carlo simulation predicts the possibility to verify the

  4. Exchange reaction of acetylene-d2 with hydrogen chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, A.F.; Kern, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing 3 percent each of the reactants C 2 D 2 and HCl in an Ne--Ar diluent was studied over the temperature range 1650 to 2600 0 K utilizing a shock tube coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Plots of the mole fractions f of the exchange products, DCl and C 2 HD, revealed two distinct regions of growth: (a) an initial low conversion region characterized by an induction period t/sub i/; and (b) a region of accelerated exchange during which exchange products were formed with a quadratic dependence of the reaction time. These two regions labeled a and b were combined using two empirical equations, 1 - f/sub a//f/sub eq,a/ = exp [-k/sub a/[M]t], where t less than or equal to t/sub i/, and 1 - f/sub b//f/sub eq,b/ = exp [-k/sub b/[M](t - t/sub i/) 2 ], in order to represent the entire reaction profile at any given temperature within the interval investigated. The Arrhenius parameters for k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ were determined to be 10 11 . 15+-0 . 30 exp (-19990 +- 2850/RT) and 10 16 . 40+-0 . 41 exp (-31480 +- 4200/RT), respectively, for DCl and 10 11 . 69+-0 . 29 exp (-19150 +- 2740/RT) and 10 15 . 24+-0 . 34 exp (-17620 +- 3480/RT) for C 2 HD. The units for k/sub a/ are cm 3 mol -1 sec -1 and cm 3 mol -1 sec -2 for k/sub b/. Activation energies are reported in cal mol -1 . Comparison with the profiles obtained for acetylene pyrolysis strongly suggests that the mechanism for the exchange is atomic. Furthermore, the exchange experiments indicate that the initial step in the pyrolysis of acetylene is the disproportionation reaction, 2C 2 H 2 → C 2 H + C 2 H 3

  5. VirD2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens : functional domains and biotechnological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregten, Maartje van

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium, which can genetically transform plants and other organisms. It does so by translocating a part of its DNA, the T-strand, in complex with the relaxase protein VirD2. We have shown that VirD2 is the determinant of translocation of the VirD2-T-strand

  6. Preparing polymer brushes on polytetrafluoroethylene films by free radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Chen Yiwang; Deng Qilan; Chen Lie; Zhou Lang

    2006-01-01

    Films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to sodium naphthalenide (Na/naphtha) etchant so as to defluorinate the surface for obtaining hydroxyl functionality. Surface-initiators were immobilized on the PTFE films by esterification of 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACP) and the hydroxyl groups covalently linked to the surface. Grafting of polymer brushes on the PTFE films was carried out by the surface-initiated free radical polymerization. Homopolymers brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization from the azo-functionalized PTFE surface. The chemical composition and topography of the graft-functionalized PTFE surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Water contact angles on PTFE films were reduced by surface grafting of MMA

  7. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  9. Flavonoids as scavengers of nitric oxide radical.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, S.A.B.E.; Tromp, M.N.J.L.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van der Vijgh, W.J.F.; Bast, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring compounds used, e.g., in the treatment of vascular endothelial damage. They are known to be excellent scavengers of oxygen free radicals. Since the nitric oxide radical (

  10. Extrastriatal dopamine D-2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Long-term dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade, common to all antipsychotics, may underlie progressive brain volume changes observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined associations between cortical volume changes and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 recept...... binding potentials (BPND) in first-episode schizophrenia patents at baseline and after antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two initially antipsychotic-naïve patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(123)I]epidepride single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT......), and psychopathology assessments before and after 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (N = 13) or zuclopenthixol (N = 9). Twenty healthy controls matched on age, gender and parental socioeconomic status underwent baseline MRI and SPECT. RESULTS: Neither extrastriatal D2/3 receptor BPND at baseline, nor...

  11. Defining the target volume for post-operative radiotherapy after D2 dissection in gastric cancer by CT-based vessel-guided delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hong In; Chang, Jee Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hyung, Woo Jin; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Yong Chan; Rha, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the recurrent nodal gross tumor volume (rnGTV) based on CT-guided vascular structure to refine the clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in postoperative radiotherapy for advanced gastric cancer following radical gastrectomy with D2 dissection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed follow-up images from 91 patients with their first regional recurrence after D2 dissection in stage III gastric cancer with N3 disease. We defined rnGTV as recurrent nodes shown in follow-up CT images, in which one diagnostic radiologist with specialty of gastrointestinal tract investigated. We drew rnGTVs at the equivalent location based on the same vessels of reference comparing CT images to recurrence CT images. Results: We propose vessel-based locations of rnGTVs on CT images with axial and coronal views. We show different patterns of regional recurrence according to the location of primary gastric cancer using CT and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images. Frequently recurred sites, overlapped by more than five rnGTVs, are depicted in a DRR image. Conclusions: This study suggests vessel-based delineations of rnGTVs on CT images depending on nodal recurrence sites from follow-up images after D2 lymphadenectomy. Our results could help reduce the inter-observer variation of CTV delineation after D2 dissection in gastric cancer

  12. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Male Mouse Skeletal Muscle Is Largely Independent of D2 in Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck-de-Castro, Joao P.; Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; Andrade-Feraud, Cristina M.; Lartey, Lattoya J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Gereben, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 deiodinase (D2) activates the prohormone T4 to T3. D2 is expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), and its global inactivation (GLOB-D2KO mice) reportedly leads to skeletal muscle hypothyroidism and impaired differentiation. Here floxed Dio2 mice were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the myosin light chain 1f (cre-MLC) to disrupt D2 expression in the late developmental stages of skeletal myocytes (SKM-D2KO). This led to a loss of approximately 50% in D2 activity in neonatal and adult SKM-D2KO skeletal muscle and about 75% in isolated SKM-D2KO myocytes. To test the impact of Dio2 disruption, we measured soleus T3 content and found it to be normal. We also looked at the expression of T3-responsive genes in skeletal muscle, ie, myosin heavy chain I, α-actin, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, and serca 1 and 2, which was preserved in neonatal SKM-D2KO hindlimb muscles, at a time that coincides with a peak of D2 activity in control animals. In adult soleus the baseline level of D2 activity was about 6-fold lower, and in the SKM-D2KO soleus, the expression of only one of five T3-responsive genes was reduced. Despite this, adult SKM-D2KO animals performed indistinguishably from controls on a treadmill test, running for approximately 16 minutes and reached a speed of about 23 m/min; muscle strength was about 0.3 mN/m·g body weight in SKM-D2KO and control ankle muscles. In conclusion, there are multiple sources of D2 in the mouse SKM, and its role is limited in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. PMID:26214036

  13. Free radicals in chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, M R

    1991-12-15

    During the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of cancer-causing agents, mechanisms of cancer formation and the behavior of cancer cells. Cancer is characterized primarily by an increase in the number of abnormal cells derived from a given normal tissue, invasion of adjacent tissues by these abnormal cells, and lymphatic or blood-borne spread of malignant cells to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites (metastasis). It has been estimated that about 75-80% of all human cancers are environmentally induced, 30-40% of them by diet. Only a small minority, possibly no more than 2% of all cases, result purely from inherent genetic changes. Several lines of evidence confirm that the fundamental molecular event or events that cause a cell to become malignant occur at the level of the DNA and a variety of studies indicate that the critical molecular event in chemical carcinogenesis is the interaction of the chemical agent with DNA. The demonstration that DNA isolated from tumor cells can transfect normal cells and render them neoplastic provides direct proof that an alteration of the DNA is responsible for cancer. The transforming genes, or oncogenes, have been identified by restriction endonuclease mapping. One of the characteristics of tumor cells generated by transformation with viruses, chemicals, or radiation is their reduced requirement for serum growth factors. A critical significance of electrophilic metabolites of carcinogenes in chemical carcinogenesis has been demonstrated. A number of "proximate" and "ultimate" metabolites, especially those of aromatic amines, were described. The "ultimate" forms of carcinogens actually interact with cellular constituents to cause neoplastic transformation and are the final metabolic products in most pathways. Recent evidence indicates that free radical derivatives of chemical carcinogens may be produced both metabolically and nonenzymatically during their metabolism. Free radicals carry no

  14. Muonium radicals in benzene-styrene mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.W.; Stadlbauer, J.W.; Walker, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Muonium radicals were observed through their μ + SR precession frequencies in high transverse magnetic fields in pure benzene, pure styrene and their mixtures, all as liquids at room temperature. In benzene-styrene mixtures, the radicals obtained in each pure liquid are both present, so no slow (10 -9 -10 -5 s) intermolecular exchange occurs; but strong selectivity was found with the formation of the radical from styrene being about eight-times more probable than the radical from benzene. (Auth.)

  15. Free radicals in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Free radicals appear in the cells as the result of exogenic factors (ionizing radiation, UV) or reactions naturally occurring in the cell. Free radical reactions may cause destruction of macromolecules (DNA, lipids, proteins). Free radical pathology is important in many diseases and aging processes in organisms

  16. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  17. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  18. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D2 receptor scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larisch, R.; Klimke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D 2 receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D 2 receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using 11 C- or 18 F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using 123 I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson's disease show an increased D 2 receptor binding (D 2 -RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D 2 -RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D 2 receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D 2 scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D 2 receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D 2 receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D 2 binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D 2 binding. (orig.) [de

  19. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .

  20. A muoniated radical in selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, I.D.; Cox, S.F.J.; Jayasooriya, U.A.; Zimmermann, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report new 0.3 T transverse-field μSR experiments in crystalline Se which show only a small, slowly relaxing muon signal at 300 K, accounting for about 30% of the incoming muon polarization. However, at 90 K signals are observed around 74 and 157 MHz, characteristic of a radical with a hyperfine coupling of 231 MHz. Very fast relaxation which increases with temperature makes these signals impossible to follow beyond 200 K. Above 400 K a quickly relaxing diamagnetic signal becomes visible, its relaxation falling with increasing temperature. In the melt (>490 K) just a single non-relaxing diamagnetic signal is seen. These observations may be explained by electron spin-exchange with a muoniated radical

  1. The Area Method and the Table-Look-Up Method for 123I Epidepride SPECT Studies of Dopamine D2 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Charlotte; Pindborg, Lars; Haldin, C

    1998-01-01

    Videbæk, C., Pinborg, L.H., Lassen, A., Halldin, C., Swahn, C-G., Yndgaard, S., Paulson, O.B. and Lassen, N.A. The Area Method and the Table-Look-Up Method for 123I Epidepride SPECT Studies of Dopamine D2 Receptors Abstract in Neuroimage 5(4), A21 Neurobiology Research Unit, Rigshospitalet, DENMA....... Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital, DENMARK. Dept of Anaesthesia, Rigshospitalet, DENMARK. Pept. Of Psych and Psyc. Karolinska Hospital, SVERIGE...

  2. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different c...

  3. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  4. Radical Smiles Rearrangement: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allart-Simon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the Smiles rearrangement and its variants have become essential synthetic tools in modern synthetic organic chemistry. In this mini-review we summarized some very recent results of the radical version of these rearrangements. The selected examples illustrate the synthetic power of this approach, especially if it is incorporated into a domino process, for the preparation of polyfunctionalized complex molecules.

  5. Free radical reactions of daunorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houee-Levin, C.

    1991-01-01

    Daunorubicin is an antitumor antibiotic activated in vivo by reduction. Its mechanism of action involves DNA and topoisomerase attack, but side effects are cytotoxicity related to free radical formation. Therefore the mechanism of the one-electron reduction of the drug and the reactions of the daunorubicin transients towards compounds of biological interest have been studied by the methods of radiolysis, in order to provide possible explanations of the drug mechanism of action. Their relative importance in cellular conditions is discussed [fr

  6. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  7. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihypertensive effect of etamicastat in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Ines; Asico, Laureano D; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Serrão, Maria Paula; Cuevas, Santiago; Grandy, David K; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Jose, Pedro A

    2018-04-13

    Abnormalities of the D 2 R gene (DRD2) play a role in the pathogenesis of human essential hypertension; variants of the DRD2 have been reported to be associated with hypertension. Disruption of Drd2 (D 2 -/- ) in mice increases blood pressure. The hypertension of D 2 -/- mice has been related, in part, to increased sympathetic activity, renal oxidative stress, and renal endothelin B receptor (ETBR) expression. We tested in D 2 -/- mice the effect of etamicastat, a reversible peripheral inhibitor of dopamine-β-hydroxylase that reduces the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine and decreases sympathetic nerve activity. Blood pressure was measured in anesthetized D 2 -/- mice treated with etamicastat by gavage, (10 mg/kg), conscious D 2 -/- mice, and D 2 +/+ littermates, and mice with the D 2 R selectively silenced in the kidney, treated with etamicastat in the drinking water (10 mg/kg per day). Tissue and urinary catecholamines and renal expression of selected G protein-coupled receptors, enzymes related to the production of reactive oxygen species, and sodium transporters were also measured. Etamicastat decreased blood pressure both in anesthetized and conscious D 2 -/- mice and mice with renal-selective silencing of D 2 R to levels similar or close to those measured in D 2 +/+ littermates. Etamicastat decreased cardiac and renal norepinephrine and increased cardiac and urinary dopamine levels in D 2 -/- mice. It also normalized the increased renal protein expressions of ETBR, NADPH oxidase isoenzymes, and urinary 8-isoprostane, as well as renal NHE3 and NCC, and increased the renal expression of D 1 R but not D 5 R in D 2 -/- mice. In conclusion, etamicastat is effective in normalizing the increased blood pressure and some of the abnormal renal biochemical alterations of D 2 -/- mice.

  9. Dopamine-induced apoptosis of lactotropes is mediated by the short isoform of D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Daniela Betiana; Ferraris, Jimena; Boti, Valeria; Seilicovich, Adriana; Sarkar, Dipak Kumar; Pisera, Daniel

    2011-03-25

    Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R), is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L) and short (D2S), are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850). SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process.

  10. Dopamine-induced apoptosis of lactotropes is mediated by the short isoform of D2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Betiana Radl

    Full Text Available Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R, is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L and short (D2S, are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850. SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process.

  11. Progressive supranuclear palsy dopamine D2 receptor tomoscintigraphy to detect L-dopamine efficiency. Paralysies supra-nucleaires progressives. Quantification des recepteurs dopaminergiques D2 par tomoscintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Henry Le Bras, F; Toffol, B de; Autret, A; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1994-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may sometimes be misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease in its early stages, hence an early positive diagnosis of PSP based on dopamine D2 receptor density could be extremely valuable. In the present case report, the absence of dopamine D2 receptors was clearly demonstrated in the striatum using [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) tomoscintigraphy. This illustrates the potential use of IBZM tomoscintigraphy to identify Parkinson-like's disease presenting with decreased dopamine D2 receptor density; and hence to predict L-Dopa effectiveness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the value of IBZM tomoscintigraphy in the different Parkinson's like diseases. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Oncological outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cancer Resultados oncológicos da nefrectomia radical laparoscópica no tratamento do carcinoma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the 5-year oncological outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cancer compared to a cohort of patients undergoing open radical nephrectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 88 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma prior to January 2000. Of these, 45 patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and 43 patients underwent open radical nephrectomy. Inclusion criteria comprised clinically organ-confined tumors of 15 cm or less in size without concomitant lymphadenopathy or vena cava thrombus. Oncological follow-up data were obtained from charts, radiological reports, and phone calls to patients or their families, and were calculated from the date of surgery to the date of last appointment with physician or date of death. RESULTS: All laparoscopic procedures were completed without open conversion. On comparing the laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and open radical nephrectomy groups, mean tumor size was 5. 8 vs 6.2 cm (P = . 44, mean blood loss was 183 vs 461 mL (P = . 004, and mean operative time was 2.8 vs 3.7 hrs (P OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados oncológicos após 5 anos de seguimento em pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical laparoscópica para tratamento do câncer renal, comparando esses com os resultados obtidos com um grupo de pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical aberta. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as informações obtidas de 88 pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical para o tratamento do carcinoma renal realizadas previamente a Janeiro de 2000. Destes pacientes, 45 foram tratados com nefrectomia radical laparoscópica e 43 com nefrectomia radical aberta. Foram incluídos pacientes com tumores localizados com tamanho máximo de 15 cm, sem adenopatia ou sinal de envolvimento de veia renal na avaliação radiologica pré-operatória. As informações sobre o seguimento dos pacientes foram obtidas a partir de

  13. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews selected...... examples of radical formation on proteins....

  14. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  15. Chemical repair of trypsin-histidinyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.V.; Ruvarac, I.; Jankovic, I.; Josimovic, L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxyl radicals, such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl and peroxyl, react with biomolecules to produce bioradicals. Unless chemically repaired by suitable antioxidants, these bioradicals form stable products. This leads to loss of biological function of parent biomolecules with deleterious biological results, such as mutagenesis and cancer. Consequently, the understanding of the mechanisms of oxyl radical damage to biomolecules and chemical repair of such damage is crucial for the development of strategies for anticarcinogenesis and radioprotection. In this study the chemical repair of the histidinyl radical generated upon the trichloromethylperoxyl radical reaction with trypsin vas investigated by gamma radiolysis. The trypsin histidinyl radical is a resonance-stabilized heterocyclic free radical which was found to be unreactive with oxygen. The efficacy of the chemical repair of the trypsin-histidinyl radical by endogenous antioxidants which are electron donors (e.g. 5-hydroxytryptophan, uric acid) is compared to that of antioxidants which are H-atom donors (e. g. glutathione). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Nucleus Accumbens Microcircuit Underlying D2-MSN-Driven Increase in Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Bárbara; Domingues, Ana Verónica; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana João

    2018-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement. To answer this question, in this work we combined optogenetic modulation of D2-MSNs with in loco pharmacological delivery of specific neurotransmitter antagonists in rats. First, we showed that optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increases motivation in a progressive ratio (PR) task. We demonstrated that this behavioral effect relies on cholinergic-dependent modulation of dopaminergic signalling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals, which requires D1R and D2R signalling in the NAc. D2-MSN optogenetic activation decreased ventral pallidum (VP) activity, reducing the inhibitory tone to VTA, leading to increased dopaminergic activity. Importantly, optogenetic activation of D2-MSN terminals in the VP was sufficient to recapitulate the motivation enhancement. In summary, our data suggests that optogenetic stimulation of NAc D2-MSNs indirectly modulates VTA dopaminergic activity, contributing for increased motivation. Moreover, both types of dopamine receptors signalling in the NAc are required in order to produce the positive behavioral effects.

  17. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-10-11

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R + -MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits.

  18. Cross sections for ion production in reactions of H+ with D2; Effects of vibrational and rotational excited states of D2

    OpenAIRE

    市原 晃; 岩本 修; 横山 啓一

    1998-01-01

    H+とD2の反応で生じるD2+,D+及びHD+イオン生成の断面積を、重心衝突エネルギーEcm=2.5-8.0eVの範囲内で、非経験的分子軌道計算で得られたH3+の3次元ポテンシャル面上でのトラジェクトリーサーフェスホッピング(TSH)法を用いることにより、評価した。反応物D2の初期状態が各イオン生成に与える影響を調べるために、D2の振動及び回転の量子数をv=0-3,j=1,5,10に設定して計算を行った。その結果、D2+イオンの生成は、D2の振動回転状態(v,j)が高くなるに従って著しく増大することが分かった。D2+生成の飛躍的な増大には、D2の振動励起が主要な役割を果たし、回転励起は補助的な効果を与えた。D2+生成と比較して、D2の振動状態がD+及びHD+イオンの生成に与える効果は一桁小さく、D2の回転状態に対する効果は殆ど無視しうる大きさであった。...

  19. FAR RIGHT RADICALIZATION AND SOCIALIST RADICALIZATION IN INTERWAR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ BUTOI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In his comments on Mircea Vulcănescu. O microistorie a interbelicului românesc (Eikon, 2015, Emanuel Copilaş states that, regarding the cause of the far right radicalization manifested in the interwar Romania, I share the same historical explanation about fascism as Ernst Nolte. In this concise answer, I explain why this is an unsuitable comparison by summarizing the historiographical perspective I use in the cited volume. Nevertheless, Copilaş’s comments are reopening a debate about how to explain the Romanian fascism

  20. Homogeneous catalysis of deuterium transfer by potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide D2-H2O and D2-CH3OH exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.; Garner, D.M.; Given, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of exchange of deuterium between D 2 and water and between D 2 and methanol, catalyzed respectively by concentrated potassium hydroxide and potassium methoxide, has been studied between 348 and 398 K. In the D 2 -KOH-H 2 O case, the transfer of deuterium was found to be controlled by the rate of activation of the D 2 molecule by OH - . Rapid exchange of D + with the aqueous solution followed. From the D 2 -KOCH 3 -CH 3 OH studies, it was concluded that deuterium exchange depended upon the rates of both D 2 activation by methoxide and interaction of the solvent with the transition, or encounter, complex. The dependence of second-order rate constants on solvent activity for both systems was determined by normalization of the exchange reaction rates to unit reagent activity. Analysis of the kinetic isotope effects for each system suggested that their increase with base concentration or temperature was due to solvation effects. (author)

  1. Multiple D2 heteroreceptor complexes: new targets for treatment of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Pintsuk, Julia; Schäfer, Thorsten; Friedland, Kristina; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) neuron system most relevant for schizophrenia is the meso-limbic-cortical DA system inter alia densely innervating subcortical limbic regions. The field of dopamine D2 receptors and schizophrenia changed markedly with the discovery of many types of D2 heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum. The results indicate that the D2 is a hub receptor which interacts not only with many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including DA isoreceptors but also with ion-channel receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, scaffolding proteins and DA transporters. Disturbances in several of these D2 heteroreceptor complexes may contribute to the development of schizophrenia through changes in the balance of diverse D2 homo- and heteroreceptor complexes mediating the DA signal, especially to the ventral striato-pallidal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway. This will have consequences for the control of this pathway of the glutamate drive to the prefrontal cortex via the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus which can contribute to psychotic processes. Agonist activation of the A2A protomer in the A2A–D2 heteroreceptor complex inhibits D2 Gi/o mediated signaling but increases the D2 β-arrestin2 mediated signaling. Through this allosteric receptor–receptor interaction, the A2A agonist becomes a biased inhibitory modulator of the Gi/o mediated D2 signaling, which may the main mechanism for its atypical antipsychotic properties especially linked to the limbic A2A–D2 heterocomplexes. The DA and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia come together in the signal integration in D2–N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and A2A–D2–metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) heteroreceptor complexes, especially in the ventral striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A)–D2 heteroreceptor complexes are special targets for atypical antipsychotics with high potency to block their 5-HT2A protomer signaling in view of the potential development of

  2. Free radical formation in deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate γ-irradiated in frozen solution. A computer-assisted analysis of temperature-dependent ESR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoli, S.; Olast, M.; Bertinchamps, A.

    1977-01-01

    Deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate (dGMP) was γ-irradiated at 77 K in frozen aqueous solution and then annealed in a stepwise fashion up to the melting point. During this process, the primary radicals formed in DGMP at 77 K are progressively converted into secondary radical species. This is observed as changes in the spectrum intensity and conformation. Computer-assisted analysis of these temperature-dependent spectra permitted us to identify the transient radical species involved and to draw up single-radical concentration kinetics vs temperature. The radiation chemical behavior of dGMP was found to be quite similar to that of dAMP, investigated previously. In both these purine derivatives, radical anions are converted into radicals of H-addition to C-8, and radical cations are converted into radicals of OH-addition to the same position. In dGMP, however, the cationic channel is only induced under certain experimental conditions (alkaline pH, presence of electron scavengers). At neutral pH, G + radicals are quite stable and finally become deactivated without being converted into secondary GOH radicals. Specific deuterium substitution at carbon C-8, and irradiation in H 2 O or in D 2 O, confirmed that both H + and OH - attachments do occur at C-8, and that both the H + and OH - groups come from the aqueous medium

  3. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J.

    2016-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1–D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated. PMID:27337658

  4. Accelerated degradation of the D2 protein of photosystem II under ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Edelman, M.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.

    1996-01-01

    The D2 protein of photosystem II is relatively stable in vivo under photosynthetic active radiation, but its degradation accelerates under UVB radiation. Little is known about accelerated D2 protein degradation. We characterized wavelength dependence and sensitivity toward photosystem II inhibitors. The in vivo D2 degradation spectrum resembles the pattern for the rapidly turning over D1 protein of photosystem II, with rates being maximal in the UVB region. We propose that D2 degradation, like D1 degradation, is activated by distinct photosensitizers in the UVB and visible regions of the spectrum. In both wavelength regions, photosystem II inhibitors that are known to be targeted to the D1 protein affect D2 degradation. This suggests that degradation of the two proteins is coupled, D2 degradation being influenced by events occurring at the Q B niche on the D1 protein. (Author)

  5. The SH2D2A gene and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, A.R.; Smestad, C.; Lie, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported an association between the SH2D2A gene encoding TSAd and multiple sclerosis (MS). Here a total of 2128 Nordic MS patients and 2004 controls were genotyped for the SH2D2A promoter GA repeat polymorphism and rs926103 encoding a serine to asparagine substitution at amino acid...... that the SH2D2A gene may contribute to susceptibility to MS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7/15...

  6. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  7. Translational Modeling in Schizophrenia: Predicting Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2016-04-01

    To assess the ability of a previously developed hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPKPD) model in rats to predict the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following administration of antipsychotic drugs. A hybrid PBPKPD model, previously developed using information on plasma concentrations, brain exposure and D2RO in rats, was used as the basis for the prediction of D2RO in human. The rat pharmacokinetic and brain physiology parameters were substituted with human population pharmacokinetic parameters and human physiological information. To predict the passive transport across the human blood-brain barrier, apparent permeability values were scaled based on rat and human brain endothelial surface area. Active efflux clearance in brain was scaled from rat to human using both human brain endothelial surface area and MDR1 expression. Binding constants at the D2 receptor were scaled based on the differences between in vitro and in vivo systems of the same species. The predictive power of this physiology-based approach was determined by comparing the D2RO predictions with the observed human D2RO of six antipsychotics at clinically relevant doses. Predicted human D2RO was in good agreement with clinically observed D2RO for five antipsychotics. Models using in vitro information predicted human D2RO well for most of the compounds evaluated in this analysis. However, human D2RO was under-predicted for haloperidol. The rat hybrid PBPKPD model structure, integrated with in vitro information and human pharmacokinetic and physiological information, constitutes a scientific basis to predict the time course of D2RO in man.

  8. Radical probing of spliceosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Charnpal S; Kent, Oliver A; MacMillan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Here we describe the synthesis and use of a directed hydroxyl radical probe, tethered to a pre-mRNA substrate, to map the structure of this substrate during the spliceosome assembly process. These studies indicate an early organization and proximation of conserved pre-mRNA sequences during spliceosome assembly. This methodology may be adapted to the synthesis of a wide variety of modified RNAs for use as probes of RNA structure and RNA-protein interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt...... of the web debate examines how viewers reacted to this interpretation. The web debate functioned as a participatory forum, where collective and national memories and postcolonial history were intensely discussed, and the debate made room for some degree of reconciliation between viewers of Dutch......-Moluccan and of Dutch majority background...

  11. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  12. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  13. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  14. Advective-diffusive transport of D2O in unsaturated media under evaporation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao

    2003-01-01

    Advective-diffusive transport of HTO in unsaturated media was investigated empirically using deuterated water (D 2 O) and columns filled with glass beads. The tortuosity factor was evaluated by numerical model calculations corresponding to first experiment for diffusion under no-evaporation condition. Temporal variations in depth profiles of D 2 O concentrations in the columns were observed by second experiment, which considers the transferring and spreading of D 2 O by pore-water flow caused by evaporation. Measurements and model calculations indicated that diffusion was about two times more efficient than dispersion for D 2 O spreading process under this evaporation condition. (author)

  15. The dosage of the neuroD2 transcription factor regulates amygdala development and emotional learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Hsing; Hansen, Stacey; Wang, Zhenshan; Storm, Daniel R.; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Olson, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is centrally involved in formation of emotional memory and response to fear or risk. We have demonstrated that the lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei fail to form in neuroD2 null mice and neuroD2 heterozygotes have fewer neurons in this region. NeuroD2 heterozygous mice show profound deficits in emotional learning as assessed by fear conditioning. Unconditioned fear was also diminished in neuroD2 heterozygotes compared to wild-type controls. Several key molecular regulators ...

  16. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  17. Flare line impact polarization Na D2 589 nm line polarization in the 2001 June 15 flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hénoux, J. C.; Karlický, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 556, August (2013), A95/1-A95/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * polarization * activity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  18. Intramolecular transformation of thiyl radicals to α-aminoalkyl radicals: 'ab initio' calculations on homocystein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhun, S.; Berges, J.; Bleton, V.; Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2000-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of thiols by oxidizing radicals leads to the formation of thiyl radical and carbon-centered radicals. It has been shown experimentally that in the absence of oxygen, the thiyl radicals derived from certain thiols of biological interest such as glutathion, cysteine and homocysteine decay rapidly by intramolecular rearrangement reactions into the carbon-centered radical. In the present work we have investigated theoretically the structure and the stability of thiyl and carbon-centered radicals of homocysteine in order to check the possibility of this rearrangement. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Microstructure and Toughness of AISI D2 Steel by Bright Hardening in Comparison with Oil Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, H.; Raygan, Sh.; Rassizadehghani, J.

    2011-12-01

    AISI D2 is used widely in the manufacture of blanking and cold-forming dies, on account of its excellent hardness and wear behavior. Increasing toughness at a fixed high level of hardness is growing requirement for this kind of tool steel. Improving microstructure characteristics, especially refinement of coarse carbides, is an appropriate way to meet such requirement. In this study, morphology and size of carbides in martensite matrix were compared between two kinds of samples, which were bright hardened (quenching in hot alkaline salt bath consisting of 60% KOH and 40% NaOH) at 230 °C and quenched in oil bath at 60 °C. Results showed that morphology and distribution of carbides in samples performed by bright hardening were finer and almost spherical compared to that of oil quenched. This microstructure resulted in an improvement in toughness and tensile properties of alloy.

  20. The dopamine D2 receptor can directly recruit and activate GRK2 without G protein activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Thomas F; Orlen, Margo I; Ray, Caroline; Peterson, Sean M; Caron, Marc G

    2018-04-20

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is critical for many central nervous system functions. The D2R carries out these functions by signaling through two transducers: G proteins and β-arrestins (βarrs). Selectively engaging either the G protein or βarr pathway may be a way to improve drugs targeting GPCRs. The current model of GPCR signal transduction posits a chain of events where G protein activation ultimately leads to βarr recruitment. GPCR kinases (GRKs), which are regulated by G proteins and whose kinase action facilitates βarr recruitment, bridge these pathways. Therefore, βarr recruitment appears to be intimately tied to G protein activation via GRKs. Here we sought to understand how GRK2 action at the D2R would be disrupted when G protein activation is eliminated and the effect of this on βarr recruitment. We used two recently developed biased D2R mutants that can preferentially interact either with G proteins or βarrs as well as a βarr-biased D2R ligand, UNC9994. With these functionally selective tools, we investigated the mechanism whereby the βarr-preferring D2R achieves βarr pathway activation in the complete absence of G protein activation. We describe how direct, G protein-independent recruitment of GRK2 drives interactions at the βarr-preferring D2R and also contributes to βarr recruitment at the WT D2R. Additionally, we found an additive interaction between the βarr-preferring D2R mutant and UNC9994. These results reveal that the D2R can directly recruit GRK2 without G protein activation and that this mechanism may have relevance to achieving βarr-biased signaling. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Taurisano, Paolo; Pisciotta, Nicola Marco; Blasi, Giuseppe; Fazio, Leonardo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Lozupone, Madia; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Sambataro, Fabio; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Papp, Audrey; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2010-02-22

    Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2) has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560) predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) and D2L (mainly post-synaptic). However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T) and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors) and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors), as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory. Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression) had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers) and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT. Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  2. Genetically determined measures of striatal D2 signaling predict prefrontal activity during working memory performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bertolino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation of the gene coding for D2 receptors (DRD2 has been associated with risk for schizophrenia and with working memory deficits. A functional intronic SNP (rs1076560 predicts relative expression of the two D2 receptors isoforms, D2S (mainly pre-synaptic and D2L (mainly post-synaptic. However, the effect of functional genetic variation of DRD2 on striatal dopamine D2 signaling and on its correlation with prefrontal activity during working memory in humans is not known.Thirty-seven healthy subjects were genotyped for rs1076560 (G>T and underwent SPECT with [123I]IBZM (which binds primarily to post-synaptic D2 receptors and with [123I]FP-CIT (which binds to pre-synaptic dopamine transporters, whose activity and density is also regulated by pre-synaptic D2 receptors, as well as BOLD fMRI during N-Back working memory.Subjects carrying the T allele (previously associated with reduced D2S expression had striatal reductions of [123I]IBZM and of [123I]FP-CIT binding. DRD2 genotype also differentially predicted the correlation between striatal dopamine D2 signaling (as identified with factor analysis of the two radiotracers and activity of the prefrontal cortex during working memory as measured with BOLD fMRI, which was positive in GG subjects and negative in GT.Our results demonstrate that this functional SNP within DRD2 predicts striatal binding of the two radiotracers to dopamine transporters and D2 receptors as well as the correlation between striatal D2 signaling with prefrontal cortex activity during performance of a working memory task. These data are consistent with the possibility that the balance of excitatory/inhibitory modulation of striatal neurons may also affect striatal outputs in relationship with prefrontal activity during working memory performance within the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical pathway.

  3. Vibrational and rotational excitation effects of the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg +) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziliang; Wang, Haijie; Wang, Xiquan; Shi, Yanying

    2018-05-01

    The effects of the rovibrational excitation of reactants in the N(2D) + D2(X1Σg+) → ND(X3Σ+) + D(2S) reaction are calculated in a collision energy range from the threshold to 1.0 eV using the time-dependent wave packet approach and a second-order split operator. The reaction probability, integral cross-section, differential cross-section and rate constant of the title reaction are calculated. The integral cross-section and rate constant of the initial states v = 0, j = 0, 1, are in good agreement with experimental data available in the literature. The rotational excitation of the D2 molecule has little effect on reaction probability, integral cross-section and the rate constant, but it increased the sideways and forward scattering signals. The vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the threshold and broke up the forward-backward symmetry of the differential cross-section; it also increased the forward scattering signals. This may be because the vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule reduced the lifetime of the intermediate complex.

  4. Modeling and protein engineering studies of active and inactive states of human dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and investigation of drug/receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Yurtsever, Mine; Stein, Matthias; Durdagi, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    Homology model structures of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) were generated starting from the active and inactive states of β2-adrenergic crystal structure templates. To the best of our knowledge, the active conformation of D2R was modeled for the first time in this study. The homology models are built and refined using MODELLER and ROSETTA programs. Top-ranked models have been validated with ligand docking simulations and in silico Alanine-scanning mutagenesis studies. The derived extra-cellular loop region of the protein models is directed toward the binding site cavity which is often involved in ligand binding. The binding sites of protein models were refined using induced fit docking to enable the side-chain refinement during ligand docking simulations. The derived models were then tested using molecular modeling techniques on several marketed drugs for schizophrenia. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis and molecular docking studies gave similar results for marketed drugs tested. We believe that these new D2 receptor models will be very useful for a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of drugs to be targeted to the binding sites of D2Rs and they will contribute significantly to drug design studies involving G-protein-coupled receptors in the future.

  5. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahir ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Jun-ichiro; Hagiri, Masahide; Nakayama, Toshihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO + BF 4 - ) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB + *). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB + * and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  7. The Rise of Radicals in Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2016-01-01

    Prior to 1950, the consensus was that biological transformations occurred in two-electron steps, thereby avoiding the generation of free radicals. Dramatic advances in spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology have led to the realization that protein-based radicals participate in a vast array of vital biological mechanisms. Redox processes involving high-potential intermediates formed in reactions with O_2 are particularly susceptible to radical formation. Clusters of tyrosine (Tyr) a...

  8. Accumulation of deuterium oxide in body fluids after ingestion of D2O-labeled beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Lamb, D.R.; Burgess, W.A.; Bartoli, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    A simple low-cost procedure was developed to compare the temporal profiles of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) accumulation in body fluids after ingestion of D 2 O-labeled solutions. D 2 O concentration was measured in plasma and saliva samples taken at various intervals after ingestion of 20 ml of D 2 O mixed with five solutions differing in carbohydrate and electrolyte concentrations. An infrared spectrometer was used to measure D 2 O in purified samples obtained after a 48-h incubation period during which the water (D 2 O and H 2 O) in the sample was equilibrated with an equal volume of distilled water in a sealed diffusion dish. The procedure yields 100% recoveries of 60-500 ppm D 2 O with an average precision of 5%. When compared with values for distilled water, D 2 O accumulation in serial samples of plasma and saliva was slower for ingested solutions containing 40 and 15% glucose and faster for hypotonic saline and a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. These differences appear to reflect known differences in gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of these beverages. Therefore, this technique may provide a useful index of the rate of water uptake from ingested beverages into the body fluids

  9. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalaye, J.; Linszen, D. H.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Gersons, B. P.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial characteristic of antipsychotic medication is the occupancy of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor. We assessed striatal DA D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine and risperidone in 36 young patients [31 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1 years (16-28)] with first episode schizophrenia, using

  10. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  11. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Celik, Abdulkadir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage

  12. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M

    2018-03-08

    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, redox imbalance, inflammatory and apoptotic processes, protecting the myocardium of diabetic rats against acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Functional coupling between heterologously expressed dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungstrom, Trine; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Bo Skaaning

    2003-01-01

    protein of the G(alphai/o) subtype. Cells of the human neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y were co-transfected transiently with KCNQ4 and D(2L) receptors. Stimulation of D(2L) receptors increased the KCNQ4 current ( n=6) as determined in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The specificity of the dopaminergic...

  14. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y. M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinski, B.; Norde, W.; van Well, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  15. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and in D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y.M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinsky, B.; Norde, W.; Well, van A.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  16. Modulatory Effects of Dopamine D2 Receptors on Spreading Depression in Rat Somatosensory Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Haarmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spreading depression (SD is a propagating wave of depolarization followed by depression of the neuroglial activities and can modulate extracellular dopamine concentrations in the neocortex. It has been shown that the dopaminergic system plays a role in migraine. SD has been suggested as a critical phenomenon in the pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dopamine D2 receptors on the characteristic features of SD in rat neocortical tissues. Methods: The effect of dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole and D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride was tested on different characteristic features (amplitude, duration and velocity of KCl-induced SD in somatosensory neocortical slices of adult rats. The effect of above-mentioned substances on production of long-term potentiation (LTP in the neocortex was also evaluated. Results: The present data revealed a dose-dependent suppression of the amplitude and duration of SD in the presence of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride in the neocortex. D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole dose-dependently enhanced the amplitude and duration of the neocortical SD. Furthermore, application of D2 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed induction of LTP. Discussion: These results indicate that D2 receptors modulate the initiation of SD in the neocortex. This finding refers to the potential role of D2 receptor antagonist in treatment of migraine pain.

  17. Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy of H2O2, D2O, and HDO in Solid Parahydrogen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario

    2003-01-01

    ...) solids doped with H2O, D2O and HDO molecules. Analysis of the rovibrational spectra of the isolated H20, D2O and HDO monomers reveals their existence as very slightly hindered rotors, typically showing only 2 to 5...

  18. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  19. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptors in a novel cell line (SUP1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivins, K.J.; Luedtke, R.R.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    A prolactin-secreting cell line, SUP1, has been established from rat pituitary tumor 7315a. In radioligand binding experiments, the D2 receptor antagonist (S)-(-)-3- 125 I iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl]benzamide ( 125 I IBZM) labeled a single class of sites in homogenates of SUP1 cells (Kd = 0.6 nM; Bmax = 45 fmol/mg of protein). The sites displayed a pharmacological profile consistent with that of D2 receptors. Inhibition of the binding of 125 I IBZM by dopamine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding protein(s). In the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, dopamine decreased the level of cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells. Dopamine also inhibited prolactin secretion from SUP1 cells. Both the inhibition of cAMP accumulation and the inhibition of prolactin secretion were blocked by D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that these effects of dopamine were mediated by an interaction with D2 receptors. The regulation of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells by D2 receptor agonists was investigated. Exposure of SUP1 cells to dopamine or to the D2 receptor agonist N-propylnorapomorphine led to increased expression of D2 receptors, with no change in the affinity of the receptors for 125 I IBZM. An increase in the density of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells was evident within 7 hr of exposure to dopamine. Spiroperidol, a D2 receptor antagonist, blocked the effect of dopamine on receptor density. These results suggest that exposure of D2 receptors in SUP1 cells to agonists leads to an up-regulation of D2 receptors. Dopamine retained the ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation in SUP1 cells exposed to dopamine for 24 hr, suggesting that D2 receptors in SUP1 cells are not desensitized by prolonged exposure to agonist

  20. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  1. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Lamprey, Its Expression in the Striatum and Cellular Effects of D2 Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brita; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Bolam, J. Paul; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Grillner, Sten

    2012-01-01

    All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum. Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role. We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound. We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates. PMID:22563388

  2. Analysis of D2D Communications over Gamma/Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hussain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the outage probability, channel capacity and symbol error rate (SER performance of device-to-device (D2D communication systems. The D2D communication system is affected by several co-channel interferers. Gamma fading channel is considered for the D2D communication system. The channel for the co-channel interference is assumed to be Nakagami faded. An expression for the probability density function (PDF of the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR is presented. The PDF is a function of distances between various devices in the D2D system, path-loss, channel fading conditions and signal powers. Based on the PDF expression, we present the expressions for the outage, channel capacity and SER. With the help of numerical results the performance of D2D communication system is discussed under various conditions of interference, path-loss and channel fading.

  3. Preparation and use of very pure o-D2. Technical report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Lewis, M.; Yu, Z.Z.; Yucel, S.

    1985-01-01

    Optimum production and utilization of spin-polarized deuterium as a fusion fuel requires long nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times at temperatures near 4K. This can be achieved with very high purity ortho-D 2 . We report new experimental methods and results of total-adsorption catalysis of D 2 para-ortho conversion in the 4 to 15K temperature region, using as catalysts activated alumina and partially-activated charcoal. Because of the strongly anisotropic adsorbate binding on alumina, the ortho-D 2 equilibrium concentration near 10 to 12K (where the conversion time is acceptable) is not high enough, and near 4K (where the equilibium ortho-D 2 concentration is satisfactory) the conversion time is almost prohibitively too long to permit achievement of the desired ortho-D 2 purity. Although doping alumina with paramagnetic ions could improve this situation, it would be at the expense of excessive back-conversion upon desorption

  4. Potent haloperidol derivatives covalently binding to the dopamine D2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Tobias; Kaindl, Jonas; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) is a common drug target for the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia. Structure based design of subtype selective D 2 R antagonists requires high resolution crystal structures of the receptor and pharmacological tools promoting a better understanding of the protein-ligand interactions. Recently, we reported the development of a chemically activated dopamine derivative (FAUC150) designed to covalently bind the L94C mutant of the dopamine D 2 receptor. Using FAUC150 as a template, we elaborated the design and synthesis of irreversible analogs of the potent antipsychotic drug haloperidol forming covalent D 2 R-ligand complexes. The disulfide- and Michael acceptor-functionalized compounds showed significant receptor affinity and an irreversible binding profile in radioligand depletion experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    for set shifting. The main findings indicated a relation between D2/3 receptor binding in the frontal cortex and set shifting, planning and attention, but also support a differential involvement of cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in at least some cognitive functions, perhaps particularly attention......Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective......, in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy people. The results suggest that cortical D2/3 receptor function may be more involved in some cognitive functions (i.e. attention, fluency and planning) in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy people, suggesting that information processing in schizophrenia may...

  6. Vibrational relaxation and dissociation of D2(vj) on Cu(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciatore, M.; DeFelice, P.; Capitelli, M.

    1992-01-01

    The dissociative chemisorption of H 2 /D 2 with single crystal Cu surface has recently been the object of experimental and theoretical investigations. Here the authors present their results for the D 2 (vj)/Cu(111) system obtained within a semiclassical model developed for the interaction of molecules with non-rigid surfaces. The dissociation probability for D 2 in a specific initial (vj) state has been computed as a function of the impact energy and the surface temperature set to 300K. The quantum tunneling probability through the potential barriers has also been evaluated. The results show that the D 2 dissociation probability is smaller when compared to that of H 2 . The D 2 absorption probability, as well as the energy transferred to the surface phonons, is higher then that found for H 2

  7. Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage. The mode of operation classifies devices according to their experienced base station (BS) coverage, potential to be served by BS, ability of BS to meet their quality of service (QoS), and their downlink resources occupancy. The initiation of D2D cooperation is conditioned on proposed provisional access by an active device, wherein its serving BS attempts to meet its QoS using as low number of spectrum channels as possible, while treating remaining channels for feasible D2D cooperation. Detailed formulations for the mode of operation and a proposed D2D path allocation scheme are presented under perfect and imperfect operation scenarios. The developed results are generally applicable for any performance metric and network model.

  8. Sigma1 and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in the mouse brain after a single administration of haloperidol and two dopamine D2-like receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kawamura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Tadayuki; Matsuno, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We investigated sigma 1 and dopamine D 2 receptor occupancy in mouse brain after a single injection of haloperidol, nemonapride, or spiperone using [ 11 C]SA4503 and [ 11 C]raclopride, respectively. Co-injection of the three compounds significantly blocked the uptake of each radioligand. Six hours later, only haloperidol blocked [ 11 C]SA4503 uptake, while all three reduced [ 11 C]raclopride uptake. Sigma 1 receptor occupancy by haloperidol was reduced to 19% at day 2 when D 2 receptor occupancy disappeared. [ 11 C]SA4503 would be applicable to the investigation of sigma 1 receptor occupancy of antispychotic drugs using PET

  9. Effect of free radicals and cultivation media on radiation sensitivities of escherichia coli and related bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on some strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in the presence of N 2 , N 2 O and O 2 and with the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavengers glycerol, polyethylene glycerol and formate. Injured cell membrane of bacteria was detected using with MacConkey agar for E. coli and S. enteritidis and 7% NaCl Triptic soy agar for St. aureus instead of Tryptic soy agar for recovery medium. From this study, addition of glycerol significantly reduced the sensitivity in all of strains, and cell membrane was not injured significantly except in radiation sensitive strain E. coli A4-1. When superoxide radicals (O 2 ) were generated during irradiation in the presence of formate, injured cell membrane increased significantly in all of strains. However, molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and OH radicals also had some effects on the damage of cell membrane. These results suggest that most radiation induced cell lethality was responsible to the cooperative effects of intracellular OH radicals and O 2 on DNA with lessor effect of damage on cell membrane by O 2 radicals, O 2 and OH radicals. On the radiation sensitive strain of E. coli, cell lethality occurred significantly by the injury of cell membrane compared with other strains. (author)

  10. In vitro histamine release from basophils of asthmatic and atopic individuals in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, R.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that spontaneous histamine release from human basophils in H 2 O-based buffers is negligible; in D 2 O-based buffers, however, release is observed with the cells of some donors. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed release from the basophils of 1 of 22 control individuals (5%), 15 of 47 patients with allergic rhinitis (32%), and 14 of 20 asthmatic patients (70%). The difference between both patient groups and controls and between atopics and asthmatics was highly significant. That D 2 O release was not cytotoxic is suggested by the finding that 37 0 was optimal, with inhibition at 4 0 C or 46 0 C as well as by EDTA, 2-deoxyglucose, and dibromoacetophenone, an inhibitor of phospholipase A 2 . The release mechanism was unusual in that dibutyryl cAMP and agonists that cause an increase in cAMP lead to no inhibition. No correlation was noted between the total serum IgE level (and thus the number of IgE receptors on the basophil surface) and the magnitude of D 2 O release. No increase in D 2 O release was observed in 17 ragweed-sensitive patients through a ragweed season. A unique property of D 2 O release was the loss of reactivity by preincubating cells at 37 0 C for 30 min before adding D 2 O. Non-D 2 O-reactive cells could be ''converted'' to D 2 O-reactive cells by incubation with antigen in the whole blood phase during leukocyte isolation; these cells showed the same loss of releaseability at 37 0 C and an inhibitor profile similar to D 2 O-responsive cells from ragweed allergic or asthmatic patients. We suggest that D 2 O-based buffers reveal, in atopic and asthmatic patients, in vivo basophil activation; whether this is due to IgE cross-links, to C split products, or to other stimuli is not yet clear

  11. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  12. DNA Binding Hydroxyl Radical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vicky J; Konigsfeld, Katie M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA.

  13. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A3NA-2ZLWD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A3NA-2ZLWD 1A3N 2ZLW A D -VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPT...R VQLSGEEKAAVLALWDKVN--EEEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGDLSNPGAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLHSFGEGVHHLDNLKGTFAALSEL... 2ZLW D 2ZLWD WDKVN-

  15. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  16. Measuring Atmospheric Free Radicals Using Chemical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    CH 3Br, H2S, and SO2 [Logan et al., 1981]. Recently, the OH radical has been determined as the dominant loss mechanism for isoprene and monoterpenes ...W. Heaps, D. Philen, and T. McGee, Bondary Layer Measurements of the OH Radical in the Vicinity of an Isolated Power Plant Plume: SO2 and NO2

  17. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  18. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  19. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite

  20. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  1. Quantification of hydroxyl radical produced during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan M; Aust, Steven D

    2009-12-01

    To quantitate hydroxyl radicals produced during phacoemulsification with various irrigating solutions and conditions used in cataract surgery. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. All experiments were performed using an Infiniti Vision System phacoemulsifier with irrigation and aspiration. Hydroxyl radicals were quantitated using electron spin resonance spectroscopy and a spectrophotometric assay for malondialdehyde, which is formed by the oxidation of deoxyribose by the hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radical production increased during longitudinal-stroking phacoemulsification as power levels were increased in a nonlinear, nonexponential fashion. The detection of hydroxyl radical was reduced in irrigating solutions containing organic molecules (eg, citrate, acetate, glutathione, dextrose) and further reduced in Navstel, an irrigating solution containing a viscosity-modifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Hydroxyl radicals produced in settings representative of those used in phacoemulsification cataract surgery were quantitated using the deoxyribose method. Hydroxyl radical production was dependent on the level of ultrasound power applied and the irrigating solution used. Oxidative stress on the eye during phacoemulsification may be minimized by using irrigating solutions that contain organic molecules, including the viscosity-modifying agent hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, that can compete for reaction with hydroxyl radicals.

  2. Self-Terminating, Oxidative Radical Cyclizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Wille

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered novel concept of self-terminating, oxidative radical cyclizations, through which alkynes can be converted into carbonyl compounds under very mild reaction conditions using O-centered inorganic and organic radicals as oxidants, is described

  3. An Appreciation of Free Radical Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. An Appreciation of Free Radical Chemistry - 6. Experiments Involving Free Radicals. G Nagendrappa. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 79-84 ...

  4. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  5. Deposition of D2O from air to plant and soil during an experiment of D2O vapor release into a vinyl house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atarashi, M.; Amano, H.

    1998-01-01

    Deuterium, a stable isotope of tritium, was released into a vinyl house in autumn 1995 and summer 1996 to study the transfer of tritium from air to plant and soil. Temporal variation of D 2 O concentrations in plant and soil water, and plant physiological parameters such as transpiration rate and leaf temperature, were measured during these experiments. D 2 O concentrations of plants were fitted to a first order kinetic model: C p =C max (1-e -kt ), where C p is the D 2 O concentrations in plants at time t, C max is the steady-state concentration in plants and k is the rate constant. The rate constant was also calculated using measured plant physiological parameters for comparison. The D 2 O uptake by paddy rice was most rapid and the value of k was 3.63±0.31 h -1 followed by radish, cherry tomato, komatsuna and orange. The day/night concentration ratio for cherry tomato and orange was higher than that for radish and komatsuna. (orig.)

  6. Sum Rate Maximization of D2D Communications in Cognitive Radio Network Using Cheating Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjing Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the cheating algorithm for device-to-device (D2D pairs that reuse the uplink channels of cellular users. We are concerned about the way how D2D pairs are matched with cellular users (CUs to maximize their sum rate. In contrast with Munkres’ algorithm which gives the optimal matching in terms of the maximum throughput, Gale-Shapley algorithm ensures the stability of the system on the same time and achieves a men-optimal stable matching. In our system, D2D pairs play the role of “men,” so that each D2D pair could be matched to the CU that ranks as high as possible in the D2D pair’s preference list. It is found by previous studies that, by unilaterally falsifying preference lists in a particular way, some men can get better partners, while no men get worse off. We utilize this theory to exploit the best cheating strategy for D2D pairs. We find out that to acquire such a cheating strategy, we need to seek as many and as large cabals as possible. To this end, we develop a cabal finding algorithm named RHSTLC, and also we prove that it reaches the Pareto optimality. In comparison with other algorithms proposed by related works, the results show that our algorithm can considerably improve the sum rate of D2D pairs.

  7. Reversible Chromatic Response of Polydiacetylene Derivative Vesicles in D2O Solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jae; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-26

    The thermal chromatic sensitivity of polydiacetylenes (PDAs) with 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) derivatives, which have a hydroxyl group (HEEPCDA) and an amine group (APPCDA), were investigated using D2O and H2O as solvents. The vesicle solution with polymerized HEEPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response during the heating and cooling cycle in D2O, but not in H2O. On the other hand, the vesicle solution with the polymerized APPCDA exhibited a reversible chromatic response in H2O during the heating and cooling cycle, but the color of the solution did not change much in D2O. The critical vesicle concentration of HEEPCDA was lower in D2O than in H2O, and the chromatic sensitivity of the polymerized vesicles to temperature was slower in D2O than in H2O. We think that it is due to D2O being a more highly structured solvent than H2O with the hydrogen bonding in D2O stronger than that in H2O.

  8. Spatial Frequency Selectivity Is Impaired in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Bruno Oliveira Ferreira; Abou Rjeili, Mira; Quintana, Clémentine; Beaulieu, Jean M.; Casanova, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings. When compared to control mice, none of the parameters of the retinotopic maps were affected by D2 receptor loss of function. While the contrast sensitivity function of D2-KO mice did not differ from their wild-type counterparts, SF selectivity function was significantly affected as the optimal SF and the high cut-off frequency (p D2-KO than in WT mice. These findings show that the lack of function of D2 dopamine receptors had no influence on cortical structure whereas it had a significant impact on the spatial frequency selectivity and high cut-off. Taken together, our results suggest that D2 receptors play a specific role on the processing of spatial features in early visual cortex while they do not seem to participate in its development. PMID:29379422

  9. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D 2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D 2 receptor. D 2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D 2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D 2 receptors. D 2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  10. NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF synapse. Results Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. Conclusion These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.

  11. A peptide disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects against dopamine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine reuptake from extracellular space to cytosol leads to accumulation of dopamine, which triggers neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies have shown that both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) are involved in dopamine neurotoxicity. However, blockade of either D2R or DAT causes side effects due to antagonism of other physiological functions of these two proteins. We previously found that DAT can form a protein complex with D2R and its cell surface expression is facilitated via D2R-DAT interaction, which regulates dopamine reuptake and intracellular dopamine levels. Here we found that an interfering peptide (DAT-S1) disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity, and this effect is mediated by inhibiting DAT cell surface expression and inhibiting both caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage. This study demonstrates the role of the D2R-DAT complex in dopamine neurotoxicity and investigated the potential mechanisms, which might help better understand the mechanisms of dopamine neurotoxicity. The peptide may provide some insights to improve treatments for dopamine neurotoxicity and related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, as well as methamphetamine- and 3,4-methsylenedioxy methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Recker, Robert R; Grote, James; Horst, Ronald L; Armas, Laura A G

    2011-03-01

    Current unitage for the calciferols suggests that equimolar quantities of vitamins D(2) (D2) and D(3) (D3) are biologically equivalent. Published studies yield mixed results. The aim of the study was to compare the potencies of D2 and D3. The trial used a single-blind, randomized design in 33 healthy adults. Calciferols were dosed at 50,000 IU/wk for 12 wk. Principal outcome variables were area under the curve for incremental total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and change in calciferol content of sc fat. Incremental mean (sd) 25(OH)D area under the curve at 12 wk was 1366 ng · d/ml (516) for the D2-treated group and 2136 (606) for the D3 (P < 0.001). Mean (sd) steady-state 25(OH)D increments showed similar differences: 24 ng/ml for D2 (10.3) and 45 ng/ml (16.2) for D3 (P <0.001). Subcutaneous fat content of D2 rose by 50 μg/kg in the D2-treated group, and D3 content rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Total calciferol in fat rose by only 33 ng/kg in the D2-treated, whereas it rose by 104 μg/kg in the D3-treated group. Extrapolating to total body fat D3, storage amounted to just 17% of the administered dose. D3 is approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentrations and produces 2- to 3-fold greater storage of vitamin D than does equimolar D2. For neither was there evidence of sequestration in fat, as had been postulated for doses in this range. Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency.

  13. Chronic exposure to dopamine agonists affects the integrity of striatal D2 receptors in Parkinson's patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Politis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the integrity and clinical relevance of striatal dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R availability in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. We studied 68 PD patients, spanning from early to advanced disease stages, and 12 healthy controls. All participants received one [11C]raclopride PET scan in an OFF medication condition for quantification of striatal D2R availability in vivo. Parametric images of [11C]raclopride non-displaceable binding potential were generated from the dynamic [11C]raclopride scans using implementation of the simplified reference tissue model with cerebellum as the reference tissue. PET data were interrogated for correlations with clinical data related to disease burden and dopaminergic treatment. PD patients showed a mean 16.7% decrease in caudate D2R and a mean 3.5% increase in putaminal D2R availability compared to healthy controls. Lower caudate [11C]raclopride BPND correlated with longer PD duration. PD patients on dopamine agonist treatment had 9.2% reduced D2R availability in the caudate and 12.8% in the putamen compared to PD patients who never received treatment with dopamine agonists. Higher amounts of lifetime dopamine agonist therapy correlated with reduced D2Rs availability in both caudate and putamen. No associations between striatal D2R availability and levodopa treatment and dyskinesias were found. In advancing PD the caudate and putamen D2R availability are differentially affected. Chronic exposure to treatment with dopamine agonists, but no levodopa, suppresses striatal D2R availability, which may have relevance to output signaling to frontal lobes and the occurrence of executive deficits, but not dyskinesias.

  14. Functional variants of the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulate prefronto-striatal phenotypes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Rampino, Antonio; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Papp, Audrey; Pinsonneault, Julia; Wang, Danxin; Nardini, Marcello; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor signalling is strongly implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We have recently characterized the function of three DRD2 SNPs: rs12364283 in the promoter affecting total D2 mRNA expression; rs2283265 and rs1076560, respectively in introns 5 and 6, shifting mRNA splicing to two functionally distinct isoforms, the short form of D2 (D2S) and the long form (D2L). These two isoforms differentially contribute to dopamine signalling in prefrontal cortex and in striatum. We performed a case-control study to determine association of these variants and of their main haplotypes with several schizophrenia-related phenotypes. We demonstrate that the minor allele in the intronic variants is associated with reduced expression of %D2S of total mRNA in post-mortem prefrontal cortex, and with impaired working memory behavioural performance, both in patients and controls. However, the fMRI results show opposite effects in patients compared with controls: enhanced engagement of prefronto-striatal pathways in controls and reduced activity in patients. Moreover, the promoter variant is also associated with working memory activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients, and less robustly with negative symptoms scores. Main haplotypes formed by the three DRD2 variants showed significant associations with these phenotypes consistent with those of the individual SNPs. Our results indicate that the three functional DRD2 variants modulate schizophrenia phenotypes possibly by modifying D2S/D2L ratios in the context of different total D2 density.

  15. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  16. The effect of bicarbonate on menadione-induced redox cycling and cytotoxicity: potential involvement of the carbonate radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuhani, Naif; Michail, Karim; Karapetyan, Zubeida; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of NaHCO3 on menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity. A cell-free system utilized menadione and ascorbic acid to catalyze a redox cycle, and we utilized murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells for in vitro experiments. Experiments were performed using low (2 mmol/L) and physiological (25 mmol/L) levels of NaHCO3 in buffer equilibrated to physiological pH. Using oximetry, ascorbic acid oxidation, and ascorbyl radical detection, we found that menadione redox cycling was enhanced by NaHCO3. Furthermore, Hepa 1c1c7 cells treated with menadione demonstrated cytotoxicity that was significantly increased with physiological concentrations of NaHCO3 in the media, compared with low levels of NaHCO3. Interestingly, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) with 2 different metal chelators was associated with a protective effect against menadione cytotoxicity. Using isolated protein, we found a significant increase in protein carbonyls with menadione-ascorbate-SOD with physiological NaHCO3 levels; low NaHCO3 or SOD-free reactions produced lower levels of protein carbonyls. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the hydrogen peroxide generated by menadione redox cycling together with NaHCO3-CO2 are potential substrates for SOD peroxidase activity that can lead to carbonate-radical-enhanced cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the importance of NaHCO3 in menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity.

  17. Permeation of a H2 + HD + D2 gas mixture through a polymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercea, P.; Cuna, S.; Kreibik, S.; Ursu, I.

    1990-01-01

    The selective permeation of a H 2 + HD + D 2 gas mixture through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane was studied at T 20 0 C. It was found that the permeation of the HD through the membrane leads to a smaller overall hydrogen-deuterium separation factor than that determined in the permeation experiments with pure H 2 and D 2 . On the other hand, a process of isotopic exchange between deuterium atoms from the penetrant gas stream and hydrogen atoms from the polymer membrane is assumed and discussed in order to explain temporal variations of the H 2 , HD and D 2 concentrations of the permanent gas stream. (author)

  18. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    A new channel producing ketenyl radical (HCCO) was discovered in the flash photolysis of ketene at 193 nm. H 2 CCO + hν(193 nm) → H + HCCO by observation near 2020 cm -1 of the infrared fundamental of ketenyl corresponding to the antisymmetric motion of the heavy atoms. This band has been partially rotationally analyzed and the rate constant for the reaction of ketenyl with NO has been determined. The OH stretching fundamental of hydroxymethyl radical (CH 2 OH) has been observed near 3600 cm -1 producing the radical either by the excimer flash photolysis of acetol (CH 3 COCH 2 OH) or by Cl atom abstraction of a methyl hydrogen from methanol. The assignment of the spectrum to CH 2 OH was confirmed by the agreement of the rate constant for the reaction of the species with O 2 with the literature value. The mechanism of the reaction of C 2 H with O 2 has been explored. There appear to be two channels producing CO product: a fast, direct one producing highly vibrationally excited CO up to v = 6 at the same rate C 2 H disappears and a slow, indirect one producing primarily ground state CO on a much longer timescale than the disappearance of C 2 H. The rate constants for the reactions of C 2 H with CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 4 , D 2 , and CO were determined by following the time decay of a C 2 H infrared transient absorption line originating from the ground vibronic state using diode laser spectroscopy creating the C 2 H by excimer laser flash photolysis (ArF, 193 nm) of CF 3 CCH. The branching ratio into OH of the reaction between NH 2 , and NO, which is the channel thought to propagate the radical chain of the Thermal deNOx process, has been measured up to 925 degree C. The OH yield thus obtained appears to be too small to maintain the process. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of cyclic dipeptides: Reactions of free peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieden, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of this study investigations were carried out into the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with cyclic dipeptides as well as the subsequent reactions of peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. The radiolysis products formed in the absence and presence of oxygen or transient metal complexes were characterized and determined on a quantitative basis. The linking of information from product analyses to the kinetic data for transient species obtained by time-resolving UV/VIS and conductivity measurements (pulse radiolysis) as well as computer-assisted simulations of individual events during the reaction permitted an evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the various processes and an identification of interim products with short life-times, which did or did not belong to the group of radicals. Through the characterization of key reactions of radicals and peroxyl radicals of this substance class a major advance has been made towards a better understanding of the role of radicals in the peptide compound and the mechanisms involved in indirect radiation effects on long-chain peptides and proteins. (orig.) [de

  20. Metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization and radical polyaddition for precision polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, M; Satoh, K [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kamigaito, M, E-mail: kamigait@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2009-08-01

    The metal-catalyzed radical addition reaction can be evolved into two different polymerization mechanisms, i.e.; chain- and step-growth polymerizations, while both the polymerizations are based on the same metal-catalyzed radical formation reaction. The former is a widely employed metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization or atom transfer radical polymerization of common vinyl monomers, and the latter is a novel metal-catalyzed radical polyaddition of designed monomer with an unconjugated C=C double bond and a reactive C-Cl bond in one molecule. The simultaneous ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization of methyl acrylate and radical polyaddition of 3-butenyl 2-chloropropionate was achieved with Ru(Cp*)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} to afford the controlled polymers, in which the homopolymer segments with the controlled chain length were connected by the ester linkage.

  1. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-08-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 (2420) and D * 2 (2460) in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 . The masses of the neutral and charged states, the widths of the neutral states, and the helicity parameter of D 1 (2420) 0 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameter of the D 0 1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in its decay to D *± π -+ . The result is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D * 2 (2460) 0 and D * 2 (2460) ± states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 and D * 2 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations.

  2. Power Control for D2D Underlay Cellular Networks With Channel Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Memmi, Amen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlying the cellular infrastructure are a technology that have been proposed recently as a promising solution to enhance cellular network capabilities. It improves spectrum utilization, overall throughput

  3. Estimated D2--DT--T2 phase diagram in the three-phase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Hickman, R.G.; Tsugawa, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    A composite of experimental eH 2 -D 2 phase-diagram data at the three-phase line is assembled from the literature. The phase diagram is a smooth cigar shape without a eutectic point, indicating complete miscibility of liquid and solid phases. Additional data is used to estimate the D 2 -T 2 , D 2 DT, and DT-T 2 binary phase diagrams. These are assembled into the ternary D 2 -DT-T 2 phase diagram. A surface representing the chemical equilibrium of the three species is added to the phase diagram. At chemical equilibrium, it is estimated that 50-50 liquid D-T at 19.7 0 K is in equilibrium with 42 mole percent T vapor and 54 percent T solid. Infrared spectroscopy is suggested as a means of component analysis of liquid and solid mixtures

  4. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each

  5. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Patrick N. [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: patrick.mccormick@camhpet.ca; Kapur, Shitij [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Seeman, Philip [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO ([{sup 11}C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [{sup 3}H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for {sup 11}C and {sup 3}H. The specific binding ratio {l_brace}SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum){r_brace} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED{sub 50} and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED{sub 50} values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO- and [{sup 3}H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo

  6. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [11C](+)-PHNO and [3H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Patrick N.; Kapur, Shitij; Seeman, Philip; Wilson, Alan A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [ 11 C](+)-PHNO ([ 11 C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [ 3 H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for 11 C and 3 H. The specific binding ratio {SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum)} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED 50 and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED 50 values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [ 11 C](+)-PHNO and [ 3 H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [ 11 C](+)-PHNO- and [ 3 H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo applicability of the D2 two-state model, as described by in vitro binding experiments

  7. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capogrosso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients’ overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function.

  8. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. PMID:28459142

  9. ORGASMIC FUNCTION AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study orgasmic function (OF in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPE.Subjects and methods. Seventy-nine patients who had undergone RPE for locally advanced prostate cancer without hormone and radiation therapies were examined. The patients’ mean age was 59.3 years. The mean EF-IIEF domain score was 24.4. OF was estimated by IIEF question 10 and the authors’ questionnaire. The Spearman rank correction coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon tests were used.Results. After RPE, there was a reduction in the mean IIEF question 10 score from 3.9 (confidence interval 3.7–4.1 to 3.3 (3–3.5 (p = 0.000. The following changes were found in orgasm intensity: no changes in 43 %, mild worsening in 42 %, severe worsening in 8 %, and enhancement in 4 %; orgasm could not be achieved in 4 % of the patients. Pain usually of low intensity was reported by 8.8 %. The poor factors for preserving OF were its low baseline level, elderly age, or severe post-RPE erectile dysfunction.Conclusion. There were significant OF changes after RPE, which should be kept in mind while treating this category of patients.

  10. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Gredysa, Danuta M; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann; Green, Leonard; Arbeláez, Ana Maria; Koller, Jonathan M; Black, Kevin J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Moerlein, Stephen M; Hershey, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30) and non-obese (n = 20; body mass indexmonetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methyl)benperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting). Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting). In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding and metabolic factors, including β-cell function, interact to affect reward discounting in humans.

  11. Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized that blockade of D2 receptors might facilitate extinction in mice, while agonists should block extinction, as they do in rats. One day after fear con...

  12. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors and Behavioral Economics of Food Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Paul L; Hiranita, Takato; Xu, Ming; Hursh, Steven R; Grandy, David K; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor involvement in the reinforcing effects of food. To determine contributions of the three D2-like receptor subtypes, knockout (KO) mice completely lacking DA D2, D3, or D4 receptors (D2R, D3R, or D4R KO mice) and their wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to a series of fixed-ratio (FR) food-reinforcement schedules in two contexts: an open economy with additional food provided outside the experimental setting and a closed economy with all food earned within the experimental setting. A behavioral economic model was used to quantify reinforcer effectiveness with food pellets obtained as a function of price (FR schedule value) plotted to assess elasticity of demand. Under both economies, as price increased, food pellets obtained decreased more rapidly (ie, food demand was more elastic) in DA D2R KO mice compared with WT littermates. Extinction of responding was studied in two contexts: by eliminating food deliveries and by delivering food independently of responding. A hyperbolic model quantified rates of extinction. Extinction in DA D2R KO mice occurred less rapidly compared with WT mice in both contexts. Elasticity of food demand was higher in DA D4R KO than WT mice in the open, but not closed, economy. Extinction of responding in DA D4R KO mice was not different from that in WT littermates in either context. No differences in elasticity of food demand or extinction rate were obtained in D3R KO mice and WT littermates. These results indicate that the D2R is the primary DA D2-like receptor subtype mediating the reinforcing effectiveness of food. PMID:26205210

  13. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A.; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially ...

  14. Evaluation of the recurrence pattern of gastric cancer after laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yuichiro; Satoh, Seiji; Umeki, Yusuke; Ishida, Yoshinori; Suda, Koichi; Uyama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the oncological aspects of gastric cancer following laparoscopic gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy (LG-D2). We retrospectively evaluated the long-term outcomes of 354 patients who underwent LG-D2 for primary gastric cancer. Recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 43.8 months. Five-year overall survival rates for yp/pStages I, II, and III gastric cancer were 93.7, 78.5, and 42.2 %, respectively. Recurrence was observed in 86 patients. Peritoneal metastasis was the most frequent recurrence pattern (n = 51), followed by hepatic metastasis (n = 17). Lymphatic recurrence at distant sites was observed in 10 patients. No locoregional lymph node metastasis or local recurrence was seen. Nine of 51 cases of peritoneal recurrence were detected by probe laparoscopy. Peritoneal recurrence rates were significantly higher in yp/pT4 and yp/pN3 diseases compared with yp/pT ≤ 3 and yp/pN ≤ 2 diseases. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that yp/pT4, yp/pN3, tumor size ≥70 mm, vascular invasion, and undifferentiated tumors were predictors of peritoneal recurrence following LG-D2. Long-term outcomes of gastric cancer following LG-D2, including recurrence patterns and predictors of peritoneal metastasis, were comparable to those following open D2 gastrectomy. LG-D2 showed good local control. Probe laparoscopy after LG may be effective in detecting peritoneal recurrence, which is not determined with less invasive examinations, including a CT scan. Future large-scale prospective studies are desirable to evaluate not only surgical but also oncological benefits and safety of LG-D2 for advanced gastric cancer.

  15. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  16. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  17. Safety-Evaluation Report related to the D2/D3 steam-generator design modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) related to the D2/D3 steam generator design modification has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this SER is to issue the staff's evaluation of the acceptability of the design modification for both installation and full-power operation in the D2/D3 steam generators based on the Design Review Panel Report of January 1983

  18. Comparação entre o método Pilates e a cinesioterapia do assoalho pélvico associada à eletroestimulação na recuperação de incontinência urinária pós-prostatectomia radical : ensaio clínico aleatorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Rotondo Pedriali

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O tratamento conservador para incontinência urinária masculina após a prostatectomia radical (PTR) envolve o treino muscular do assoalho pélvico (TMAP) com ou sem eletroestimulação anal (EEA), biofeedback, e uso de medicamentos. Os músculos do assoalho pélvico (AP) agem sinergicamente com os músculos profundos do tronco contribuindo para o equilíbrio da pressão intra-abdominal (PIA), da biomecânica respiratória e das respostas posturais. O princípio do método Pilates é a ativação ...

  19. BRST quantization, IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) invariance and the PCT theorem. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, E.; Reuter, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) extension of the Poincare group in the BRST quantization of the spinning particle. We construct the corresponding field theory and prove its dimensional reduction a la Parisi-Sourlas. As for the scalar particle, we show that the PCT transformation is induced by a certain element of the SO(D,2) subgroup of the IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2). This gives us the tools for a simple interpretation of the PCT theorem for Dirac fields. We then continue by clarifying the role of the 'modular' transformation (i.e. world-line orientation-reversing diffeomorphism) and indicating how the PCT transformation could be regarded as a modular transformation in a 'SO(D,2)-rotated' frame. In this work we also consider BRST field theories leading to D-dimensional chiral theories. In this case, of the full IOSp(D,2vertical stroke2) symmetry, only the subgroup IO(D-1,1)xOSp(1,1vertical stroke2) survives together with the (isolated) SO(D,2) transformation that implements PCT. (orig.)

  20. Time-differential observation of the ortho-para conversion of liquid D2 under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Utsuro, M.; Nagai, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Kohmoto, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ooi, M.

    2007-01-01

    We measured an absolute ortho-D 2 concentration of gas samples taken from irradiated liquid D 2 samples as a function of the integrated radiation dose and the irradiation time by means of a frequency-resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the ortho-D 2 conversion mechanism under irradiation. The measurement was carried out by irradiating liquid ortho-D 2 at a temperature of 25 K with Bremsstrahlung photons, which were produced by bombarding tantalum with 33 MeV electrons, and whose absolute fluxes were determined experimentally by employing a foil activation method. The obtained ortho-D 2 concentration was found to decrease from 98% to 82% monotonically with increasing the radiation dose, irrespective of the electron-beam power. This fact clearly indicates the important role of a radiation-induced breakup effect of the ortho D 2 under the present experimental conditions of radiation dose and irradiation time. The obtained conversion rate is ten times faster than the evaluated value based on an existing model, requiring an alternate mechanism to enhance the conversion

  1. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharbabu, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Rao, K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  2. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  3. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  4. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd [binding affinity] and Bmax [number of binding sites]) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism

  5. Effects of dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonism on human planning and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, M; Müller, U; Linssen, A; Clark, L; Robbins, T W; Eisenegger, C

    2017-04-25

    Psychopharmacological studies in humans suggest important roles for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in human executive functions, such as cognitive planning and spatial working memory (SWM). However, studies that investigate an impairment of such functions using the selective DA D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride have yielded inconsistent results, perhaps because relatively low doses were used. We believe we report for the first time, the effects of a higher (800 mg p.o.) single dose of sulpiride as well as of genetic variation in the DA receptor D2 gene (DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism), on planning and working memory. With 78 healthy male volunteers, we apply a between-groups, placebo-controlled design. We measure outcomes in the difficult versions of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery One-Touch Stockings of Cambridge and the self-ordered SWM task. Volunteers in the sulpiride group showed significant impairments in planning accuracy and, for the more difficult problems, in SWM. Sulpiride administration speeded response latencies in the planning task on the most difficult problems. Volunteers with at least one copy of the minor allele (A1+) of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism showed better SWM capacity, regardless of whether they received sulpiride or placebo. There were no effects on blood pressure, heart rate or subjective sedation. In sum, a higher single dose of sulpiride impairs SWM and executive planning functions, in a manner independent of the DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism.

  6. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2016-08-24

    Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.

  7. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    -assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very......One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper...

  8. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper......-assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very...

  9. The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehkhah S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT% and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE% to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety, whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05. While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05. In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.

  10. Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during oxidative polymerization. In this work, we report a novel protein engineering approach to improve the radical stability of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC). Phenylalanine residues that are vulnerable to modification by the phenoxyl radicals were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. UV-Vis and CD spectra showed that radical coupling did not change the secondary structure or the active site of HRPC. Four phenylalanine (Phe) residues (F68, F142, F143, and F179) were each mutated to alanine residues to generate single mutants to examine the role of these sites in radical coupling. Despite marginal improvement of radical stability, each single mutant still exhibited rapid radical inactivation. To further reduce inactivation by radical coupling, the four substitution mutations were combined in F68A/F142A/F143A/F179A. This mutant demonstrated dramatic enhancement of radical stability by retaining 41% of its initial activity compared to the wild-type, which was completely inactivated. Structure and sequence alignment revealed that radical-vulnerable Phe residues of HPRC are conserved in homologous peroxidases, which showed the same rapid inactivation tendency as HRPC. Based on our site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we have shown that engineering radical-vulnerable residues to eliminate multiple radical coupling can be a good strategy to improve the stability of peroxidases against radical attack. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Some reactions of oxidizing radicals with enzymes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundall, R.B.; Bisby, R.H.; Hoe, S.T.; Sims, H.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A range of oxidizing radicals including some inorganic radical anions and the superoxide radical, can be generated by radiolysis of aqueous solutions. These radicals are more selective in their reactions with amino acids than the hydroxyl radical. Factors controlling the apparent reactivity of radical anions with proteins, such as free radical equilibria and ion-binding, are described. The superoxide radical inactivates papain by reaction with the cysteine residue. This reaction has been studied in solutions subjected to radiations of varying linear energy transfer. (Auth.)

  12. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  13. Total scattering cross-sections for the systems nH2 + nH2, pH2 + pH2, nD2 + nD2, oD2 + oD2 and HD + HD for relative energies below ten milli-electron volts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Relative total scattering cross sections for nH 2 + nH 2 , pH 2 + pH 2 , nD 2 + nD 2 , oD 2 + oD 2 , and HD + HD were measured with inclined nozzle beams derived from nozzle sources and intersecting at 21 0 . Both nozzles could be varied in temperature from 4.2K to 300K to provide the velocity range for the cross sections. The use of a parahydrogen converter allowed the measurement of the pH 2 + pH 2 and oD 2 + oD 2 cross sections. Cross sections for the H 2 + H 2 were measured over a relative velocity range of 200 m/s to 1450 m/s. The nH 2 + nH 2 results show an undulation in the velocity range between 350 m/s and 400 m/s that corresponds to a l = 3 orbiting resonance. Analysis of the pH 2 + pH 2 cross section indicates a l = 4 orbiting resonance near 586 m/s. This resonance has a peak energy of 1.79 meV and a measured energy width of 1.05 meV, both which agree well with theoretical predictions. The D 2 + D 2 cross sections have been measured in the velocity range between 190 m/s and 1000 m/s. No orbiting resonances have been observed, but in the oD 2 + oD 2 cross section a deep minimum between the l = 4 and the l = 5 resonances at low velocities is clearly suggested. Initial measurements of the HD + HD cross section suggests the presence of the l = 4 orbiting resonance near a relative velocity of 300 m/s. The experimental results for each system were normalized to the total cross sections, which were convoluted to account for experimental velocity and angular dispersions. Three different potentials were considered, but a chi-square fit of the data indicates that the Schaefer and Meyer potential, which has been theoretically obtained from first principles, provides the best overall description of the hydrogen systems in the low collisional energy range

  14. Qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos à prostatectomia radical

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Débora Moura Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: O câncer de próstata (CaP) é entre os homens o segundo tumor maligno mais prevalente e a segunda neoplasia em causa de morte. Duas características são peculiares: a incidência aumenta com a idade e o caráter indolente na maioria dos casos. Estudos sobre o CaP são relevantes frente à elevada incidência e às altas taxas de cura quando há o diagnóstico em fases iniciais. A prostatectomia radical (PR) é o padrão ouro em tumores localizados. Como complicações cirúrgicas destacam-se,...

  15. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2008-01-01

    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  16. Radical Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Benign Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kavanagh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Whipple's procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple's procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple's procedure during a 15-year period (1987–2002 were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%. One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30–75. The major presenting features included jaundice (five, pain (two, gastric outlet obstruction (one, and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one. Investigations included ultrasound (eight, computerised tomography (eight, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology, and endoscopic ultrasound (two. The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two, chronic pancreatitis (two, choledochal cyst (one, inflammatory pseudotumour (one, cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one, duodenal angiodysplasia (one, and granular cell neoplasm (one. There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one, anastomotic leak (one, liver abscess (one, and myocardial infarction (one. All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple'’s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound–guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA may reduce the need for Whipple's operation in

  17. Intermolecular potential and rovibrational states of the H2O–D2 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoird, Ad van der; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Weida, Miles J.; Fair, Joanna R.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: H 2 O–D 2 potential surface and pH 2 O–oD 2 ground state wave function, for planar geometries. Highlights: ► The interaction between H 2 O and H 2 is of great astrophysical interest. ► The rovibrational states of H 2 O–D 2 were computed on an ab initio potential surface. ► Results are compared with the rovibrational states of H 2 O–H 2 computed recently. ► We measured the high-resolution infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 in the H 2 O bend region. ► Comparison with the calculations provides information on H 2 O–H 2 potential surface. - Abstract: A five-dimensional intermolecular potential for H 2 O–D 2 was obtained from the full nine-dimensional ab initio potential surface of Valiron et al. [P. Valiron, M. Wernli, A. Faure, L. Wiesenfeld, C. Rist, S. Kedžuch, J. Noga, J. Chem. Phys. 129 (2008) 134306] by averaging over the ground state vibrational wave functions of H 2 O and D 2 . On this five-dimensional potential with a well depth D e of 232.12 cm −1 we calculated the bound rovibrational levels of H 2 O–D 2 for total angular momentum J = 0–3. The method used to compute the rovibrational levels is similar to a scattering approach—it involves a basis of coupled free rotor wave functions for the hindered internal rotations and the overall rotation of the dimer—while it uses a discrete variable representation of the intermolecular distance coordinate R. The basis was adapted to the permutation symmetry associated with the para/ortho (p/o) nature of both H 2 O and D 2 , as well as to inversion symmetry. As expected, the H 2 O–D 2 dimer is more strongly bound than its H 2 O–H 2 isotopologue [cf. A. van der Avoird, D.J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 134 (2011) 044314], with dissociation energies D 0 of 46.10, 50.59, 67.43, and 73.53 cm −1 for pH 2 O–oD 2 , oH 2 O–oD 2 , pH 2 O–pD 2 , and oH 2 O–pD 2 . A rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of H 2 O–D 2 was measured in the frequency region of the H 2 O bend

  18. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  19. Radical production in the radiolysis of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.; Araos, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Benzene is the prototypical aromatic compound and yet the radiation chemistry of the radicals formed in its radiolysis is not well understood. Temporal information on the yield of phenyl radical, the major radical produced in the radiolysis, is important for understanding the radiation chemistry of many other types of aromatic compounds including some polymers. The effects of track structure on the production of phenyl radicals have been examined using iodine-scavenging techniques. The variation of the yields of iodobenzene and the other major molecular products such as biphenyl as a function of iodine concentration gives a good indication of the competition kinetics occurring in particle tracks. Experimental results of the scavenger experiments will be shown and their implications in the radiolysis of condensed hydrocarbons will be discussed

  20. Radical Sustainable Innovation of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Berker, Thomas; Koch-Ørvad, Nina

    2017-01-01

    by high degrees of newness in the entire life cycle. RSI should offer significant enhancements of known benefits, entirely new benefits, or substantial cost reductions, leading to the transformation of existing markets, the creation of sustainable growth, and global sustainability. Thus, if buildings were....../could be radically new. How to evaluate radicality is a major challenge. It is tentatively proposed, to use standards for sustainable office buildings. Standards are developed to accelerate the sustainable development but has to some extent come to constrain possibilities of radical innovation. As the criteria...... of newness is incorporated in standards, going beyond them, could be viewed as radical. Empirically a selection of international cases of office buildings with very high scores of BREEAM, LEED and DGNB are examined. Six selected cases were analysed more in detail, one of them, Geelens...

  1. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  2. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem......Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...

  3. Prison Radicalization: The New Extremist Training Grounds?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffin, Jr., McKinley D

    2007-01-01

    As a nation with the largest prison population in the world, the United States has all the ingredients for criminals, extremists, and religious radicals to collaborate in producing a new breed of homegrown terrorist...

  4. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance...

  5. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  6. Načrtovan porod na domu

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović, Tamara; Takač, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Izhodišča: Porod na domu je sicer star toliko kot človeštvo, pa vendar v veliki večini srednje in visoko razvitih držav prevladuje mnenje, da so zaradi nepredvidljivosti zapletov porodnišnice najbolj varno okolje za rojevanje. Kljub temu obstaja peščica držav, v katerih je porod na domu integriran v sistem zdravstvenega varstva (npr. Nizozemska, Velika Britanija, Kanada). Pri porodih na domu ločimo nenačrtovane in načrtovane porode na domu, slednje pa lahko nadalje razdelimo še na porode s sp...

  7. Solar polarimetry in the K I D2 line : A novel possibility for a stratospheric balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Villanueva, G. L.; Katsukawa, Y.; Solanki, S. K.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Shimizu, T.; Oba, T.; Kubo, M.; Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Of the two solar lines, K I D1 and D2, almost all attention so far has been devoted to the D1 line, as D2 is severely affected by an O2 atmospheric band. This, however, makes the latter appealing for balloon and space observations from above (most of) the Earth's atmosphere. We estimate the residual effect of the O2 band on the K I D2 line at altitudes typical for stratospheric balloons. Our aim is to study the feasibility of observing the 770 nm window. Specifically, this paper serves as a preparation for the third flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory. The results indicate that the absorption by O2 is still present, albeit much weaker, at the expected balloon altitude. We applied the obtained O2 transmittance to K I D2 synthetic polarimetric spectra and found that in the absence of line-of-sight motions, the residual O2 has a negligible effect on the K I D2 line. On the other hand, for Doppler-shifted K I D2 data, the residual O2 might alter the shape of the Stokes profiles. However, the residual O2 absorption is sufficiently weak at stratospheric levels that it can be divided out if appropriate measurements are made, something that is impossible at ground level. Therefore, for the first time with Sunrise III, we will be able to perform polarimetric observations of the K I D2 line and, consequently, we will have improved access to the thermodynamics and magnetic properties of the upper photosphere from observations of the K I lines.

  8. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  9. Review article: clinical implications of enteric and central D2 receptor blockade by antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, M; Cipollina, L; Poluzzi, E; Crema, F; Corazza, G R; De Ponti, F

    2004-02-15

    Antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics (bromopride, clebopride, domperidone, levosulpiride and metoclopramide) have been exploited clinically for the management of motor disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including functional dyspepsia, gastric stasis of various origins and emesis. The prokinetic effect of these drugs is mediated through the blockade of enteric (neuronal and muscular) inhibitory D2 receptors. The pharmacological profiles of the marketed compounds differ in terms of their molecular structure, affinity at D2 receptors, ability to interact with other receptor systems [5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) and 5-HT4 receptors for metoclopramide; 5-HT4 receptors for levosulpiride) and ability to permeate the blood-brain barrier (compared with the other compounds, domperidone does not easily cross the barrier). It has been suggested that the serotonergic (5-HT4) component of some antidopaminergic prokinetics may enhance their therapeutic efficacy in gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia and diabetic gastroparesis. The antagonism of central D2 receptors may lead to both therapeutic (e.g. anti-emetic effect due to D2 receptor blockade in the area postrema) and adverse (including hyperprolactinaemia and extrapyramidal dystonic reactions) effects. As the pituitary (as well as the area postrema) is outside the blood-brain barrier, hyperprolactinaemia is a side-effect occurring with all antidopaminergic prokinetics, although to different extents. Extrapyramidal reactions are most commonly observed with compounds crossing the blood-brain barrier, although with some differences amongst the various agents. Prokinetics with a high dissociation constant compared with that of dopamine at the D2 receptor (i.e. compounds that bind loosely to D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway) elicit fewer extrapyramidal signs and symptoms. A knowledge of central and peripheral D2 receptor pharmacology can help the clinician to choose between the

  10. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  12. Dataset on the effects of CYB5D2 on the distribution of HeLa cervical cancer cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Xie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that CYB5D2 plays a role in suppression of cervical cancer tumorigenesis, “CYB5D2 displays tumor suppression activities towards cervical cancer” [1]. We provide the accompany data here describing the effects of CYB5D2 overexpression and addition of recombinant CYB5D2 on HeLa cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, we will present the conditions used to specifically determine CYB5D2 expression in primary cervical and cervical cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC and the patient cohort involved in assessing the CYB5D2 protein levels in primary cervical and cervical cancer tissues.

  13. Analysis of radicals of irradiated garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2010-01-01

    The detection method of gamma ray irradiated garlic using Electron Spin Resonance(ESR)spectroscopy was studied. The ESR spectrum was consisted of one singlet signal at g=2.00. This signal is due to an organic free radical. Upon irradiation, the intensity of the signal was increased. Also two signals due to cellulose radical were detected nearby the singlet. The intensity of the singlet signal was increased as depend on the increase of the irradiation dose level. (author)

  14. Western radicalization: rethinking the psychology of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Vern

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. strategy to counter violent extremism relies heavily on the expert consensus that terrorists are engaging in political group speak and are by nature psychologically normal. Thus, anyone is susceptible to radicalization. To counter radicalization, finding answers is like finding a needle in a haystack. However, in the psychologically similar phenomenon of arson by firefighter—when a firefighter deliberately sets and then exting...

  15. Free radicals trapped in polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, S.; Maeda, M.; Hori, Y.; Kashiwabara, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of alkyl radicals were found to be trapped in irradiated crystals grown from polyethylene solution. One of them corresponds to the broad sextet pattern of the e.s.r. spectrum and the other corresponds to the sharp sextet pattern. The free radicals attributed to the broad sextet began to disappear at a lower temperature than the temperature at which the free radicals attributed to the sharp sextet disappeared. When butadiene molecules were brought into contact with the specimen, the decay of the free radicals corresponding to the broad sextet was accelerated. When the specimen was subjected to fuming nitric acid treatment, no broad sextet was observed. The mat of the crystals was aligned so that the c-axes of its crystallites were perpendicular to its surface. The broad sextet showed no anisotropy when the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and that of the c-axis of the crystallite was varied. On the other hand, the sharp component of the spectrum showed apparent anisotropy. It can be concluded that the broad component comes from the free radicals trapped in the lamellar surface and the sharp component is attributed to the free radicals trapped in the inner part of the crystallite. (author)

  16. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  17. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorg Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2 has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that

  18. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  19. TERAHERTZ SPECTROSCOPY AND GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE BENDING VIBRATIONS OF ACETYLENE 12C2D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12 C 2 D 2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν 5 -ν 4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12 C 2 D 2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D 2 O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC 2 ) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν 4 and ν 5 of 12 C 2 D 2 , which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12 C 2 D 2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  20. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C.; Gillitt, Nicholas D.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-01-01

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p athletes following eccentric exercise. PMID:24362707

  2. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-02-24

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially housed Japanese macaques attenuated social dominance when the drug was given to high social class macaques. A similar attenuation of social dominance was observed in high social class mice with D2 antagonist administration. In contrast, D2 antagonist administration in low social class macaque resulted in more stable social hierarchy of the group, whereas such effect was not observed in mouse social group. These results suggest that D2 receptor signaling may play important roles in establishment and maintenance of social hierarchy in social groups of several species of animals.

  3. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether the dopamine D2 receptor regulates the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, the a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase of b-waves evoked by low intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces the amplitude of b-waves and completely diminishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina. PMID:25393815

  4. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor

  5. Supersymmetric non-singular fractional D2-branes and NS-NS 2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Gibbons, G.W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain regular deformed D2-brane solutions with fractional D2-branes arising as wrapped D4-branes. The space transverse to the D2-brane is a complete Ricci-flat 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, which is asymptotically conical with principal orbits that are topologically CP 3 or the flag manifold SU(3)/(U(1)xU(1)). We obtain the solution by first constructing an L 2 normalisable harmonic 3-form. We also review a previously-obtained regular deformed D2-brane whose transverse space is a different 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy, with principal orbits that are topologically S 3 xS 3 . This describes D2-branes with fractional NS-NS 2-branes coming from the wrapping of 5-branes, which is supported by a non-normalisable harmonic 3-form on the 7-manifold. We prove that both types of solutions are supersymmetric, preserving 1/16 of the maximal supersymmetry and hence that they are dual to N=1 three-dimensional gauge theories. In each case, the spectrum for minimally-coupled scalars is discrete, indicating confinement in the infrared region of the dual gauge theories. We examine resolutions of other branes, and obtain necessary conditions for their regularity. The resolution of many of these seems to lie beyond supergravity. In the process of studying these questions, we construct new explicit examples of complete Ricci-flat metrics

  6. Ionization and solvation of HCl adsorbed on the D2O-ice surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Kawanowa, H.; Gotoh, Y.; Souda, R.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of HCl with the D 2 O-ice surface has been investigated in the temperature range 15-200 K by utilizing time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intensities of sputtered H + (D 2 O) and Cl - ions (the H + ions) are increased (decreased) markedly above 40 K due to the hydrogen bond formation between the HCl and D 2 O molecules. The HCl molecules which form ionic hydrates undergo H/D exchange at 110-140 K and a considerable fraction of them dissolves into the bulk above 140 K. The neutral hydrates of HCl should coexist as evidenced by the desorption of HCl above 170 K. They are incorporated completely in the D 2 O layer up to 140 K. The HCl molecules embedded in the thick D 2 O layer dissolve into the bulk, and the ionic hydrate tends to segregate to the surface above 150 K

  7. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline

  8. Bulk Soil Organic Matter d2H as a Precipitation Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. K.; Terwilliger, V. J.; Nakamoto, B. J.; Berhe, A. A.; Fogel, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotopic composition (d2H) of leaf waxes have traditionally been used to infer modern and paleoclimate precipitation sources. However, the extent to which evapotranspiration of leaf waters affects the d2H of plant leaf waxes remains hotly contested with offsets varying between species. Because of the relative importance of root organic matter contribution to bulk soil pools compared to litter/leaves and the minimal fractionation between soil water and root material, it is plausible that bulk soil organic matter d2H may be an option for modern and paleoclimate precipitation reconstructions. In this study, we analyzed the non-exchangeable d2H composition of roots, litter, leaves, and bulk soils along an elevation gradient in the southern Sierra Nevada range (USA). Our results show a consistent offset of 30 ± 3‰ in bulk soil organic matter in surface soils from the measured precipitation. This consistent relationship with precipitation was not found in any of the other organic materials that we measured and implies that d2H bulk soil organic matter can record precipitation signals regardless of above-ground species composition. Additionally, we utilized physical density fractionation to determine which fractions (which vary in level of mineral association and in turnover time) of the soil control this relationship. These findings and how this relationship holds with depth will be presented in conjunction with data from a soil profile on the Ethiopian plateau spanning 6000 years.

  9. Inhibition of amygdaloid dopamine D2 receptors impairs emotional learning measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greba, Q; Gifkins, A; Kokkinidis, L

    2001-04-27

    Considerable advances have been made in understanding the neurocircuitry underlying the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses. Within the complex cellular and molecular processes mediating fearfulness, amygdaloid dopamine (DA), originating from cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, is thought to contribute to fear-motivated responding. Considering that blockade of DA D(2) receptors is a common mechanism of action for antipsychotic agents, we hypothesized that inhibition of D(2) receptors in the amygdala may be involved in the antiparanoid effects of these drugs. To assess the role of amygdaloid DA D(2) receptors in aversive emotionality, the D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride was infused into the amygdala prior to Pavlovian fear conditioning. Potentiated startle was used as a behavioral indicator of fear and anxiety. Classical fear conditioning and acoustic startle testing were conducted in a single session allowing for the concomitant assessment of shock reactivity with startle enhancement. Depending on dose, the results found conditioned fear acquisition and retention to be impaired following administration of raclopride into the amygdala. Additionally, the learning deficit was dissociated from shock detection and from fear expression assessed with the shock sensitization of acoustic startle. These findings further refine the known neural mechanisms of amygdala-based emotional learning and memory and were interpreted to suggest that, along with D(1) receptors, D(2) receptors in the amygdala may mediate the formation and the retention of newly-acquired fear associations.

  10. Radical and Not So Radical Transgressions: Invading Backstage Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Čale Feldman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Featuring as one of the privileged metaphors in humanities and social sciences, theatre provides primarily an image of a circumscribed space whose spatial syntax and modes of human engagement take place within and with respect to the larger space of the city, the world, and, as in Calderon’s Gran teatro del mundo, the universe. It is precisely as a special organization of spatiality that theatre reached the status of Foucault’s radical hetero-topos, flexible as it proved to be as a model for not only counter-representing all the human dealings in the external space, but also of conceptualizing, as in Freud’s psychoanalysis, man’s inner world, his psychic topography. But theatre is above all a concrete place, a built form with its own spatial history, its changing social and ideological functions, and its ways of bestowing to the bodies that enter into it actual or phantasm identities, thoughts, sensations, feelings and memories.My intervention will deal with one of the ruling borders/dichotomies/barriers of theatrical space, the one dividing “front stage” from “backstage” regions. In his detailed analysis of the latter in an individual and concrete theatre building, Andrew Filmer relies among others on Edward Soja’s “trialectics of being”, and thus also on Lefebvre’s categories of perceptual, conceptual and lived aspects of spatiality which Soja evokes, which will here be of particular interest. In contrast to the repercussions of such an analytical triad for the ethnographic study of concrete theatrical sites, I will ask how it pertains to potential manipulations of the aforementioned division of front-stage and backstage within contemporary performance practice. The temporal aspect of this manipulation should also be emphasized, having in mind the historical provenance of a whole backstage mythology – evidenced in numerous novels, plays and films situated in the backstage world - in the elaborated architectural

  11. Development of a new free radical absorption capacity assay method for antioxidants: aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Kanae; Fujii, Yuko; Ouchi, Aya; Mukai, Kazuo

    2013-10-23

    A new free radical absorption capacity assay method is proposed with use of an aroxyl radical (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)phenoxyl radical) and stopped-flow spectroscopy and is named the aroxyl radical absorption capacity (ARAC) assay method. The free radical absorption capacity (ARAC value) of each tocopherol was determined through measurement of the radical-scavenging rate constant in ethanol. The ARAC value could also be evaluated through measurement of the half-life of the aroxyl radical during the scavenging reaction. For the estimation of the free radical absorption capacity, the aroxyl radical was more suitable than the DPPH radical, galvinoxyl, and p-nitrophenyl nitronyl nitroxide. The ARAC value in tocopherols showed the same tendency as the free radical absorption capacities reported previously, and the tendency was independent of an oxygen radical participating in the scavenging reaction and of a medium surrounding the tocopherol and oxygen radical. The ARAC value can be directly connected to the free radical-scavenging rate constant, and the ARAC method has the advantage of treating a stable and isolable radical (aroxyl radical) in a user-friendly organic solvent (ethanol). The ARAC method was also successfully applied to a palm oil extract. Accordingly, the ARAC method would be useful in free radical absorption capacity assay of antioxidative reagents and foods.

  12. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... half duplex transmission may not be sufficient to provide fast discovery and cope with the strict latency targets of future 5G services. On the other hand, in-band full duplex, by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception, may complete the discovery phase faster. In this paper, the potential...... of full duplex in providing fast discovery for the next 5th generation (5G) system supporting D2D communication is investigated. A design for such system is presented and evaluated via simulations, showing that full duplex can accelerate the discovery phase by supporting a higher transmission probability...

  13. Couplings in D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics from the SU(2) perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton [Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-09

    Dynamical realizations of the most general N=4 superconformal group in one dimension D(2,1;α) are reconsidered from the perspective of the R-symmetry subgroup SU(2). It is shown that any realization of the R-symmetry subalgebra in some phase space can be extended to a representation of the Lie superalgebra corresponding to D(2,1;α). Novel couplings of arbitrary number of supermultiplets of the type (1,4,3) and (0,4,4) to a single supermultiplet of either the type (3,4,1), or (4,4,0) are constructed. D(2,1;α) superconformal mechanics describing superparticles propagating near the horizon of the extreme Reissner-Nordström-AdS-dS black hole in four and five dimensions is considered. The parameter α is linked to the cosmological constant.

  14. (d -2 ) -Dimensional Edge States of Rotation Symmetry Protected Topological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhida; Fang, Zhong; Fang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    We study fourfold rotation-invariant gapped topological systems with time-reversal symmetry in two and three dimensions (d =2 , 3). We show that in both cases nontrivial topology is manifested by the presence of the (d -2 )-dimensional edge states, existing at a point in 2D or along a line in 3D. For fermion systems without interaction, the bulk topological invariants are given in terms of the Wannier centers of filled bands and can be readily calculated using a Fu-Kane-like formula when inversion symmetry is also present. The theory is extended to strongly interacting systems through the explicit construction of microscopic models having robust (d -2 )-dimensional edge states.

  15. Vapour pressure of D2O - Ice at temperatures below 237 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, J.M.; Asensio, M.C.; Estiu, G.; Viscido, L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate measurements of heavy water ice vapour pressures between 193 and 253 K have been carried out and an equation based on thermodynamic data has been derived in order to calculate the D 2 O-ice vapour pressures between 173 and 273 K. The agreement between our calculated vapour pressures and the available experimental data including those in this paper, is very good. The comparison between the theoretical calculations of H 2 O-ice and D 2 O-ice vapour pressures confirms the experimental evidence that H 2 O-ice is more volatile than D 2 O-ice at all temperatures in agreement with the vapour isotopic effect theory (VPIE).(author)

  16. The D2G2 project: a new software tool for nuclear engineering design in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheaume, P.; Lefebvre, J.F.; Roy, R.; Koclas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, high quality neutronic simulation codes are readily available. The open source software suite DRAGON/DONJON is a good example. It is free, it has proven quality and correctness over the years and is still developed and maintained at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. However, most simulation codes have the following weaknesses: limited usability, poor maintainability, no internal data standardization and poor portability. The D2G2 project is a software development initiative which aims to create an upper layer software tool that annihilates the weakness of classic simulation codes. This paper presents D2G2Client's and D2G2Server's principal capabilities, how they interact and the libraries they use. (author)

  17. Presence of dopamine D-2 receptors in human tumoral cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokoloff, P.; Riou, J.F.; Martres, M.P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Centre Paul Broca, Paris (France))

    1989-07-31

    ({sup 125}I) Iodosulpride binding was examined on eight human cell lines derived from lung, breast and digestive tract carcinomas, neuroblastomas and leukemia. Specific binding was detected in five of these cell lines. In the richest cell line N417, derived from small cell lung carcinoma, ({sup 125}I) iodosulpride bound with a high affinity (Kd = 1.3 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding site (Bmax = 1,606 sites per cell). These sites displayed a typical D-2 specificity, established with several dopaminergic agonists and antagonists selective of either D-1 or D-2 receptor subtypes. In addition, dopamine, apomorphine and RU 24926 distinguished high- and low-affinity sites, suggesting that the binding sites are associated with a G-protein. The biological significance and the possible diagnostic implication of the presence of D-2 receptors on these cell lines are discussed.

  18. Examining the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kurt M; Haight, Joshua L; Gardner, Eliot L; Flagel, Shelly B

    2016-05-15

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.32mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032-0.32mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibrational relaxation of a triatomic molecular impurity: D2O in vitreous As2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rella, C.W.; Schwettman, H.A.; Engholm, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the relaxation of the D 2 O stretch mode in vitreous As 2 S 3 are presented. Because the bending mode of the molecule offers an intra-molecular decay channel for the stretch mode, the decay scheme of the D 2 O molecule is more complex than that of diatomic molecules. The asymmetric stretch mode of D 2 O has a frequency of 2680 cm -1 . To study the relaxation of this mode we applied a pump-probe technique, using intense psec; pulses of the Stanford Free Electron Laser. Due to the small cross-section of the vibrational mode, successful efforts were made to improve the signal to noise ratio by using a laser stabilization system and a tightly focused beam to increase the intensity, by averaging the signal with a kHz repetition rate and by using samples with an optimized D 2 O concentration. A rapid relaxation rate on the order of 5 x 10 9 sec -1 at low temperature is found that increases with temperature. Recalling that the bending mode of the D 2 O molecule has a frequency of 1170 cm -1 , one would expect a decay in a third order process, involving two quanta of the bending mode plus a vibrational host quanta with a frequency of 340 cm -1 , which coincides with a fundamental frequency of the pyramidal building blocks of the glassy As 2 S 3 host. Instead, we find from the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate that the D 2 O stretching mode relaxes in a higher order process. This indicates that the relaxation dynamics of small molecules is more complex than generally assumed

  20. Effects of D2O on biochemical parameters of normal cells and tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesewig, G.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of high temperatures (Hyperthermia) on normal tissue and Ehrlich-Ascites tumour cells ('ATZ') was examined under several conditions with regard to the application of deuterium oxide as a stabilising factor. It was proven that the DNA-synthesis of normal tissue (liver, mouse) is not sensitive to temperature. This effect of hyperthermia only occurs when the tissue is damaged, e.g. by trypsinising. The influence of hyperthermia on several biochemical parameters and on morphological changes of the Ascites cells was examined. The findings show that deuterium oxide (D 2 O) is able to reduce both the thermal and the ureal denaturation of enzymes. Thus tests were carried out to find out if D 2 O also reduces toxic influence in complicated biological systems. The assumption of high D 2 O concentrations to prevent several reactions was confirmed. When the Ascites tumour cells in the H 2 O-buffer were exposed to the damaging influence of hyperthermia, the high degree of damage was seen with the decreasing DNA synthesis, reduced aerobic glycose capacity, a drop in the ATP values and breakdown of the permeability of the membrane. Deuterium oxide was able under high temperature (from appr. 44 0 C on) to reduce the degree of damage to DNA synthesis, while auto-effects (inhibition of synthesis) of D 2 O predominate in the lower region. Aerobic glycolysis was damaged in both cases to the same degree, however. In D 2 O after hyperthermia the ATP-level dropped faster than in H 2 O. D 2 O not only reduces the thermal denaturation of the Ascites tumour cells, but it also eliminates the toxic influence of the zytostaticum TRENIMONsup(R) (under 38 0 or 46 0 C incubation). (orig./AJ) [de

  1. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. EVALUATION OF N-RATIO IN SELECTING PATIENTS FOR ADJUVANT CHEMORADIOTHERAPY AFTER D2-GASTRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz da COSTA JUNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may contribute to improve survival outcomes after D2-gastrectomy remains controvertial. Objective To explore the clinical utility of N-Ratio in selecting gastric cancer patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out on gastric cancer patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy alone or D2-gastrectomy plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (INT-0116 protocol at the Hospital A. C. Camargo from September 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis were performed using multiple conventional methods, such as c-statistic, adjusted Cox's regression and stratified survival analysis. Results Our analysis involved 128 patients. According to c-statistic, the N-Ratio (i.e., as a continuous variable presented “area under ROC curve” (AUC of 0.713, while the number of metastatic nodes presented AUC of 0.705. After categorization, the cut-offs provide by Marchet et al. displayed the highest discriminating power – AUC value of 0.702. This N-Ratio categorization was confirmed as an independent predictor of survival using multivariate analyses. There also was a trend of better survival by adding of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy only for patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread – 5-year survival of 23.1% vs 66.9%, respectively (HR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.150–1.202; P = 0.092. Conclusions This study confirms the N-Ratio as a tool to improve the lymph node metastasis staging in gastric cancer and suggests the cut-offs provided by Marchet et al. as the best way for its categorization after a D2-gastrectomy. In these settings, the N-Ratio appears a useful tool to select patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and the benefit of adding this type of adjuvancy to D2-gastrectomy is suggested to be limited to patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread (i.e., NR2, 10%–25%.

  3. Dopamine inhibits reproduction in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) via three pituitary D2 receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Jolly, Cécile; Bureau, Charlotte; Baloche, Sylvie; Gonnet, Françoise; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In many teleosts, the stimulatory control of gonadotrope axis by GnRH is opposed by an inhibitory control by dopamine (DA). The functional importance of this inhibitory pathway differs widely from one teleostean species to another. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a teleost fish that has become increasingly popular as an experimental vertebrate model. However, the role of DA in the neuroendocrine control of its reproduction has never been studied. Here the authors evaluated in sexually regressed female zebrafish the effects of in vivo treatments with a DA D2 receptor (D2-R) antagonist domperidone, or a GnRH agonist, alone and in combination, on the pituitary level of FSHβ and LHβ transcripts, the gonadosomatic index, and the ovarian histology. Only the double treatment with GnRH agonist and domperidone could induce an increase in the expression of LHβ, in the gonadosomatic index, and a stimulation of ovarian vitellogenesis, indicating that removal of dopaminergic inhibition is required for the stimulatory action of GnRH and reactivation of ovarian function to occur. Using double immunofluorescent staining on pituitary, the authors showed in this species the innervation of LH cells by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers. Finally, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, the authors showed that the three subtypes of zebrafish DA D2-R (D2a, D2b, and D2c) were expressed in LH-producing cells, suggesting that they all may be involved in mediating this inhibition. These results show for the first time that, in zebrafish, DA has a direct and potent inhibitory action capable of opposing the stimulatory effect of GnRH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  4. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  5. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  7. SPECT imaging of D2 dopamine receptors and endogenous dopamine release in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Cynthia; Bruin, Kora de; Booij, Jan; Beekman, Freek

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor (D2R) is important in the mediation of addiction. [ 123 I]iodobenzamide (IBZM), a SPECT ligand for the D2R, has been used for in vivo studies of D2R availability in humans, monkeys, and rats. Although mouse models are important in the study of addiction, [ 123 I]IBZM has not been used in mice SPECT studies. This study evaluates the use of [ 123 I]IBZM for measuring D2R availability in mice. Pharmacokinetics of [ 123 I]IBZM in mice were studied with pinhole SPECT imaging after intravenous (i.v.) injection of [ 123 I]IBZM (20, 40, and 70 MBq). In addition, the ability to measure the release of endogenous dopamine after amphetamine administration with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT was investigated. Thirdly, i.v. administration, the standard route of administration, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of [ 123 I]IBZM were compared. Specific binding of [ 123 I]IBZM within the mouse striatum could be clearly visualized with SPECT. Peak specific striatal binding ratios were reached around 90 min post-injection. After amphetamine administration, the specific binding ratios of [ 123 I]IBZM decreased significantly (-27.2%; n=6; p=0.046). Intravenous administration of [ 123 I]IBZM led to significantly higher specific binding than i.p. administration of the same dose. However, we found that i.v. administration of a dose of 70 MBq [ 123 I]IBZM might result in acute ethanol intoxication because ethanol is used as a preparative aid for the routine production of [ 123 I]IBZM. Imaging of D2R availability and endogenous dopamine release in mice is feasible using [ 123 I]IBZM single pinhole SPECT. Using commercially produced [ 123 I]IBZM, a dose of 40 MBq injected i.v. can be recommended. (orig.)

  8. Examining the Role of Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors in Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kurt M.; Haight, Joshua L.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01–0.32 mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032–0.32 mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24 mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. PMID:26909847

  9. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D-2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine D-2 receptor (D2DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D-2 receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D2DR stimulations in mice...

  10. Insulin, Central Dopamine D2 Receptors, and Monetary Reward Discounting in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Eisenstein

    Full Text Available Animal research finds that insulin regulates dopamine signaling and reward behavior, but similar research in humans is lacking. We investigated whether individual differences in body mass index, percent body fat, pancreatic β-cell function, and dopamine D2 receptor binding were related to reward discounting in obese and non-obese adult men and women. Obese (n = 27; body mass index>30 and non-obese (n = 20; body mass index<30 adults were assessed for percent body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and for β-cell function using disposition index. Choice of larger, but delayed or less certain, monetary rewards relative to immediate, certain smaller monetary rewards was measured using delayed and probabilistic reward discounting tasks. Positron emission tomography using a non-displaceable D2-specific radioligand, [11C](N-methylbenperidol quantified striatal D2 receptor binding. Groups differed in body mass index, percent body fat, and disposition index, but not in striatal D2 receptor specific binding or reward discounting. Higher percent body fat in non-obese women related to preference for a smaller, certain reward over a larger, less likely one (greater probabilistic discounting. Lower β-cell function in the total sample and lower insulin sensitivity in obese related to stronger preference for an immediate and smaller monetary reward over delayed receipt of a larger one (greater delay discounting. In obese adults, higher striatal D2 receptor binding related to greater delay discounting. Interestingly, striatal D2 receptor binding was not significantly related to body mass index, percent body fat, or β-cell function in either group. Our findings indicate that individual differences in percent body fat, β-cell function, and striatal D2 receptor binding may each contribute to altered reward discounting behavior in non-obese and obese individuals. These results raise interesting questions about whether and how striatal D2 receptor binding

  11. Infinite-parametric extension of the conformal algebra in D>2 space-time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.

    1990-09-01

    On the basis of the analytic continuations of semisimple Lie algebras discovered recently by us we construct manifestly quasiconformal infinite-dimensional algebras AC(so(4,1)) and PAC(so(3,2)) extending the conformal algebras in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space-time like the Virasoro algebra extends so(2,1). Their higher spin generalizations are also constructed. A counterpart of the central extension for D>2 and possible applications in exactly solvable conformal quantum field models in D>2 are discussed. (author). 31 refs, 2 figs

  12. Calculating many-body effects in resonant [(dtμ)d2e] formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the effect of neighboring molecules on the resonant molecular formation reaction tμ + D 2 → [(dtμ)d2e]*, avoiding any expansion in powers of the density. Using a simplified model, the role of collisional broadening, motional narrowing, and the interference of different formation amplitudes is examined. This model is used to generate molecular formation rates as functions of density for fixed temperature. The generalization which will allow comparison with experimental data is discussed

  13. Angular overlap model analysis of the D 2d crystal field effect in uranium (4+) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Hubert, S.; Krupa, J. C.

    1988-12-01

    Recent interpretations of the D 2d crystal field of U 4+ in β-ThCl 4, α, β-ThBr 4, ThSiO 4 and UCl 4 are discussed in terms of the simplified one-, two- and three-parameter versions of the Angular Overlap Model which are shown to be a handy tool in a trial interpretation of the effect. The variation of the CF parameters with a small D 2 distortion of the coordination is well reproduced by the model.

  14. Free radicals in wood induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Honglin; Zhang Wenhui

    1994-01-01

    The free radicals in wood induced by γ-radiation were studied by electron spin resonance. The fine structure of the ESR signal from sawdust samples irradiated could be resolved into various radicals. These free radicals have a very long lifetime. The major spectrum for the free radicals will exponentially increased along with the radiation dose according to Y 1-Exp(-α a D). The intensity of radiation radicals is dependent on tree species. The stronger the intensity of mechanic free radicals is, the stronger the intensity of radiation free radicals

  15. Biosynthesis of the D2-cell adhesion molecule: post-translational modifications, intracellular transport, and developmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Linnemann, D; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and intracellular transport of the D2-cell adhesion molecule (D2-CAM) were examined in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells. Developmental changes in biosynthesis were studied in rat forebrain explant cultures. Two D2-CAM polypeptides with Mr of 187,000-210,000 (A...

  16. Pharmacology and Structural Analysis of Ligand Binding to the Orthosteric Site of Glutamate-Like GluD2 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Hansen, Kasper B; Naur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -term depression. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of the orthosteric binding site in GluD2 by examining the activity of analogs of D-Ser and GluN1 glycine site competitive antagonists at GluD2 receptors containing the lurcher mutation (GluD2(LC)), which promotes spontaneous channel activation. We identify...

  17. HPLC-ESR techniques for detection of complex trapped radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Lin Nianyun; Xie Leidong; Liu Rengzhong

    1992-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ESR combined examination of radical species is an advanced techniques for separation and identification of complex radical species. At SRCL, Waters 990 HPLC has been used to separate the complex trapped radicals and Varian E-112 ESR spectrometer to record the spectra of single trapped radicals after HPLC separation. The advantages of the combined techniques are described as bellow: HPLC is used to separate the long-lived complex trapped radicals derived from reaction of short-lived radicals with spin trap. ESR spectra from single trapped radicals, obtained following HPLC separation of complex trapped radicals, are recorded one by one and well resolved. The structures of short-lived radicals can be inferred from the ESR spectra of the long-lived trapped radicals

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylenedithio-MPTTF-PTM Radical Dyad as a Potential Neutral Radical Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Manuel; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF...

  19. How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demant, F.; de Graaf, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the role of government in encouraging the decline of radical movements. The question posed is: "Which story can the government tell to encourage the decline of radical groups and the disengagement of their members?" The article makes use of the survey of factors promoting

  20. Radical Transversal Lightlike Submanifolds of Indefinite Para-Sasakian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla S.S.; Yadav Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study radical transversal lightlike submanifolds and screen slant radical transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite para-Sasakian manifolds giving some non-trivial examples of these submanifolds. Integrability conditions of distributions D and RadTM on radical transversal lightlike submanifolds and screen slant radical transversal lightlike submanifolds of indefinite para-Sasakian manifolds, have been obtained. We also study totally contact umbilical radical transvers...

  1. Synthesis of 25-hydroxy-[26,27-3H]vitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H]vitamin D2 and their (24R)-epimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicinski, R.R.; Tanaka, Y.; Phelps, M.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis of a C-24-epimeric mixture of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 and a C-24-epimeric mixture of 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 by the Grignard reaction of the corresponding 25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D2 and 1 alpha-acetoxy-25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D3 with tritiated methyl magnesium bromide is described. Separation of epimers by high-performance liquid chromatography afforded pure radiolabeled vitamins of high specific activity (80 Ci/mmol). The identities and radiochemical purities of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H[vitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 D2 were established by cochromatography with synthetic 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Biological activity of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the rat plasma binding protein for vitamin D compounds, and by its in vitro conversion to 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 by kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-deficient chickens. The biological activity of 1,25-dihydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the chick intestinal receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

  2. Modeling of the Reaction Mechanism of Enzymatic Radical C–C Coupling by Benzylsuccinate Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Szaleniec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular modeling techniques and density functional theory calculations were performed to study the mechanism of enzymatic radical C–C coupling catalyzed by benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS. BSS has been identified as a glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the enantiospecific fumarate addition to toluene initiating its anaerobic metabolism in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica, and this reaction represents the general mechanism of toluene degradation in all known anaerobic degraders. In this work docking calculations, classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations, and DFT+D2 cluster modeling was employed to address the following questions: (i What mechanistic details of the BSS reaction yield the most probable molecular model? (ii What is the molecular basis of enantiospecificity of BSS? (iii Is the proposed mechanism consistent with experimental observations, such as an inversion of the stereochemistry of the benzylic protons, syn addition of toluene to fumarate, exclusive production of (R-benzylsuccinate as a product and a kinetic isotope effect (KIE ranging between 2 and 4? The quantum mechanics (QM modeling confirms that the previously proposed hypothetical mechanism is the most probable among several variants considered, although C–H activation and not C–C coupling turns out to be the rate limiting step. The enantiospecificity of the enzyme seems to be enforced by a thermodynamic preference for binding of fumarate in the pro(R orientation and reverse preference of benzyl radical attack on fumarate in pro(S pathway which results with prohibitively high energy barrier of the radical quenching. Finally, the proposed mechanism agrees with most of the experimental observations, although the calculated intrinsic KIE from the model (6.5 is still higher than the experimentally observed values (4.0 which suggests that both C–H activation and radical quenching may jointly be involved in the kinetic control of the reaction.

  3. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itkonen, Suvi T.; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi

    2016-01-01

    -irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20–37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February–April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d......; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  4. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded in the l......Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem...

  5. Radical-pair based avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural experiments suggest that migratory birds possess a magnetic compass sensor able to detect the direction of the geomagnetic. One hypothesis for the basis of this remarkable sensory ability is that the coherent quantum spin dynamics of photoinduced radical pair reactions transduces directional magnetic information from the geomagnetic field into changes of reaction yields, possibly involving the photoreceptor cryptochrome in the birds retina. The suggested radical-pair based avian magnetoreception has attracted attention in the field of quantum biology as an example of a biological sensor which might exploit quantum coherences for its biological function. Investigations on such a spin-based sensor have focussed on uncovering the design features for the design of a biomimetic magnetic field sensor. We study the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  6. Vibronic Spectroscopy of the Phenylcyanomethyl Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepali N.; Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2011-06-01

    Resonance stabilized radicals (RSRs) are thought to be key intermediates in the formation of larger molecules in planetary atmospheres. Given the nitrogen-rich atmosphere of Titan, and the prevalence of nitriles there, it is likely that nitrile and isonitrile RSRs could be especially important in pathways leading to the formation of more complex nitrogen-containing compounds and the aerosols ("tholins") that are ultimately produced. In this talk, the results of a gas phase, jet-cooled vibronic spectroscopy study of the phenylcyanomethyl radical (C_6H_5.{C}HCN), the nitrogen-containing analog of the 1-phenylpropargyl radical, will be presented. A resonant two color photon ionization spectrum over the range 21,350-22,200 Cm-1 (450.0-468.0 nm) has been recorded, and the D_0-D_1 origin band has been tentatively identified at 21,400 Cm-1. Studies identifying the ionization threshold, and characterizing the vibronic structure will also be presented. An analogous study of the phenylisocyanomethyl radical, C_6H_5.{C}HNC, is currently being pursued for comparison with that of phenylcyanomethyl radical.

  7. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  8. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Keigo; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Shoei; Sakamoto, Yuhki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    By electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed free radicals in γ-ray irradiated foods; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng. We also analyzed the decay behavior of radiation induced free radicals during storage of irradiated foods. The ESR spectrum of experimental irradiated foods consists of a sextet signal centered at g=2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position and a singlet signal at g=4.0. The singlet signal at g=2.0 is originated from organic free radicals and its peak intensity showed the dependence of γ-ray irradiation dose levels. The signal intensity was decreased during storage. Only after 3 hours of radiation treatment the peak intensity was decreased fast and after that the intensity was decreased slowly. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , of radiation induced free radicals showed the variations before and after irradiation. During long time storage period it was shown that T 1 was increased and T 2 was decreased. By analysis of decay process using the simulation methods based on the theory of reaction speed, it is considered that at least two kinds of radicals were induced in irradiated foods during long time storage. (author)

  9. Vinylcyclopropylacyl and polyeneacyl radicals. Intramolecular ketene alkyl radical additions in ring synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Benoit; Herbert, Nicola M A; Harrington-Frost, Nicole M; Pattenden, Gerald

    2005-01-21

    Treatment of a variety of substituted vinylcyclopropyl selenyl esters, e.g. 11, with Bu(3)SnH-AIBN in refluxing benzene leads to the corresponding acyl radical intermediates, which undergo rearrangement and intramolecular cyclisations via their ketene alkyl radical equivalents producing cyclohexenones in 50-60% yield. By contrast, treatment of conjugated triene selenyl esters, e.g. 32, with Bu(3)SnH-AIBN produces substituted 2-cyclopentenones via intramolecular cyclisations of their ketene alkyl radical intermediates. Under the same radical-initiating conditions the selenyl esters derived from o-vinylbenzoic acid and o-vinylcinnamic acid undergo intramolecular cyclisations producing 1-indanone and 5,6-dihydrobenzocyclohepten-7-one respectively in 60-70% yields. A tandem radical cyclisation from the alpha,beta,gamma,delta-diene selenyl ester 31 provides an expeditious synthesis of the diquinane 35 in 69% yield.

  10. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and brain perfusion in hemi-parkinsonism rats was studied. Hemi-parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), apomorphine (Apo) which could induced the successful model rat rotates toward the intact side was used to select the rats, 125 I-IBZM ex-vivo autoradiography analysis and 99m Tc-HM-PAO regional cerebral biodistribution were used to evaluate D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD were used to measure striatum DA and its metabolites content. The lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites HVA DOPAC reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (p 0.05). These results indicated that in the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and an up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites was induced in hemi-parkinsonism rats, which showed good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  11. Comparative studies of D2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between dopamine D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow in hemi-Parkinsonism rats. Methods: Hemi-Parkinsonism rats were made by stereotaxic 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OH-DA) lesions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, apomorphine (Apo) which could induce the successful model rat to rotate toward the intact side was used to select the rat models, 125 I-IBZM in vivo autoradiography and 99 Tc m -HMPAO regional cerebral biodistribution analysis were used to study D 2 receptors and cerebral blood flow. The HPLC-ECD was used to measure striatum DA and its metabolite content . Results: the lesioned side striatum DA and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) 3,4-dihyroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) reduced significantly than that of the intact side and pseudo-operated group, striatum/cerebellum 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71 in lesioned side of hemi-Parkinsonism rats, significantly increased compared with the intact side and the pseudo-operated group (P 0.05). Conclusions: the 6-OH-DA lesioned side DA content decreased significantly and thus induced a compensative up-regulation of striatum D 2 receptor binding sites in hemi-Parkinsonism rats, which show good correlation with rotation behavior induced by Apo. Comparing with cerebral blood flow, D 2 receptor reflected by IBZM seems to be more specific and earlier to detect the cerebral functional impairment in experimental hemi-Parkinsonism

  12. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Repeated cocaine administration results in supersensitivity of striatal D-2 dopamine autoreceptors to pergolide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Peris, J.; Yasuda, R.P.; Philpott, K.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of rats administered cocaine-HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline either acutely or once daily for 8 or 14 days were killed 24 hrs after the last dose. In striatal slices prelabelled with [ 3 H]DA, modulation of [ 3 H]-overflow by pergolide was used to measure D-2 autoreceptor activity. Compared to the contemporaneous control group pergolide produced a greater inhibition only in striatal slices from rats treated repeatedly with cocaine. In radioligand binding studies using striatal membranes from control rats, pergolide had a 500-fold greater affinity for the D-2, as opposed to the D-1, dopamine (DA) receptor subtype. These results indicate that repeated treatment with cocaine produces supersensitive striatal D-2 release-modulating autoreceptors consistent with a compensatory change to diminish the effect of elevated synaptic concentrations of DA produced by cocaine. In contrast, supersensitivity of D-2 receptors was not detected in [ 3 H]spiperone binding assays. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  14. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  15. The H2O/D2O exchange across vesicular lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbert, H.P.; Lawaczek, R.

    1985-01-01

    A new method to measure the water (D 2 O/H 2 O) permeation across vesicular lipid bilayers is described. The method is based on the solvent isotope effect of the light scattering which is a consequence of the different indices of refraction of D 2 O and H 2 O. Unilamellar lipid vesicles in excess of H 2 O are rapidly mixed with D 2 O or vice versa. As result of the H 2 O/D 2 O exchange across the vesicular bilayer the light scattering signal has a time dependent, almost single exponential component allowing the deduction of the exchange relaxation rate and, at known size, of the permeability coefficient. The experimental results are in accord with calculations from the Mie theory of light scattering for coated spheres. The method is applicable for large vesicles where the permeation is the rate-limiting step. Size separations are performed by a flow dialysis through a sequence of pore-membrane-filters. For dimyristoyl-lecithin bilayers the water permeability-coefficient is 1.9 . 10 -5 cm/s in the crystalline phase and increases by a factor of 10-100 in the liquid-crystalline state. The temperature dependence of the permeation exhibits a sharp change at the phase transition. For binary mixtures of lecithins this sharp change follows the solidus curve of the non-ideal phase diagram determined by spectroscopic techniques. (orig.)

  16. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... probability for the MTC link. The results show that SIC is an important enabler of low-power underlay D2D transmission for low-rate machine-type traffic; however, it may incur a significant rate penalty for the cellular users when trying to meet the outage requirements of the MTC link....... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...

  17. Iodine (p,n) and (d,2n) excitation function measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Nuckolls, R.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Lanier, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear excitation functions for the reactions 127 I (p,n) 127 Xe and 127 I(d,2n) 127 Xe. These results are being used in the interpretation of data obtained from nuclear test diagnostics. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. 17 CFR 240.12d2-1 - Suspension of trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of trading. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Suspension of Trading, Withdrawal, and Striking from Listing and Registration § 240.12d2-1 Suspension of trading. (a) A national securities exchange may suspend from trading a...

  19. Purification and characterization of the recombinant human dopamine D2S receptor from Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lutea; Grünewald, S; Franke, J.P.; Uges, Donald; Bischoff, Rainer

    The human dopamine D2S receptor was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, where the receptor with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa exhibited specific and saturable binding properties. The dopamine antagonist [H-3]spiperone showed an average dissociation constant K-d of 0.6

  20. [18F]FMeNER-D2: A systematic in vitro analysis of radio-metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Eberherr, Nadine; Berroterán-Infante, Neydher; Vanicek, Thomas; Nics, Lukas; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine transporter (NET) presents an important target for therapy and diagnosis of ADHD and other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Thus, PET is the diagnostic method of choice, using radiolabeled NET-ligands derived from reboxetine. So far, [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 showed best pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. However, the disadvantage of reboxetine derived PET tracers is their high metabolic cleavage—resulting in impeding signals in the PET scans, which hamper a proper quantification of the NET in cortical areas. Methods: Metabolic stability testing was performed in vitro using a plethora of human and murine enzymes. Results: No metabolism was observed using monoamine oxidase A and B or catechol-O-methyl transferase. Incubation of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 with CYP450-enzymes, predominantly located in the liver, led to a significant and fast metabolism of the tracer. Moreover, the arising three radiometabolites were found to be more polar than [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2. Surprisingly, definitely no formation of free [ 18 F]fluoride was observed. Conclusion: According to our in vitro data, the interfering uptake in cortical regions might be attributed to these emerging radiometabolites but does not reflect bonding in bone due to defluorination. Further research on these radiometabolites is necessary to elucidate the in vivo situation. This might include an analysis of human blood samples after injection of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2, to enable a better correction of the PET-input function.

  1. Structure and Properties of Burnished and Nitrided AISI D2 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel TOBOŁA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available D2 belongs to traditional steels, frequently used in metalworking industry. Shot peening and nitriding are known to improve the wear resistance of D2. In this work we focus on processes of slide burnishing and industrial low temperature gas nitriding. The D2 steel specimens were first subjected to heat treatments (HT prescribed by the manufacturer, turning (T, then burnishing (B and nitriding (N. The reason for turning was achieving appropriate surface roughness. Deformation induced in slide burnishing can be better controlled then in shot peening because of deterministic nature of this process. Four different paths to prepare surfaces were employed: HT + T, HT + T + B, HT + T + N, HT + T + B + N. D2 steel is very sensitive to the final finishing, wear rates vary up to 300 %. Two of our procedures (HT + T + N and HT + T + B + N are much superior to the others. Moreover, in the HT + T + N case, apparently the surface fatigue scaling off takes place.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.7224

  2. A comprehensive review on cold work of AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Mohd Aidil Shah bin; Minhat, Mohamad bin; Hussein, Nur Izan Syahriah Binti; Salleh, Mohd Shukor bin

    2017-11-01

    As a common material in mould and die application, AISI D2 cold work tool steel has proven to be a promising chosen material in the industries. However, challenges remain in using AISI D2 through a modified version with a considerable progress having been made in recent years. This paper provides a critical review of the original as-cast AISI D2 cold work tool steel up to the modified version. The main purpose is to develop an understanding of current modified tool steel trend; the machinability of AISI D2 (drilling, milling, turning, grinding and EDM/WEDM; and the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of these cold work tool steels due to the presence of alloy materials in the steel matrix. The doping of rare earth alloy element, new steel fabrication processes, significant process parameter in machinability and surface treatment shows that there have been few empirical investigations into these cold work tool steel alloys. This study has discovered that cold work tool steel will remain to be explored in order to survive in the steel industries.

  3. Integration of Schwinger equation for (φ* φ)d2 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochev, V.E.

    1993-01-01

    A general solution for the Schwinger equation for the generating functional of the complex scalar field theory with (φ * φ) d 2 interaction has been constructed. The method is based on the reduction of the order of this equation using the particular solution

  4. Association between a promoter dopamine D2 receptor gene variant and the personality trait detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Cichon, Sven; Gustavsson, J Petter; Grünhage, Frank; Forslund, Kaj; Mattila-Evenden, Marja; Rylander, Gunnar; Asberg, Marie; Farde, Lars; Propping, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M

    2003-04-01

    Personality traits have shown considerable heritable components. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor density, as determined by positron-emission tomography, has been associated with detached personality, as assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality. A putative functional promoter polymorphism in the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2), -141C ins/del, has been associated with dopamine D(2) receptor density. In this study healthy subjects (n = 235) who filled in at least one of several personality questionnaires (Karolinska Scales of Personality, Swedish Universities Scales of Personality, Health-relevant Five-factor Personality Inventory, and Temperament and Character Inventory) were analyzed with regard to the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant. There was an association (p =.001) between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and Karolinska Scales of Personality Detachment scale, indicating higher scores in subjects with the -141C del variant. There were also associations between the DRD2 -141C ins/del variant and a number of Karolinska Scales of Personality and Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Neuroticism-related scales, but of these only Swedish Universities Scales of Personality Lack of Assertiveness scale (p =.001) survived correction for multiple testing. These results add further support for the involvement of dopamine D(2) receptor in certain personality traits. The results should be treated with caution until replicated.

  5. Voluminous D2 source for intense cold neutron beam production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, K.; Mezei, F.

    2014-01-01

    the target for the complementary needs of certain fundamental physics experiments. To facilitate experiments depending on the total number of neutrons in a sizable beam, the option of a voluminous D2 moderator, in a large cross-section extraction guide is discussed and its neutronic performance is assessed....

  6. Nonsequential double ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D+ fragments obtained from the ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses includes a high-energy component extending up to ˜10 eV. These fragments are only present for linearly, or slightly elliptically, polarized light. Both the maximum kinetic...

  7. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink

  8. Thermal behavior of TAXN and TCDXM D2 collimator mask, Finite element studies

    CERN Document Server

    Sklariks, Stepans

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to perform thermal loading simulations of TCDXM (D2 collimator mask) and TAXN so as to allow the preliminary evaluation of the suitability of the given parts for the upcoming high luminosity upgrade that is to be performed in LHC in the nearest future.

  9. On Secondary Electron Emission from Solid H2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The emission of secondary electrons from solid hydrogen (H2 , D2, T2) is often considered to be of importance for the interaction between a fusion plasma and pellets of solid hydrogens. A set-up was therefore built for studies of interactions between energetic particles and solid hydrogens. Studies...... of secondary electron emission (SEE) from solid H2 and D2 were made for incidence of electrons up to 3 keV and for incidence of ions of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium up to 10 keV. The measurements were made for normal incidence, and in some cases also for oblique incidence. The SEE coefficients for solid H2...... is always 0.65-0.70 times that for solid D2. This difference is attributed to different losses to vibrational states in H2 and D2 for the low energy electrons. Measurements were also made on solid para-H2 with both electrons and hydrogen ions. There was no difference from the results for normal H2, which...

  10. Comparative d2/d3 LSU–rDNA sequence study of some Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... segments yielded one fragment at over all sequenced isolates as 787 bp in size. The DNA sequences were aligned .... expansion segments of the 28S rDNA subunit (D2/D3. LSU-rDNA) are the ... isolated from different geographical location from tea shrubs infested roots of Guilan province, Iran (Table 1).

  11. Arabidopsis and Musa cyclin D2 expressed in banana (cv. “Sukali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic transformation of banana is important because of its polyploidy, sterility and long generation time of most cultivars which limit conventional breeding. However, transformability and regeneration of transgenic lines remains low in bananas. This research reports on the potential of CycD2 genes to improve ...

  12. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Arno; Dickenson, Gareth D.; Salumbides, Edcel J.; Ubachs, Wim; de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Nahon, Laurent

    2012-06-01

    An extensive survey of the D2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm-1 covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, B^' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ}, and C 1Πu electronic states up to the D(1s) + D(2ℓ) dissociation limit. Improved level energies of rovibrational levels have been determined up to respectively v = 51, v = 13, and v = 20. Highest resolution is achieved by probing absorption in a molecular gas jet with slit geometry, as well as in a liquid helium cooled static gas cell, resulting in line widths of ≈0.35 cm-1. Extended calibration methods are employed to extract line positions of D2 lines at absolute accuracies of 0.03 cm-1. The D 1Πu and B^' ' } sideset{^1}{+u}{Σ} electronic states correlate with the D(1s) + D(3ℓ) dissociation limit, but support a few vibrational levels below the second dissociation limit, respectively, v = 0-3 and v = 0-1, and are also included in the presented study. The complete set of resulting level energies is the most comprehensive and accurate data set for D2. The observations are compared with previous studies, both experimental and theoretical.

  13. On the symmetry algebra of the discrete states in d<2 closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, S.; Roy, S.

    1993-01-01

    The symmetry charges associated with the Lian-Zuckerman states for d<2 closed string theory are constructed. Unlike in the open string case, it is shown here that the symmetry charges commute among themselves and act trivially on all the physical states. (author). 19 refs

  14. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212-2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes.

  15. Effects of sigma(1) receptor ligand MS-377 on D(2) antagonists-induced behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Shinji; Takagi, Kaori; Horikomi, Kazutoshi

    2002-10-01

    (R)-(+)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377) is a novel antipsychotic agent with selective and high affinity for sigma(1) receptor. The present study was carried out to clarify the interaction of MS-377 with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists (D(2) antagonists) in concurrent administration, and then the involvement of sigma receptors in the interaction. The effects of MS-377 on haloperidol- or sultopride-induced inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and catalepsy were investigated in mice and rats, respectively. In addition, the effects of (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503, both of which are sigma receptor agonists, and WAY-100,635, which is a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the interaction due to the concurrent use were also investigated. MS-377 potentiated the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, MS-377 did not affect the catalepsy induction by these drugs. The potentiation of the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior by MS-377 was not inhibited by WAY-100,635, but was inhibited by (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503. These findings showed that MS-377 potentiates the efficacy of D(2) antagonists, but it does not deteriorate the adverse effect. Moreover, sigma(1) receptors are involved in this potentiation of the efficacy of D(2) antagonists by MS-377.

  16. Collisional Dynamics of the Cesium D1 and D2 Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    37 14. Comparison of Phase Changing Probability and Polarizability ...Phase Changing Probability and Polarizability for D2 Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 25...theoretically determined the values for broadening and shift rates for cesium with Argon , Krypton, and Xenon from the interatomic potentials [27]. The rates

  17. Utilizing Semantic Interpretation of Junctions for 3D-2D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Yan, Shi; Grest, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the quality of 3D-2D pose estimates using hand labeled line and point correspondences. We select point correspondences from junctions in the image, allowing to construct a meaningful interpretation about how the junction is formed, as proposed in e.g. [1], [2], [3]. W...

  18. Effects of substituting D2O for H2O on SANS measurements of hydrating cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, T.M.; Prior, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of cement have been found useful in the investigation of the shape and growth of particles formed during hydration. Calorimetric measurements of hydrating cement samples have shown that the substitution of D 2 O for H 2 O has the effect of slowing the hydration process. In order to throw some light on this phenomenon, we have measured SANS profiles from cement samples hydrating in H 2 O and D 2 O. This involved obtaining SANS profiles at half-hourly intervals during the initial stage of hydration. The only instruments capable of this at present are located at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin and at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez near Prague. Initial experiments carried out on the V12a UltraSANS diffractometer at The Hahn-Meitner Institute were only partially successful owing to excessive multiple scattering in the D 2 O samples. Subsequent measurements were therefore carried out on the similar instrument at Rez near Prague which operates at a shorter neutron wavelength. Results from these measurements show profound differences in the evolution of cements hydrating in D 2 O and those hydrating in H 2 O

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1EV4D-2OADA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1EV4D-2OADA 1EV4 2OAD D A SGKPVLHYFNARGRMECIRFLLAAAGVEFDEKFIQSPED...ine> ASP CA 238 2OAD A 2OADA...bID>2OAD A 2OADA LLSQNQGGKAFI...2OAD A 2OADA EEVVT-----IDTWM ...ID> 3 2OAD A 2OADA

  20. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D2-dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The D 2 -dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified ∼1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with 3 H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D 2 receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 μM NPA. 35 S-GTPγS binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D 2 -dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D 2 -dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes

  1. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  2. Welding procedure for 06Kh13N7D2 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromtsev, B.I.; Turkov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Based on the results of investigations into the process strength, mechanical and corrosion properties of 08Kh13N7D2 steel welded joints, the optimal method of its welding and a possibility of applying it for high-strength mounting in nuclear power plants are determined

  3. Time resolved resonance Raman spectra of anilino radical and aniline radical cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, G.N.R.; Schuler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    We report, in this paper, submicrosecond time resolved resonance Raman spectra of anilino radical and its radical cation as observed in pulse radiolytic studies of the oxidation of aniline in aqueous solution. By excitation in resonance with the broad and weak electronic transition of anilino radical at 400 nm (ε--1250 M -1 cm -1 ) we have observed, for the first time, the vibrational features of this radical. The Wilson ν 8 /sub a/ ring stretching mode at 1560 cm -1 is most strongly resonance enhanced. The ν 7 /sub a/ CN stretching band at 1505 cm -1 , which is shifted to higher frequency by 231 cm -1 with respect to aniline, is also prominent. The frequency of this latter mode indicates that the CN bond in the radical has considerable double bond character. The Raman spectrum of aniline radical cation, excited in resonance with the --425 nm electronic absorption (ε--4000 M -1 cm -1 ), shows features which are similar to phenoxyl radical. Most of the observed frequencies of this radical in solution are in good agreement with vibrational energies determined by recent laser photoelectron spectroscopic studies in the vapor phase. The bands most strongly enhanced in the resonance Raman spectrum are, however, weak in the photoelectron spectrum. While the vibrational frequencies observed for anilino radical and its isoelectronic cation are quite similar, the resonance enhancement patterns are very different. In particular the ν 14 b 2 mode of anilino radical observed at 1324 cm -1 is highly resonance enhanced because of strong vibronic coupling between the 400 nm 2 A 2 -- 2 B 1 and the higher 2 B 1 -- 2 B 1 electronic transitions

  4. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2008-06-15

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  5. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains...... controversial. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies assessing the effects of analgesic and anesthetic interventions on pain after radical prostatectomy. All searches were conducted in October 2012 and updated in June 2015. RESULTS: Most...... treatments studied improved pain relief and/or reduced opioid requirements. However, there were significant differences in the study designs and the variables evaluated, precluding quantitative analysis and consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reveals that there is a lack...

  6. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2009-01-01

      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...... roles defined in the literature of New Service and New Product Development. Also a number of conditions are found to be necessary in order for this collaboration to succeed. The conclusion is that another understanding and handling of the customer/supplier relation is needed along with a need...

  7. Radiation chemistry of aromatic dimer radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    π-π Interactions of aromatic molecules are paid attention much in many fields, especially biology, chemistry, and applied physics, represented as protein, DNA, electron donor-accepter complexes, charge transfers, and self assembly molecules. Aromatic molecules including benzene rings are the simplest case to study the π-π interactions. To interpret the charge resonance (CR) structure in the dimer radical cations, spectroscopic and ESR methods have been carried out. The spectroscopic study on the dimer radical ion of molecules with two chromophores would be profitable to identify the electronic and configurational properties. In this article, dynamics of the dimer radical cation of benzenes, polystyrenes, and resist polymers is described on the basis of direct observation of CR band by the nanosecond pulse radiolysis and low temperature γ-radiolysis methods. (author)

  8. Formation of stable radicals during perfluoroalkane radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Demidov, S.V.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Accumulation and stabilization kinetics of perfluoroalkyls during α-radiolysis ( 60 Co) of perfluoralkanes (PFA) in a wide temperature range for different PFA fractions differing in the average molecular weight, is investigated. It is noted that low temperature (PFA) radiolysis (77 K) is of a linear nature of accumulation of stabilized radicals up to doses of approximately 700 KGy. In the case of PFA radiolysis at 300 K radiation yields of stable radicals are somewhat lower than at 47 K and at doses of 200-300 KGy, their accumulation ceases. It is shown that kinetics of formation and accumulation of stable radicals does not depend on molecular mass and PFA fraction viscosity. Perfluoroalkyl stability is explained by intra molecular conformation spheric insulation of the free valency. Perfluoroalkyl stability in different PFA fractions in a wide time range in different media is investigated

  9. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brancato

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further

  10. Multigenerational effects of adolescent morphine exposure on dopamine D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John J; Johnson, Nicole L; Carini, Lindsay M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2013-05-01

    The use and misuse of prescription opiates in adolescent populations, and in particular, adolescent female populations, has increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given the significant role that opioids play in neuroendocrine function, exposure to opiates during this critical developmental period could have significant consequences for the female, as well as her offspring. In the current set of studies, we utilized the female rat to model the transgenerational impact of adolescent opiate exposure. We examined locomotor sensitization in response to the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in the adult male progeny (F1 and F2 generations) of females exposed to morphine during adolescence. All females were drug-free for at least 3 weeks prior to conception, eliminating the possibility of direct fetal exposure to morphine. Both F1 and F2 progeny of morphine-exposed females demonstrated attenuated locomotor sensitization following repeated quinpirole administration. These behavioral effects were coupled with increased quinpirole-induced corticosterone secretion and upregulated kappa opioid receptor and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) gene expression within the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest significant modifications in response to repeated D2R activation in the progeny of females exposed to opiates during adolescence. Given the significant role that the D2R plays in psychopathology, adolescent opiate exposure could shift the vulnerability of future offspring to psychological disorders, including addiction. Moreover, that effects are also observed in the F2 generation suggests that adolescent opiate exposure can trigger transgenerational epigenetic modifications impacting systems critical for motivated behavior.

  11. Homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses on striatal medium spiny neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Dominic; Giguère, Nicolas; Loustalot, Fabien; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Ducrot, Charles; El Mestikawy, Salah; Trudeau, Louis-Éric

    2016-05-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are contacted by glutamatergic axon terminals originating from cortex, thalamus and other regions. The striatum is also innervated by dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, some of which release glutamate as a co-transmitter. Despite evidence for functional DA release at birth in the striatum, the role of DA in the establishment of striatal circuitry is unclear. In light of recent work suggesting activity-dependent homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic terminals on MSNs expressing the D2 DA receptor (D2-MSNs), we used primary co-cultures to test the hypothesis that stimulation of DA and glutamate receptors regulates the homeostasis of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. Co-culture of D2-MSNs with mesencephalic DA neurons or with cortical neurons produced an increase in spines and functional glutamate synapses expressing VGLUT2 or VGLUT1, respectively. The density of VGLUT2-positive terminals was reduced by the conditional knockout of this gene from DA neurons. In the presence of both mesencephalic and cortical neurons, the density of synapses reached the same total, compatible with the possibility of a homeostatic mechanism capping excitatory synaptic density. Blockade of D2 receptors increased the density of cortical and mesencephalic glutamatergic terminals, without changing MSN spine density or mEPSC frequency. Combined blockade of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors increased the density of cortical terminals and decreased that of mesencephalic VGLUT2-positive terminals, with no net change in total excitatory terminal density or in mEPSC frequency. These results suggest that DA and glutamate signaling regulate excitatory inputs to striatal D2-MSNs at both the pre- and postsynaptic level, under the influence of a homeostatic mechanism controlling functional output of the circuit.

  12. Multivariate cluster analysis of dynamic iodine-123 iodobenzamide SPET dopamine D2receptor images in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.D.; Pilowsky, L.S.; Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a multivariate statistical technique to investigate striatal dopamine D 2 receptor concentrations measured by iodine-123 iodobenzamide ( 123 I-IBZM) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). This technique enables the automatic segmentation of dynamic nuclear medicine images based on the underlying time-activity curves present in the data. Once the time-activity curves have been extracted, each pixel can be mapped back on to the underlying distribution, considerably reducing image noise. Cluster analysis has been verified using computer simulations and phantom studies. The technique has been applied to SPET images of dopamine D 2 receptors in a total of 20 healthy and 20 schizophrenic volunteers (22 male, 18 female), using the ligand 123 I-IBZM. Following automatic image segmentation, the concentration of striatal dopamine D 2 receptors shows a significant left-sided asymmetry in male schizophrenics compared with male controls. The mean left-minus-right laterality index for controls is -1.52 (95% CI -3.72-0.66) and for patients 4.04 (95% CI 1.07-7.01). Analysis of variance shows a case-by-sex-by-side interaction, with F=10.01, P=0.005. We can now demonstrate that the previously observed male sex-specific D 2 receptor asymmetry in schizophrenia, which had failed to attain statistical significance, is valid. Cluster analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine studies provides a powerful tool for automatic segmentation and noise reduction of the images, removing much of the subjectivity inherent in region-of-interest analysis. The observed striatal D 2 asymmetry could reflect long hypothesized disruptions in dopamine-rich cortico-striatal-limbic circuits in schizophrenic males. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong; Hu Mingyang; Pan Shangren; Wang Bocheng

    1996-01-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent 131 I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of 125 I-IBZM and 131 I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K d = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B max = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high 125 I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high 125 -IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. 131 I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat's and rabbit's central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors

  14. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors in addictive-like behaviour for acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Maniaci, Giuseppe; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is active in the central nervous system, where it exerts motivational properties. Acetaldehyde is able to induce drinking behaviour in operant-conflict paradigms that resemble the core features of the addictive phenotype: drug-intake acquisition and maintenance, drug-seeking, relapse and drug use despite negative consequences. Since acetaldehyde directly stimulates dopamine neuronal firing in the mesolimbic system, the aim of this study was the investigation of dopamine D2-receptors' role in the onset of the operant drinking behaviour for acetaldehyde in different functional stages, by the administration of two different D2-receptor agonists, quinpirole and ropinirole. Our results show that acetaldehyde was able to induce and maintain a drug-taking behaviour, displaying an escalation during training, and a reinstatement behaviour after 1-week forced abstinence. Acetaldehyde operant drinking behaviour involved D2-receptor signalling: in particular, quinpirole administration at 0.03 mg/kg, induced a significant decrease in the number of lever presses both in extinction and in relapse. Ropinirole, administered at 0.03 mg/kg during extinction, did not produce any modification but, when administered during abstinence, induced a strong decrease in acetaldehyde intake in the following relapse session. Taken together, our data suggest that acetaldehyde exerts its own motivational properties, involving the dopaminergic transmission: indeed, activation of pre-synaptic D2-receptors by quinpirole, during extinction and relapse, negatively affects operant behaviour for acetaldehyde, likely decreasing acetaldehyde-induced dopamine release. The activation of post-synaptic D2-receptors by ropinirole, during abstinence, decreases the motivation to the consecutive reinstatement of acetaldehyde drinking behaviour, likely counteracting the reduction in the dopaminergic tone typical of withdrawal. These data further strengthen the evidence

  15. Radioiodination of central nerves system dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent. IBZM preparation and preclinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yansong, Lin; Xiangtong, Lin; Mingyang, Hu; Shangren, Pan; Bocheng, Wang [Huashan Hospital of Shanghai Medical Univ., Shanghai (China)

    1996-11-01

    To study preparation of central nerves system dopamine D2 imaging agent {sup 131}I-IBZM and its preclinical investigation, peracetic acid was used as the oxidant for preparing radioiodinated {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM, D2 binding properties of IBZM were examined by in vitro binding saturation analysis, rat whole body and regional brain biodistribution, rat brain autoradiography and rabbit SPECT static imaging, etc. The results are: 1. The radiolabelling yields of {sup 125}I-IBZM and {sup 131}I-IBZM were 84.18% +- 3.06% and 78.50% +- 3.47%. The radiochemical purity were over 95% after being isolated by HPLC; and were over 90% after being isolated by organic extraction. 2. Scatchard plot of D2 receptor saturation binding analysis showed: K{sub d} = 0.53 +- 0.06 nmol/L, B{sub max} = 466.45 +- 45.88 fmol/mg protein. 3. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high {sup 125}I-IBZM uptake in striatal area 2 hr after injection, the striatal/cerebellum ratio was 6.22 +- 0.48; the high {sup 125}-IBZM uptake can be blocked by haloperidol--a special dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. 4. {sup 131}I-IBZM rat biodistribution and rabbit SPECT planar imaging showed good initial brain uptake and retention, the initial uptake of rat brain was 1.893 +- 0.147% ID/g at 2 min and 1.044 +- 0.135% ID/g at 60 min. The results showed that the radioiodinated IBZM had high affinity, saturation and specificity to rat`s and rabbit`s central nerves system dopamine D2 receptors.

  16. Diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of gas phase and adsorbed D2-(H2)n clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have computed ground state energies and analyzed radial distributions for several gas phase and adsorbed D2(H2)n and HD(H2)n clusters. An external model potential designed to mimic ionic adsorption sites inside porous materials is used [M. Mella and E. Curotto, J. Phys. Chem. A 121, 5005 (2017)]. The isotopic substitution lowers the ground state energies by the expected amount based on the mass differences when these are compared with the energies of the pure clusters in the gas phase. A similar impact is found for adsorbed aggregates. The dissociation energy of D2 from the adsorbed clusters is always much higher than that of H2 from both pure and doped aggregates. Radial distributions of D2 and H2 are compared for both the gas phase and adsorbed species. For the gas phase clusters, two types of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are considered: one based on the assumption that rotations and translations are adiabatically decoupled and the other based on nonisotropic four-dimensional potential. In the gas phase clusters of sufficiently large size, we find the heavier isotopomer more likely to be near the center of mass. However, there is a considerable overlap among the radial distributions of the two species. For the adsorbed clusters, we invariably find the heavy isotope located closer to the attractive interaction source than H2, and at the periphery of the aggregate, H2 molecules being substantially excluded from the interaction with the source. This finding rationalizes the dissociation energy results. For D2-(H2)n clusters with n ≥12 , such preference leads to the desorption of D2 from the aggregate, a phenomenon driven by the minimization of the total energy that can be obtained by reducing the confinement of (H2)12. The same happens for (H2)13, indicating that such an effect may be quite general and impact on the absorption of quantum species inside porous materials.

  17. Interaction between vitamin D 2 and magnesium in liposomes: Differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyran, Neslihan; Severcan, Feride

    2007-08-01

    Magnesium (Mg 2+) ion is of great importance in physiology by its intervention in 300 enzymatic systems, its role in membrane structure, its function in neuromuscular excitability and vitamin D metabolism and/or action. In the present study, the interaction of Mg 2+, at low (1 mole %) and high (7 mole %) concentrations with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes has been studied in the presence and absence of vitamin D 2 (1 mole %) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. DSC studies reveal that the presence of vitamin D 2 in the pure or Mg 2+ (at both low and high concentrations) containing liposomes diminishes the pretransition. The calorimetric results also reveal that, inclusion of Mg 2+ (more significantly at high concentration) into pure or vitamin D 2 containing DPPC liposomes increases the main phase transition temperature. The investigation of the CH 2 symmetric, the CH 3 asymmetric, the C dbnd O stretching, and the PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands in FTIR spectra with respect to changes occurring in the wavenumber and/or the bandwidth values as a function of temperature reveal that, inclusion of vitamin D 2 or Mg 2+ into pure DPPC liposomes orders and decreases the dynamics of the acyl chains in both gel and liquid-crystalline phases and does not induce hydrogen bond formation in the interfacial region. Furthermore, the dynamics of the head groups of the liposomes decreases in both phases. Our findings reveal that, simultaneous presence of vitamin D 2 and Mg 2+ alters the effect of each other, which is reflected as a decrease in the interactions between these two additives within the model membrane.

  18. Hearing Status after Radical Mastoidectomy without Tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamaila Nawaz; Udaipurwala, Iqbal Hussain; Mehmood, Talat; Rahat, Zahid Mehmood

    2017-12-01

    To find out the impairment of hearing associated with radical mastoidectomy by measuring the quantitative difference in the functional hearing level before and after radical mastoidectomy operation without tympanoplasty. Cross-sectional comparative study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur and PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from November 2009 to January 2013. Eighty-five patients, diagnosed clinically as chronic suppurative otitis media with extensive cholesteatoma having history of ear discharge and hearing impairment for more than 6 weeks duration and requiring radical mastoidectomy for treatment, were included in this study. Pure tone audiogram was done before and after radical mastoidectomy. Hearing impairment was compared in each patient before and after the operation. Among the 85 patients, 54 (63.5%) were males and 31 (36.5%) were females, with the age ranged between 18 to 63 years, mean age being 42.31 4.8 years. The mean increase in hearing loss after radical mastoidectomy in air conduction was 7.19 dB, bone conduction was 4.16 dB, and air-bone gap was 3.75 dB (0.001). The ear became dry and safe in 82 patients (96.5%) out of a total of 85, and only 3 patients required revision surgery at a second stage. Radical mastoidectomy has a least negligible effect on hearing status and one should not limit this technique due to the concern of aggravated hearing in patients with extensive cholesteatoma at the cost of dry and safe ears, which should be of prime importance.

  19. Extracellular dopamine, acetylcholine, and activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors after selective breeding for cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyang; Das, Sasmita; Sturgill, Marc; Hodgkinson, Colin; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David; Grasing, Kenneth

    2017-08-01

    The low self-administration (LS)/Kgras (LS) and high self-administration (HS)/Kgras (HS) rat lines were generated by selective breeding for low- and high-intravenous cocaine self-administration, respectively, from a common outbred Wistar stock (Crl:WI). This trait has remained stable after 13 generations of breeding. The objective of the present study is to compare cocaine preference, neurotransmitter release, and dopamine receptor activation in LS and HS rats. Levels of dopamine, acetylcholine, and cocaine were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell of HS and LS rats by tandem mass spectrometry of microdialysates. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity and conditioned-place preference were compared between LS and HS rats. HS rats displayed greater conditioned-place preference scores compared to LS and reduced basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine and acetylcholine. However, patterns of neurotransmitter release did not differ between strains. Low-dose cocaine increased locomotor activity in LS rats, but not in HS animals, while high-dose cocaine augmented activity only in HS rats. Either dose of cocaine increased immunoreactivity for c-Fos in the NA shell of both strains, with greater elevations observed in HS rats. Activation identified by cells expressing both c-Fos and dopamine receptors was generally greater in the HS strain, with a similar pattern for both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Diminished levels of dopamine and acetylcholine in the NA shell, with enhanced cocaine-induced expression of D1 and D2 receptors, are associated with greater rewarding effects of cocaine in HS rats and an altered dose-effect relationship for cocaine-induced locomotor activity.

  20. Asymmetrical distorted structure, dynamics, and reactions of the silacyclohexane and related radical cations: ESR and ab-initio MO study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaguchi, Kenji; Shiotani, Masaru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo

    1995-01-01

    The σ-type radical cations generated by one electron oxidation of the saturated hydrocarbon have been attracted much attention because of their fundamental importance as primary reactant species in radiation chemistry. Our studies on σ-type radical cations were recently extended to the silacyclohexane (cSiC5), silacyclopentane (cSiC4), and silacyclobutane (cSiC3) radical cations. Their electronic structure, dynamics, and reactions were investigated by means of low temperature matrix isolation ESR technique combined with ionizing radiation (γ-rays from 60 Co). In the preceding paper, the 1-methylsilacyclohexane (1-Me-cSiC5) radical cation has been found to take an asymmetrically distorted C 1 structure with one of two Si-C bonds elongated in which the unpaired electron mainly resides ( 2 A in C 1 ). This conclusion was based on the 4.2 K ESR spectra of radical cations of selectively deuteriated and/or methylsubstituted silacyclohexanes, i.e., cSiC5-2,2,6,6-d 4 + , 1-Me-cSiC5 + , 1-Me-cSiC5-2,2-d 2 + , 1-Me-cSiC5-2,2,6,6-d 4 + , 1,1-Me 2 -cSiC5 + , and 4,4-Me 2 -cSiC5 + , in a frozen CF 3 -cC 6 F 11 matrix. Here we report further experimental and theoretical results on 1-methylsilacyclohexane radical cation, especially on the ab initio MO results and matrix effects on the structural distortion, as well as thermal reactions of the radical cations. The results will make it clear that the distorted C 1 structure of the 1-Me-cSiC5 + is the intrinsic nature at the ground electronic state. (J.P.N.)

  1. Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Hienerth, C.

    2008-01-01

    in order to transform their radically new solutions into functional prototypes and then to convince established manufacturers of the technological and market potential of their innovations. Using a comparative case study design in the high-tech field of medical equipment technology, we find that individual...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  2. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenavas, P.

    1969-01-01

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author) [fr

  3. RADICAL. Radiation information centre with analysing logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, H.

    1998-01-01

    in an emergency, the production of data is overwhelming and the need of accurate and up-to-date information is essential. In Finland a new system (RADICAL) has been developed in order to automatically collect and maintain an overall view of the radiation situation and to facilitate the analysis of the consequences of any radiation incident. The project was started in the beginning of 1992 and the system was operational in summer 1994. The main objectives of the development process and how they are being fulfilled with the RADICAL system are discussed. (author)

  4. Dibromine radical anion reactions with heme enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, L.; Gebicki, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of Br 2 radical anion with heme enzymes, catalase horseradish peroxidase, have been studied by pulse radiolysis. It has been found that Br 2 - does not react with the heme centre of investigated enzymes. Dibromine radical anion reacts with tryptophan residues of catalase without any influence on the activity of catalase. It is suggested that in pulse radiolysis studies, where horseradish peroxidase is at about tenfold excess toward Br 2 - , the enzyme is modified rather by Br 2 , than by Br 2 - . (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  5. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  6. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  7. Competing with the radical right: Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffé, H.

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs' and other parties' stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  8. Competing with the radical right. Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffe, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs’ and other parties’ stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  9. Production of Long-Lived H2-, HD-, and D2- during Grazing Scattering Collisions of H2+, H3+, D2+, D3+ and D2H+ Ions with KBr, KCl, and LiF Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, D. G.; Meyer, F. W.; Zhang, H.; Havener, C. C.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated atomic and molecular anion production from singly charged atomic and molecular hydrogen, deuterium, and mixed isotope beams during grazing interactions with large area KBr, KCl, and LiF single crystal targets in the incident energy range 4-22.5 keV. Electron capture and, in the case of incident molecular ions, dissociation occur during the grazing interactions without appreciable angular straggling or change in velocity. As a result, atomic and molecular cation and anion interaction products are strongly peaked in the specular reflection direction, and, in case of dissociation products, at the fractional kinetic energies determined by the product fragment mass to incident mass ratios. A large-acceptance electrostatic analysis and detection system is used to collect the charged scattering products with high efficiency. Of particular interest is the production of metastable molecular ions H 2 - , HD - , and D 2 - . By comparing molecular anion yields obtained from incident hydrogen, deuterium and mixed isotope molecular ions, effects arising from isobaric contamination are seen for some incident molecular species.

  10. Polysulfides and products of H2S/S-nitrosoglutathione in comparison to H2S, glutathione and antioxidant Trolox are potent scavengers of superoxide anion radical and produce hydroxyl radical by decomposition of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Anton; Grman, Marian; Bacova, Zuzana; Rezuchova, Ingeborg; Hudecova, Sona; Ondriasova, Elena; Krizanova, Olga; Brezova, Vlasta; Chovanec, Miroslav; Ondrias, Karol

    2018-06-01

    Exogenous and endogenously produced sulfide derivatives, such as H 2 S/HS - /S 2- , polysulfides and products of the H 2 S/S-nitrosoglutathione interaction (S/GSNO), affect numerous biological processes in which superoxide anion (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals play an important role. Their cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic effects have been reported. Therefore, the aim of our work was to contribute to resolving this apparent inconsistency by studying sulfide derivatives/free radical interactions and their consequent biological effects compared to the antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and Trolox. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique and O 2 - , we found that a polysulfide (Na 2 S 4 ) and S/GSNO were potent scavengers of O 2 - and cPTIO radicals compared to H 2 S (Na 2 S), GSH and Trolox, and S/GSNO scavenged the DEPMPO-OH radical. As detected by the EPR spectra of DEPMPO-OH, the formation of OH in physiological solution by S/GSNO was suggested. All the studied sulfide derivatives, but not Trolox or GSH, had a bell-shaped potency to decompose H 2 O 2 and produced OH in the following order: S/GSNO > Na 2 S 4  ≥ Na 2 S > GSH = Trolox = 0, but they scavenged OH at higher concentrations. In studies of the biological consequences of these sulfide derivatives/H 2 O 2 properties, we found the following: (i) S/GSNO alone and all sulfide derivatives in the presence of H 2 O 2 cleaved plasmid DNA; (ii) S/GSNO interfered with viral replication and consequently decreased the infectivity of viruses; (iii) the sulfide derivatives induced apoptosis in A2780 cells but inhibited apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 ; and (iv) Na 2 S 4 modulated intracellular calcium in A87MG cells, which depended on the order of Na 2 S 4 /H 2 O 2 application. We suggest that the apparent inconsistency of the cytoprotective-antioxidant and contrasting pro-oxidant-toxic biological effects of sulfide derivatives results from their time

  11. Serum Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity as Quantified with Iron-Free Hydroxyl Radical Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Nobuyuki; Oowada, Shigeru; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Shimmei, Masashi; Makino, Keisuke; Fujii, Hirotada; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple ESR spin trapping based method for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging-capacity determination, using iron-free OH radical source. Instead of the widely used Fenton reaction, a short (typically 5 seconds) in situ UV-photolysis of a dilute hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was employed to generate reproducible amounts of OH radicals. ESR spin trapping was applied to quantify OH radicals; the decrease in the OH radical level due to the specimen’s scavenging activity was converted into the OH radical scavenging capacity (rate). The validity of the method was confirmed in pure antioxidants, and the agreement with the previous data was satisfactory. In the second half of this work, the new method was applied to the sera of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. We show for the first time that after hemodialysis, OH radical scavenging capacity of the CRF serum was restored to the level of healthy control. This method is simple and rapid, and the low concentration hydrogen peroxide is the only chemical added to the system, that could eliminate the complexity of iron-involved Fenton reactions or the use of the pulse-radiolysis system. PMID:19794928

  12. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  13. Effects of vitamin D2-fortified bread v. supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites: an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in young adult Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Suvi T; Skaffari, Essi; Saaristo, Pilvi; Saarnio, Elisa M; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin D; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2016-04-14

    There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (PD2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (PD2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (PD2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.

  14. Free radicals from irradiated lyophilized DNA: influence of water of hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettermann, J.; Roehrig, M.; Koehnlein, W.

    1992-01-01

    Lyophilized DNA equilibrated with water vapour at various relative humidities (0-95% H 2 O or D 2 O) was X-irradiated at 77 K and analysed for free radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the temperature range 77-280 K. Analysis of spectra according to variation in humidity, microwave power and temperature generally yielded a doublet and a triplet spectrum at 77 K. The doublet partially converted into the 5-thymyl radical (TH . ). DNA containing deuterated thymine (dTDNA) revealed that the doublet of ''normal'' DNA should be composed of two similar doublets, one of which should be assigned to the thymine anion, the other possibly the cytosine anion. The triplet signal was more stable and could be related to the guanine cation or its deprotonated successor. Several other patterns were detected among them an allyl radical in highly aquated DNA (95% humidity). Other features occurred either predominantly or exclusively in DNA equilibrated above 66% relative humidity and were ascribed to an influence of the secondary structure. (author)

  15. Exploring personality traits related to dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Chung, Jun Ku; Gerretsen, Philip; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    While several studies have examined how particular personality traits are related to dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum of humans, few studies have reported how multiple traits measured in the same persons are differentially related to D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. We examined how personality traits measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality are related to striatal D2/3R availability measured with [(11)C]-raclopride in 30 healthy humans. Based on previous the literature, five personality traits were hypothesized to be most likely related to D2/3R availability: impulsiveness, monotony avoidance, detachment, social desirability, and socialization. We found self-reported impulsiveness was negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. After controlling for age and gender, monotony avoidance was also negatively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and globus pallidus. Socialization was positively correlated with D2/3R availability in the ventral striatum and putamen. After controlling for age and gender, the relationship between socialization and D2/3R availability in these regions survived correction for multiple comparisons (p-threshold=.003). Thus, within the same persons, different personality traits are differentially related to in vivo D2/3R availability in different striatal sub-regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Link between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, P.; Niznik, H.B.; Guan, H.C.; Booth, G.; Ulpian, C.

    1989-01-01

    Dopamine receptor types D 1 and D 2 can oppose enhance each other's actions for electrical, biochemical, and psychomotor effects. The authors report a D 1 -D 2 interaction in homogenized tissue as revealed by ligand binding. D 2 agonists lowered the binding of [ 3 H]raclopride to D 2 receptors in striatal and anterior pituitary tissues. Pretreating the tissue with the D 1 -selective antagonist SCH 23390 prevented the agonist-induced decrease in [ 3 H]raclopride binding to D 2 sites in the striatum but not in the anterior pituitary, which has no D 1 receptors. Conversely, a dopamine-induced reduction in the binding of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 to D 1 receptors could be prevented by the D 2 -selective antagonist eticlopride. Receptor photolabeling experiments confirmed both these D 1 -D 2 interactions. The blocking effect by SCH 23390 was similar to that produced by a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogue, and SCH 23390 reduced the number of agonist-labeled D 2 receptors in the high-affinity state. Thus, the D 1 -D 2 link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components. The link may underlie D 1 -D 2 interactions influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease (both diseases that show some hyperdopamine signs) but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata

  17. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  18. Understanding political radicalization: The two-pyramids model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Clark; Moskalenko, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews some of the milestones of thinking about political radicalization, as scholars and security officials struggled after 9/11 to discern the precursors of terrorist violence. Recent criticism of the concept of radicalization has been recognized, leading to a 2-pyramids model that responds to the criticism by separating radicalization of opinion from radicalization of action. Security and research implications of the 2-pyramids model are briefly described, ending with a call for more attention to emotional experience in understanding both radicalization of opinion and radicalization of action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. 11...twentieth century, Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966), an Egyptian Islamic radical, referencing al-Wahhab, developed a modified concept of jahiliyya. In Qutb’s...It strongly disapproves of idolatry, the popular cult of saints and tomb visitation. When ibn Taymiyya was asked if the murderous. Mongols, who

  20. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the