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  1. Influência da linfadenectomia radical (D2 na morbidade e mortalidade da ressecção curativa do carcinoma gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Antonio Oswaldo Altmann

    Full Text Available A despeito da controvérsia existente na literatura com relação aos benefícios da linfadenectomia na sobrevida dos doentes submetidos a ressecções curativas para tratamento do adenocarcinoma gástrico, é inegável que a linfadenectomia ampliada (nível II na classificação japonesa contribui para o melhor estadiamento e prognóstico destes pacientes. Este procedimento permite-nos melhor identificar aqueles pacientes que têm pior prognóstico e oferecer-lhes novas formas de terapia adjuvante. Como o principal argumento para a não realização de cirurgias mais alargadas é que estas são acompanhadas de maior morbidade e mortalidade, os autores estudaram prospectivamente parâmetros relacionados a esses índices nas gastrectomias com linfadenectomia nível 11 (D2 que tiveram intenção curativa. Para tanto, estudaram-se a taxa de mortalidade, o tempo operatório, as unidades de glóbulos transfundidas, as complicações e o tempo de internação pós-operatória. Entre dezembro de 1992 e fevereiro de 1997 foram internados 86 pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma gástrico, dos quais, em 27, atendidos por uma mesma equipe interessada no tratamento destes tumores, houve ressecção cirúrgica com intenção curativa e o tratamento consistiu de gastrectomia acompanhada de linfadenectomia D2. A gastrectomia subtotal foi realizada em 17 doentes, a total em três e a total ampliada em sete. Nove doentes tinham tumores superficiais. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes submetidos a ressecções D2; o tempo médio operatório foi de 208,7 minutos; receberam em média 0,2 unidades de glóbulos e a incidência de complicações foi de 33,3%. A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória média foi de 8,6 dias. Foram estudados 854 linfonodos, dos quais 22,1% eram positivos para tumor metastático. Os autores concluem que a dissecção D2 pode ser feita de forma segura e não deve ser evitada por causa do risco de complicações. Permite

  2. Imaging diffraction oscillations for inelastic collisions of NO radicals with He and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Tim; Karman, Tijs; Vogels, Sjoerd N.; Besemer, Matthieu; Onvlee, Jolijn; Suits, Arthur G.; Thompson, James O. F.; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; van der Avoird, Ad; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T.

    2017-07-01

    We present state-to-state differential cross sections for collisions of NO molecules (X2Π1 /2 ,j =1 /2 ,f ) with He atoms and ortho-D2 (j = 0) molecules as a function of collision energy. A high angular resolution obtained using the combination of Stark deceleration and velocity map imaging allows for the observation of diffraction oscillations in the angular scattering distributions. Differences in the differential cross sections and, in particular, differences in the angular spacing between individual diffraction peaks are observed. Since the masses of D2 and He are almost equal and since D2(j = 0) may be considered as a pseudo-atom, these differences directly reflect the larger size of D2 as compared to He. The observations are in excellent agreement with the cross sections obtained from quantum close-coupling scattering calculations based on accurate ab initio NO-He and NO-D2 potential energy surfaces. For the latter, we calculated a new NO-D2 potential energy surface.

  3. Analysis Application Value of D2 Radical Excision for Gastric Cancer Assist for Laparoscopy%腹腔镜辅助下胃癌D2根治术的应用价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 曹广东; 李敏慧; 刘选文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔镜辅助下胃癌D2根治术的安全性与可行性。方法对比腹腔镜下胃癌D2根治术(腹腔镜组)与常规开腹行胃癌D2根治术(常规开腹组)的治疗效果。结果腹腔镜组出血量、手术切口、术后胃肠功能恢复时间优于开腹组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论腹腔镜胃癌D2根治术与开腹手术效果相当,创伤小且恢复快。%Objective To explore the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic assisted radical resection of gastric cancer under D2. Methods Comparison treatment effect on laparoscopic radical resection of gastric cancer D2 and conventional open radical resection for gastric cancer D2. Results Laparoscopic bleeding volume, operation incision, postoperative gastrointestinal function recovery time was better than the open group. Conclusion Laparoscopic D2 gastric cancer radical operation and open operation effect pretty, little trauma and quick recovery.

  4. A direita radical na Universidade de Coimbra (1945-1974

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    Riccardo Marchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1974 sucedem-se na Universidade de Coimbra três gerações de militantes da direita radical que se norteiam por um nacionalismo revolucionário parcialmente influenciado pela subcultura política do neofascismo europeu. O cerne da luta destes estudantes radicais é a defesa intransigente do império português face à agonia do regime autoritário.Between 1945 and 1974, there were three generations of militants of the radical right at the University of Coimbra, guided by a revolutionary nationalism partly influenced by the political sub-culture of European neofascism. The core of these radical students' struggle lay in an uncompromising defence of the Portuguese empire in the dying days of the authoritarian regime.

  5. Laparoscopy-assisted versus open D2 radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion: a case control study

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    Chen Qi-Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer (AGC remains questionable on account of technical difficulty of D2 lymphadenectomy, and there has been few large-scale follow-up results regarding the oncological adequacy of laparoscopic surgery compared with that of open surgeries for AGC. The aim of this study is to evaluate technical feasibility and oncological efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG for advanced gastric cancer without serosal invasion. Methods From January 2008 to December 2012, 1114 patients with gastric cancer underwent D2 gastrectomy, including 336 T2 and T3 patients in term of depth of invasion. Of all 336 patients, 224 underwent LAG, while open gastrectomy (OG performed on the other 112 patients. The comparison was based on the clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical outcome, and follow-up results. Results There are not significant differences in clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups (P > 0.05. The operation time and first ambulation time was similar in the two groups. However, estimated blood loss, bowel function recovery time and duration of hospital stay were significantly less in the LAG group. No significant difference in morbidity and mortality was found between the LAG group and OG group (11.1% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.266; 0.9% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.859. The mean number of resected lymph nodes (LNS between the LAG group and OG group was similar (30.6 ± 10.1 vs. 30.3 ± 8.6, P = 0.786. Furthermore, the mean number of removed LNS in each station was not significantly different in the distal gastrectomy and total gastrectomy (P > 0.05. No statistical difference was seen in 1 year survival rate (91.5% vs. 89.8% P > 0.05 and the survival curve after surgery between the LAG group and OG group. Conclusion Laparoscopy-assisted D2 radical gastrectomy is feasible, effective and has comparative oncological efficacy compared with

  6. Formation of NaCl-type monodeuteride LaD by the disproportionation reaction of LaD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, A; Honda, M; Hattori, T; Sano-Furukawa, A; Watanuki, T; Katayama, Y; Aoki, K; Komatsu, K; Arima, H; Ohshita, H; Ikeda, K; Suzuya, K; Otomo, T; Tsubota, M; Doi, K; Ichikawa, T; Kojima, Y; Kim, D Y

    2012-05-18

    Previous x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pressure-induced decomposition of an fcc LaH2.3 into H-rich and H-poor fcc phases around 11 GPa. The present neutron diffraction measurements on LaD2 confirm the formation of NaCl-type LaD as a counterpart of the D-rich LaD2+δ by disproportionation. First-principles enthalpy and lattice dynamic calculations demonstrate that the NaCl-type LaH is stabilized at high pressures and can be recovered at ambient conditions. Finding the NaCl-type LaH will pave the way for investigations on the site-dependent nature of hydrogen-metal interactions.

  7. Comparative study of laparoscope and laparotomy D2 radical gastrectomy in the treatment of distal gastric cancer%腹腔镜与开腹远端胃癌D2根治术的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪生; 曾文龙; 朱柏炼; 杜永御; 赖扬城

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对比腹腔镜与开腹远端胃癌D2根治术的疗效及安全性,探讨腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术的临床价值。方法221例行远端胃癌D2根治术患者,分为两组。其中腹腔镜组115例,开腹组106例,对两组手术时间、术中出血量、术后排气时间、首次进流质时间、淋巴结清扫数目、术后住院天数、并发症进行比较。结果腹腔镜组手术时间、淋巴结清扫数与开腹组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而腹腔镜组术中出血量少,术后肛门排气时间早,首次进流质时间早,术后住院时间短,并发症发生率低(P0.05). However, the laparoscope group had fewer intraoperative bleeding volumes, earlier postoperative anal exhaust time, earlier first time of liquid diet, shorter postoperative hospital stays and lower incidence of complications (P<0.05). Conclusion Laparoscope assisted D2 radical gastrectomy in the treatment of distal gastric cancer has small trauma, few bleeding, quick recovery and less complications. The recent curative effect is similar as that of laparotomy, and the treatment is safe and feasible, and worthy of clinical promotion.

  8. 手助腹腔镜胃癌 D2根治术的团队配合%Teamwork Cooperation in Hand-assisted Laparoscopic D2 Radical Gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周均; 曹永宽; 宋亚宁; 王永华; 张国虎; 王培红; 李旭

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨手助腹腔镜胃癌D2根治术的团队配合技巧及重要性。方法对我中心2010年12月~2013年6月180例手助腹腔镜胃癌D2根治术的临床资料进行回顾性总结。术者及助手相对固定,只需术者及扶镜手两人相互配合,就能完成肿瘤的根治性切除及淋巴结清扫。结果180例均在手助腹腔镜下完成手术,全胃切除术84例,远端胃切除术81例,近端胃切除术15例。手术切口长度(6.9±0.5)cm;术中出血量(226.1±127.0)ml;手术时间(172.2±34.1)min;病检获淋巴结数(17.3±5.0)枚;术后住院时间(9.3±2.0) d。围手术期死亡1例,手术残端癌残留2例。手术相关并发症率6%(11/180)。术后随访1~24个月,失访12例(失访率7%),同时性肝转移4例,异时性淋巴结转移2例,局部复发1例,未发生切口和穿刺口种植。结论良好的团队配合是保证手助腹腔镜胃癌D2根治术的必备条件,对肿瘤的根治程度、手术时间及术后并发症的发生起着至关重要的作用。%Objective To discuss the importance of teamwork coorperation in hand-assisted laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy. Methods Clinical materials of 180 patients with gastric cancer undergoing hand-assisted laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy from December 2010 to June 2013 were summarized retrospectively.The lymph nodes dissection and radical tumor excision were performed by two persons of cooperation that the operator surgeon worked with camera assistant in a relatively fixed mode in the operation. Results The hand-assisted laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy was accomplished in all the patients.Among the 180 patients, gastrectomy was performed in 84 cases, distal gastrectomy in 81 cases, and proximal gastrectomy in 15 cases.The average length of incision was (6.9 ±0.5) cm, the blood loss was (226.1 ±127.0) ml, the operative time was (172.2 ±34.1) min, the number

  9. Surgical Approach of Laparoscopic D2 Radical Gastrectomy for Distal Gastric Cancer%腹腔镜远端胃癌D2根治术手术路径的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建; 王守光; 滕世岗; 季志刚; 刘忠诚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔镜远端胃癌D2根治术手术路径的临床效果. 方法 2007年10月~2010年5月,对56例远端胃癌实施腹腔镜远端胃癌D2根治手术.手术路径:大网膜切除和横结肠系膜前叶剥离;解剖腹腔动脉、肝总动脉、脾动脉及清扫相应淋巴结;处理胃右动脉和5组淋巴结;清扫12a组淋巴结等顺序进行,淋巴清扫以4d→4 sb→14v→6→7/9→11 p→8a→5→12a→1→3的路径进行. 结果 手术时间130 ~375 min,(203.4±48.4) min.清扫淋巴结13 ~21枚,(16.2±1.2)枚.术后胃肠功能恢复时间48 ~120 h,(80.6±17.7)h.标本远近切缘无癌残留.无围手术期死亡病例.术后72 h吻合口出血1例,96 h输出端梗阻1例.56例术后随访2~31个月,(14.1±6.9)月,死亡8例:肿瘤广泛转移6例,心脑血管疾病2例;带瘤生存5例,无瘤生存43例,无瘤生存时间最长已31个月. 结论 腹腔镜远端胃癌D2根治术按照合理的路径进行手术,能够保证手术在正确的间隙和解剖层面进行,有利于在遵循肿瘤根治的原则下完成手术.%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of the surgical pathway of laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer. Methods Totally 56 patients underwent laparoscopic D2 radical resection for distal gastric cancer from October 2007 to May 2010. The operation included 5 main steps in a certain order; first, resecting the omentum and divesting anterior lobe of the transverse mesocolon; second, anatomizing the celiac, common hepatic, splenic arteries and dissecting corresponding lymph nodes; third, managing the right gastric artery and five lymph node groups; fourth, dissecting the lymph node of 12a group;finally, the lymph nodes were dissected following the order of 4d→4sb→14v→6→7/9→llp→8a→5→12a→1→3. Results The operation time was 130 - 375 minutes [ mean, (203. 4 ±48. 4) minutes], number of harvested lymph nodes was 13 - 21 ( mean,16. 2 ± 1. 2) , and the

  10. 腹腔镜辅助D2根治术治疗进展期胃癌的效果观察%Effect of laparoscopy-assisted gastric D2 radical surgery in treating advanced gastris cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 梁杰雄; 邵天松; 宋辉; 郭洋; 李洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of laparoscopy-assisted gastric D2 radical surgery in treating advanced gastris cancer.Methods Totally 78 cases with advanced gastric cancer from January 2008 to June 2013 were randomly divided into observation group (36 cases) receiving laparoscopic D2 radical gastrectomy and control group (40 patients) receiving laparotomy D2 radical gastrectomy.The incision length,operation duration,intraoperative blood loss,number of lymph nodes dissected,time of liquid diet intake,anal exhaust time,duration of hospitalization,complications and survival rate were compared between groups.Results The incision length,intraoperative blood loss,exhaust time,duration of hospitalization,incidence of complications in observation group were all significantly lower than those in control group [(5.7 ±0.4) cm vs (17.4 ± 1.5) cm,(164 ±35) ml vs (255 ± 87) ml,(2.8 ±1.6) d vs (4.9±2.5) d,(4.2±0.8) d vs (6.7±1.0) d,(12±3) d vs (15 ±4) d,13.9% (5/36) vs 32.5% (13/40)] (P <0.05);the operation duration,number of lymph nodes dissected,survival rate were not significantly different between two groups (P >0.05).Conclusion Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastric resection D2 is safe and feasible,it can achieve similar curative effect with laparotomy in treating advanced gastric cancer.%目的 探究腹腔镜辅助D2根治术治疗进展期胃癌的疗效.方法 对2008年1月至2013年6月于首都医科大学附属北京安贞医院接受手术治疗的76例进展期胃癌患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,根据手术方式分为腹腔镜辅助手术组(观察组,36例)和开腹手术组(对照组,40例).比较2组患者切口长度、手术时间、术中出血量、清扫淋巴结个数、进食流质时间、肛门排气时间、术后住院时间、并发症发生情况以及术后存活率.结果 观察组患者切口长度、术中出血量、排气时间、进食流质时间、住院时间、术后并发症发

  11. Predicting treatment response from dopamine D2/3 receptor bnding potential? - A study in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    of 29 antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 26 matched healthy controls, SPECT with [123l]-IBZM was used to examine the BPP of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptors. The participants were examined at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment with a selective D2/3 receptor antagonist, amisulpride......Background and aim: One of the best validated findings in schizophrenia is the association between increased striatal dopaminergic transmission and positive psychotic symptoms. Numerous studies have likewise confirmed an association between blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors and the effect...... of antipsychotic compounds on the positive symptoms. Furthermore, blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors have in studies shown to associate negatively with subjective well-being. Our main aim was to explore a possible predictive value of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential (BPp) for treatment...

  12. Striatal D2/3 Binding Potential Values in Drug-Naïve First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Correlate With Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Pinborg, Lars Hageman; Svarer, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    One of best validated findings in schizophrenia research is the association between blockade of dopamine D2 receptors and the effects of antipsychotics on positive psychotic symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine correlations between baseline striatal D2/3 receptor binding potential...... (BPp) values and treatment outcome in a cohort of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we wished to investigate associations between striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade and alterations of negative symptoms as well as functioning and subjective well-being. Twenty...... antagonist amisulpride. There was a significant negative correlation between striatal D2/3 receptor BPp at baseline and improvement of positive symptoms in the total group of patients. Comparing patients responding to treatment to nonresponders further showed significantly lower baseline BPp...

  13. O2 free radicals: cause of ischemia-reperfusion injury to cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S.; Akera, T.

    1987-02-01

    The role of O2 free radicals in the reduction of sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase, which occurs during reperfusion of ischemic heart, was examined in isolated guinea pig heart using exogenous scavengers of O2 radicals and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Ischemia and reperfusion reduced Na+-K+-ATPase activity and specific (3H)ouabain binding to the enzyme in ventricular muscle homogenates and also markedly lowered sodium pump activity estimated from ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by ventricular muscle slices. These effects of ischemia and reperfusion were prevented to various degrees by O2-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl-sulfoxide, histidine, or vitamin E or by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol. The degree of protection afforded by these agents paralleled that of reduction in enhanced lipid peroxidation of myocardial tissue as estimated from malondialdehyde production. These results strongly suggest that O2 radicals play a crucial role in the injury to sarcolemmal Na+-K+-ATPase during reperfusion of ischemic heart.

  14. Extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment.

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    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Svarer, Claus; Baaré, William F C; Allerup, Peter; Friberg, Lars; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2017-10-01

    Long-term dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade, common to all antipsychotics, may underlie progressive brain volume changes observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined associations between cortical volume changes and extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials (BPND) in first-episode schizophrenia patents at baseline and after antipsychotic treatment. Twenty-two initially antipsychotic-naïve patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(123)I]epidepride single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT), and psychopathology assessments before and after 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (N = 13) or zuclopenthixol (N = 9). Twenty healthy controls matched on age, gender and parental socioeconomic status underwent baseline MRI and SPECT. Neither extrastriatal D2/3 receptor BPND at baseline, nor blockade at follow-up, was related to regional cortical volume changes. In post-hoc analyses excluding three patients with cannabis use we found that higher D2/3 receptor occupancy was significantly associated with an increase in right frontal grey matter volume. The present data do not support an association between extrastriatal D2/3 receptor blockade and extrastriatal grey matter loss in the early phases of schizophrenia. Although inconclusive, our exclusion of patients tested positive for cannabis use speaks to keeping attention to potential confounding factors in imaging studies.

  15. Effects of Blocking D2/D3 Receptors on Mismatch Negativity and P3a Amplitude of Initially Antipsychotic Naïve, First Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Oranje, Bob

    2016-01-01

    clinically and functionally, it had no effect on either mismatch negativity or P3a amplitude. This suggests that even though there is a dopaminergic involvement in global functioning and symptomatology in schizophrenia, there is no such involvement in these particular measures of early information processing....... in mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude are related to increased dopaminergic activity. This is the first study investigating the effect of amisulpride, a potent D2-antagonist, on mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude in a large group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients. METHODS......BACKGROUND: Reduced mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude have been suggested to be among the core deficits in schizophrenia since the late 1970s. Blockade of dopamine D2 receptors play an important role in the treatment of schizophrenia. In addition, there is some evidence indicating that deficits...

  16. D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with [F-18]fallypride correlates of executive function in medication-naïve patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nora S; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Lehrer, Douglas S; Merrill, Brian M; DeCastro, Alex; Doninger, Nicholas A; Christian, Bradley T; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2017-05-30

    Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia. Resting-state (18)F-fallypride positron emission tomography was performed on 20 medication-naïve and 5 previously medicated for brief earlier periods patients with schizophrenia and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels were quantified as binding potential using fallypride imaging. Magnetic resonance images in standard Talairach position and segmented into gray and white matter were co-registered to the fallypride images, and the AFNI stereotaxic atlas was applied. Two neuropsychological tasks known to activate frontal and temporal lobe function were chosen, specifically the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Images of the correlation coefficient between fallypride binding and WCST and CVLT performance showed a negative correlation in contrast to positive correlations in healthy volunteers. The results of this study demonstrate that lower fallypride binding potential in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with better performance. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that failed to find cognitive improvements with typical dopamine-blocking medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Orthogonal D2 O-Based Induction System that Provides Insights into d-Amino Acid Pattern Formation by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Peptide Epimerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaka, Brandon I; Verest, Marjan; Freeman, Michael F; Gugger, Muriel; Piel, Jörn

    2017-01-16

    Radical S-adenosyl methionine peptide epimerases (RSPEs) are an enzyme family that accomplishes regiospecific and irreversible introduction of multiple d-configured residues into ribosomally encoded peptides. Collectively, RSPEs can generate diverse epimerization patterns in a wide range of substrates. Previously, the lack of rapid methods to localize epimerized residues has impeded efforts to investigate the function and applicative potential of RSPEs. An efficient mass spectrometry-based assay is introduced that permits characterization of products generated in E. coli. Applying this to a range of non-natural peptide-epimerase combinations, it is shown that the d-amino acid pattern is largely but not exclusively dictated by the core peptide sequence, while the epimerization order is dependent on the enzyme-leader pair. RSPEs were found to be highly promiscuous, which allowed for modular introduction of peptide segments with defined patterns.

  18. The radical right ineurope, between slogans and voting behavior A direita radical na Europa, entre slogans e comportamento de voto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Conti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the radical right’s attitudes toward the EU focusing in particular on the level of congruence between the programmatic statements of their central offices and the voting behavior of their MEPs. It shows that although radical right parties are a source of opposition to the EU, within the EP they express their dissent by abiding by the rules of the game, voting with the opposition more than the other forces do, but also voting almost as often with the majority. The radical right’s MEPs engage in the legislative process and cooperate with parties on both sides of the political spectrum more than the Eurosceptic rhetoric and statements of their central offices lead the public to believe.O artigo analisa as atitudes da direita radical em relação à UE, focando-se, em particular, no nível de congruência entre as afirmações programáticas dos seus dirigentes e o comportamento de voto dos seus membros no parlamento europeu. Demonstra que apesar de os partidos radicais de direita constituírem um foco de oposição à UE, quando no parlamento europeu expressam o seu desacordo dentro das regras do jogo, votando com a oposição mais do que as outras forças, mas votando também com a maioria quase com igual regularidade. Os grupos parlamentares inserem-se no processo legislativo e são mais colaborantes com outros partidos de toda a gama ideológica do que a retórica e as afirmações dos dirigentes centrais fazem crer.

  19. 开腹与腹腔镜辅助下远端胃癌D2根治术对进展期胃癌的近期疗效分析%An analysis of short-term effects of open and laparoscopy-assisted the distal gastric D2 radical surgery for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗武凌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of laparoscopy surgery conducted on advanced gastric cancer by the comparative analysis of short-term effect of open and laparoscopy-assisted the distal gastric D2 radical surgery.Methods The clinicopathologic features of 75 patients with advanced gastric cancer received laparoscopy(n=42) and open surgery(n=33) respectively from June 2009 to July 2012 in this hospital were collected,and the outcome result was analyzed.Results All of the patients were received successful distal gastric D2 radical surgery.The mean operation time,length of incision,blood loss,first flatus time,ground activity time,liquid diet intake time and hospital stay in laparoscopy group,which were definitely shorter than open surgery group,were (162.00±12.99)min,(5.99±0.77)cm,(149.14±26.87)mL,(4.15±0.80)d,(2.93±0.83)d,(4.23±0.78)d and (13.30± 2.78)d respectively(P<0.05) ;but there was no significant difference between laparoscopy and open surgery with number of lymph nodes removed and length of proximal and distal margin to the cancer(P>0.05),which were 29.13 ±17.87,(6.05 ± 1.12)cm and (7.13± 1.08)cm respectively.The probability of incision infection and lung infection in the open surgery group was much higher than the laparoscopy group(P<0.05),but there was no significant difference in the probability of leakage and bleeding of anastomotic stoma,and postoperative gastroparesis between two groups(P>0.05).Conclusion Compared with open surgery,laparoscopy-assisted the distal gastric D2 radical surgery used on advanced gastric cancer had similar radical effect.At the same time,it has the advantages of shorter time of operation,shorter incision,less bleeding,faster recovery,safety and reliability.%目的 通过对开腹与腹腔镜辅助下远端胃癌D2根治术对进展期胃癌的近期疗效进行对比分析,从而评价腹腔镜手术在进展期胃癌的临床应用价值.方法 收集2009年6月至2012年7月期间75例进展期

  20. Depression of membrane-bound Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity induced by free radicals and by ischemia of kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kako, K.; Kato, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Mustapha, A. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1988-02-01

    A partially purified, membrane-bound Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase fraction, prepared from the outer medulla of porcine kidney, was incubated in the presence of 0.1-100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for either 15 or 30 min at 37{degree}C. The activity of ouabain-sensitive Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase was reduced proportionally to the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the duration of incubation. There were decreases in SH contents and turnover rates of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase preparation, while malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes were generated from the membrane lipids in the course of the incubation. The concentrations of ethanolamine (E) plasmalogen and of arachidonic acid in the E glycerophospholipid molecules were reduced by the free radical reaction. Similarly, a reduction in Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase activity and the formation of MDA and conjugated dienes, together with a decrease in E glycerophospholipids, were observed when the membrane fraction was exposed to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) for 30 min at 4{degree}C. Microsomal fractions, prepared from the outer medulla of canine kidney after 1 h of unilateral ischemia and 1 h of reperfusion, showed a decreased Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity, a reduced amount of SH groups, and an increased MDA. These changes were normalized by the infusion of N-mercaptopropionylglycine. These results support the view (1) that free radical generation affects the enzyme protein as well as membrane lipids, and (2) that free radicals may be formed in the ischemic reperfused kidney.

  1. Pancreas-centered Anatomy in D2 Radical Lymphadenectomy in Laparoscopic-assisted Distal Gastrectomy%“胰腺中心解剖法”在腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术淋巴结清扫中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俊峰; 暨玲; 阮小蛟; 郑晓风

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨“胰腺中心解剖法”在腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术淋巴结清扫中的价值.方法 回顾性分析2009年9月~ 2011年5月开展的20例以胰腺为解剖中心的腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术病例资料(A组),并以2009年5月~8月同术者20例传统腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术为对照(B组),比较2组一般资料、手术相关指数、切缘距肿瘤距离、术后恢复时间、术后生活质量评分、术后30天内并发症以及1、2年生存率.结果 与B组相比,A组手术时间短[(110.3-20.1)min vs.(160.0±30.4)min,t=-6.100,P=0.000],术中出血量少[(149.6±60.4)ml vs.(332.0±104.5)ml,t=-6.757,P=n.000].2组淋巴结清扫数目、切缘距肿瘤距离、肛门排气时间、进食时间、术后住院时间、生活质量评分以及术后30天内并发症发生率差异均无显著性(P>0.05),A组1、2年的生存率分别为54.30%、34.30%,B组为52.87%、34.30%,2组差异无显著性(x2=0.132,P=0.717).结论 “胰腺中心解剖法”可以缩短腹腔镜辅助远端胃癌D2根治术手术时间,减少出血.%Objective To evaluate pancreas-centered anatomy in D2 radical lymphadenectomy in laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy ( LADG). Methods We reviewed the clinical data of 20 patients with distal gastric cancer, who underwent LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy by using pancreas centered anatomy in our hospital from September 2009 to May 2011 (group A). Another 20 patients with distal gastric cancer, who recieved LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy by using traditional methods from May 2009 to August 2009, were set as a control group (group B). The genera! information, operation related indexes,distance between tumor and incisional margin, and postoperative recovering time, quality of life, rate of complications within 30 days, and 1- and 2-year survival rate were compared between the two groups. Results Compared to group B, group A showed significantly shorter operation time and less

  2. 进展期胃癌腹腔镜辅助与开放 D2根治术围手术期临床效果比较%Comparison of the perioperative clinical results of laparoscopy -assisted and open radi-cal D2 gastrectomy in advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 郭绍春; 樊林; 王海江; 周力波; 贾宗良; 车向明

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较腹腔镜辅助与开放 D2胃癌根治术手术、病理与术后恢复情况。方法:回顾性分析我科收治的202例胃癌患者。查阅电子病历系统,收集腹腔镜与开放胃癌根治术患者的病历资料,比较腹腔镜组和开放组手术时间、术中出血量、淋巴结清扫数目、术后并发症与术后恢复等相关指标。结果:与开放组相比,腹腔镜组术中出血量少[(90.63±78.66)vs (154.15±151.65)ml,P <0.001],淋巴结清扫数目相当[(21.4±10.5)vs (21.7±11.4)个,P =0.810],术后伤口脂肪液化发生少,术后通气时间早[(3.0±0.8)vs (3.5±1.0)天,P <0.001],术后进半流食时间早[(6.2±1.5)vs (6.8±2.3)天,P =0.028],术后住院时间短[(9.4±2.3)vs (11.3±3.0)天,P =0.022],仅手术时间稍长[(222±36)vs(205±62)min,P =0.021]。结论:在进展期胃癌 D2根治术中,虽然腹腔镜手术时间略长于开放组,总体而言,腹腔镜组能达到与开放手术相同的淋巴结清扫数目,且具有术中出血量少,术后恢复快的优势。%Objective:To compare the character of pathology,and postoperative between laparoscopic assisted D2 gastric cancer radical surgery and open D2 gastric cancer radical surgery for advanced gastric cancer.Methods:To choose 202 patients in our department from April 2014 to April 2015.Clinical dara of all 202 patients were studied retrospectively.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,number of retrieved lymph node,time to first flatus,time to liquid diet,postoperative hospital stay,postoperative complications were compared between the two groups.Results:As compared with the open group,the bleeding amount of LAG group was significantly less[(90.63 ±78.66)vs (154.15 ±151.65)ml,P <0.001 ],no significantly diffrence was found in the number of rerieved lymph node [(21.4 ±10.5)vs (21

  3. Extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors and cortical grey matter volumes in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients before and after initial antipsychotic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Pinborg, Lars H; Raghava, Jayachandra M

    2017-01-01

    blockade at follow-up, was related to regional cortical volume changes. In post-hoc analyses excluding three patients with cannabis use we found that higher D2/3 receptor occupancy was significantly associated with an increase in right frontal grey matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: The present data do...... not support an association between extrastriatal D2/3 receptor blockade and extrastriatal grey matter loss in the early phases of schizophrenia. Although inconclusive, our exclusion of patients tested positive for cannabis use speaks to keeping attention to potential confounding factors in imaging studies....

  4. 保留脾脏的第10组与11组淋巴结整体清扫在胃癌D2根治术中的应用价值%Application value of spleen-preserving No.10 and 11 lymph nodes dissection in the D2 radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊; 文刚; 涂从银; 陶应田; 丁丁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of spleen-preserving No.10 and 11 lymph nodes dissection in the D2 radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer.Methods The retrospective and descriptive study was conducted.The clinicopathological data of 32 patients with advanced proximal gastric carcinoma who were admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2013 to May 2016 were collected.All the patients underwent open D2 radical total gastrectomy and spleen-preserving No.10 and 11 lymph nodes dissection by the same operation team.Observation indicators included operation time,volume of intraoperative blood loss,time of No.10 and 11 lymph nodes dissection,number of lymph nodes dissection,number of positive lymph nodes,positive rate of lymph nodes,lymph node metastasis rate,histological classification,pTNM staging,duration of postoperative hospital stay,postoperative complications (splenic translocation,splenic torsion,splenic infarction,anastomotic leakage,pancreatic leakage and lymphorrhagia) and follow-up.The follow-up using outpatient examination and telephone interview was performed to detect the oncologic prognosis up to September 2016.Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as (x) ± s.Count data were represented as a ratio.Results Among the 32 patients,gastric body cancer and cardiac cancer were respectively detected in 12 and 20 patients,they received open radical total gastrectomy and spleen-preserving No.10 and 11 lymph nodes dissection.The operation time and volume of intraoperative blood loss were (242 ± 34) minutes and (98 ± 67) mL.Time of lymph nodes dissection,number of lymph nodes dissection,number of positive lymph nodes,positive rate of lymph nodes and lymph node metastasis rate were (30 ± 12)minutes,141 (3.8 ±2.4),22,15.60% (22/141),18.75% (6/32) in No.10 lymph nodes and (8 ±3)minutes,168 (4.0-± 3.6),36,21.43% (36/168),25.00% (8/32) in No.11 lymph nodes

  5. Possible role of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors in behavioural activation and "contingent" reward evaluation in sodium-replete and sodium-depleted rats licking for NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquila, Paolo S; Rossi, Roberta; Rizzi, Antonella; Galistu, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Based on the different effects of the dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor antagonists SCH 23390 and raclopride on the measures of licking microstructure in rats, we suggested that the level of activation of reward-associated responses depends on dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation, and is updated, or "reboosted", on the basis of a dopamine D2-like receptor-mediated reward evaluation. To further test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride (0, 25, 125, 250μg/kg) and of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0, 10, 20 and 40μg/kg) on the microstructure of licking for two different NaCl solutions (0.9% and 2.7%) in rats in sodium-replete status and in the sodium-depleted status induced by the diuretic drug furosemide. Rats were exposed to each solution for 180 seconds after the first lick. Both in sodium-replete and in sodium-depleted status, SCH 23390 produced a decrease of burst number, a measure of behavioural activation, without affecting their size, a measure of reward evaluation. Raclopride reduced burst number but appeared also to exert some effects on burst size. Sodium depletion resulted in an increased intake for both NaCl solutions due to an increase in burst number and size, and in a reduced sensitivity to the effect of raclopride on lick number. These results are not in contrast with the proposed hypothesis and are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a role for dopamine D2-like receptors in the increased NaCl appetite induced by sodium depletion.

  6. Pyridoxine and pyridoxamine inhibits superoxide radicals and prevents lipid peroxidation, protein glycosylation, and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity reduction in high glucose-treated human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S K; Lim, G

    2001-02-01

    Vitamin B(6) (pyridoxine) supplementation has been found beneficial in preventing diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy, and the glycosylation of proteins. Oxygen radicals and oxidative damage have been implicated in the cellular dysfunction and complications of diabetes. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that pyridoxine (P) and pyridoxamine (PM) inhibit superoxide radical production, reduce lipid peroxidation and glycosylation, and increase the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity in high glucose-exposed red blood cells (RBC). Superoxide radical production was assessed by the reduction of cytochrome C by glucose in the presence and absence of P or PM in a cell-free buffered solution. To examine cellular effects, washed normal human RBC were treated with control and high glucose concentrations with and without P or PM. Both P and PM significantly lowered lipid peroxidation and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1)) formation in high glucose-exposed RBC. P and PM significantly prevented the reduction in (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity in high glucose-treated RBC. Thus, P or PM can inhibit oxygen radical production, which in turn prevents the lipid peroxidation, protein glycosylation, and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity reduction induced by the hyperglycemia. This study describes a new biochemical mechanism by which P or PM supplementation may delay or inhibit the development of complications in diabetes.

  7. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas;

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  8. A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis Treated with Preoperative FOLFOX Chemotherapy Followed by Radical Subtotal Gastrectomy and D2 Lymph Node Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Jo Suh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 73-year-old female who was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was used to diagnose Borrmann type 3 advanced gastric cancer located at the gastric antrum. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (FDG-PET-CT scans demonstrated multiple lymph node metastases, including the para-aortic lymph nodes. Systemic chemotherapy with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (FOLFOX was initiated. An abdominopelvic CT scan taken after 4 cycles of chemotherapy showed improvement in the ulceroinfiltrative gastric lesion and marked regression of several enlarged lymph nodes. Consequently, we performed a subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. The postoperative histopathological report was early gastric carcinoma with no lymph node metastasis in the 48 resected lymph nodes. Another 4 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy were performed after surgery. A FDG-PET-CT scan taken 12 months postoperatively showed no definite evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis, and the previously noted retroperitoneal lymph nodes had disappeared. A FDG-PET-CT taken 16 months postoperatively showed multiple lymph node metastases, including the left supraclavicular lymph node. Despite 8 cycles of secondary chemotherapy with 5-FU, irinotecan, and leucovorin (FOLFIRI and radiotherapy, the patient died 38 months after the operation.

  9. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  10. Democracia radical e democracia participativa: contribuições teóricas à análise da democracia na educação Radical democracy and participative democracy: theoretical contributions to an analysis of democracy in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rosa Marques

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A democracia tem sido um tema bastante presente na pesquisa em educação, especialmente a partir da década de 1980. As concepções hegemônicas de democracia, provenientes da teoria política e da sociologia, vêm apresentando-a como um procedimento de governo, no qual a participação aparece como técnica de gestão, como forma de legitimação de uma integração consentida. Todavia, tanto a sociologia como a ciência política nos oferecem alternativas de teorias democráticas que se colocam no campo das teorias não-hegemônicas, nas quais a participação é um elemento de emancipação e, portanto, de mudança social. Este artigo discute duas destas perspectivas: a democracia participativa, proposta por Boaventura de Sousa Santos, e a democracia radical e plural, proposta por Ernesto Laclau e Chantall Mouffe. Busca, assim, contribuir para o aprofundamento das perspectivas teóricas que podem ser utilizadas no campo dos estudos sobre a democracia na educação.Democracy has been a very constant topic in educational research, especially from the 1980s. The hegemonic conceptions of democracy, coming from political theory and sociology, have been introducing democracy as a government procedure in which participation seems to work as an administration technique, as a means of legitimating granted integration. However, both sociology and political science offer us different democratic, non-hegemonic theories in which participation is an element which fosters emancipation and, therefore, social change. This article provides a discussion about two of these perspectives: Boaventura dos Santos' participative democracy and Ernesto Laclau and Chantall Mouffe's radical and plural democracy. It is, thus, an attempt to contribute to the improvement of theoretical perspectives which can be used in studies about democracy in education.

  11. Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Formation of the Elusive 2-Methyl-1-silacycloprop-2-enylidene Molecule under Single Collision Conditions via Reactions of the Silylidyne Radical (SiH; X(2)Π) with Allene (H2CCCH2; X(1)A1) and D4-Allene (D2CCCD2; X(1)A1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Kaiser, Ralf I; Bertels, Luke W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-12-17

    The crossed molecular beam reactions of the ground-state silylidyne radical (SiH; X(2)Π) with allene (H2CCCH2; X(1)A1) and D4-allene (D2CCCD2; X(1)A1) were carried out at collision energies of 30 kJ mol(-1). Electronic structure calculations propose that the reaction of silylidyne with allene has no entrance barrier and is initiated by silylidyne addition to the π electron density of allene either to one carbon atom (C1/C2) or to both carbon atoms simultaneously via indirect (complex forming) reaction dynamics. The initially formed addition complexes isomerize via two distinct reaction pathways, both leading eventually to a cyclic SiC3H5 intermediate. The latter decomposes through a loose exit transition state via an atomic hydrogen loss perpendicularly to the plane of the decomposing complex (sideways scattering) in an overall exoergic reaction (experimentally: -19 ± 13 kJ mol(-1); computationally: -5 ± 3 kJ mol(-1)). This hydrogen loss yields the hitherto elusive 2-methyl-1-silacycloprop-2-enylidene molecule (c-SiC3H4), which can be derived from the closed-shell cyclopropenylidene molecule (c-C3H2) by replacing a hydrogen atom with a methyl group and the carbene carbon atom by the isovalent silicon atom. The synthesis of the 2-methyl-1-silacycloprop-2-enylidene molecule in the bimolecular gas-phase reaction of silylidyne with allene enriches our understanding toward the formation of organosilicon species in the gas phase of the interstellar medium in particular via exoergic reactions of no entrance barrier. This facile route to 2-methyl-1-silacycloprop-2-enylidene via a silylidyne radical reaction with allene opens up a versatile approach to form hitherto poorly characterized silicon-bearing species in extraterrestrial environments; this reaction class might represent the missing link, leading from silicon-bearing radicals via organosilicon chemistry eventually to silicon-carbon-rich interstellar grains even in cold molecular clouds where temperatures are as

  12. D2 dissection in laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Xing, Jia-Di; Yang, Wei; Ma, Yi-Yuan; Yao, Zhen-Dan; Zhang, Nan; Su, Xiang-Qian

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the radicalness and safety of laparoscopic D2 dissection for gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinicopathological data from 209 patients with gastric cancer, who underwent radical gastrectomy with D2 dissection between January 2007 and February 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. Among these patients, 131 patients underwent laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) and 78 underwent open gastrectomy (OG). The parameters analyzed included operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, morbidity, mortality, the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs), and pathological stage. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in sex, age, types of radical resection [radical proximal gastrectomy (PG + D2), radical distal gastrectomy (DG + D2) and radical total gastrectomy (TG + D2)], and stages between the LAG and OG groups (P > 0.05). Among the two groups, 127 cases (96.9%) and 76 cases (97.4%) had 15 or more HLNs, respectively. The average number of HLNs was 26.1 ± 11.4 in the LAG group and 24.2 ± 9.3 in the OG group (P = 0.233). In the same type of radical resection, there were no significant differences in the number of HLNs between the two groups (PG + D2: 21.7 ± 7.5 vs 22.4 ± 9.3; DG + D2: 25.7 ± 11.0 vs 22.3 ± 7.9; TG + D2: 30.9 ± 13.4 vs 29.3 ± 10.4; P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Tumor free margins were obtained in all cases. Compared with OG group, the LAG group had significantly less blood loss, but a longer operation time (P dissection is equivalent to OG in the number of HLNs, regardless of tumor location. Thus, this procedure can achieve the same radicalness as OG. PMID:22371644

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of D2O ice photodesorption

    CERN Document Server

    Arasa, C; Cuppen, H M; van Dishoeck, E F; Kroes, G J; 10.1063/1.3582910

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations have been performed to study the ultraviolet photodissociation of D2O in an amorphous D2O ice surface at 10-90 K, in order to investigate the influence of isotope effects on the photodesorption processes. As for H2O, the main processes after UV photodissociation are trapping and desorption. There are three desorption processes: D atom, OD radical, and D2O molecule photodesorption. D2O desorption takes places either by direct desorption of a recombined D2O molecule, or when an energetic D atom produced by photodissociation kicks a surrounding D2O molecule out of the surface by transferring part of its momentum. Desorption probabilities are compared quantitatively with those for H2O obtained from previous MD simulations of UV photodissociation of amorphous water ice. The main conclusions are the same, but the average D atom photodesorption probability is smaller than that of the H atom (by about a factor of 0.9) because D has lower kinetic energy than H, whereas the average OD ra...

  14. Radicalismos, violências e integração política na Turquia Radicalisms, violence and political integration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Bozarsian

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os principais obstáculos a serem enfrentados para a integração política na Turquia. Mostra que o radicalismo e a violência originam-se em três fontes: a oposição curdo-turca; a oposição alevita-sunita e o avanço do islamismo político, com sua recusa de abandonar a referência religiosa. Contribuíram para a atual fragmentação política as contradições da doutrina kemalista, na qual ainda se assenta a legitimidade do Estado turco; os sucessivos golpes militares de Estado, que obrigam a constantes realinhamentos das formações partidárias; e a militarização de vastas regiões da Turquia em resposta às sucessivas ondas curdas e alevitas de contestação violenta, conduzindo à autonomização dos grupos armados que tendem a perpetuar a contestação e a repressão violentas. Diante desse quadro, o futuro da Turquia depende, por um lado, da integração social das identificações e convicções (curdas, alevitas e islamitas pelo reconhecimento das culturas regionais e, por outro lado, da adoção do princípio de não-politização das convicções religiosas e do abandono do conservadorismo social por oposição à ocidentalidade.This article analyses the main obstacles to be faced for the political integration in Turkey. It shows that radicalism and violence spring from three sources; the Turkish-Kurd opposition; the Sunite-Alevite opposition and the rise of political Islamism, with its refusal to abandon religious reference.What has contributed to the present political fragmentation are the contradictions of the Kemalist doctrine, on which the legitimacy of the Turkish State is based; the successive military coups d'etat that cause constant party realignements; and the militarization of vast regions of Turkey to hold back the successive waves of Kurdish and Alevite violent uprisings, which, in turn, give autonomy to armed groups that tend to perpetuate the violent contends and repression. From this

  15. Origens do pensamento radical na América Latina: um estudo comparativo entre José Martí, Juan B. Justo e Ricardo Flores Magón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luis Barbosa dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo condensa os resultados, no plano ideológico, de uma pesquisa que analisa, em uma perspectiva comparada, como nascem, evoluem e são frustrados três projetos de democratização radical na América Latina nos primórdios do Imperialismo. José Martí (1853-1895 em Cuba, Juan B. Justo (1865-1928 na Argentina e Ricardo Flores Magón (1874-1922 no México lideraram esforços intelectuais e políticos visando superar os constrangimentos à integração nacional legados pela origem colonial, expressando-se em um pensamento que fundamentou a atuação dos partidos por eles dirigidos. Nossa hipótese é que esses autores, partindo de premissas ideológicas e políticas distintas mas orientados por um desígnio democrático comum, sugeriram balizas que referenciavam a máxima consciência possível da militância radical no continente, naquele contexto.

  16. EPR spectroscopy as a tool for investigation of differences in radical status in wheat plants of various tolerances to osmotic stress induced by NaCl and PEG-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Bidzińska, Ewa; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Hartikainen, Hélina

    2013-01-15

    Two kinds of wheat genotypes with different tolerance to osmotic stress (NaCl and PEG-treatment) were investigated with biochemical analyses, including the measurements of total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and starch content. The results were compared with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data concerning the nature and amounts of stable long lived radicals present in the control and stressed plants. In addition, the changes in manganese content upon stress conditions were monitored. Different mechanisms of protection against PEG stress in sensitive and tolerant wheat genotypes were postulated. In sensitive genotypes, electrons were created in excess in stress conditions, and were stabilized by polysaccharide molecules, whereas in tolerant genotypes, protection by antioxidants dominated. Moreover, the quinone-semiquinone balance shifted towards semiquinone, which became the place of electron trapping. NaCl-treatment yielded significant effects mainly in sensitive genotypes and was connected with the changes of water structure, leading to inactivation of reactive oxygen species by water molecules.

  17. D2 dissection in laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Cui; Jia-Di Xing; Wei Yang; Yi-Yuan Ma; Zhen-Dan Yao; Nan Zhang; Xiang-Qian Su

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the radicalness and safety of laparoscopic D2 dissection for gastric cancer.METHODS:Clinicopathological data from 209 patients with gastric cancer,who underwent radical gastrectomy with D2 dissection between January 2007 and February 2011,were analyzed retrospectively.Among these patients,131 patients underwent laparoscopyassisted gastrectomy (LAG) and 78 underwent open gastrectomy (OG).The parameters analyzed included operative time,blood loss,blood transfusion,morbidity,mortality,the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs),and pathological stage.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in sex,age,types of radical resection [radical proximal gastrectomy (PG + D2),radical distal gastrectomy (DG + D2) and radical total gastrectomy (TG + D2)],and stages between the LAG and OG groups (P > 0.05).Among the two groups,127 cases (96.9%) and 76 cases (97.4%) had 15 or more HLNs,respectively.The average number of HLNs was 26.1 ± 11.4 in the LAG group and 24.2 ± 9.3 in the OG group (P =0.233).In the same type of radical resection,there were no significant differences in the number of HLNs between the two groups (PG + D2:21.7 ± 7.5 vs 22.4 4-9.3;DG + D2:25.7 ± 11.0 vs 22.3 ± 7.9; TG + D2:30.9 ± 13.4 vs 29.3 ± 10.4; P > 0.05 for all comparisons).Tumor free margins were obtained in all cases.Compared with OG group,the LAG group had significantly less blood loss,but a longer operation time (P < 0.001).The morbidity of the LAG group was 9.9%,which was not significantly different from the OG group (7.7%) (P=0.587).The mortality was zero in both groups.CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic D2 dissection is equivalent to OG in the number of HLNs,regardless of tumor location.Thus,this procedure can achieve the same radicalness as OG.

  18. Michel Foucault na imprensa brasileira durante a ditadura militar: os "cães de guarda", os "nanicos" e o jornalista radical Michel Foucault in brazilian press during the military dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana de Barros Conde Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte da pesquisa "Michel Foucault no Brasil: presença, efeitos e ressonâncias", são focalizados os modos como o filósofo apareceu seja na grande imprensa, seja na imprensa alternativa, durante sua visita ao Brasil no ano de 1975 e, mais brevemente, no de 1976. No primeiro caso, especial destaque é dado à conduta de Foucault quando do assassinato do jornalista Vladimir Herzog nos porões da ditadura militar. No segundo, à vigilância exercida sobre o filósofo pelos serviços de informação, bem como à participação da imprensa alternativa, notadamente a anarquista, na divulgação de suas conferências e ideias. Embora Foucault nunca tenha escrito um trabalho específico sobre a imprensa, sua concepção de filosofia como jornalismo radical é posta em correlação com tais ocorrências, numa tentativa de articular narrativa histórica e crítica do presente.As part of the research "Michel Foucault in Brazil: presence, effects and resonances", the ways the philosopher appeared in both mainstream media and in the alternative press are focused. We privileged Foucault's visit to Brazil in 1975 and, more briefly, in 1976. In the first case, a special emphasis is given to the conduct of Foucault when the journalist Vladimir Herzog was murdered in the basements of the military dictatorship. In the second case, the monitoring carried out on the philosopher by the intelligence services is emphasized, as well as the role of the alternative press, notably the anarchist one, in the divulgation of his lectures and thoughts. Although Foucault had never written a particular work about media, his conception of philosophy as radical journalism is put in connection with such events in an attempt to articulate historical narrative and criticism of the present.

  19. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of D2O ice photodesorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasa, C.; Andersson, S.; Cuppen, H.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kroes, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    We present results of MD calculations performed to study the photodissociation of D2O in an amorphous ice at different ice temperatures in order to investigate isotope effects on the photodesorption processes. In dense interstellar clouds, small dust particles of micrometer silicates are covered by ice mantles, mainly consisting of H2O and also of CO, CO2. Previous MD calculations of H2O ice at Tice=10-90 K show that the photodesorption of H while OH remains trapped is the main outcome in the first three monolayers (MLs). On the other hand, the H and OH photofragments released recombine or are trapped at separate positions in the deeper MLs and can react with other species in the ice. Desorption and trapping probabilities have been calculated following photoexcitation of D2O amorphous ice at 10, 20, 60 and 90 K, and the main conclusions agree with previous calculations of H2O ice. But, the average D photodesorption probability is smaller than that of the H atom, whereas the average OD radical photodesorption probability is larger than that of OH, and the average D2O photodesorption probability is larger than that for H2O due to the D2O kick-out mechanism. The total (OD + D2O) yield has been compared with experiments and the total (OH + H2O) yield from previous simulations. We find better agreement when we compare experimental yields with calculated yields for D2O ice than when we compare with calculated yields for H2O ice.

  1. Sobre a observação enquanto procedimento metodológico na análise do comportamento: positivismo lógico, operacionismo e behaviorismo radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dittrich

    Full Text Available A Análise do Comportamento adota duas posições distintas sobre a observação enquanto procedimento metodológico. Na análise experimental, tende-se a aceitar apenas a descrição de relações funcionais entre variáveis observáveis. Na análise interpretativa, contudo, relações funcionais entre variáveis observáveis e não-observáveis são inferidas. A posição da filosofia behaviorista radical sobre a questão torna-se mais clara quando examinada a partir da influência do operacionismo sobre a Psicologia, em especial nas décadas de 30 e 40. O presente artigo propõe-se a realizar tal exame, apoiando-se na literatura dedicada ao assunto e nos escritos de Skinner. Concluiu-se que a análise de eventos privados, proposta por Skinner: (1 é de natureza interpretativa; (2 refere-se, pelo menos em parte, a eventos inobserváveis publicamente; (3 lança mão, em alguma medida, da introspecção enquanto método; (4 lança mão, em alguma medida, de inferências sobre o mundo privado do outro.

  2. DEMOCRACIA RADICAL E PODER NA TEIA GLOBAL DOS INDIGNADOS: horizontes de uma nova cultura política no século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S. Kaminski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Constituting a transnational web of anti-systemic movements, since 2011 new social actors put on the contemporary agenda the discussion about power and democracy. In questioning liberal representative democracy, they proposed a radical democratic egalitarianism, which asks about the possibilities of reinvention of democracy from new social grammars. Such movements develop symbolic and practical dimensions characteristics of cyberculture, in spaces not yet consolidated in the context of contemporary institutions. Thus, this paper presents, as the centerpiece, the political culture implied in the concepts of power and democracy of "Occupies" in contemporary dispute on the meaning of citizenship and power.

  3. Vitamine D2 ou vitamine D3?

    OpenAIRE

    MISTRETTA, Virginie; Delanaye, Pierre; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nearly one billion people around the world are deficient in vitamin D and need to be supplemented. Vitamin D is available in medicines and fortified foods. It is available in two forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). KEY POINTS: The pharmacopeiae consider these steroid hormones as equivalent and interchangeable. However, several studies have showed that serum level of 25(OH)D is increased more effectively with vitamin D3 than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 has ...

  4. Os novos direitos à luz da transdisciplinaridade: o resgate de um humanismo radical e a promoção da ecologia na sociedade do mal-estar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roney Ávila Fagúndez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os novos direitos trazem novas responsabilidades. A sociedade global cresce em complexidade e exige um sujeito com uma visão humanista e, sobretudo, ecológica. Os novos direitos concretizam-se não somente em normas, mas, sobretudo, em decisões. Só um humanismo radical pode dar conta da crise ecológica. Não há uma teoria que enfrente a complexidade. É importante ouvir o que outro tem a dizer. O modelo científico é autocrático e antiecológico. A transdisciplinaridade, antes de ser resposta, é um desafio lançado à ciência, que ganha em conhecimento e perde em sensibilidade. A psicanálise, por seu turno, traz à tona o inconsciente, enfim, a subjetividade perdida pelo modelo científico. Palavras-chave: Transdisciplinaridade. Ecologia. Humanismo.

  5. Main: D2GMAUX28 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D2GMAUX28 S000329 7-Sep-2000 (last modified) seki D2; DNase I protected sequence fo...und in the soybean (G.m.) auxin responsive gene, Aux28, promoter; Located between -703 and -716; A/T-rich sequence; Auxin; Aux28; soybean (Glycine max) ATTTATATAAAT ...

  6. Radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare oncological and functional outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) during the initial phase with RALP at a large university hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient and tumour...... surgery and at follow-up and they were asked to report their use of pads/diapers. Potency was defined as an IIEF-5 score of at least 17 with or without phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. Positive surgical margins, blood...... loss and functional outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 453 patients were treated with RRP and 585 with RALP. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, the type of surgery did not affect surgical margins (p = 0.96) or potency at 12 months (p = 0.7). Patients who had undergone...

  7. Lack of prognostic significance of p16 and p27 after radical prostatectomy in hormone-naïve prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachostergios Panagiotis J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of normal cell cycle control is an early event in the evolution of cancer. The expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors p16 and p27 has been previously associated with progression of prostate cancer (PC. 70 patients diagnosed with early stage PCwere treated with radical prostatectomy (RP at our institution and their tumor specimens were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of p16 and p27. Available clinical data of time to PSA recurrence were correlated with the examined parameters and combined with pre-operative PSA level, Gleason score and pathological TNM (pT stage assessment. Results Nuclear overexpression of p16 was not associated with time to biochemical failure (BF (p = 0.572. Same was the case for nuclear p27 overexpression (p = 1.000. Also, no significant correlations were found between either p16 or p27, and pre-operative PSA level, pT stage and Gleason grade. pT stage emerged as the only independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (p = 0.01. Conclusions These data question previously reported data supporting the prognostic relevance of both p16 and p27 proteins in early PC.

  8. Efeito do treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico associado ou não à eletroestimulação na incontinência urinária após prostatectomia radical Effect of functional training for the pelvic floor muscles with or without electrical stimulation in cases of urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CT Kakihara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura sobre fisioterapia do assoalho pélvico no tratamento da incontinência urinária após prostatectomia radical é escassa e relata técnicas diferentes de tratamento fisioterapêutico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento fisioterapêutico na recuperação da continência urinária de pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical utilizando treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico acompanhado ou não da eletroestimulação. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 20 pacientes com incontinência urinária pós-prostatectomia radical. Os pacientes foram distribuídos ao acaso em grupos controle e de investigação. O grupo de investigação, composto por 10 pacientes, recebeu como tratamento fisioterapêutico o treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico e a eletroestimulação. O grupo controle, composto por 10 pacientes, recebeu como tratamento fisioterapêutico o treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico. Todos os pacientes foram reavaliados 3 meses, 6 meses e 12 meses após o início do tratamento por meio de "pad test", Escala Visual Análoga (EVA da incontinência, Escala Visual Análoga (EVA do problema e número de fraldas utilizadas. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição estatisticamente significante entre a avaliação inicial e o 12º mês do "pad test", da EVA incontinência, da EVA problema e do número de fraldas no grupo controle e no grupo de investigação. Entretanto, não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparadas as mesmas variáveis entre os dois grupos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: Não houve melhora adicional no tratamento com treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico associado à eletroestimulação quando comparado com o tratamento apenas com treinamento funcional do assoalho pélvico. Entretanto, nos dois grupos, houve melhora significante da incontinência urinária.INTRODUCTION: Literature on physical therapy for the pelvic floor muscles to treat urinary incontinence following

  9. Experimental Studies on the Formation of D2O and D2O2 by Implantation of Energetic D+ Ions into Oxygen Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Ennis, Courtney P.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2014-02-01

    The formation of water (H2O) in the interstellar medium is intrinsically linked to grain-surface chemistry; thought to involve reactions between atomic (or molecular) hydrogen with atomic oxygen (O), molecular oxygen (O2), and ozone (O3). Laboratory precedent suggests that H2O is produced efficiently when O2 ices are exposed to H atoms (~100 K). This leads to the sequential generation of the hydroxyperoxyl radical (HO2), then hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and finally H2O and a hydroxyl radical (OH); despite a barrier of ~2300 K for the last step. Recent detection of the four involved species toward ρ Oph A supports this general scenario; however, the precise formation mechanism remains undetermined. Here, solid O2 ice held at 12 K is exposed to a monoenergetic beam of 5 keV D+ ions. Products formed during the irradiation period are monitored through FTIR spectroscopy. O3 is observed through seven archetypal absorptions. Three additional bands found at 2583, 2707, and 1195 cm -1 correspond to matrix isolated DO2 (ν1) and D2O2 (ν1, ν5), and D2O (ν2), respectively. During subsequent warming, the O2 ice sublimates, revealing a broad band at 2472 cm-1 characteristic of amorphous D2O (ν1, ν3). Sublimating D2, D2O, D2O2, and O3 products were confirmed through their subsequent detection via quadrupole mass spectrometry. Reaction schemes based on both thermally accessible and suprathermally induced chemistries were developed to fit the observed temporal profiles are used to elucidate possible reaction pathways for the formation of D2-water. Several alternative schemes to the hydrogenation pathway (O2→HO2→H2O2→H2O) were identified; their astrophysical implications are briefly discussed.

  10. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, Martijn; Struys, Eduard A; Gibson, K Michael;

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular, enzyme, and metabolic studies in 50 patients with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) who accumulated D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) in physiological fluids. Presumed pathogenic mutations were detected in 24 of 50 patients in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGD...

  11. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action; Efeito da complexacao de metais aos antiinflamatorios na acao contra agentes oxidativos e radicais livres: acao do cetoprofeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio [UEPG, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Analises Clinicas eToxicologicas, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi [IFG, Instituto Federal de Goias, Campus de Formosa, Formosa - GO (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de [UFGD, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Faculdade de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologias, Dourados-MS (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Faculdade de Ciencias de Bauru, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  12. THz spectroscopy of D2H+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Pearson, J. C.; Amano, T.; Matsushima, F.

    2017-01-01

    We extended the measurements of the rotational transitions of D2H+ up to 3 THz by using the JPL frequency multiplier chains and a TuFIR system at Toyama. D2H+ was generated in an extended negative glow discharge cell cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. We observed five new THz lines. All the available rotational transition frequencies together with the combination differences derived from the three fundamental bands were subject to least square analysis to determine the molecular constants. New THz measurements are definitely useful for better characterization of spectroscopic properties. The improved molecular constants provide better predictions of other unobserved rotational transitions.

  13. Ignorance Radicalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Somodi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. I criticize Michael Devitt's linguistic---as opposed to Chomsky's psychological---conception of linguistics on the one hand, and I modify his related view on linguistic intuitions on the other. I argue that Devitt's argument for the linguistic conception is in conflict with one of the main theses of that very conception, according to which linguistics should be about physical sentence tokens of a given language rather than about the psychologically real competence of native speakers. The basis of this conflict is that Devitt's view on language, as I will show, inherits too much from the criticized Chomskian view. This is also the basis of Devitt's strange claim that it is the linguist, and not the ordinary speaker, whose linguistic intuition should have an evidential role in linguistics. I will argue for the opposite by sketching a view on language that is more appropriate to the linguistic conception. That is, in criticizing Devitt, I am not defending the Chomskian approach. My aim is to radicalize Devitt's claims.

  14. Terrorism, radicalization, and de-radicalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, B.; Moghaddam, F.M.; Kruglanski, A.W.; de Wolf, A.; Mann, L.; Feddes, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature and present a model of radicalization and de-radicalization. In this model, we distinguish three phases in radicalization: (1) a sensitivity phase, (2) a group membership phase and (3) an action phase. We describe the micro-level, meso-level and macro-level

  15. Seasonal Variation of Provitamin D2 and Vitamin D2 in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Didion, Thomas; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Ergosterol (provitamin D(2)) is converted to vitamin D(2) in grass by exposure to UV light. Six varieties of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were harvested four times during the season, and the contents of vitamin D(2) and ergosterol were analyzed by a sensitive and selective liquid...... chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Weather factors were recorded, and a principal component analysis was performed to study which factors were important for the formation of vitamin D(2). The results suggest that a combination of weather factors is involved and that the contents of ergosterol...... and vitamin D(2) change more than a factor of 10 during the season. These results demonstrate that grass potentially can be a significant source of vitamin D for grazing animals and animals fed on silage and hay....

  16. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  17. Cocaine inhibits dopamine D2 receptor signaling via sigma-1-D2 receptor heteromers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Navarro

    Full Text Available Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain.

  18. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaiey, Najem A.; Walsh, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Silylenes (silanediyls) have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2) are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas) at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using Lindemann

  19. Time resolved spectroscopic investigation of SiD2 + D2: kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rubaiey Najem A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silylenes (silanediyls have made an important impact on organosilicon chemistry even if it is of more recent foundation than carbenes in organic chemistry and much less complete. These species are highly reactive intermediates. They play a central role in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of various silicon-containing thin films which have a technological importance in microelectronics as well as in the dry etching processes of silicon wafers. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to observe these species, a necessary pre-requisite to their direct monitoring. In this work, deuterated phenylsilane precursor, PhSiD3 was chosen for SiD2 because its analogue phenylsilane, PhSiH3 proved to be a good precursor for SiH2 and the high quality decay signals observed revealed that SiD2 be readily detected from PhSiD3 and that if other decomposition pathways (e.g. PhSiD + D2 are occurring, they do not effect measurements of the rate constants for SiD2. The absorption spectrum of SiD2 formed from the flash photolysis of a mixture of PhSiD3 and SF6 at 193nm were found in the region 17384-17391 cm-1 with strong band at 17387.07 cm-1. This single rotational line of pQ1 was chosen to monitor SiD2 removal. Time-resolved studies of SiD2 have been carried out to obtain rate constants for its bimolecular reactions with D2. The reactions were studied over the pressure range 5-100 Torr (in SF6 bath gas at four temperatures in the range 298-498K. Single decay from 10 photolysis laser shots were averaged and found to give reasonable first-order kinetics fits. Second order kinetics were obtained by pressure dependence of the pseudo first order decay constants and substance D2 pressures within experimental error. The reaction was found to be weakly pressure dependent at all temperatures, consistent with a third-body mediated association process. In addition, SiH2+ H2 reaction is approximately ca. 60% faster than SiD2+D2 reaction. Theoretical extrapolations (using

  20. Teoria laneana: a univocidade radical aliada à dialética-materialista na criação da psicologia social histórico-humana Lanean theory: the radical unambiguousness allied with the dialectic-materialist in creating historical-human social psycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Burihan Sawaia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta o corpo teórico-metodológico que Sílvia Lane criou, ressaltando os seus pressupostos epistemológicos e ontológicos e demarcando os grandes momentos do seu processo de configuração. Um processo dialético que avança incorporando novos conhecimentos sem abandonar o anterior, mas unindo-os na produção de algo novo. Essa metodologia "prático-crítica-revolucionária, inicialmente intuitiva, foi se burilando cientificamente a partir de pesquisas empíricas, segundo Lane, fundamentais para a crítica dos conceitos e avanço da teoria. A tarefa do texto é fácil porque Sílvia registrou cada mudança em seus principais interesses, categorias analíticas e reflexões filosóficas, em seus livros. São quatro os momentos a serem destacados, todos eles de aprofundamento da sua radical superação teórica: a transição de um referencial configurado na interface entre Lewin, Mead, Skinner ao marxismo: (a dos anos 70, marcado pelo diálogo privilegiado com a teoria das representações e pela preocupação com a linguagem e grupos sociais; (b dos anos 80, momento das vigorosas reflexões sobre uma nova concepção de homem para a psicologia, com ênfase nas categorias de consciência e alienação, orientada pela escola de psicologia soviética e por neo-marxistas (Politzer e Heller; (c dos anos 90, caracterizado pela reflexão sobre o papel da subjetividade/afetividade na conscientização social e na ação transformadora, superando o aprisionamento do sujeito à exterioridade e à pura repetição e o expurgo da singularidade, e pela reafirmação da pesquisa participante e da práxis comunitária; (d a do novo milênio, dedicado a desvelar os segredos da criatividade humana. Emoção, arte e criação são os temas que passaram a mediar a sua incessante reflexão crítica das teorias e das conseqüências práticas da psicologia para a condição social da América Latina. Espera-se, assim, apresentar a processualidade de

  1. D2 Lymphadenectomy in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyu Deng; Han Liang

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Surgery is the most widely utilized treatment for resectable gastric cancer. Evidence indicates that lymph node involvement and depth of invasion of the primary tumor are the most important prognostic factors for gastric cancer patients. Therefore, lymph node clearance is deemed a key procedure in gastric cancer surgery for the prognostic value to patients. Although the appropriate lymphadenectomy during gastrectomy for cancer still remains controversial, extended lymph node dissection (D2 lymphadenectomy) should be recommended in high volume hospitals.

  2. Generating Generalized $G_{D-2}$ solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bretón, N; López, L A

    2008-01-01

    We show how one can systematically construct vacuum solutions to Einstein field equations with $D-2$ commuting Killing vectors in $D>4$ dimensions. The construction uses Einstein-scalar field seed solutions in 4 dimensions and is performed both for the case when all the Killing directions are spacelike, as well as when one of the Killing vectors is timelike. The later case corresponds to generalizations of stationary axially symmetric solutions to higher dimensions. Some examples representing generalizations of known higher dimensional stationary solutions are discussed in terms of their rod structure and horizon locations and deformations.

  3. Análise crítica da Carta Brasileira de Prevenção Integrada na Área da Saúde na Perspectiva da Educação Física através do enfoque radical de promoção da saúde Critical analysis of the Brazilian Charter of Integrated Prevention in the Field of Health in the Perspective of Physical Education through the radical focus of health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. B. de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para que a área profissional e o campo do saber referente à Educação Física apreendam a saúde de forma ampliada, superando o enfoque biologicista hegemônico. Possui caráter qualitativo e baseou-se em pesquisa de fontes bibliográficas para a confecção de monografia de conclusão do curso de especialização em Saúde Pública, na Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Analisou-se criticamente a Carta Brasileira de Prevenção Integrada na área da Saúde na perspectiva da Educação Física - publicação do Conselho Federal de Educação Física (CONFEF, em 2006, a partir do enfoque radical da Promoção da Saúde. Esse enfoque pode ser sintetizado na proposta de articulação entre saúde e condições de vida, ressaltando as inter-relações de equidade social, através do aumento da capacidade da participação popular, intersetorialidade, fomento de políticas públicas saudáveis, criação de ambientes favoráveis à saúde e reorientação do sistema de saúde, baseando-se numa visão ampliada do processo saúde-doença e reconhecendo a multideterminação desse processo (OMS, 1986; Buss, 2000, 2001, 2007; Pedrosa, 2004. Concluiu-se que o documento analisado biologiza e medicaliza a Educação Física em sua relação com a sociedade. Recomenda-se que o mesmo seja revisto a partir da perspectiva crítica ligada à área da Educação Física, a qual relaciona a atividade física e a saúde com questões sociais mais amplas que impedem que os sujeitos tomem decisões mais saudáveis, tais como os condicionantes econômicos, culturais, étnicos e políticos.This work intends to provide a contribution so that the professional area and the field of knowledge referring to Physical Education view health in a broader way, overcoming the biological focus which usually occurs. It has a qualitative character and was based on research into bibliographic sources

  4. Nature of the lowest excited states of neutral polyenyl radicals and polyene radical cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Jan Hendrik; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    Due to the close relation of the polyenyl radicals C2n+1H2n+3• and polyene radical cations C2nH2n+2•+ to the neutral linear polyenes, one may suspect their excited states to possess substantial double excitation character, similar to the famous S1 state of neutral polyenes and thus to be equally problematic for simple excited state theories. Using the recently developed unrestricted algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme of second order perturbation theory and the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method, the vertical excitation energies, their corresponding oscillator strengths, and the nature of the wave functions of the lowest excited electronic states of the radicals are calculated and analyzed in detail. For the polyenyl radicals two one-photon allowed states are found as D1 and D4 states, with two symmetry-forbidden D2 and D3 states in between, while in the polyene radical cations D1 and D2 are allowed and D3 is forbidden. The order of the states is conserved with increasing chain length. It is found that all low-lying excited states exhibit a significant but similar amount of doubly excited configuration in their wave functions of 15%-20%. Using extrapolation, predictions for the excitation energies of the five lowest excited states of the polyene radical cations are made for longer chain lengths.

  5. 21 CFR 172.379 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D2. 172.379 Section 172.379 Food and Drugs... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.379 Vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 may be used safely in foods as a... prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D2, also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical...

  6. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  7. A radical approach to radical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Dirk; van der Ende, Jan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  8. Weighted linear regression using D2H and D2 as the independent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Michael S. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Several error structures for weighted regression equations used for predicting volume were examined for 2 large data sets of felled and standing loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). The generally accepted model with variance of error proportional to the value of the covariate squared ( D2H = diameter squared times height or D...

  9. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  10. [Lavoisier and radicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Lavoisier and his co-workers (Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, Fourcroy) considered that acids were constituted of oxygen and of something else that they called radicals. These radicals were known in some cases, i.e. nitrogen for nitrous acid, carbon for carbonic acid, phosphorus for phosphoric acid. In the case of sulfur, the sulfuric radical could be associated with different quantities of oxigen leading to sulfuric or sulfurous acids. In other cases radicals remained unknown at the time i.e. muriatic radical for muriatic acid, or benzoyl radical for benzoic acid. It is interesting to notice that Lavoisier evoked the case of compound radicals constituted of different substances such as carbon and hydrogen.

  11. Contemporary Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have more surgical treatment options than in the past. This paper focuses on the procedures' oncological or functional outcomes and perioperative morbidities of radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. A MEDLINE/PubMed search of the literature on radical prostatectomy and other new management options was performed. Results. Compared to the open procedures, robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy has no confirmed significant difference in most literatures besides less blood loss and blood transfusion. Nerve sparing is a safe means of preserving potency on well-selected patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Positive surgical margin rates of radical prostatectomy affect the recurrence and survival of prostate cancer. The urinary and sexual function outcomes have been vastly improved. Neoadjuvant treatment only affects the rate of positive surgical margin. Adjuvant therapy can delay and reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of the high risk prostate cancer. Conclusions. For the majority of patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy remains a most effective approach. Radical perineal prostatectomy remains a viable approach for patients with morbid obesity, prior pelvic surgery, or prior pelvic radiation. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP has become popular among surgeons but has not yet become the firmly established standard of care. Long-term data have confirmed the efficacy of radical retropubic prostatectomy with disease control rates and cancer-specific survival rates.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5950 - Vitamin D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin D2. 582.5950 Section 582.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5950 Vitamin D2. (a) Product. Vitamin D2. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. Kinetic Model of Hypophosphite Oxidation on a Nickel Electrode in D2O Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic model of hypophosphite oxidation on a nickel electrode was studied in D2Osolution in order to reach a better understanding of the oxidation mechanism. In the model the electrooxidation of hypophosphite undergo a H abstraction of hypophosphite from the P-H bond to form the phosphorus-centered radical PHO2-, which subsequently is electrochemically reacted with water to form the final product, phosphite. The kinetic equations were derived, and the kinetic parameters were obtained from a comparison of experimental results and the kinetic equations. The process of hypophosphite electrooxidation could be well simulated by this model

  14. Forgotten Radicals in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Redox reactions play key roles in intra- and inter-cellular signaling, and in adaptative processes of tissues towards stress. Among the major free radicals with essential functions in cells are reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion (O2 •-), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (•NO). In this article, we review the forgotten and new radicals with potential relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Approximately 0.3% of O2 •- pres...

  15. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  16. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling......SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  17. Analysis list: Nr1d2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr1d2 Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d2.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  18. Dynamic quantum molecular sieving separation of D2 from H2-D2 mixture with nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Subaru; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Minami, Daiki; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Abrams, Lloyd; Corbin, Dave; Hata, Kenji; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-11-14

    Quantum molecular sieving separability of D(2) from an H(2)-D(2) mixture was measured at 77 K for activated carbon fiber, carbon molecular sieve, zeolite and single wall carbon nanotube using a flow method. The amount of adsorbed D(2) was evidently larger than H(2) for all samples. The maximum adsorption ratio difference between D(2) and H(2) was 40% for zeolite (MS13X), yielding a selectivity for D(2) with respect to H(2) of 3.05.

  19. The Radicalization Puzzle [video

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hafez; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2015-01-01

    This 20 minute lecture, by Dr. Mohammad Hafez of the Naval Postgraduate School examines the driving factors behind the process of radicalization, turning seemingly ordinary men and women into potential terrorists. The lecture is based on the article "The Radicalization Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown Extremism" in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, by Mohammad Hafez and Creighton Mullins.

  20. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    1996-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  1. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  2. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    and radical feminism would easily fall under this definition. There is, however, one major difference: since radical feminism is a relatively recent phenomenon which also benefited from modern modes of text production and preservation, almost all of the sources are still with us. This, in turn, may allow us...... to use radical feminism to make certain aspects of ancient Gnosticism re-emerge from their long submersion, provided that enough similarities can be independently drawn between the two phenomena to merit such a comparison. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concepts and positions...

  3. Radical aminomethylation of imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shintaro; Konishi, Takehito; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Yamaoka, Yousuke; Takasu, Kiyosei; Yamada, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-05

    Taking advantage of the high level of performance of N-alkoxycarbonyl-imines, we achieved the first example of addition of the aminomethyl radical to imine. The reaction efficiency depended on the structure of the radical precursor, whether it is an iodide or a xanthate, and an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen atom of the radical. This reaction allows direct introduction of an N-substituted aminomethyl group onto imine to provide 1,2-diamine as well as the short-step synthesis of ICI-199,441.

  4. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-29

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  5. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgenii T.; Solodova, S. L.; Denisova, Taisa G.

    2010-12-01

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  6. Evaluation of intraoperative radiotherapy for gastric carcinoma with D2 and D3 surgical resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Long Qin; Chao-Hong Lin; Xiu-Long Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the proper sites and doses of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for gastric carcinoma and the effects of this treatment.METHODS: A total of 106 patients with stage Ⅰ -Ⅳ gastric carcinoma who Received D2 or D3 radical operation combined with IORT were analyzed. Sixty-seven patients with gastric cancer of the antrum and body underwent distal gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation were at the celiac artery and hepatoduodenal ligment area. Another 39 patients with carcinoma of the cardia and upper part of the gastric body and whole stomach underwent proximal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation for this group were the upper margin of the pancreas and the regional para-aorta. The therapeutic effects (including survival and complications) of these 106 cases Received operation combined with IORT (IORT group) were compared with 441 cases treated during the same time period by a radical operation alone (operation group).RESULTS: The radiation dose below 30 Gy was safe.The therapeutic method of the operation combined with IORT did not prolong the survival of patients with stage Ⅰ and Ⅳ gastric cancer, but the 5-year survival rates of patients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ gastric cancers were significantly improved. The 5-year survival rates of the stages Ⅲ cancer patients receiving D2 resection combined with IORT were markedly improved, while for those receiving D3 radical resection, only the postoperative 3- or 4-year survival rates were improved (P < 0.005-0.001). The 5-year survival rate for those patients was raised only by 4.7% (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: The 5-year survival rates of patients lymphadenectomy combined with IORT were improved,and there was no influence on the postoperative complications and mortality.

  7. Amphetamine self-administration attenuates dopamine D2 autoreceptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-07-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [(35)S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction.

  8. Amphetamine Self-Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2 Autoreceptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Sun, Haiguo; Eldeeb, Khalil; Luessen, Deborah J; Feng, Xin; Howlett, Allyn C; Jones, Sara R; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2 autoreceptors located on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons modulate dopamine (DA) neuron firing, DA release, and DA synthesis through a negative-feedback mechanism. Dysfunctional D2 autoreceptors following repeated drug exposure could lead to aberrant DA activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection areas such as nucleus accumbens (NAcc), promoting drug-seeking and -taking behavior. Therefore, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in D2 autoreceptors. Here, we reported that 5 days of amphetamine (AMPH) self-administration reduced the ability of D2 autoreceptors to inhibit DA release in the NAcc as determined by voltammetry. Using the antibody-capture [35S]GTPγS scintillation proximity assay, we demonstrated for the first time that midbrain D2/D3 receptors were preferentially coupled to Gαi2, whereas striatal D2/D3 receptors were coupled equally to Gαi2 and Gαo for signaling. Importantly, AMPH abolished the interaction between Gαi2 and D2/D3 receptors in the midbrain while leaving striatal D2/D3 receptors unchanged. The disruption of the coupling between D2/D3 receptors and Gαi2 by AMPH is at least partially explained by the enhanced RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2) activity resulting from an increased RGS2 trafficking to the membrane. AMPH had no effects on the midbrain expression and trafficking of other RGS proteins such as RGS4 and RGS8. Our data suggest that midbrain D2/D3 receptors are more susceptible to AMPH-induced alterations. Reduced D2 autoreceptor function could lead to enhanced DA signaling and ultimately addiction-related behavior. RGS2 may be a potential non-dopaminergic target for pharmacological intervention of dysfunctional DA transmission and drug addiction. PMID:24513972

  9. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 6 months. You will learn exercises (called Kegel exercises) that strengthen the muscles in your pelvis. ... Radical prostatectomy Retrograde ejaculation Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - ...

  10. Effect of age on extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is known that dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia decreases with age. This study was done to assess the effects of age on extrastriatal DA D2 receptors. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in 42 healthy male subjects (age mean 41 {plus_minus} 16, range 21 -86 year old) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen, thalamus, frontal, occipital cortices, temporal insula, cingulate and orbitofrontal gyri) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max.}/K{sub d}. Pearson product-moment correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between age and D2 receptor availability. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen (r {le} 0.0001), caudate (r {le} 0.0002), thalamus (r {le} 0.03), and temporal insula (r {le} 0.01) were significantly correlated with age. The decrements in D2 receptors with age were lower in extrastriatal than in striatal regions and corresponded to a decrease of 4.7% per decade in caudate, 6.2% in putamen, 2.1% in thalamus and 2.5% in temporal insula. This study documents age related decrement of DA D2 receptor availability in striatal and extrastriatal regions.

  11. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  12. M-theory solutions invariant under D(2,1; γ) + D(2,1;γ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachas, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure Unite mixte (UMR 8549) du CNRS et de l' ENS, Paris (France); D' Hoker, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Estes, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Krym, D. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2014-03-06

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;γ) + D(2,1;γ). Their space-time has the form AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} warped over a Riemann surface Σ. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (γ, h, G), where γ is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on Σ whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of γ. The magnitude of γ enters only through the map of h,G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} x R {sup 2}, modulo discrete identifications of the flat R {sup 2}, and (ii) that solutions with γ < 0 cannot have more than one asymptotic higher-dimensional AdS region. We classify the allowed singularities of h and G near the boundary of Σ, and identify four local solutions: asymptotic AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} or AdS{sub 7}' regions; highly-curved M5-branes; and a coordinate singularity called the ''cap''. By putting these ''Lego'' pieces together we recover all known global regular solutions with the above symmetry, including the self-dual strings on M5 for γ <0, and the Janus solution for γ > 0, but now promoted to families parametrized by vertical stroke γ vertical stroke. We also construct exactly new regular solutions which are asymptotic to AdS{sub 4}/Z{sub 2} for γ < 0, and conjecture that they are a different superconformal limit of the self-dual string. Finally, we construct exactly γ > 0 solutions with highly curved M5

  13. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Sun, J; Gu, Y; Zhao, S; Groome, L J; Alexander, J S

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placenta, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We examined D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin was determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n = 6) and preeclamptic (n = 5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder.

  14. 生椎茸中のプレビタミンD_2およびビタミンD_2の同定

    OpenAIRE

    高村, 一知; 星野, 浩子; 叶多, 謙蔵; タカムラ, カズノリ; ホシノ, ヒロコ; カノウタ, ケンゾウ; Kazunori, Takamura; HIROKO, HOSHINO; KENZO, KANOHTA

    1993-01-01

    Pre-vitamin D_2(pre-D_2)and vitamin D_2(D_2)in raw shiitake mushroom were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with modified plasmaspray. 1. Pre-D_2 and D_2 in raw shiitake mushroom were separated by LC. 2. Pre-D_2 was confirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+)to scan number 259 of total ion chromatogram. 3. D_2 was cofirmed parent ion(m/z 397 [M+H]^+) to scan number 296 of total ion chromatogram. 4. We have succeeded in obtaining mass spectra of pre-D_2 and D_2 that does ...

  15. Free Radical Reactions in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  16. Evidence for dopamine D-2 receptors on cholinergic interneurons in the rat caudate-putamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, V.L.; Dawson, T.M.; Filloux, F.M.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    The aziridinium ion of ethylcholine (AF64A) is a neurotoxin that has demonstrated selectivity for cholinergic neurons. Unilateral stereotaxic injection of AF64A into the caudate-putamen of rats, resulted in a decrease in dopamine D-2 receptors as evidenced by a decrease in (/sup 3/H)-sulpiride binding. Dopamine D-1 receptors, labeled with (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390, were unchanged. The efficacy of the lesion was demonstrated by the reduction of Na/sup +/-dependent high affinity choline uptake sites labeled with (/sup 3/H)-hemicholinium-3. These data indicate that a population of D-2 receptors are postsynaptic on cholinergic interneurons within the striatum of rat brain.

  17. Disruption of the D2 dopamine receptor produces adrenergic and endothelin B receptor-dependent hypertension%多巴胺D2受体基因敲除对鼠肾上腺素和内皮素B受体依赖性高血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓曦; MartinBek; 等

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨多巴胺D2受体(DAD2R)在遗传性高血压中的调节机制.方法通过免疫印迹分析,血浆Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、儿茶酚胺、血浆ET水平测定,观察多巴胺D2受体基因敲除对血压的影响,多巴胺D2受体与其他血管加压系统的相互作用.结果多巴胺D2受体基因敲除鼠的纯合子(D2-/-)、杂合子(D2+/-)鼠的收缩压为128±2(mm Hg)、129±4(mm Hg)和舒张压97±2(mm Hg)、98±3(mm Hg),高于野生型(D2+/+)鼠104±2(mm Hg), 77±1(mm Hg).肾上腺素B受体阻滞剂对D2-/-鼠的降压作用较D2+/+鼠强,D2-/-鼠的尿液中肾上腺素排泄率高于D2+/+鼠,肾上腺切除后,D2-/-鼠的血压下降幅度也远远大于D2+/+鼠.ETB受体拮抗剂BQ788降低D2-/-鼠的血压,对D2+/+鼠的血压无影响.ETB1 受体拮抗剂RES 701-1升高D2-/-鼠的血压,对D2+/+鼠的血压无影响.ET-1和ETB 激动剂sarafatoxin S6c升高D2+/+鼠血压强于D2-/-鼠.D2-/-鼠血浆ET水平与D2+/+相似,但D2-/-鼠中ETB受体的表达强于D2+/+鼠.ETA 和加压素V1 受体拮抗剂对D2+/+和D2-/-鼠血压无影响.AT I受体拮抗剂losartan对D2-/-和D2+/+鼠的降压作用相同.D2-/-鼠基础尿钠排泄量较D2+/+鼠高, 而且D2-/-鼠Na+-K+-ATP酶活性降低提示D2-/-鼠高血压不是钠潴留造成的.结论多巴胺D2受体对交感神经兴奋的抑制减少,以及ETB2受体的活性增强可能导致多巴胺D2受体基因敲除鼠的高血压.

  18. Extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor availability in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavén-Sigray, Pontus; Hedman, Erik; Victorsson, Pauliina; Matheson, Granville J; Forsberg, Anton; Djurfeldt, Diana R; Rück, Christian; Halldin, Christer; Lindefors, Nils; Cervenka, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in the dopamine system are hypothesized to influence the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. However, molecular imaging studies comparing dopamine function between patients and control subjects have yielded conflicting results. Importantly, while all previous investigations focused on the striatum, findings from activation and blood flow studies indicate that prefrontal and limbic brain regions have a central role in the pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to investigate extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor (D2-R) availability in SAD. We examined 12 SAD patients and 16 healthy controls using positron emission tomography and the high-affinity D2-R radioligand [(11)C]FLB457. Parametric images of D2-R binding potential were derived using the Logan graphical method with cerebellum as reference region. Two-tailed one-way independent ANCOVAs, with age as covariate, were used to examine differences in D2-R availability between groups using both region-based and voxel-wise analyses. The region-based analysis showed a medium effect size of higher D2-R levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in patients, although this result did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The voxel-wise comparison revealed elevated D2-R availability in patients within OFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after correction for multiple comparisons. These preliminary results suggest that an aberrant extrastriatal dopamine system may be part of the disease mechanism in SAD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D/2D Registration of medical images

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaževič, D.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral dissertation is registration of 3D medical images to corresponding projective 2D images, referred to as 3D/2D registration. There are numerous possible applications of 3D/2D registration in image-aided diagnosis and treatment. In most of the applications, 3D/2D registration provides the location and orientation of the structures in a preoperative 3D CT or MR image with respect to intraoperative 2D X-ray images. The proposed doctoral dissertation tries to find origin...

  20. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Gabriel J; Ramirez, Pedro T; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old female with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix who desired future fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The operative time was 340 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology showed no evidence of residual disease, and all pelvic lymph nodes were negative. At 20 mo of follow-up, the patient is having regular menses but has not yet attempted to become pregnant. There is no evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a young woman who desires future fertility may also be an alternative technique in the treatment of early cervical cancer in developing countries.

  1. Heterotic $D=2 (1/3, 0)$ Susy Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    Following our previous work on fractional spin symmetries (FSS) \\cite{2, 4}, we build here a superspace representation of the heterotic $D=2(1/3,0)$ superalgebra and derive a field theoretical model invariant under this symmetry.

  2. Quantitative imaging of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG in selected histological tissue areas by a novel bioluminescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Fabienne Voelxen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPatients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than one year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG, a metabolite, which was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various gain-of–function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH-1 and IDH-2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (< 0.1 mM, but its concentration increases up to 35 mM in malignant tumor tissues. Consequently, the oncometabolite D2HG has gained increasing interest in the field of tumor metabolism. To facilitate its quantitative measurement without loss of spatial resolution at a microscopical level, we have developed a novel bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0 – 10 µmol/g tissue (wet weight. In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  3. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  4. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipke Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Millions of men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer worldwide. With the advent of PSA screening, there has been a shift in the detection of early prostate cancer, and there are increased numbers of men with asymptomatic, organ confined disease. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the latest, well accepted treatment that patients can select. We review the surgical technique, and oncologic and functional outcomes of the most current, large series of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy published in English. Positive margin rates range from 2.1-6.9% for pT2a, 9.9-20.6% for pT2b, 24.5-42.3% for pT3a, and 22.6-54.5% for pT3b. Potency rates after bilateral nerve sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy range from 47.1 to 67%. Continence rates at 12 months range from 83.6 to 92%.

  5. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  6. Radical dematerialization and degrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos

    2017-05-01

    The emission targets agreed in Paris require a radical reduction of material extraction, use and disposal. The core claim of this article is that a radical dematerialization can only be part and parcel of degrowth. Given that capitalist economies are designed to grow, this raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, the inevitable `degrowth' can become socially sustainable. Three economic policies are discussed in this direction: work-sharing, green taxes and public money. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  7. Genetic Basis and Characterization of Salt Tolerance in Alloplasmic Wheat D2-'Jian 26'%异源细胞质小麦D2-鉴26的耐盐特征及其遗传基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春光; 侯宁; 刘立科; 刘根齐; 吴郁文; 张翠兰; 张炎

    2005-01-01

    以核亲本品种鉴26和耐盐品种科遗26为对照,设计3种NaCl浓度(85.56 mmol/L, 171.04 mmol/L, 256.67 mmol/L)处理及无盐对照,研究了异源细胞质小麦D2-鉴26苗期的生长发育和生理生化特征.结果表明,D2型细胞质对核基因型鉴26存在明显的耐盐性遗传效应,效应值的大小因性状而异,核基因型鉴26与科遗26之间也存在差异;盐胁迫下,D2型细胞质能有效降低核基因型鉴26的生长受抑程度,提高其叶片相对含水量RWC,减轻其细胞质膜损伤度和增强对K+的选择性吸收能力,改变叶片功能蛋白的表达.这些研究结果表明,D2型细胞质是小麦耐盐育种的有用资源;异质系D2-鉴26是一个新的耐盐种质材料,其生长发育和渗透调节等相关耐盐特征可以作为D2型细胞质小麦遗传育种耐盐选择的有用指标;D2型细胞质小麦耐盐相关机制的阐明与利用也必将丰富小麦耐盐育种途径.%Alloplasmic wheat D2-'Jian 26', euplasmic wheat'Jian 26' and salt-tolerant control cultivar `Keyi 26' were evaluated in developmental and physiological traits at seedling stage under four levels of NaCl (0 mmol/L, 85.56 mmol/L, 171.04 mmol/L, 256.67 mmol/L). Significant genetic effects of D2-type cytoplasm on salt tolerance and genotypic differences in salt tolerance were observed. A clear improvement in terms of the developmental and physiological behaviours of D2-'Jian 26' and 'Jian 26' was demonstrated for alloplasmic line D2-'Jian 26'. In view of its better salt-tolerance compared with 'Keyi 26' and 'Jian 26', D2-'Jian 26' could be used as a new salt-tolerant germplasm. Under the low or medium salt-concentration, more root branching, large SK, Na(uptake) and SK, Na(transport), and good properties of leaf (relatively higher RWC and relatively lower cell-membrane damage and relatively higher chlorophyll content) were the potential usefulness as a salinity stress avoidance mechanism, suggesting that these parameters in stress

  8. Radical School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  9. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters and the...

  10. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks...

  12. Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, George H.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative is presented to counter current radical arguments that the schools cannot bring about social change because they are instruments of capitalism. The works of Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Louis Althusser are discussed. Henry Giroux's "Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling" provides an alternative to cynicism.…

  13. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast equilib

  14. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  15. On Radical Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>All men are created equal.For centuries,human have been struggling for their rights.Women,as a special social force,are fighting vigorously for their equal rights with men.According to an introduction to feminism,there are three main types of feminism:socialist,reformist and radical(Feminism 101).In order

  16. Oscillation of Branching Ratios Between the D (2 s )+D (1 s ) and the D (2 p )+D (1 s ) Channels in Direct Photodissociation of D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang

    2017-08-01

    The direct photodissociation of D2 at excitation energies above 14.76 eV occurs via two channels, D (2 s )+D (1 s ) and D (2 p )+D (1 s ) . The branching ratios between the two have been measured from the dissociation threshold to 3200 cm-1 above it, and it is found that they show cosine oscillations as a function of the fragment wave vector magnitudes. The oscillation is due to an interference effect and can be simulated using the phase difference between the wave functions of the two channels, analogous to Young's double-slit experiment. By fitting the measured branching ratios, we have determined the depths and widths of the effective spherical potential wells related to the two channels, which are in agreement with the effective depths and widths of the ab initio interaction potentials. The results of this Letter illustrate the importance of the relative phase between the fragments in controlling the branching ratios of the photodissociation channels.

  17. Role of dopamine D2 receptors in human reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Naef, Michael; Linssen, Anke; Clark, Luke; Gandamaneni, Praveen K; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-09-01

    Influential neurocomputational models emphasize dopamine (DA) as an electrophysiological and neurochemical correlate of reinforcement learning. However, evidence of a specific causal role of DA receptors in learning has been less forthcoming, especially in humans. Here we combine, in a between-subjects design, administration of a high dose of the selective DA D2/3-receptor antagonist sulpiride with genetic analysis of the DA D2 receptor in a behavioral study of reinforcement learning in a sample of 78 healthy male volunteers. In contrast to predictions of prevailing models emphasizing DA's pivotal role in learning via prediction errors, we found that sulpiride did not disrupt learning, but rather induced profound impairments in choice performance. The disruption was selective for stimuli indicating reward, whereas loss avoidance performance was unaffected. Effects were driven by volunteers with higher serum levels of the drug, and in those with genetically determined lower density of striatal DA D2 receptors. This is the clearest demonstration to date for a causal modulatory role of the DA D2 receptor in choice performance that might be distinct from learning. Our findings challenge current reward prediction error models of reinforcement learning, and suggest that classical animal models emphasizing a role of postsynaptic DA D2 receptors in motivational aspects of reinforcement learning may apply to humans as well.

  18. Molecular structure, optical and magnetic properties of metal-free phthalocyanine radical anions in crystalline salts (H2Pc˙-)(cryptand[2,2,2][Na(+)])·1.5C6H4Cl2 and (H2Pc˙-)(TOA+)·C6H4Cl2 (TOA+ is tetraoctylammonium cation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Zorina, Leokadiya V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Litvinov, Aleksey L; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2013-05-21

    Ionic compounds containing radical anions of metal-free phthalocyanine (H2Pc˙(-)): (H2Pc˙(-))(cryptand[2,2,2][Na(+)])·1.5C6H4Cl2 (1) and (H2Pc˙(-))(TOA(+))·C6H4Cl2 (2) have been obtained as single crystals for the first time. Their crystal structures have been determined, and optical and magnetic properties have been investigated. The H2Pc˙(-) radical anions have a slightly bowl-like shape with four pyrrole nitrogen atoms located below the molecular plane, while four phenylene substituents are located above this plane. Changes in the average length of N-C and C-C bonds in H2Pc˙(-) in comparison with those in neutral H2Pc indicate that negative charge is mainly delocalized over the 24-atom phthalocyanine ring rather than the phenylene substituents. The H2Pc˙(-) formation is accompanied by a shift of up to 10 cm(-1) and disappearance of some intense IR-active bands whereas the band of the N-H stretching mode is shifted by 21-27 cm(-1) to larger wavenumbers. New bands attributed to H2Pc˙(-) appear in the NIR spectra of the salts with maxima at 1033 and 1028 nm for 1 and 2, respectively. The formation of H2Pc˙(-) is accompanied by the splitting of the Soret and Q-bands of H2Pc into several bands and their blue-shift up to 32 nm. Narrow EPR signals with g = 2.0033 and linewidth of 0.16-0.24 mT at room temperature in the spectra of the salts were attributed to the H2Pc˙(-) radical anions. According to SQUID measurements they have S = 1/2 spin states with effective magnetic moments of 1.73 (1) and 1.78 (2) μB at 300 K. Magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 follows the Curie-Weiss law with negative Weiss temperatures of -0.9 and -0.5 K, respectively, indicating weak antiferromagnetic interactions of spins. The EPR signal splits into two lines below 120 and 80 K for 1 and 2, respectively and these lines are noticeably broadened below 25 K.

  19. Photodesorption of H2O, HDO, and D2O ice and its impact on fractionation

    CERN Document Server

    Arasa, Carina; Kroes, Geert-Jan; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2015-01-01

    The HDO/H2O ratio in interstellar gas is often used to draw conclusions on the origin of water in star-forming regions and on Earth. In cold cores and in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks, gas-phase water comes from photodesorption of water ice. We present fitting formulae for implementation in astrochemical models using photodesorption efficiencies for all water ice isotopologues obtained using classical molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate if the gas-phase HDO/H2O ratio reflects that present in the ice or whether fractionation can occur during photodesorption. Probabilities for the top four monolayers are presented for photodesorption of X (X=H,D) atoms, OX radicals, and X2O and HDO molecules following photodissociation of H2O, D2O, and HDO in H2O amorphous ice at temperatures from 10-100 K. Isotope effects are found for all products: (1) H atom photodesorption probabilities from H2O ice are larger than those for D atom photodesorption from D2O ice by a factor of 1.1; the ratio of H and D ...

  20. Presence of hydrogen peroxide, a source of hydroxyl radicals, in acid electrolyzed water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mokudai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acid electrolyzed water (AEW, which is produced through the electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride (NaCl or potassium chloride solution, is used as a disinfectant in various fields because of its potent antimicrobial activity. The hydroxyl radical, an oxygen radical species, is often suggested as a putative active ingredient for AEW antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the present study is to detect hydroxyl radicals in AEW. The hydroxyl radicals in AEW prepared under different conditions were determined using an electron spin resonance (ESR technique. A signal from 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO-OH, an adduct of DMPO and the hydroxyl radical, was detected in AEW prepared by double or triple electrolyses of 1% NaCl but not of 0.1% NaCl solution. Then the presence of hydrogen peroxide as a proposed source of hydroxyl radicals was examined using a combination of ESR and a Fenton reaction. The DMPO-OH signal was clearly detected, even in AEW prepared by single electrolysis of 0.1% NaCl solution, when ferrous sulfate was added to induce a Fenton reaction, indicating the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the AEW. Since sodium formate, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, did not affect the bactericidal activity of AEW, it is concluded that the radical is unlikely to contribute to the antimicrobial activity of AEW, although a small amount of the radical is produced from hydrogen peroxide. Dimethyl sulfoxide, the other hydroxyl radical scavenger used in the present study, canceled the bactericidal activity of AEW, accompanied by complete depletion of free available chlorine, suggesting that hypochlorous acid is probably a major contributor to the antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that although hydrogen peroxide is present in AEW as a source of hydroxyl radicals, the antimicrobial activity of AEW does not depend on these radicals.

  1. *H atom and *OH radical reactions with 5-methylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, A; Morell, C; Labet, V; Cadet, J; Eriksson, L A

    2007-09-20

    The reactions between either a hydrogen atom or a hydroxyl radical and 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) are studied by using the hybrid kinetic energy meta-GGA functional MPW1B95. *H atom and *OH radical addition to positions C5 and C6 of 5-MeCyt, or *OH radical induced H-abstraction from the C5 methyl group, are explored. All systems are optimized in bulk solvent. The data presented show that the barriers to reaction are very low: ca. 7 kcal/mol for the *H atom additions and 1 kcal/mol for the reactions involving the *OH radical. Thermodynamically, the two C6 radical adducts and the *H-abstraction product are the most stable ones. The proton hyperfine coupling constants (HFCC), computed at the IEFPCM/MPW1B95/6-311++G(2d,2p) level, agree well with B3LYP results and available experimental and theoretical data on related thymine and cytosine radicals.

  2. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  3. Musical Expression with the D2MMG Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Distribution in Multiple Musical Gestures (D2MMG) uses a robust interface for detecting simple drawing gestures. The gestures affect low- and high-level aspects of sound and music through inherent modes organized as primary and secondary gestures. This enables expressive live performance...... and improvisation with sequence creation where musical elements such as tonality, chromaticity, rhythm patterns, and melodical sequences can be affected in real-time. We introduce a utility for procedurally controlling note density and chordal alignment. Future papers will focus on D2MMG’s progressive learning...

  4. Musical Expression with the D2MMG Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Distribution in Multiple Musical Gestures (D2MMG) uses a robust interface for detecting simple drawing gestures. The gestures affect low- and high-level aspects of sound and music through inherent modes organized as primary and secondary gestures. This enables expressive live performance...... and improvisation with sequence creation where musical elements such as tonality, chromaticity, rhythm patterns, and melodical sequences can be affected in real-time. We introduce a utility for procedurally controlling note density and chordal alignment. Future papers will focus on D2MMG’s progressive learning...

  5. Deixando o preconceito de lado e entendendo o Behaviorismo Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto Guimarães

    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner é muitas vezes criticado de forma indevida e até preconceituosa. Muitas destas críticas, na verdade, são críticas da psicologia de Watson e não do Behaviorismo Radical. O entendimento das diferenças entre os modos idealista e materialista de pensar ajuda a esclarecer a maneira de estudar e compreender o comportamento para o Behaviorismo Radical, bem como a sua posição anti-mentalista. O estudo da história da evolução do Behaviorismo é necessário para possibilitar o entendimento das diferenças entre o Behaviorismo Metodológico de Watson e o Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner, bem como das suas respectivas contribuições para a psicologia.

  6. Women and radicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Badran, Margot

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  7. Probability and radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

  8. Probability and radical behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforc...

  9. Radical chic, javisst!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartle, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Det är lätt att raljera över engagerade människor, i synnerhet när engagemanget framstår som ytligt och chict snarare än grundläggande och autentiskt. Men vad ligger bakom ett sådant avfärdande? Johan Frederik Hartle läser om Tom Wolfes klassiska essä "Radical Chic" och visar hur Wolfe −− genom att

  10. Radical substitution with azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Marinescu, Lavinia Georgeta; Bols, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    and the substrate. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect was found for the azidonation of benzyl ethers both with TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and with IN3. Also a Hammett free energy relationship study of this reaction showed good correlation with sigma+ constants giving with rho-values of -0.47 for TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and -0.......39 for IN3. On this basis a radical mechanism of the reaction was proposed....

  11. Dextran iron in anemic lambs: effects on reticulocytosis and free radical production Ferro dextrano em cordeiros anêmicos: efeitos na reticulocitose e produção de radicais livres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Xavier da Rocha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to worm infection is a major cause of loss in the sheep industry, due to deaths, drop in average daily gains and long recovery time following treatment. The present experiment was aimed at evaluating the oxidative status and the recovery of red blood cell (RBC profile in lambs with induced anemia by bleeding, treated or not with dextran iron. Ten ram lambs 5 to 7 months old were used. Blood samples were drawn every other day and when reached packed cell volume (PCV of 15% were randomly allocated (day zero to one of the experimental groups. Treated group received a single dose of 25mg per kg body weight of a commercial formulation of dextran iron, the control group received no treatment. Blood samples were taken on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. On days 7 an 21 treated animals presented higher thyobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS values, reduced non-protein thiol groups (NPTH levels were found in the treated group on days 7, 14 and 21. Erythrocyte membrane resistance to osmotic challenge was improved on day 7 in treated animals. Recovery to normal values for the RBC profile was faster in the treated group with significant differences starting on day 7. It was conclude that althouth the iron treatment increased the oxidative stress, it also accelerated recovery of the hematological profile. Moreover, it did not increase hemolysis in anemic blood by the action of oxygen reactive species upon biological membranes.A anemia verminótica é a principal causa de perdas na ovinocultura, incluindo diminuição no ganho médio diário, demora no tempo de recuperação pós-tratamento e óbito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o status oxidativo e a recuperação do quadro hematológico de cordeiros com anemia induzida por flebotomia e suplementados ou não com ferro dextrano. Foram utilizados dez cordeiros machos entre cinco e sete meses de idade. O dia zero do experimento foi considerado quando cada animal atingiu o hemat

  12. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  13. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  14. A república radical: formação dos movimentos sociais e sindicalismo revolucionário na França (1880-1914 = A radical republic: formation of social movements and unionism revolutionary in France (1880-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundim, Luiz Felipe Cezar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de radicalismo político em meio às lutas operárias da França do final do século XIX remete ao anarquismo naquele país, normalmente reduzido à tática da “propaganda pelo ato” empreendida pelos anarquistas individualistas, muito embora conformassem práticas isoladas. A radicalidade no movimento operário, entretanto, pode ser observada a partir de diversas nuanças, em um repertório de ação mais complexo, que vinha sendo construído desde pelo menos 1880. A proposta deste artigo é observar determinados traços do processo de formação das mobilizações coletivas na França, e apontar para as especificidades da evolução do movimento operário para determinadas expressões radicais no final do século XIX e início do século XX, em especial o sindicalismo revolucionário e a ideia de greve geral, formas radicais mais relevantes dos movimentos sociais no período

  15. Human cognitive flexibility depends on dopamine D2 receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstein, M.G.A. van; Aarts, E.; Schaaf, M.E. van der; Geurts, D.E.M.; Verkes, R.J.; Franke, B.; Schouwenburg, M.R. van; Cools, R.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence indicates that the cognitive effects of dopamine depend on the subtype of dopamine receptor that is activated. In particular, recent work with animals as well as current theorizing has suggested that cognitive flexibility depends on dopamine D2 receptor signaling.

  16. Association of Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene with Creative Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan H.

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies suggest that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene may contribute to creativity, the relationship between DRD2 and creativity still needs to be further validated. To further test the relevance of DRD2 and creativity, this study explored the association between DRD2 and creative ideation in 483 unrelated healthy Chinese…

  17. Path integral approach to bosonization of D=2 field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyanov-Charsky, S A

    1995-01-01

    We suggest a method of bosonizing any D=2 theory. We demonstrate how it works with the examples of the Thirring and the Schwinger models, known results are reproduced. This method, being applied to the Gross-Neveu model, yields nonlinear boson WZW-type theory with additional constraint in the field space. Relation to the nonlinear sigma - model is also discussed.

  18. Depletion studies of two contrasting D-2 reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillund, G.N.; Patel, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Nisku B and G pools are 2 W. Pembina D-2 pools with contrasting reservoir properties. Average porosity, permeability, and maximum thickness are 5%, 130 md, and 95 m; and 16.4%, 7100 md and 19 m, respectively. The results of the depletion model studies of waterflooding and miscible flooding and some of the problems that occurred during these studies are reviewed.

  19. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, scanned with single-photon emission computerized tomography using the dopamine D2/3 receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, and scanned with MRI. After 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (n=13) or zuclopenthixol (n=9), 22 patients were reexamined. Blockade of extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors was correlated with decreased attentional focus (r = -0.615, P=.003) and planning time (r = -0.436, P=.048). Moreover, baseline frontal dopamine D2/3 binding potential and positive symptom reduction correlated positively (D2/3 receptor binding potential left frontal cortex rho = 0.56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association between severity of cognitive disturbances and a poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. Additionally, the findings support associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential at baseline and the effect of antipsychotic treatment on positive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  20. O Behaviorismo Radical como filosofia da mente Radical Behaviorism as philosophy of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de B. F. Skinner é constantemente acusado de eliminar a mente de sua explicação do comportamento humano. Uma análise do livro The Concept of Mind, de Gilbert Ryle, sugere a possibilidade de defender a existência de uma mente relacional, diferente da categoria de existência da mente defendida em interpretações cartesianas (mente substancial. A análise de alguns textos de Skinner sugere que o conceito de uma mente relacional também pode ser defendido no Behaviorismo Radical. Esse fato, culminaria na possibilidade de que, além de filosofia da Ciência do Comportamento, o Behaviorismo Radical, também pode ser uma filosofia da mente, o que traria conseqüências ao estudo e à aplicação da Análise do Comportamento.B. F. Skinner's Radical Behaviorism has been repeatedly accused of eliminating the mind from its explanation of human behavior. An analysis of Gilbert Ryle's book, The Concept of Mind, suggests the possibility of defending the existence of a relational mind, different from the category of existence of mind defended in Cartesian interpretations (substantial mind. The analysis of some texts of Skinner suggests that the concept of a relational mind can also be defended in Radical Behaviorism. This fact would lead to the possibility that, beyond a philosophy of Behavior Science, Radical Behaviorism may also be a philosophy of mind, which would bring consequences to the study and application of Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Behaviorismo radical e discurso pós-moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Damásio Abib

    Full Text Available Argumenta-se neste ensaio que o behaviorismo radical não apoia nenhum destes pressupostos do discurso moderno: fundacionismo na epistemologia, representacionismo na linguagem e as metanarrativas do progresso do Ocidente. Argumenta-se ainda que o behaviorismo radical é solidário com estas tendências do discurso pós-moderno: pragmatismo epistemológico, anti-representacionismo na linguagem e dissolução das metanarrativas do progresso científico, social, político e cultural do Ocidente. Sugere-se, finalmente, que o pensamento de Skinner rompe decisivamente com o discurso moderno e aproxima-se do discurso pós-moderno.

  2. Presynaptic D2 dopamine receptors control long-term depression expression and memory processes in the temporal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Jill; Isingrini, Elsa; Dal Bo, Gregory; Sagheby, Sara; Menegaux, Aurore; Tronche, François; Levesque, Daniel; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain; Wong, Tak Pan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Giros, Bruno

    2015-03-15

    Dysfunctional mesocorticolimbic dopamine signaling has been linked to alterations in motor and reward-based functions associated with psychiatric disorders. Converging evidence from patients with psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics suggests that imbalance of dopamine signaling deeply alters hippocampal functions. However, given the lack of full characterization of a functional mesohippocampal pathway, the precise role of dopamine transmission in memory deficits associated with these disorders and their dedicated therapies is unknown. In particular, the positive outcome of antipsychotic treatments, commonly antagonizing D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs), on cognitive deficits and memory impairments remains questionable. Following pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of dopamine transmission, we performed anatomic, neurochemical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral investigations to uncover the role of D2Rs in hippocampal-dependent plasticity and learning. Naïve mice (n = 4-21) were used in the different procedures. Dopamine modulated both long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the temporal hippocampus as well as spatial and recognition learning and memory in mice through D2Rs. Although genetic deletion or pharmacologic blockade of D2Rs led to the loss of long-term potentiation expression, the specific genetic removal of presynaptic D2Rs impaired long-term depression and performances on spatial memory tasks. Presynaptic D2Rs in dopamine fibers of the temporal hippocampus tightly modulate long-term depression expression and play a major role in the regulation of hippocampal learning and memory. This direct role of mesohippocampal dopamine input as uncovered here adds a new dimension to dopamine involvement in the physiology underlying deficits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of oxygen free radicals in the etiopathogenesis of diversion colitis in rats A importância dos radicais livres de oxigênio na etiopatogenia da colite de exclusão em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2010-10-01

    segmentos cólicos, sem trânsito fecal apresentaram maior escore histológico de inflamação após 12 e 24 semanas (p=0,001, que aumentou com o tempo de derivação (p=0,01. A atividade da mieloperoxidase nos segmentos sem trânsito fecal diminuiu com o progredir do tempo (p=0,001. Os níveis de dano oxidativo ao DNA foram significativamente maiores nos segmentos sem trânsito fecal (p=0,0001, independente do tempo de exclusão considerado, aumentando com o progredir do tempo de exclusão (p = 0,0007. CONCLUSÕES: Segmentos cólicos desprovidos de trânsito fecal apresentam níveis elevados de dano oxidativo ao DNA relacionados às alterações histológicas observadas na colite de exclusão. Os níveis de dano oxidativo ao DNA nos segmentos desprovidos de trânsito fecal aumentam com o decorrer do tempo de exclusão.

  4. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P

    2016-01-04

    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples.

  5. Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzina, Svetlana I. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Semenova 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Shilova, Irina A., E-mail: ishil@icp.ac.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Semenova 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, Al' fa I. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Semenova 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials were explored by 3-cm and 2-mm ESR spectroscopy. Background (intrinsic) singlet signals at g=2.003 from wood pulp and lignin and those arising during reaction of lignocellulose materials with acids and chlorine were attributed to radicals with conjugated C--C bonds. The 2-mm ESR signal with 3D anisotropy of g-factor from o-semiquinone radical ions formed in reaction of lignin with NaOH was recorded for the first time. The singlet signals derived from cellulose {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K and marked out during post-thermal reactions were assigned to radicals with conjugated bonds. In wetted cellulose, a triplet signal with {alpha}{sub {beta}}{sup H}{approx_equal}2.7 mT and imposed quadruplet structure (0.5-0.7 mT) from three {gamma}-protons was detected at 300 K and attributed to S{sub 4}-radicals. The triplet signals derived from S{sub 2}- and S{sub 3}-radicals in pyranose cycles of cellulose exhibited higher values of {alpha}{sub {beta}}{sup H} (3.0-3.2 mT) and lower thermal stability (up to 250 K). In radiolyzed cotton pulp, detected were ESR signals derived from formyl radicals formed upon rupture of the S{sub 5}--S{sub 6} bond in pyranose cycles. Heating up irradiated samples under O{sub 2} was accompanied by formation of peroxide radicals. Photoinduced recombination of trapped electrons with S{sub 1}-radicals was found to proceed as a chain reaction with a kinetic length of about 25 units. Photolysis ({lambda}{>=}360 nm) of radiolyzed cellulose enhanced the disclosure of pyranose cycles and, as a result, the evolution of CO{sub 2} by a factor of 2-2.5.

  6. Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzina, Svetlana I.; Shilova, Irina A.; Mikhailov, Al'fa I.

    2011-09-01

    Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials were explored by 3-cm and 2-mm ESR spectroscopy. Background (intrinsic) singlet signals at g=2.003 from wood pulp and lignin and those arising during reaction of lignocellulose materials with acids and chlorine were attributed to radicals with conjugated CC bonds. The 2-mm ESR signal with 3D anisotropy of g-factor from o-semiquinone radical ions formed in reaction of lignin with NaOH was recorded for the first time. The singlet signals derived from cellulose γ-irradiated at 77 K and marked out during post-thermal reactions were assigned to radicals with conjugated bonds. In wetted cellulose, a triplet signal with αβH≅2.7 mT and imposed quadruplet structure (0.5-0.7 mT) from three γ-protons was detected at 300 K and attributed to С 4-radicals. The triplet signals derived from С 2- and С 3-radicals in pyranose cycles of cellulose exhibited higher values of αβH (3.0-3.2 mT) and lower thermal stability (up to 250 K). In radiolyzed cotton pulp, detected were ESR signals derived from formyl radicals formed upon rupture of the С 5С 6 bond in pyranose cycles. Heating up irradiated samples under О 2 was accompanied by formation of peroxide radicals. Photoinduced recombination of trapped electrons with С 1-radicals was found to proceed as a chain reaction with a kinetic length of about 25 units. Photolysis ( λ≥360 nm) of radiolyzed cellulose enhanced the disclosure of pyranose cycles and, as a result, the evolution of CO 2 by a factor of 2-2.5.

  7. Use of D2 to Elucidate OMVPE Growth Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-11

    AUsTRAC UL (UNLIMITED) UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 141k 74.IZOSGstaneard R"c Ise (Rev 2-49) + N.’Eot of a""l id. Z1911 Grant AFOSR-87-0233...Neither D, nor CH3 radicals play a role in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis of DMAsH occurs at lower temperatures than for TMAs. The major

  8. Romans-mass-driven flows on the D2-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, Adolfo; Varela, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The addition of supersymmetric Chern-Simons terms to ${\\cal N}=8$ super-Yang-Mills theory in three-dimensions is expected to make the latter flow into infrared superconformal phases. We address this problem holographically by studying the effect of the Romans mass on the D2-brane near-horizon geometry. Working in a consistent, effective four-dimensional setting provided by $D=4$ ${\\cal N}=8$ supergravity with a dyonic $\\textrm{ISO(7)}$ gauging, we verify the existence of a rich web of supersymmetric domain walls triggered by the Romans mass that interpolate between the (four-dimensional description of the) D2-brane and various superconformal phases. We also construct domain walls for which both endpoints are superconformal. While most of our results are numerical, we provide analytic results for the $\\textrm{SU}(3)\\times \\textrm{U}(1)$-invariant flow into an ${\\cal N}=2$ conformal phase recently discovered.

  9. Romans-mass-driven flows on the D2-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarino, Adolfo [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxellesand International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Varela, Oscar [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Utah State University,Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The addition of supersymmetric Chern-Simons terms to N=8 super-Yang-Mills theory in three-dimensions is expected to make the latter flow into infrared superconformal phases. We address this problem holographically by studying the effect of the Romans mass on the D2-brane near-horizon geometry. Working in a consistent, effective four-dimensional setting provided by D=4N=8 supergravity with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging, we verify the existence of a rich web of supersymmetric domain walls triggered by the Romans mass that interpolate between the (four-dimensional description of the) D2-brane and various superconformal phases. We also construct domain walls for which both endpoints are superconformal. While most of our results are numerical, we provide analytic results for the SU(3)×U(1)-invariant flow into an N=2 conformal phase recently discovered.

  10. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Julian

    1980-09-01

    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  11. Bursectomy at radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuneyt; Kayaalp

    2015-01-01

    Radical gastrectomy with extended lymph node dissec tion and prophylactic resection of the omentum, peri toneum over the posterior lesser sac, pancreas and/o spleen was advocated at the beginning of the 1960 s in Japan. In time, prophylactic routine resections of the pancreas and/or spleen were abandoned because of the high incidence of postoperative complications. However omentectomy and bursectomy continued to be standard parts of traditional radical gastrectomy. The bursaomentalis was thought to be a natural barrier against invasion of cancer cells into the posterior part of the stomach. The theoretical rationale for bursectomy was to reduce the risk of peritoneal recurrences by eliminating the peritoneum over the lesser sac, which might include free cancer cells or micrometastases. Over time, the indication for bursectomy was gradually reduced to only patients with posterior gastric wall tumors penetrating the serosa. Despite its theoretical advantages, its benefit for recurrence or survival has not been proven yet. The possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed in this review. In conclusion, the value of bursectomy in the treatment of gastric cancer is still under debate and large-scale randomized studies are necessary. Until clear evidence of patient benefit is obtained, its routine use cannot be recommended.

  12. π-Radical to σ-Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron-Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and Its Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T; Wiegand, Tyler J; Hindi, Ragda M; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron-oxidized cytosine analogs, including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dCMP), were investigated in homogeneous, aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures by employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Upon employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones, thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical [cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)(•)]. Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging from ca. 8 to 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)(•) and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that, in the iminyl σ-radical, the unpaired spin is localized on the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form, as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG = -32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in double-stranded DNA by a radiation-induced ionization-deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path.

  13. Vibrational line shapes in the amalgamated limit: (para-D2)x(ortho-D2)1-x mixed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kinder, J.; Bouwen, A.; Schoemaker, D.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-05-01

    The D2 vibrons have been studied by high-resolution Raman scattering in mixed crystals of (p-D2)x(o-D2)1-x. The o-D2 and p-D2 vibrational transitions are found to overlap. Line shapes calculated by the coherent potential approximation are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The linewidth of the o-D2 transition is much larger than the linewidth of the p-H2 transition in (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x mixed crystals with comparable J=1 concentrations. Possible explanations for this difference are discussed.

  14. La gD2 coadministrada con el AFCo1 por vía intranasal induce inmunidad protectora contra virus de herpes simple tipo 2 en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmir Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La infección por virus herpes simple tipo 2 (VHS-2 continúa siendo un problema de salud mundial. Esta infección es transmitida sexualmente y es la principal causa de úlceras genitales. La prevención de esta enfermedad requiere de la utilización de vacunas mucosales, pues las vacunas parenterales no han sido exitosas. Por otra parte, no existen adyuvantes mucosales, por lo que el desarrollo de estos es esencial para la estrategia de estas vacunas. La administración intranasal (IN de la glicoproteína D del VHS-2 (gD2, coadministrada con el cocleato (AFCo1+gD2 sería igualmente efectiva con la gD2 incluida (AFCo1-gD2. Se inocularon ratones hembras C57BL/6 por la vía IN con gD2, contenida dentro del cocleato, coadministrada con el cocleato o gD2 sola. Se determinaron los niveles de IgG anti gD2 en suero y lavado vaginal, así como las subclases de IgG anti gD2 por ELISA. Se determinó la respuesta linfoproliferativa en células de bazo, el perfil de citoquinas Th1/Th2, los signos de la enfermedad y la protección frente al reto viral. Se observaron altos títulos de IgG e IgG2c anti gD2 en el suero de los animales inoculados con la gD2 y el AFCo1 como adyuvante. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p>0,05 entre los grupos que recibieron AFCo1+gD2 y los que recibieron AFCo1-gD2. Se observó un perfil de citoquinas tipo Th1 y un 100% de sobrevida en los grupos que recibieron el AFCo1 como adyuvante de la gD2, mientras que en el grupo que recibió la gD2 sola no se observó protección. Estos resultados indican que la gD2 puede ser utilizada coadministrada con AFCo1 por vía IN como un potencial candidato vacunal contra VHS-2.

  15. Radicals in Berkeley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Stuart

    2015-04-03

    In a previous autobiographical sketch for DNA Repair (Linn, S. (2012) Life in the serendipitous lane: excitement and gratification in studying DNA repair. DNA Repair 11, 595-605), I wrote about my involvement in research on mechanisms of DNA repair. In this Reflections, I look back at how I became interested in free radical chemistry and biology and outline some of our bizarre (at the time) observations. Of course, these studies could never have succeeded without the exceptional aid of my mentors: my teachers; the undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and senior lab visitors in my laboratory; and my faculty and staff colleagues here at Berkeley. I am so indebted to each and every one of these individuals for their efforts to overcome my ignorance and set me on the straight and narrow path to success in research. I regret that I cannot mention and thank each of these mentors individually.

  16. Risperidone regulates Dopamine D2-like receptors expression in rat brain in a time-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Peiyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antipsychotics can elicit dopamine super-sensitivity by up-regulation of D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 expression. Nevertheless, the expression profile of dopamine D2-like receptors in different brain regions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and changes following risperidone administration were still unclear. In this study, we would investigate the expression of D2-like receptors mRNA in different brain regions and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in rats after 2, 6 weeks risperidone administration. Methods: The experimental rats were given risperidone (0.25mg/kg/day, i.p., and the control rats were given 0.9% NaCl. The rats were sacrificed at 0 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the drug administration. Expression of the dopamine D2-like receptors was quantified by Real-time PCR method. Results: Dopamine D2-like receptors expressed in all the examined regions of rat brain. Their expression significantly increased 2weeks after risperidone administration in different brain regions. However, the changed expression of DRD2 and DRD3 turned back to the basal level 6weeks later, while the increased DRD4 expression remained in left parietal cortex. Meanwhile, DRD2 and DRD3 but not DRD4 expressed in PBMCs, however, the risperidone could not affect their expression. Conclusions: The risperidone could change the dopamine D2-like receptors expression in a time-dependent manner in different brain regions, which might guide the clinical use in the near future.

  17. The Area Method and the Table-Look-Up Method for 123I Epidepride SPECT Studies of Dopamine D2 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Charlotte; Pindborg, Lars; Haldin, C;

    1998-01-01

    Videbæk, C., Pinborg, L.H., Lassen, A., Halldin, C., Swahn, C-G., Yndgaard, S., Paulson, O.B. and Lassen, N.A. The Area Method and the Table-Look-Up Method for 123I Epidepride SPECT Studies of Dopamine D2 Receptors Abstract in Neuroimage 5(4), A21 Neurobiology Research Unit, Rigshospitalet, DENMARK...

  18. 单群2D2n(2)的拟刻画%Quasirecognition of the Simple Group 2 D2n (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立莉

    2015-01-01

    Let G be finite group such that M(G) = M(2 D2n (2)) where 2n -1 prime .Then G has a nor‐mal subgroup isomorphic to 2 D2n (2) .Especially ,if | G | = |2 D2n (2)| ,then G ≌ 2 D2n (2) .%设 G为有限群,且满足 M(G)= M(2 D2n (2)),其中2n -1为素数。则 G必有正规子群同构于2 D2n (2)。特别地,若|G|=|2 D2n (2)|,则G ≌2 D2n (2)。

  19. Crossed beam studies of O/-/ + D2 yields OD/-/ + D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. G.; Kremer, L. N.; Metral, C. J.; Cross, R. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Using the crossed-beam machine EVA measurements have been conducted of the product angular and energy distributions of the reaction O(-) + D2 yields OD(-) + D in the relative energy range of 1.2-4.7 eV (5.7-23.1 eV LAB). Below 2.5 eV the product distribution is centered about the center of mass, indicating a long-lived complex. Above 2.5 eV the distribution slowly moves forward. Most of the available energy goes into internal energy of the products.

  20. Anomeric and tautomeric equilibria in D-2-glucosamine Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Grech, E.; Schilf, W.; Kamieński, B.; Makowski, M.; Rozwadowski, Z.; Dziembowska, T.

    2007-11-01

    The structure of some glucosamine Schiff bases has been studied by means of ab initio RHF and DFT calculation and CP/MAS 13C and 15N NMR measurements. The anomeric and tautomeric equilibria in a DMSO solution have been studied by 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The anomeric composition of D-2-glucosamine Schiff bases in the solid state and in DMSO solution has been shown to depends on the tautomeric form of Schiff bases and electronic properties of substituents on the aromatic ring.

  1. Coupling of D2R Short but not D2R Long receptor isoform to the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway renders striatal neurons vulnerable to mutant huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Martin, Elodie; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Déglon, Nicole; Betuing, Sandrine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, results from abnormal polyglutamine extension in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein. This mutation causes preferential degeneration of striatal projection neurons. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, that dopaminergic D2 receptor stimulation acted in synergy with expanded huntingtin to increase aggregates formation and striatal death through activation of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. In vivo, in a lentiviral-mediated model of expanded huntingtin expression in the rat striatum, we found that the D2 antagonist haloperidol protects striatal neurons against expanded huntingtin-mediated toxicity. Two variant transcripts are generated by alternative splicing of the of D2 receptor gene, the D2R-Long and the D2R-Short, which are thought to play different functional roles. We show herein that overexpression of D2R-Short, but not D2R-Long in cell lines is associated with activation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. In striatal neurons in culture, the selective D2 agonist Quinpirole triggers phosphorylation of cofilin, a downstream effector of ROCK, which is abrogated by siRNAs that knockdown both D2R-Long and D2R-Short, but not by siRNAs targeting D2R-Long alone. Aggregate formation and neuronal death induced by expanded huntingtin, were potentiated by Quinpirole. This D2 agonist-mediated effect was selectively inhibited by the siRNA targeting both D2R-Long and D2R-Short but not D2R-Long alone. Our data provide evidence for a specific coupling of D2R-Short to the RhoA/ROCK/cofilin pathway, and its involvement in striatal vulnerability to expanded huntingtin. A new route for targeting Rho-ROCK signaling in Huntington's disease is unraveled with our findings.

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/PKB signalling: initiation by the D2S receptor and role in quinpirole-induced behavioural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ting; Ruan, Nan-Yu; Chen, Jin-Chung; Lin, Tzu-Yung

    2012-09-24

    The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively) are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3). To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation.

  3. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated Akt/PKB signalling: initiation by the D2S receptor and role in quinpirole-induced behavioural activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin‑Chung Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3. To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation.

  4. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Iain [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Percival, Paul W. [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail: percival@sfu.ca

    2006-03-31

    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and {sup 14}N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and {sup 14}N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy.

  5. Radical chic? Yes we are!

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Tom Wolfe in a classical 1970 essay coined the term "radical chic", upper-class flirtation with radical causes has been ridiculed. But by separating aesthetics from politics Wolfe was actually more reactionary than the people he criticized, writes Johan Frederik Hartle.

  6. Melatonin scavenges phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, F; Vencel, T; Annus, J

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of melatonin were tested in this work by EPR technique. It was found that melatonin scavenges phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals. Its effectiveness was 10-times lower than that of vitamin C. A new method of generation of phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals by spontaneous decomposition of D,L-2,3-diphenyltartaric acid in propan-2-ol was used.

  7. New arylalkanones from Horsfieldia macrobotrys, effective antidiabetic agents concomitantly inhibiting α-glucosidase and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Rico; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2015-10-15

    In search of effective antidiabetic agents having therapeutic effect by inhibiting α-glucosidase and preventive effect by scavenging free radicals, Horsfieldia macrobotrys showed promising bioactivity required for the proposed criteria. Bioassay-guided isolation of the stem bark extract resulted in two new arylalkanones named horsfieldone A (1) and maingayone D (2), together with a new flavanone C-glucoside named 8-C-β-d-glucopyranosylpinocembrin (3). Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic techniques as well as Mosher's method. Of isolated compounds, maingayone D (2) was the most potent inhibitors against both α-glucosidases and free radicals. The presence of additional phenolic moieties in 2 clearly indicated their critical roles in inhibitory effects. Further investigation on mechanism underlying α-glucosidase inhibition indicated that maingayone D (2) could retard the enzyme function by both competitive and noncompetitive manners.

  8. Interstellar detection of c-C3D2

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzano, S; Schilke, P; Caselli, P; Menten, K M; McCarthy, M C; Bizzocchi, L; Trevino-Morales, S P; Aikawa, Y; Schlemmer, S

    2013-01-01

    We report the first interstellar detection of c-C3D2. The doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene, a carbene, has been detected toward the starless cores TMC- 1C and L1544 using the IRAM 30m telescope. The J(Ka,Kc) = 3(0,3)-2(1,2), 3(1,3)-2(0,2), and 2(2,1)-1(1,0) transitions of this species have been observed at 3 mm in both sources. The expected 1:2 intensity ratio has been found in the 3(0,3)-2(1,2) and 3(1,3)-2(0,2) lines, belonging to the para and ortho species respectively. We also observed lines of the main species, c-C3H2, the singly deuterated c-C3HD, and the species with one 13C off of the principal axis of the molecule, c-H13CC2H. The lines of c-C3D2 have been observed with high signal to noise ratio, better than 7.5 sigma in TMC-1C and 9 sigma in L1544. The abundance of doubly deuterated cyclopropenylidene with respect to the normal species is found to be (0.4 - 0.8)% in TMC-1C and (1.2 - 2.1)% in L1544. The deuteration of this small hydrocarbon ring is analysed with a comprehensive gas-grain model, ...

  9. Evaluation of the free-radical-scavenging activity of diclofenac acid on the free-radical-induced haemolysis of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, You-Zhi; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2006-05-01

    Free-radical-induced peroxidation in-vivo is regarded as the aetiology of some diseases and free-radical-scavenging drugs, also called antioxidants (AH), have been widely used to overcome oxidative stress. An in-vitro experimental method, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced haemolysis of human erythrocytes can be applied to assess the free-radical-scavenging activity of a drug. The major objectives of this work were focused on three aspects. Firstly, introduction of the chemical kinetic deduction of free-radical-initiating reaction to AAPH-induced haemolysis of human erythrocytes, by which the number of free radicals trapped by an antioxidant, n, can be obtained after finding the quantitative relationship between the inhibition period (t(inh)) and the concentration of the antioxidant, t(inh) = (n/Ri) [AH]. Ri, the free-radical-initiating rate, was initially confirmed by using alpha-tocopherol (VE) whose n was taken as 2. Secondly, the free-radical-scavenging activity of diclofenac acid (DaH) and its sodium salt (DaNaH) was assessed. It has been found that DaH and DaNaH protect human erythrocytes against AAPH-induced haemolysis dose-dependently. In particular, the n values of DaH and DaNaH (4.96 and 3.60) were much higher than some traditional antioxidants, such as 6-hydroxyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, a water-soluble structural analogue of VE, n = 0.30) and L-ascorbic acid (VC, n = 0.25), and L-ascorbyl-6-laurate (VC-12, a lipophilic structural analogue of VC, n = 1.11). Moreover, the free-radical-scavenging activity of lipophilic antioxidants is higher than the corresponding water-soluble species. Thirdly, the free-radical-scavenging activity of mixed antioxidants, VE + DaH, VC-12 + DaH, Trolox + DaNaH and VC + DaNaH, was revealed. The n value of VC, VC-12, VE and Trolox increase in the case of mixed usage with DaH and DaNaH, implying that diclofenac acid can repair the radical of these antioxidants. Thus, a mutual

  10. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  11. Predicting treatment response in Schizophrenia: the role of stratal and frontal dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Sanne; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the best validated findings in schizophrenia is an association between increased presynaptic striatal dopaminergic activity and psychotic symptoms. We have previously reported an association between positive symptoms and dopamine D2 receptor binding potentials (BPs) in frontal...... group (Rho=-0,417 P=0,060). In the EPIcohort the mean PANSS total score was 70 at baseline and 48 at follow up. In the frontal cortex we found a positive correlation (Rho=0.56 P=0.003) between BP and change in positive symptom score for the whole group as well as in the subgroup treated with risperidone...... relationship between frontal and striatal dopamine activity. Data also emphasize that there might be gender differences. The data analysis is ongoing. (1) Glenthøj BY, Mackeprang T et al. Frontal dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic patients correlates with positive...

  12. Predicting treatment response in schizophrenia: The role of striatal and frontal dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbak, Henrik; Wulff, Sanne; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    group (Rho=-0,417 P=0,060). In the EPIcohort the mean PANSS total score was 70 at baseline and 48 at follow up. In the frontal cortex we found a positive correlation (Rho=0.56 P=0.003) between BP and change in positive symptom score for the whole group as well as in the subgroup treated with risperidone......Predicting treatment response in schizophrenia: the role of striatal and frontal dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential Authors: Henrik Nørbak-Emig, Sanne Wulff, Mette Ø. Nielsen, Hans Rasmussen, Egill Rostrup, Nikolaj Bak, Lars Pinborg, Claus Svarer, Lars Thorbjørn Jensen, Bjørn H. Ebdrup...... indirectly be expressed by the binding potential (BP) of dopamine receptors using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) where low striatal BP is believed to reflect high dopamine availability. Aim to assess the association between D2 receptor BPs in antipsychotic-naïve first...

  13. Flavonoid constituents and free radical scavenging activity of Alchemilla mollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Nikolova, Milena; Gavrilova, Anna; Vitkova, Antonina

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Alchemilla mollis was measured by its ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. The EtOAc fraction obtained after partition of the total extract was found to be the most active radical scavenger (IC50 9.8 +/- 1.8 microg/mL) and was subjected to fractionation by Sephadex LH-20 CC. Further purification by RP-18 CC led to the isolation of eight flavonoid glycosides: cis- and trans-tiliroside (1 and 2), rhodiolgin (3), hyperoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), miquelianin (6), sinocrassoside D2 (7), and gossypetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (8). It was found that 8 is a new compound and its antioxidant activity is also reported. Identification of the isolated compounds was carried out by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis (1D and 2D NMR, UV and MS).

  14. -Amphetamine and Antipsychotic Drug Effects on Latent Inhibition in Mice Lacking Dopamine D2 Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bay-Richter, C.; O'Callaghan, M J; N Mathur; O'Tuathaigh, C.M.P.; Heery, D M; Fone, K C F; Waddington, J. L.; Moran, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs that induce psychosis, such as -amphetamine (AMP), and those that alleviate it, such as antipsychotics, are suggested to exert behavioral effects via dopamine receptor D2 (D2). All antipsychotic drugs are D2 antagonists, but D2 antagonism underlies the severe and debilitating side effects of these drugs; it is therefore important to know whether D2 is necessary for their behavioral effects. Using D2-null mice (Drd 2 −/−), we first investigated whether D2 is required for AMP disruption ...

  15. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  16. M-theory Solutions Invariant under $D(2,1;\\gamma) \\oplus D(2,1;\\gamma)$

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, Constantin; Estes, John; Krym, Darya

    2013-01-01

    We simplify and extend the construction of half-BPS solutions to 11-dimensional supergravity, with isometry superalgebra D(2,1;\\gamma) \\oplus D(2,1;\\gamma). Their space-time has the form AdS_3 x S^3 x S^3 warped over a Riemann surface \\Sigma. It describes near-horizon geometries of M2 branes ending on, or intersecting with, M5 branes along a common string. The general solution to the BPS equations is specified by a reduced set of data (\\gamma, h, G), where \\gamma is the real parameter of the isometry superalgebra, and h and G are functions on \\Sigma whose differential equations and regularity conditions depend only on the sign of \\gamma. The magnitude of \\gamma enters only through the map of h, G onto the supergravity fields, thereby promoting all solutions into families parametrized by |\\gamma|. By analyzing the regularity conditions for the supergravity fields, we prove two general theorems: (i) that the only solution with a 2-dimensional CFT dual is AdS_3 x S^3 x S^3 x R^2, modulo discrete identifications ...

  17. Investigation of zinc alkali pyrophosphate glasses. Part II: Local and medium range orders analysed by 1D/2D NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbhandari, P. [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chen, Y. [LASIR UMR-CNRS 8516, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Doumert, B. [IMMCL CNRS-FR2638, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Montagne, L. [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Tricot, G., E-mail: gregory.tricot@univ-lille1.fr [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); LASIR UMR-CNRS 8516, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the (66-x)ZnO-xNa{sub 2}O-33.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} composition line, selected for the development of low-Tg and stable glasses, has been investigated by 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. If standard 1D {sup 31}P MAS-NMR experiments give access to the Q{sup n} speciation and show the presence of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1} and Q{sup 2} sites within the glass structure, application of the homonuclear through-space correlation technique ({sup 31}P DQ-SQ) allows for a more accurate description of the phosphate units. Clear distinction between the Q{sup 1} sites involved in dimmers or in longer chains has been derived from 2D NMR correlation maps and leads to the re-assignment of Q{sup 1} into Q{sup 1,1} and Q{sup 1,2} species. {sup 23}Na and {sup 23}Na({sup 31}P) REDOR MAS-NMR experiments have been used to analyse the Na{sup +} ions distribution and its interaction with the phosphate network. {sup 67}Zn static NMR experiments, performed at very high field, were carried out and suggest a constant Zn{sup 2+} coordination state all along the composition line. The results have been used to discuss the impact of the Zn{sup 2+}/Na{sup +} ratio on the extent of disorder within the glass network expressed in terms of Q{sup n} dismutation equilibrium constant and phosphate chain length distribution. - Highlights: • Structure of zinc alkali pyrophosphate glasses have been analysed by 1D/2D NMR. • 2D {sup 31}P experiments allow to separate Q{sup 1,1} and Q{sup 1,2} species. • {sup 67}Zn static NMR shows a constant signal all along the composition line.

  18. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Della Porta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  19. Inoenue-Wigner contraction and D = 2 + 1 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodriguez, E.K. [Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Vina del Mar (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Valdivia (Chile); Fierro, O. [Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-01-15

    We present a generalization of the standard Inoenue-Wigner contraction by rescaling not only the generators of a Lie superalgebra but also the arbitrary constants appearing in the components of the invariant tensor. The procedure presented here allows one to obtain explicitly the Chern-Simons supergravity action of a contracted superalgebra. In particular we show that the Poincare limit can be performed to a D = 2 + 1 (p,q) AdS Chern-Simons supergravity in presence of the exotic form. We also construct a new three-dimensional (2,0) Maxwell Chern-Simons supergravity theory as a particular limit of (2,0) AdS-Lorentz supergravity theory. The generalization for N = p + q gravitinos is also considered. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of ν2 of D 2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, James R.; Blatherwick, Ronald D.; Bonomo, Francis S.

    1985-11-01

    The infrared spectrum of ν2 of D 2S was recorded from 740 to 1100 cm -1 on the University of Denver 50-cm FTIR spectrometer system. We have assigned 655 transitions from D 232S and 129 from D 234S, and have analyzed them using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian evaluated in the I r representation. We used the recently published D 232S and D 234S ground state Hamiltonian constants [C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, L. Lechuga-Fossat and J. W. C. Johns, J. Mol. Spectrosc.109, 300-333 (1985)]. Upper state Hamiltonian constants were obtained from a fit of the ν2 transitions, keeping the ground state constants fixed while varying the upper state constants. The standard deviation of the D 232S ν2 fit is 0.0025 cm -1. The standard deviation of the D 234S ν2 fit is 0.0041 cm -1.

  1. Stark-effect investigations of the sodium D2 line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, L.; Musso, M.

    1989-03-01

    The Stark effect of the sodium D2 line was investigated by use of high-resolution laser-atomic-beam spectroscopy. The shift and splitting of the hyperfine components of the line could be obtained and compared with theoretical calculations. This allows the determination of the scalar and tensor polarizabilities with high accuracy to be 49.28(15) and -21.97(10) kHz/(kV/cm)2, respectively. These values are compared with semiempirical calculated polarizabilities. Additionally, the behavior of the relative intensity of the components could be studied. In fields greater than 100 kV/cm, the two groups of components with MJ=(1/2 and (3/2 are widely separated and the pattern of each group is independent from the field strength, showing an ``electrical'' Paschen-Back effect. The relative intensities agree satisfactorily with the computations.

  2. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Reino, Marta; Schnitzer, H; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen; Schnitzer, Howard

    2004-01-01

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N_2 D2 branes and N_6 D6 branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N_2) gauge theory with N_6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6 branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black brane horizon area/entropy. The leading order entropy, which is proportional to N_2^{3/2} N_6^{1/2} T_H^2, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N_2 ~ N_6.

  3. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  4. Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Suzanne J; Mehta, Mitul A; Montgomery, Andrew J; Amiras, Dimitri; Egerton, Alice; Howard, Robert J; Grasby, Paul M

    2007-02-15

    Research in non-human primates has implicated striatal dopamine (D2) receptor function in the expression of social dominance--a fundamental component of social extraversion. We predicted that trait extraversion - indexed by the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) - would correlate with striatal DA (D2) receptor measures - indexed by [(11)C]-Raclopride binding potential (BP) - in 28 healthy post-menopausal females (mean age=75 years; range=58-91 years). Region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses were performed, using a reference tissue model for [(11)C]-Raclopride. ROI analysis showed moderately significant negative correlations between extraversion and BP measures in the left caudate and between psychoticism scores and BP in the right putamen. Unexpectedly, scores on the Lie scale, a measure of socially desirable responding, were significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the putamen and survived Bonferroni correction on the right side. After controlling for the potential confounding of self-report bias in high Lie scorers, only the correlation between Lie scores and BP measures in the right putamen remained significant. Voxel-based analysis showed only Lie scores to be significantly and negatively correlated with BP measures in the right putamen. We explored this association further by applying an ROI-based approach to data on a previously scanned sample of young adults (n=13) and found a similar pattern of association, which achieved trend level significance in the right putamen. Although unanticipated, the relationship observed between BP measures in the right putamen and Lie scores is consistent with dopaminergic involvement in socially rewarding behaviour. How this relates to dopaminergic tone will need to be further explored.

  5. Marginal fluctuations as instantons on M2/D2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, M. [University of Ilam, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We introduce some (anti-) M/D-branes through turning on the corresponding field strengths of the 11- and 10-dimensional supergravity theories over AdS{sub 4} x M{sup 7} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 6} spaces, where we use S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} and CP{sup 3} for the internal spaces. Indeed, when we add M2/D2-branes on the same directions with the near horizon branes of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena model, all symmetries and supersymmetries are preserved trivially. In this case, we obtain a localized object just in the horizon. This normalizable bulk massless scalar mode is a singlet of SO(8) and SU(4) x U(1), and it agrees with a marginal boundary operator of the conformal dimension of Δ{sub +} = 3. However, after performing a special conformal transformation, we see that the solution is localized in the Euclideanized AdS{sub 4} space and is attributable to the included anti-M2/D2-branes, which are also necessary to ensure that there is no back-reaction. The resultant theory now breaks all N = 8, 6 supersymmetries to N = 0, while the other symmetries are so preserved. The dual boundary operator is then set up from the skew-whiffing of the representations 8s and 8v for the supercharges and scalars, respectively, while the fermions remain fixed in 8c of the original theory. Besides, we also address another alternate bulk to boundary matching procedure through turning on one of the gauge fields of the full U(N){sub k} x U(N){sub -k} gauge group along the same lines with a similar situation to the one faced in the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence. The latter approach covers the difficulty already faced with in the bulk-boundary matching procedure for k = 1, 2 as well. (orig.)

  6. Fatores prognósticos nas gastrectomias com linfadenectomia D2 por adenocarcinoma gástrico Prognostic factors in D2 gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Antonio Prado Castro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A disseminação linfática é significativamente mais prevalente do que a hematogênica no câncer gástrico e assim torna-se importante o tratamento loco-regional, ou seja, a ressecção cirúrgica associada à linfadenectomia, preferencialmente do tipo D2. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sobrevivência global nos pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia D2 por adenocarcinoma gástrico; determinar os principais fatores prognósticos e definir variáveis que possuam valor prognóstico independente. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em 125 pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia D2, entre agosto de 1997 e outubro de 2005. A técnica adotada seguiu rigorosamente o protocolo proposto pelo Centro Nacional de Câncer de Tóquio. RESULTADOS: Havia 73 homens e 52 mulheres com idades que variaram de 28 a 84 anos (média de 58,96 ± 14,01. Setenta por cento das lesões situavam-se na porção distal do estômago, 20% eram proximais e 10% ocupavam os três segmentos anatômicos do órgão. Os estádios estavam assim distribuídos: I - 37 casos (29,6%, II - 20 casos (16%, III - 37 casos (29,6%, e IV - 31 casos (24,8%. Realizou-se 87 gastrectomias subtotais e 38 totais. A morbidade total foi de 26,4%, constituindo-se predominantemente de fístulas e complicações pulmonares. A letalidade foi de 9,6%. Após seguimento médio de 48 meses, 68 (54,4% pacientes tinham falecido, representando sobrevivência global de 45,6%. As análises univariada e multivariada revelaram que: tumores que acometiam grandes segmentos do estômago, lesões que acometiam além da serosa (T3 ou T4, comprometimento neoplásico em mais de sete linfonodos (N2 ou N3, presença de metástases à distância (M1 e o estádio III e IV da doença, estavam relacionados diretamente com pior prognóstico. CONCLUSÃO: Menos da metade dos pacientes encontrava-se vivo após seguimento médio de quatro anos; o estádio TNM isolado constituiu-se no principal fator prognóstico, sendo que a extensão do

  7. Analytical potential energy function for the ground state(1A1) of hydrogen isotopic D2O molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The present work is to construct the potential energy function of isotopic molecules. The so-called molecular potential energy function is the electronic energy function under Born-Oppenheimer approximation,in which the nuclear motions(translational,rotational and vibration motions) are not included,therefore,its nuclear vibration motion and isotopic effect need to be considered. Based on group theory and atomic and molecular reactive statics(AMRS),the reasonable dissociation limits of D2O(1A1)are determined,its equilibrium geometry and dissociation energy are calculated by density-functional theory(DFT) B3lyp,and then,using the many-body expansion method the potential energy function of D2O(1A1) is obtained for the first time. The potential contours are drawn,in which it is found that the reactive channel D + OD→D2O has no threshold energy,so it is a free radical reaction. But the reactive channel O + DD→D2O has a saddle point. The study of collision for D2O(1A1) is under way.

  8. Analytical potential energy function for the ground state (~X1A1) of hydrogen isotopic D2O molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Wen; LUO WenLang; ZHANG Li; ZHU ZhengHe

    2009-01-01

    The present work is to construct the potential energy function of Isotopic molecules. The so-called molecular potential energy function is the electronic energy function under Born-Oppenheimer ap-proximation, in which the nuclear motions (translational, rotational and vibration motions) are not in-cluded, therefore, its nuclear vibration motion and isotopic effect need to be considered. Based on group theory and atomic and molecular reactive statics (AMRS), the reasonable dissociation limits of D2O(~X1A1) are determined, its equilibrium geometry and dissociation energy are calculated by den-sity-functional theory (DFT) B3lyp, and then, using the many-body expansion method the potential en-ergy function of D2O (~X1A1) Is obtained for the first time. The potential contours are drawn, in which It is found that the reactive channel D + OD→D2O has no threshold energy, so it is a free radical reaction. But the reactive channel O + DD→D2P has a saddle point. The study of collision for D2O (~X1A1) is under way.

  9. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  10. CONTINENT RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.

  11. CONTINENT RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.

  12. Redox Properties of Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, P.

    1981-01-01

    Describes pulse radiolysis as a useful means in studing one-electron redox potentials. This method allows the production of radicals and the determination of their concentration and rates of reaction. (CS)

  13. Reprodcutive results of radical trachelectomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez-Chapa, Arnulfo; Alonso-Reyes, Nelly; Luna-Macías, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    .... Between March 1999 and December 2013, 27 cases with cervical cancer in early stages were treated with vaginal or abdominal radical trachelectomy in the ISSSTE Regional Hospital in Monterrey, NL (Mexico...

  14. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-26

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  15. Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

  16. Loqs depends on R2D2 to localize in D2 body-like granules and functions in RNAi pathways in silkworm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) has been found in various organisms. However, the proteins implicated in RNAi pathway in different species show distinct roles. Knowledge on the underlying mechanism of lepidopteron RNAi is quite lacking such as the roles of Loquacious (Loqs) and R2D2, the dsRNA-binding proteins in silkworm RNAi pathway. Here, we report that Loqs and R2D2 protein depletion affected efficiency of dsRNA-mediated RNAi pathway. Besides, Loqs was found to co-localize with Dicer2 to some specific cytoplasmic foci, which were looked like D2-bodies marked by R2D2 and Dicer2 in Fly cells, thereby calling the foci as D2 body-like granules. Using RNAi methods, Loqs was found to be the key protein in these granules, although R2D2 determined the localization of Loqs in D2 body-like granules. Interestingly, in the R2D2-depeted silkworm cells, the formation of processing bodies, another cytoplasmic foci, was affected. These data indicated R2D2 regulated these two kinds of cytoplasmic foci. Domain deletion analysis demonstrated that dsRBD 1 and 2 were required for Loqs in D2 body-like granules and dsRBD 2 and 3 were required for Loqs to interact with R2D2 and Ago1, respectively. Altogether, our observations provide important information for further study on D2 body-like granules, the newly found cytoplasmic foci in silkworm cells.

  17. 17 CFR 240.11d2-1 - Exemption from Section 11(d)(2) for certain broker-dealers effecting transactions for customers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from Section 11(d)(2... accounts. 240.11d2-1 Section 240.11d2-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... section 4f(a)(1) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 6f(a)(1)), to the extent that it effects...

  18. Generation of UV laser light by stimulated Raman scattering in D2, D2/Ar and D2/He using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贲; 岳古明; 张寅超; 胡欢陵; 周军; 胡顺星

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355nm is used to pump Raman cell filled with D2,D2/Ar and D2/He.With adequately adjusted parameters,the maximum photon conversion efficiency of the first-order Stokes light(S1,396.796nm)reaches 33.33% in D2/Ar and the stability of S1 in pure D2 is fairly high,the energy drift being less than 10% when the pump energy drifts in the range of 5%.The conversion efficiency and stability,which are functions of the composition and pressure of the Raman medium and the energy of pump laser,are investigated.The result has been used to optimize the laser transmitter system for a differential absorption lidar system to measure NO2 concentration profiles.

  19. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: marta@brandeis.edu; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail: naculich@bowdoin.edu; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail: schnitzer@brandeis.edu

    2005-05-02

    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  20. Determination of the evaporation coefficient of D2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation rate of D2O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12–15 μm diameter injected into vacuum (~10-5 torr. The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient (γe of 0.57±0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H2O (0.62±0.09 using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition-state theory (TST model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  1. Higher derivative massive spin-3 models in D =2 +1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, E. L.

    2016-07-01

    We find new higher derivative models describing a parity doublet of massive spin-3 modes in D =2 +1 dimensions. One of them is of fourth order in derivatives while the other one is of sixth order. They are complete, in the sense that they contain the auxiliary scalar field required to remove spurious degrees of freedom. Both of them are obtained through the master action technique starting with the usual (second-order) spin-3 Singh-Hagen model, which guarantees that they are ghost free. The fourth- and sixth-order terms are both invariant under (transverse) Weyl transformations, quite similarly to the fourth-order K -term of the "new massive gravity." The sixth-order term slightly differs from the product of the Schouten by the Einstein tensor, both of third order in derivatives. It is also possible to write down the fourth-order term as a product of a Schouten-like by an Einstein-like tensor (both of second order in derivatives) in close analogy with the K -term.

  2. Macroscopic Behavior of Nematics with D2d Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties and the macroscopic behavior of a nematic liquid crystal phase with D2d symmetry. Such a phase is a prime candidate for nematic phases made from banana-shaped molecules where the usual quadrupolar order coexists with octupolar (tetrahedratic) order. The resulting nematic phase is non-polar. While this phase could resemble the classic D∞h nematic in the polarizing microscope, it has many static as well as reversible and irreversible properties unknown to non-polar nematics without octupolar order. In particular, there is a linear gradient term in the free energy that selects parity leading to ambidextrously helical ground states when the molecules are achiral. In addition, there are static and irreversible coupling terms of a type only met otherwise in macroscopically chiral liquid crystals, e.g. the ambidextrous analogues of Lehmann-type effects known from cholesteric liquid crystals. Finally, we discuss certain nonlinear aspects of the dynamics related to the non-commutativity of three-dimensional finite rotations as well as other structural nonlinear hydrodynamic effects.

  3. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Brittany; Petko, Jessica; Woll, Matthew; Murakami, Shoko; Sokolina, Kate; Wong, Victoria; Stagljar, Igor; Lüscher, Bernhard; Levenson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R.

  4. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Ebersole

    Full Text Available We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC, a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443 of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R.

  5. Electron spin resonance investigation of H2(+), HD(+), and D2(+) isolated in neon matrices at 2 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Matthew D; Dickert, Kyle P; Pittman, Mark A; Felmly, John W; Banisaukas, John J; Knight, Lon B

    2012-11-28

    Various isotopologues of nature's simplest molecule, namely H(2)(+), HD(+), and D(2)(+), have been isolated in neon matrices at 2 K for the first time and studied by electron spin resonance (ESR). Over many years, hundreds of matrix isolation experiments employing a variety of deposition conditions and ion generation methods have been tried to trap the H(2)(+) cation radical in our laboratory. The molecule has been well characterized in the gas phase and by theoretical methods. The observed magnetic parameters for H(2)(+) in neon at 2 K are: g(∥) ≈ g(⊥) = 2.0022(1); A(iso)(H) = 881(7) MHz; and A(dip)(H) = 33(3) MHz. Reasonable agreement with gas phase values of the isotropic hyperfine interaction (A(iso)) is observed; however, the neon matrix dipolar hyperfine interaction (A(dip)) is noticeably below the gas phase value. The smaller matrix value of A(dip) is attributable to motional averaging of the H(2)(+) radical in the neon matrix trapping site--an occurrence that would prevent the full extent of the hyperfine anisotropy from being measured for a powder pattern type ESR sample.

  6. Gastric Cancer Surgery – A Balance of Risk and Radicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Peter; Sivashanmugam, T; White, Martin; Irving, Mark; Wayman, John; Raimes, Simon

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine whether tailoring the extent of resection would allow radical gastric cancer surgery to be performed safely in a UK population. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 180 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; male:female ratio 2:1) undergoing resection for gastric adenocarcinoma with curative intent were studied. Extent of lymphadenectomy was based upon pre-operative and intra-operative staging, and balanced against the patient's age and fitness. RESULTS In the study group, 83 patients underwent subtotal or distal partial gastrectomy and 97 patients underwent total or proximal partial gastrectomy. Operative procedures were: D1 lymphadenectomy (n = 62); modified (spleen and pancreas preserving) D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 73); D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 42); and extended resection (n = 3). TNM classification was: stage 1 (n = 45); stage 2 (n = 37); stage 3 (n = 61); and stage 4 (n = 37). Of the patients, 48 developed postoperative complications including 17 patients with a major surgical complication. The in-hospital mortality was 1.7% (3 of 180). Predicted mortality according to POSSUM and P-POSSUM was 21.4% and 7.8%, respectively. Disease-specific 5-year survival according to stage was 85.4%, 64.2%, 33.3%, and 6.9%. CONCLUSIONS By tailoring the extent of resection and balancing risk and radicality, gastric cancer surgery can be performed with low mortality in Western patients. PMID:18430340

  7. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2*=HO2+ΣRO2, R= organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PerCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  8. Microstructural Quantification of Rapidly Solidified Undercooled D2 Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valloton, J.; Herlach, D. M.; Henein, H.; Sediako, D.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of D2 tool steel is investigated experimentally using electromagnetic levitation (EML) under terrestrial and reduced gravity conditions and impulse atomization (IA), a drop tube type of apparatus. IA produces powders 300 to 1400 μm in size. This allows the investigation of a large range of cooling rates ( 100 to 10,000 K/s) with a single experiment. On the other hand, EML allows direct measurements of the thermal history, including primary and eutectic nucleation undercoolings, for samples 6 to 7 mm in diameter. The final microstructures at room temperature consist of retained supersaturated austenite surrounded by eutectic of austenite and M7C3 carbides. Rapid solidification effectively suppresses the formation of ferrite in IA, while a small amount of ferrite is detected in EML samples. High primary phase undercoolings and high cooling rates tend to refine the microstructure, which results in a better dispersion of the eutectic carbides. Evaluation of the cell spacing in EML and IA samples shows that the scale of the final microstructure is mainly governed by coarsening. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of IA samples reveals that IA powders are polycrystalline, regardless of the solidification conditions. EBSD on EML samples reveals strong differences between the microstructure of droplets solidified on the ground and in microgravity conditions. While the former ones are polycrystalline with many different grains, the EML sample solidified in microgravity shows a strong texture with few much larger grains having twinning relationships. This indicates that fluid flow has a strong influence on grain refinement in this system.

  9. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  10. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.

    1982-09-01

    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  11. Deficient Dopamine D2 Receptor Function Causes Renal Inflammation Independently of High Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Yanrong Zhang; Santiago Cuevas; Asico, Laureano D.; Crisanto Escano; Yu Yang; Pascua, Annabelle M.; Xiaoyan Wang; Jones, John E.; David Grandy; Gilbert Eisner; Pedro A. Jose; Ines Armando

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2)-/-) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function increases vulnerab...

  12. Satisfactory surgical outcome of T2 gastric cancer after modified D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liang, Han

    2017-04-01

    Though D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), the modified D2 (D1 + 7, 8a and 9) lymphadenectomy may be more suitable than D2 dissection for T2 stage GC. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether the surgical outcome of modified D2 lymphadenectomy was comparable to that of standard D2 dissection in T2 stage GC patients. A retrospective cohort study with 77 cases and 77 controls matched for baseline characteristics was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the extent of lymphadenectomy: the modified D2 group (mD2) and the standard D2 group (D2). Surgical outcome and recurrence date were compared between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 71.4% for patients accepted mD2 lymphadenectomy and 70.1% for those accepted standard D2, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that curability, tumor size, TNM stage and postoperative complications were independently prognostic factors for T2 stage GC patients. Patients in the mD2 group tended to have less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001) and shorter operation time (PD2 group. While there were no significant differences in recurrence rate and types, especially lymph node recurrence, between the two groups. The surgical outcome of mD2 lymphadenectomy was equal to that of standard D2, and the use of mD2 instead of standard D2 can be a better option for T2 stage GC.

  13. Implantation of Energetic D+ Ions into Carbon Dioxide Ices and Implications for our Solar System: Formation of D2O and D2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Ennis, Courtney P.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2014-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) ices were irradiated with energetic D+ ions to simulate the exposure of oxygen-bearing solar system ices to energetic protons from the solar wind and magnetospheric sources. The formation of species was observed online and in situ by exploiting FTIR spectroscopy. Molecular products include ozone (O3), carbon oxides (CO3(C 2v , D 3h ), CO4, CO5, CO6), D2-water (D2O), and D2-carbonic acid (D2CO3). Species released into the gas phase were sampled via a quadrupole mass spectrometer, and possible minor contributions from D2-formaldehyde (D2CO), D4-methanol (CD3OD), and D2-formic acid (DCOOD) were additionally identified. The feasibility of several reaction networks was investigated by determining their ability to fit the observed temporal column densities of 10 key species that were quantified during the irradiation period. Directly relevant to the CO2-bearing ices of comets, icy satellites in the outer solar system, and the ice caps on Mars, this work illustrates for the first time that D2-water is formed as a product of the exposure of CO2 ices to D+ ions. These findings provide strong support for water formation from oxygen-bearing materials via non-thermal hydrogen atoms, and predict reaction pathways that are likely to be unfolding on the surfaces of asteroids and the Moon.

  14. Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D-2/3 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; Michel, Martin C.; Janssen, Henk M.; Janssen, Anton G.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Booij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dopamine D-2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists ar

  15. VirD2 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens : functional domains and biotechnological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregten, Maartje van

    2011-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium, which can genetically transform plants and other organisms. It does so by translocating a part of its DNA, the T-strand, in complex with the relaxase protein VirD2. We have shown that VirD2 is the determinant of translocation of the VirD2-T-strand

  16. 26 CFR 1.643(d)-2 - Illustration of the provisions of section 643.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 643. 1.643(d)-2 Section 1.643(d)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.643(d)-2...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix D-2 to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Information Security Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. D-2 Appendix D-2 to Part 208—Interagency Guidelines Establishing Information..., collect, store, use, transmit, protect, or dispose of customer information. g. Service provider means any... (OTS). 2 12 CFR part 30, app. B (OCC); 12 CFR part 208, app. D-2 and part 225, app. F (Board); 12 CFR...

  18. Postirradiation fibrosarcoma following radical mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Nagamitsu, S.; Tsuneyoshi, M.

    1978-03-01

    A case of fibrosarcoma arising in the scar of the radical mastectomy with postoperative irradiation of breast carcinoma is reported. The tumors arose five times in spite of the extirpations including surrounding tissue since 11 years after radical mastectomy and postoperative irradiation. All of arisen tumors were diagnosed fibrosarcoma histologically and with every recurrence the aggravation of malignancy of tumors was shown. In this case, the primary tumor of the breast was infiltrating carcinoma and no sign of fibrosarcoma was noted histologically. The mastectomy scar was indicated the irradiation therapy postoperatively and fibrosarcoma developed 11 years after postoperative irradiation. Namely, this case agreed to the strict criteria of the postirradiation sarcoma proposed by Cahan et al. In this paper, a case of postirradiation fibrosarcoma arising in the scar of radical mastectomy for carcinoma is presented.

  19. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  20. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  1. Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in the Striatum of Antipsychotic-Free Older Patients with Schizophrenia - A [11C]-raclopride PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Iwata, Yusuke; Gerretsen, Philip; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mar, Wanna; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background No study has examined dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in antipsychotic-free older patients with schizophrenia. Methods We included patients with schizophrenia 50 years or older who were antipsychotic-free for at least 3 months. We compared non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of [11C]-raclopride in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, and globus pallidus between patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results Ten patients participated (antipsychotic-naïve=4). No differences in BPND were found between patients and controls in any ROIs (F(1, 72)=.42, p=.52). Conclusion The preliminary results suggest no differences in D2/3R availability between antipsychotic-free older patients with schizophrenia and controls. PMID:25757713

  2. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  3. Density of striatal D2 receptors in untreated first-episode psychosis: an I123-IBZM SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corripio, Iluminada; Escartí, María J; Portella, Maria J; Pérez, Víctor; Grasa, Eva; Sauras, Rosa B; Alonso, Anna; Safont, Gemma; Camacho, M Valle; Dueñas, Rosa; Arranz, Belén; San, Luis; Catafau, Ana M; Carrió, Ignasi; Alvarez, Enric

    2011-12-01

    There is as yet no definite prognostic marker to determine whether a first-episode psychosis will become schizophrenia or not. The aim of the present study is to address whether the mechanism of sensitization of the subcortical dopaminergic pathway - yielding to an increase of the postsynaptic D2 receptors - may serve as a prognostic marker of clinical outcome in drug naïve patients with a first-episode psychosis, by means of a prospective and multicentric study with untreated first-episode psychosis patients (n=37). 123I-IBZM SPECT was performed at the time of the inclusion in the study, before antipsychotic medication was initiated. One year later, patients were assessed again so as to determine their diagnosis. There was a significant group effect at baseline in D2 Striatal/Frontal (S/F) ratios (F=10.2, p<0.001). Bonferroni posthoc comparisons attested significant differences between diagnosis (p=0.006), and between schizophrenia and control groups (p<0.001) but no differences between non-schizophrenia and control groups (p=0.9). The logistic regression model showed that D2R binding (p=0.02) and PAS (Premorbid Adjustment Scale) adulthood score (p=0.03) were predictive of the final diagnosis (schizophrenia/non-schizophrenia; Nagelkerke R(2)=0.59; X(2)=11.08, p=0.001). These findings replicate previous results on the usefulness of D2R binding as an objective prognostic parameter, together with the evaluation of premorbid adjustment, of the evolution of first-episode psychosis. In this regard, the results may provide a new view in the approach of early and personalized treatment in the debut of a psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaginal radical trachelectomy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Marie

    2008-11-01

    The vaginal radical trachelectomy has emerged as a valuable fertility-preserving treatment option for young women with early-stage disease. Cancer-related infertility is associated with feelings of depression, grief, stress, and sexual dysfunction. Data have shown that the overall oncological outcome is safe and that the obstetrical outcome is promising. In this article, we analyze the data on the vaginal radical trachelectomy published over the last 10 years in the context of what we have learned, what issues remain unclear, and what the future holds.

  5. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  6. Reactive oxygen species-dependent hypertension in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Ines; Wang, Xiaoyan; Villar, Van Anthony M; Jones, John E; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Jose, Pedro A

    2007-03-01

    Dysfunction of D2-like receptors has been reported in essential hypertension. Disruption of D2R in mice (D2-/-) results in high blood pressure, and several D2R polymorphisms are associated with decreased D2R expression. Because D2R agonists have antioxidant activity, we hypothesized that increased blood pressure in D2-/- is related to increased oxidative stress. D2-/- mice had increased urinary excretion of 8-isoprostane, a parameter of oxidative stress; increased activity of reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in renal cortex; increased expression of the reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4; and decreased expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme-oxygenase-2 in the kidneys, suggesting that regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by D2R involves both pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems. Apocynin, a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor, or hemin, an inducer of heme oxigenase-1, normalized the blood pressure in D2-/- mice. Because D2Rs in the adrenal gland are implicated in aldosterone regulation, we evaluated whether alterations in aldosterone secretion contribute to ROS production in this model. Urinary aldosterone was increased in D2-/- mice and its response to a high-sodium diet was impaired. Spirolactone normalized the blood pressure in D2-/- mice and the renal expression of Nox1 and Nox4, indicating that the increased blood pressure and ROS production are, in part, mediated by impaired aldosterone regulation. However, spironolactone did not normalize the excretion of 8-isoprostane and had no effect on expression of Nox2 or heme-oxygenase-2. Our results show that the D2R is involved in the regulation of ROS production and that, by direct and indirect mechanisms, altered D2R function may result in ROS-dependent hypertension.

  7. 胃癌微创 D2根治术并发症的防治研究%Study on the Prevention and Treatment of Complications of Minimally Invasive D2 Resection for Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宝行; 叶进军; 闫玉矿; 李德宁; 陶绪雄

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析引起胃癌微创 D2根治术并发症的相关因素,探讨防治并发症的有效方法。方法将78例胃癌患者,随机分配到微创组(腹腔镜辅助胃癌 D2根治术)和开腹组(开腹全胃切除胃癌 D2根治术)。比较2组患者的术后并发症,并对引起并发症危险因素进行 Logistic 回归分析。结果2组的平均手术时间分别是微创组195.2 min和开腹组199.5 min,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。术中平均出血量分别是微创组101.2 ml 和开腹组162.5 ml,肠道功能恢复时间分别是微创组2.5天和开腹组4天,平均住院时间分别是6.2天和15天,2组差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。并发症发生率分别是微创组23.8%(10例)和开腹组38.8%(14例)。通过 Logistic 回归分析,患者出现并发症的因素有:生活习惯(抽烟、喝酒、饮食不规律等)、肿瘤大小、肿瘤病理组织学分类、手术吻合方法等。结论腹腔镜辅助胃癌 D2根治术伤口小,具有明显优势,术后并发症与患者不良生活习惯、肿瘤形态和手术方法等有关。%Objective To study factors related to the complications of minimally invasive D 2 resection for gastric canc-er,and investigate the effective methods of prevention and treatment of complications .Methods 78 cases of gastric cancer pa-tients were randomly divided into minimally invasive group (laparoscopic assisted radical resection of gastric cancer D 2)and open laparotomy group (open total gastrectomy for gastric cancer D2 radical surgery).Postoperative complications,and the risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis .Results The average operation time of minimally invasive group was 195.2 min, and that of the open laparotomy group was 199.5 min,there had no significant difference between the 2 groups (P >0.05).The average intraoperative bleeding volume of minimally invasive group was 101

  8. Algorithms for enumerating and counting D2CS of some graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2010-01-01

    A D2CS of a graph G is a set $S \\subseteq V(G)$ with $diam(G[S]) \\leq 2$. We study the problem of counting and enumerating D2CS of a graph. First we give an explicit formula for the number of D2CS in a complete k-ary tree, Fibonacci tree, binary Fibonacci tree and the binomial tree. Next we give an algorithm for enumerating and counting D2CS of a graph. We then give a linear time algorithm for finding all maximal D2CS in a strongly chordal graph.

  9. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C4...

  10. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D2 fortified bread (p D2 in comparison to other vitamin D2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D2 and D3.

  11. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  12. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...

  13. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  14. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return...

  15. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...... rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing....

  16. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  17. Radical review of NHS funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-06

    The Government is to carry out a radical review of the way the NHS is funded, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher confirmed last week. And she hinted that she herself would be taking a leading role in drawing up proposals for reform.

  18. The Other Women: Radicalizing Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia; Darder, Antonia; Merrill, Barbara; de los Reyes, Eileen; Stromquist, Nelly

    A recent international symposium on radicalizing feminism explored ways of developing a dialogic feminism that emphasizes working in different settings under the common goal of including women who have been invisible in the dominant feminist literature by furthering theories and practices based on the principles of dialogic feminism. The seminar…

  19. Wild radical square zero algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that a radical square zero algebra is wild, if and only if it is of Corner's type, and it is strictly wild if and only if it is Endo-wild. This gives a negative answer to a problem posed by Simson.

  20. Radical Innovation and Network Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); M. Riccaboni

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines how a radical technological innovation affects alliance formation of firms and subsequent network structures. We use longitudinal data of interfirm R&D collaborations in the biopharmaceutical industry in which a new technological regime is established. Our findings su

  1. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...

  2. [Reprodcutive results of radical trachelectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chapa, Arnulfo; Alonso-Reyes, Nelly; Luna-Macías, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Historically, cervical cancer in early stages has been treated with radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy with no option in keeping the uterine-ovarian function. Since two decades ago, evidence shows these cases are candidates for radical trachelectomy, a procedure capable of preserving the fertility without affecting the oncological outcome. To analyze reproductive results among patients treated with radical trachelectomy, in a reference center from the northeast of Mexico. Between March 1999 and December 2013, 27 cases with cervical cancer in early stages were treated with vaginal or abdominal radical trachelectomy in the ISSSTE Regional Hospital in Monterrey, NL (Mexico). We obtained the gynecological, medical and surgical clinical history. Plan of analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Age range was 27-39 years. Main complications were cervical stenosis (n=1) and erosion of cerclaje (n=2). Eighteen patients tried to get pregnant, 8 of them got a spontaneous pregnancy; 1 more patient required assisted reproduction technics and did not succeed. All pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section and were preterm births; 3 underwent premature rupture of membranes. Two pregnancies ended in abortion, one at 10 weeks with severe hemorrhage that needed hysterectomy; the second one, at 1 7 weeks, received a fine uterine curettage. Only 6 cases (33%) got a live birth. Only one third of the attempted pregnancies got a live birth. Assisted reproduction technics play an important role and should be offer to all cases. Cerclaje is an important factor to carry a pregnancy up to the third trimester.

  3. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dopamine-induced apoptosis of lactotropes is mediated by the short isoform of D2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Betiana Radl

    Full Text Available Dopamine, through D2 receptor (D2R, is the major regulator of lactotrope function in the anterior pituitary gland. Both D2R isoforms, long (D2L and short (D2S, are expressed in lactotropes. Although both isoforms can transduce dopamine signal, they differ in the mechanism that leads to cell response. The administration of D2R agonists, such as cabergoline, is the main pharmacological treatment for prolactinomas, but resistance to these drugs exists, which has been associated with alterations in D2R expression. We previously reported that dopamine and cabergoline induce apoptosis of lactotropes in primary culture in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study we used an in vivo model to confirm the permissive action of estradiol in the apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells induced by D2R agonists. Administration of cabergoline to female rats induced apoptosis, measured by Annexin-V staining, in anterior pituitary gland from estradiol-treated rats but not from ovariectomized rats. To evaluate the participation of D2R isoforms in the apoptosis induced by dopamine we used lactotrope-derived PR1 cells stably transfected with expression vectors encoding D2L or D2S receptors. In the presence of estradiol, dopamine induced apoptosis, determined by ELISA and TUNEL assay, only in PR1-D2S cells. To study the role of p38 MAPK in apoptosis induced by D2R activation, anterior pituitary cells from primary culture or PR1-D2S were incubated with an inhibitor of the p38 MAPK pathway (SB203850. SB203580 blocked the apoptotic effect of D2R activation in lactotropes from primary cultures and PR1-D2S cells. Dopamine also induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, determined by western blot, in PR1-D2S cells and estradiol enhanced this effect. These data suggest that, in the presence of estradiol, D2R agonists induce apoptosis of lactotropes by their interaction with D2S receptors and that p38 MAPK is involved in this process.

  5. H{sup .} atom and OH{sup .} radical reactions with 5-methyl-cytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, A.; Morell, C.; Labet, V.; Cadet, J. [CEA Grenoble, Lab Les Acides Nucl, DRFMC/SCIB, UMR-E 3, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Eriksson, L.A. [Univ Orebro, Dept Nat Sci and Orebro Life Sci Ctr, S-70182 Orebro, (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    The reactions between either a hydrogen atom or a hydroxyl radical and 5-methyl-cytosine (5-MeCyt) are studied by using the hybrid kinetic energy meta-GGA functional MPW1B95. H{sup .} atom and OH{sup .} radical addition to positions C5 and C6 of 5-MeCyt, or OH{sup .} radical induced H-abstraction from the C5 methyl group, are explored. All systems are optimized in bulk solvent. The data presented show that the barriers to reaction are very low: ca. 7 kCal/mol for the H{sup .} atom additions and 1 kCal/mol for the reactions involving the OH{sup .} radical. Thermodynamically, the two C6 radical adducts and the H{sup .}- abstraction product are the most stable ones. The proton hyperfine coupling constants (HFCC), computed at the IEFPCM/MPW1B95/6-311++G(2d,2p) level, agree well with B3LYP results and available experimental and theoretical data on related thymine and cytosine radicals. (authors)

  6. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2......)-activated immobilized horseradish peroxidase (im-HRP). Subsequently, each of the three different biomolecules was separately added to the BSA radicals, after removal of im-HRP by centrifugation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy showed that all three biomolecules quenched the BSA radicals....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  7. Sequential hydroxylation of vitamin D2 by a genetically engineered CYP105A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Yasuda, Kaori; Yogo, Yuya; Takita, Teisuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Ohta, Miho; Kamakura, Masaki; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-13

    Our previous studies revealed that the double variants of CYP105A1- R73A/R84A and R73V/R84A-show high levels of activity with respect to conversion of vitamin D3 to its biologically active form, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3). In this study, we found that both the double variants were also capable of converting vitamin D2 to its active form, that is, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1α,25(OH)2D2), via 25(OH)D2, whereas its 1α-hydroxylation activity toward 25(OH)D2 was much lower than that toward 25(OH)D3. Comparison of the wild type and the double variants revealed that the amino acid substitutions remarkably enhanced both 25- and 26-hydroxylation activity toward vitamin D2. After 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, further hydroxylation at C26 may occur frequently without the release of 25(OH)D2 from the substrate-binding pocket. Thus, the double variants of CYP105A1 are quite useful to produce 25,26(OH)2D2 that is one of the metabolites of vitamin D2 detected in human serum.

  8. Blockade of neuronal dopamine D2 receptor attenuates morphine tolerance in mice spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-Ling; Xiong, Feng; Yan, Bing; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Liu, Wen-Tao; Liu, Ji-Hua; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance induced by morphine remains a major unresolved problem and significantly limits its clinical use. Recent evidences have indicated that dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) is likely to be involved in morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. However, its exact effect and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study we examined the effect of D2DR on morphine antinociceptive tolerance in mice spinal cord. Chronic morphine treatment significantly increased levels of D2DR in mice spinal dorsal horn. And the immunoreactivity of D2DR was newly expressed in neurons rather than astrocytes or microglia both in vivo and in vitro. Blockade of D2DR with its antagonist (sulpiride and L-741,626, i.t.) attenuated morphine antinociceptive tolerance without affecting basal pain perception. Sulpiride (i.t.) also down-regulated the expression of phosphorylation of NR1, PKC, MAPKs and suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia induced by chronic morphine administration. Particularly, D2DR was found to interact with μ opioid receptor (MOR) in neurons, and chronic morphine treatment enhanced the MOR/D2DR interactions. Sulpiride (i.t.) could disrupt the MOR/D2DR interactions and attenuate morphine tolerance, indicating that neuronal D2DR in the spinal cord may be involved in morphine tolerance possibly by interacting with MOR. These results may present new opportunities for the treatment and management of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance which often observed in clinic. PMID:28004735

  9. Flap loop of GluD2 binds to Cbln1 and induces presynaptic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Tomoaki; Hirano, Tomoo

    2010-07-30

    Glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2) is selectively expressed on the postsynaptic spines at parallel-fiber (PF)-Purkinje neuron (PN) synapses. GluD2 knockout mice show a reduced number of PF-PN synapses, suggesting that GluD2 is involved in synapse formation. Recent studies revealed that GluD2 induces presynaptic differentiation in a manner dependent on its N-terminal domain (NTD) through binding of Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule neurons. However, the underlying mechanism of the specific binding of the NTD to Cbln1 remains elusive. Here, we have identified the flap loop (Arg321-Trp339) in the NTD of GluD2 (GluD2-NTD) as a crucial region for the binding to Cbln1 and the induction of presynaptic differentiation. Both induction of presynaptic differentiation and binding of Cbln1 were abolished in the HEK cells expressing not wild-type GluD2 but GluD2 with mutations in the flap loop. Especially, single amino acid substitution of either Arg321 or Trp323 to alanine was sufficient to disable the GluD2 function. Finally, a homology model of GluD2-NTD suggested that the flap loop is located at the distal end, which appears consistent with an interaction with Cbln1 and a presynaptic varicosity.

  10. Cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschen, Shuen-Ing; Zeng, Chun; Field, Loren; Dhawan, Sangeeta; Bhushan, Anil; Georgia, Senta

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by autoimmune destruction (Type I diabetes) or beta cell failure in response to insulin resistance (Type II diabetes). Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass may be key to developing new techniques that foster beta cell regeneration as a cellular therapy to treat diabetes. While previous studies concluded that cyclin D2 is required for postnatal beta cell self-renewal in mice, it is not clear if cyclin D2 is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal. Using transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D2 specifically in beta cells, we show that cyclin D2 overexpression increases beta cell self-renewal post-weaning and results in increased beta cell mass. Beta cells that overexpress cyclin D2 are responsive to glucose stimulation, suggesting they are functionally mature. Beta cells that overexpress cyclin D2 demonstrate an enhanced regenerative capacity after injury induced by streptozotocin toxicity. To understand if cyclin D2 overexpression is sufficient to drive beta cell self-renewal, we generated a novel mouse model where cyclin D2 is only expressed in beta cells of cyclin D2(-/-) mice. Transgenic overexpression of cyclin D2 in cyclin D2(-)(/)(-) beta cells was sufficient to restore beta cell mass, maintain normoglycaemia, and improve regenerative capacity when compared to cyclin D2(-/-) littermates. Taken together, our results indicate that cyclin D2 is sufficient to regulate beta cell self-renewal and that manipulation of its expression could be used to enhance beta cell regeneration.

  11. Cross sections for ion production in reactions of H+ with D2; Effects of vibrational and rotational excited states of D2

    OpenAIRE

    市原 晃; 岩本 修; 横山 啓一

    1998-01-01

    H+とD2の反応で生じるD2+,D+及びHD+イオン生成の断面積を、重心衝突エネルギーEcm=2.5-8.0eVの範囲内で、非経験的分子軌道計算で得られたH3+の3次元ポテンシャル面上でのトラジェクトリーサーフェスホッピング(TSH)法を用いることにより、評価した。反応物D2の初期状態が各イオン生成に与える影響を調べるために、D2の振動及び回転の量子数をv=0-3,j=1,5,10に設定して計算を行った。その結果、D2+イオンの生成は、D2の振動回転状態(v,j)が高くなるに従って著しく増大することが分かった。D2+生成の飛躍的な増大には、D2の振動励起が主要な役割を果たし、回転励起は補助的な効果を与えた。D2+生成と比較して、D2の振動状態がD+及びHD+イオンの生成に与える効果は一桁小さく、D2の回転状態に対する効果は殆ど無視しうる大きさであった。...

  12. 多巴胺D2受体的同源模建研究%Homology modeling of Dopamine D2 receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮亚然; 刘维国; 李冬玲; 张严

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is the most abundant catecholaminergic neurotransmitter in the brain.It controls a variety of physiological functions of the central nervous system by Dopamine receptor, and Dopamine D2 receptor has been associated with a variety of neuropathological diseases, such as drug addiction, schizophrenia. Parkinson's disease. But so Tar. the structure of Dopamine D2 receptor is not available, which limited the design and development of relevenl drugs in this paper, the homology model of Dopamine D2 receptor was developed by using the Dopamine D3 receptor (JPBL) as template, which has (he highest sequence identity to D2 receptor. After Optimization and molecular dynamics simulation, the refined model structure was obtained. The final refined model was assessed by Profile-3D and Ramachamlran plot programs, then verified by docking with stepholidine(SPD). The results show that the Dopamine D2 model which we built is reasonable and reliable.%多巴胺是大脑中含量最丰富的儿茶酚胺类神经递质,主要通过多巴胺受体调控中枢神经系统的多种生理功能,其中多巴胺D2受体与药物成瘾、精神分裂症、帕金森病等多种疾病的发生相关.然而多巴胺D2受体的晶体结构至今尚未解析出来,给相关疾病的药物设计与开发带来困难.本文采用同源模建的方法,用目前与多巴胺D2受体同源性最高的多巴胺D3受体(3PBL)作为模板,构建多巴胺D2受体的三维结构.经过优化和分子动力学模拟,用Profile-3D和Ramachandran plot对模型进行评估,然后用多巴胺D2受体拮抗剂千金藤啶碱(stepholidine,SPD)进行对接验证,证明构建的多巴胺D2受体模型合理、可靠.

  13. Characteristics of xyloglucan after attack by hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J G; Fry, S C

    2001-06-15

    It has been proposed that plant cell-wall polysaccharides are subject in vivo to non-enzymic scission mediated by hydroxyl radicals (-*OH). In the present study, xyloglucan was subjected in vitro to partial, non-enzymic scission by treatment with ascorbate plus H(2)O(2), which together generate -*OH. The partially degraded xyloglucan appeared to contain ester bonds within the backbone, as indicated by an irreversible decrease in viscosity upon alkaline hydrolysis. Aldehyde and/or ketone groups were also introduced into the polysaccharide by -*OH-attack, as indicated by staining with aniline hydrogen-phthalate and by reaction with NaB(3)H(4). The introduction of ester and oxo groups supports the proposed sequence of reactions: (a) -*OH-mediated H-abstraction to produce a carbon-centred carbohydrate radical; (b) reaction of the latter with O(2); and (c) elimination of a hydroperoxyl radical (HO(2)*-). When the partially degraded xyloglucan was reduced with NaB(3)H(4) followed by acid hydrolysis, several 3H-aldoses were detected ([3H]galactose, [3H]xylose, [3H]glucose, [3H]ribose and probably [3H]mannose), in addition to unidentified 3H-products (probably including anhydroaldoses). 3H-Alditols were undetectable, showing that few or no conventional reducing termini were introduced. Digestion of the NaB(3)H(4)-reduced, partially degraded xyloglucan with Driselase released 25 times more [3H]Xyl-alpha-(1-->6)-Glc than Xyl-alpha-(1-->6)-[3H]Glc, suggesting that the xylose side-chains of the xyloglucan had been more heavily attacked by -*OH than the glucose residues of the backbone. The radioactive xyloglucan was readily digested by cellulase, yielding 3H-products in the hepta- to nonasaccharide range. A fingerprinting strategy for identifying -*OH-attacked xyloglucan in plant cell walls is proposed.

  14. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  15. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress ...... examples of radical formation on proteins....

  16. Dopamine D3/D2 Receptor Antagonist PF-4363467 Attenuates Opioid Drug-Seeking Behavior without Concomitant D2 Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Travis T; Chappie, Thomas; Horton, David; Chandrasekaran, Ramalakshmi Y; Samas, Brian; Dunn-Sims, Elizabeth R; Hsu, Cathleen; Nawreen, Nawshaba; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; O'Connor, Rebecca E; Schmidt, Christopher J; Dlugolenski, Keith; Stratman, Nancy C; Majchrzak, Mark J; Kormos, Bethany L; Nguyen, David P; Sawant-Basak, Aarti; Mead, Andy N

    2017-01-18

    Dopamine receptor antagonism is a compelling molecular target for the treatment of a range of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders. From our corporate compound file, we identified a structurally unique D3 receptor (D3R) antagonist scaffold, 1. Through a hybrid approach, we merged key pharmacophore elements from 1 and D3 agonist 2 to yield the novel D3R/D2R antagonist PF-4363467 (3). Compound 3 was designed to possess CNS drug-like properties as defined by its CNS MPO desirability score (≥4/6). In addition to good physicochemical properties, 3 exhibited low nanomolar affinity for the D3R (D3 Ki = 3.1 nM), good subtype selectivity over D2R (D2 Ki = 692 nM), and high selectivity for D3R versus other biogenic amine receptors. In vivo, 3 dose-dependently attenuated opioid self-administration and opioid drug-seeking behavior in a rat operant reinstatement model using animals trained to self-administer fentanyl. Further, traditional extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), adverse side effects arising from D2R antagonism, were not observed despite high D2 receptor occupancy (RO) in rodents, suggesting that compound 3 has a unique in vivo profile. Collectively, our data support further investigation of dual D3R and D2R antagonists for the treatment of drug addiction.

  17. Highly durable photochromic radical complexes having no steric protections of radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Mutoh, Katsuya; Abe, Jiro

    2017-04-21

    Steric protection groups are usually necessary for stable radicals. However, here, we developed novel photochromic radical complexes which generate sterically unprotected imidazolyl and phenoxyl radicals upon UV light irradiation based on the phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complex (PIC) framework. These photochromic compounds show excellent durability against repeated irradiation of intense nanosecond laser pulses even in polar protic solvents, such as ethanol.

  18. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J

    2016-06-23

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1-D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated.

  19. Oncological outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cancer Resultados oncológicos da nefrectomia radical laparoscópica no tratamento do carcinoma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the 5-year oncological outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cancer compared to a cohort of patients undergoing open radical nephrectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 88 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma prior to January 2000. Of these, 45 patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and 43 patients underwent open radical nephrectomy. Inclusion criteria comprised clinically organ-confined tumors of 15 cm or less in size without concomitant lymphadenopathy or vena cava thrombus. Oncological follow-up data were obtained from charts, radiological reports, and phone calls to patients or their families, and were calculated from the date of surgery to the date of last appointment with physician or date of death. RESULTS: All laparoscopic procedures were completed without open conversion. On comparing the laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and open radical nephrectomy groups, mean tumor size was 5. 8 vs 6.2 cm (P = . 44, mean blood loss was 183 vs 461 mL (P = . 004, and mean operative time was 2.8 vs 3.7 hrs (P OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados oncológicos após 5 anos de seguimento em pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical laparoscópica para tratamento do câncer renal, comparando esses com os resultados obtidos com um grupo de pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical aberta. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente as informações obtidas de 88 pacientes submetidos a nefrectomia radical para o tratamento do carcinoma renal realizadas previamente a Janeiro de 2000. Destes pacientes, 45 foram tratados com nefrectomia radical laparoscópica e 43 com nefrectomia radical aberta. Foram incluídos pacientes com tumores localizados com tamanho máximo de 15 cm, sem adenopatia ou sinal de envolvimento de veia renal na avaliação radiologica pré-operatória. As informações sobre o seguimento dos pacientes foram obtidas a partir de

  20. DNA binding hydroxyl radical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Vicky J.; Konigsfeld, Katie M.; Aguilera, Joe A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States); Milligan, Jamie R., E-mail: jmilligan@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores, which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. - Highlights: > Examined four aromatic groups as a means to detect hydroxyl radicals by fluorescence. > Coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. > Characterized its reactivity when linked to a hexa-arginine peptide.

  1. Excited states and electrochromism of radical cation of the carotenoid astaxanthin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Stanisław

    1998-09-01

    Radical cations of the carotenoid astaxanthin were generated by chemical oxidation with Fe(Cl) 3, and their absorption and electroabsorption (Stark) spectra at temperatures about 150 K were recorded in the spectral range from 5900 to 26000 cm -1 (380 to 1700 nm), covering two absorptive electronic transitions from D 0 (ground) to D 1 and D 2 excited states. The changes in static polarizability are negative and equal -40±10 A 3 for D 0→D 1 and -105±15 A 3 for D 0→D 2, pointing that dominant contribution to polarizabilities results from the coupling of D 1 and D 2 with the ground state. An approximate localization of the next excited state with ground-state parity is estimated based on arguments from perturbation theory.

  2. The SH2D2A gene and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, A.R.; Smestad, C.; Lie, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported an association between the SH2D2A gene encoding TSAd and multiple sclerosis (MS). Here a total of 2128 Nordic MS patients and 2004 controls were genotyped for the SH2D2A promoter GA repeat polymorphism and rs926103 encoding a serine to asparagine substitution at amino acid...... that the SH2D2A gene may contribute to susceptibility to MS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7/15...

  3. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  4. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  5. Flap loop of GluD2 binds to Cbln1 and induces presynaptic differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroyanagi, Tomoaki; Hirano, Tomoo

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate receptor delta2 (GluD2) is selectively expressed on the postsynaptic spines at parallel-fiber (PF)-Purkinje neuron (PN) synapses. GluD2 knockout mice show a reduced number of PF-PN synapses, suggesting that GluD2 is involved in synapse formation. Recent studies revealed that GluD2 induces presynaptic differentiation in a manner dependent on its N-terminal domain (NTD) through binding of Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule neurons. However, the underlying mechanism of the specific...

  6. Chromosomal and Extrachromosomal Instability of the cyclin D2 Gene is Induced by Myc Overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Mai

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3, and E in mouse B-lymphocytic tumors. Cyclin D2 mRNA was consistently elevated in plasmacytomas, which characteristically contain Myc-activating chromosome translocations and constitutive c-Myc mRNA and protein expression. We examined the nature of cyclin D2 overexpression in plasmacytomas and other tumors. Human and mouse tumor cell lines that exhibited c-Myc dysregulation displayed instability of the cyclin D2 gene, detected by Southern blot, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and in extrachromosomal preparations (Hirt extracts. Cyclin D2 instability was not seen in cells with low levels of c-Myc protein. To unequivocally demonstrate a role of c-Myc in the instability of the cyclin D2 gene, a Myc-estrogen receptor chimera was activated in two mouse cell lines. After 3 to 4 days of Myc-ERTm activation, instability at the cyclin D2 locus was seen in the form of extrachromosomal elements, determined by FISH of metaphase and interphase nuclei and of purified extrachromosomal elements. At the same time points, Northern and Western blot analyses detected increased cyclin D2 mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that Myc-induced genomic instability may contribute to neoplasia by increasing the levels of a cell cycle—regulating protein, cyclin D2, via intrachromosomal amplification of its gene or generation of extrachromosomal copies.

  7. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, induces potent anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells. One mechanism that may contribute to the anti-proliferative effects of SFN is the modulation of epigenetic marks, such as inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. However, the effects of SFN on other common epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation are understudied. Promoter hyper-methylation of cyclin D2, a major regulator of cell cycle, is correlated with prostate cancer progression, and restoration of cyclin D2 expression exerts anti-proliferative effects on LnCap prostate cancer cells. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of SFN on DNA methylation status of cyclin D2 promoter, and how alteration in promoter methylation impacts cyclin D2 gene expression in LnCap cells. We found that SFN significantly decreased the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, especially DNMT1 and DNMT3b. Furthermore, SFN significantly decreased methylation in cyclin D2 promoter regions containing c-Myc and multiple Sp1 binding sites. Reduced methlyation of cyclin D2 promoter corresponded to an increase in cyclin D2 transcript levels, suggesting that SFN may de-repress methylation-silenced cyclin D2 by impacting epigenetic pathways. Our results demonstrated the ability of SFN to epigenetically modulate cyclin D2 expression, and provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which SFN may regulate gene expression as a prostate cancer chemopreventive agent.

  8. LETTING GO: DE-RADICALIZATION IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  9. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicki, Janusz M

    2016-04-01

    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione.

  10. Negative and positive ion trapping by isotopic molecules in cryocrystals in case of solid parahydrogen containing electrons and H(6) (+) radical cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuta; Inagaki, Makoto; Kumada, Takayuki; Kumagai, Jun

    2010-06-28

    We performed electron spin resonance studies of trapped electrons and H(6) (+) radical cations produced by radiolysis of solid parahydrogen (p-H(2)), p-H(2)-ortho-D(2) (o-D(2)), and p-H(2)-HD mixtures. Yields of trapped electrons, H(6) (+) radical cations, and its isotopic analogs H(6-n)D(n) (+) (4>or=n>or=1) increased with increasing o-D(2) and HD concentrations in solid p-H(2). Electrons were found trapped near an o-D(2) or an HD in solid p-H(2) due to the long-range charge-induced dipole and quadrupole interactions between electrons and isotopic hydrogen molecules. H(6) (+) radical cations diffuse in solid p-H(2) by repetition of H(6) (+)+H(2)-->H(2)+H(6) (+) and are trapped by ortho-D(2) or HD to form H(6-n)D(n) (+) (4>or=n>or=1) as isotope condensation reactions. Decay behaviors of these cations by the repetition, isotope condensation, and geminate recombination between electrons and H(6-n)D(n) (+) (4>or=n>or=0) were reproduced by determining the corresponding reaction rate constants k(1), k(2), and k(3). Values of 0.045 and 0.0015 L mol(-1) min(-1) were obtained for k(1) (H(6) (+)+D(2)-->H(2)+H(4)D(2) (+)) and k(2) (H(4)D(2) (+)+D(2)-->H(2)+H(2)D(4) (+)), respectively, and the value was quasinull for k(3) (H(2)D(4) (+)+D(2)-->H(2)+D(6) (+)). These rate constants suggest that hole mobility drastically decreased in the repetition reaction when H(6) (+) radical cations acting as hole carriers formed H(4)D(2) (+) or H(2)D(4) (+). HD and D(2) molecules, therefore, act as electron and hole acceptors in irradiated solid p-H(2)-o-D(2) and p-H(2)-HD mixtures.

  11. The d3/d2 alkyne complexes [MX2(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp']z (X = halide, z = 0 and 1+): final links in a d6-d2 redox family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher J; Anderson, Kirsty M; Connelly, Neil G; Harding, David J; Hayward, Owen D; Orpen, A Guy; Patrón, Elena; Rieger, Philip H

    2009-01-21

    The d4 halide complexes [MX(CO)(eta-RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CR)Tp'] [R = Me, M = W, X = F; R = Ph, M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl; Tp' = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] undergo two-electron oxidation in the presence of a halide source to give the d2 monocations [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ (R = Me, M = W, X1 = X2 = F; R = Ph, M = Mo, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; M = W, X1 = X2 = F or Cl; X1 = F, X2 = Cl). Each monocation (R = Ph) shows two reversible one-electron reductions (the second process was not detected for R = Me) corresponding to the stepwise formation of the neutral d3 and monoanionic d4 analogues, [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] and [MX1X2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']- respectively; the potentials for the two processes can be 'tuned' over a range of ca. 1.0 V by varying M and X. Chemical one-electron reduction of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ gave [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] (M = Mo or W, X = F or Cl). X-Ray structural studies on the redox pairs [WX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']z (X = F and Cl, z = 0 and 1+) show the alkyne to bisect the X-W-X angle in the d2 cations but align more closely with one M-X bond in the neutral d3 molecules, consistent with the anisotropic ESR spectra of the latter; the solution ESR spectrum of [MoF2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] showed equivalent fluorine atoms, i.e the alkyne oscillates at room temperature. The successful isolation of [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp']+ and [MX2(eta-PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)Tp'] completes a series in which d6 to d2 alkyne complexes are linked in a redox family tree by sequential one-electron transfer and substitution reactions. The implications for such trees in the production of new species and the selective synthesis of paramagnetic complexes acting as synthetically useful 'alkyne radicals' are discussed.

  12. Loss of Plasticity in the D2-Accumbens Pallidal Pathway Promotes Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Neuhofer, Daniela N; Griffin, William C; Siegel, Griffin S; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Kupchik, Yonatan M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2017-01-25

    Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, whereas activity in D2-MSNs inhibits, motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs. Because D1- and D2-MSNs innervate overlapping populations of ventral pallidal neurons, we next used optogenetics to examine whether changes in synaptic plasticity in D1- versus D2-MSN GABAergic synapses in the ventral pallidum could explain the differential regulation of VP activity. In mice trained to self-administer cocaine, GABAergic LTD was abolished in D2-, but not in D1-MSN synapses. A μ opioid receptor antagonist restored GABA currents in D2-, but not D1-MSN synapses of cocaine-trained mice, indicating that increased enkephalin tone on presynaptic μ opioid receptors was responsible for occluding the LTD. These results identify a behavioral function for D1-MSN innervation of the ventral pallidum, and suggest that losing LTDGABA in D2-MSN, but not D1-MSN input to ventral pallidum may promote cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. More than 90% of ventral striatum is composed of two cell types, those expressing dopamine D1 or D2 receptors, which exert opposing roles on motivated behavior. Both cell types send GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum and were found to differentially promote cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking via the ventral pallidum. Furthermore, after cocaine self-administration, synaptic

  13. Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Collateral Inhibition between Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Goes, Marie-Sophie; Partridge, John G.; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The principle neurons of the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose collateral synapses onto neighboring neurons play critical roles in striatal function. MSNs can be divided by dopamine receptor expression into D1-class and D2-class MSNs, and alterations in D2 MSNs are associated with various pathological states. Despite overwhelming evidence for D2 receptors (D2Rs) in maintaining proper striatal function, it remains unclear how MSN collaterals are specifically altered by D2R activation. Here, we report that chronic D2R stimulation regulates MSN collaterals in vitro by presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. We used corticostriatal cultures from mice in which MSN subtypes were distinguished by fluorophore expression. Quinpirole, an agonist for D2/3 receptors, was used to chronically activate D2Rs. Quinpirole increased the rate and strength of collateral formation onto D2R-containing MSNs as measured by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Additionally, these neurons were more sensitive to low concentrations of GABA and exhibited an increase in gephyrin puncta density, suggesting increased postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Last, quinpirole treatment increased presynaptic GABA release sites, as shown by increased frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs, correlating with increased VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter) puncta. Combined with the observation that there were no detectable differences in sensitivity to specific GABAA receptor modulators, we provide evidence that D2R activation powerfully transforms MSN collaterals via coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. As the D2 class of MSNs is highly implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders, our findings may contribute to understanding and treating the changes that occur in these pathological states. PMID:23986243

  14. Hypoparathyroidism: Less Severe Hypocalcemia With Treatment With Vitamin D2 Compared With Calcitriol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeten, Elizabeth A; Mohtasebi, Yasaman; Konig, Manige; Davidoff, Lisa; Ryan, Kathleen

    2017-05-01

    Options for chronic treatment of hypoparathyroidism include calcitriol, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, and high-dose vitamin D (D2). D2 is used in a minority of patients because of fear of prolonged hypercalcemia and renal toxicity. There is a paucity of recent data about D2 use in hypoparathyroidism. Compare renal function, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia in patients with hypoparathyroidism treated chronically with either D2 (D2 group) or calcitriol. A retrospective study of patients with hypoparathyroidism treated at the University of Maryland Hospital. Participants were identified by a billing record search with diagnosis confirmed by chart review. Thirty patients were identified; 16 were treated chronically with D2, 14 with calcitriol. Data were extracted from medical records. Serum creatinine and calcium, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits for hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. D2 and calcitriol groups were similar in age (58.9 ± 16.7 vs 50.9 ± 22.6 years, P = 0.28), sex, and treatment duration (17.8 ± 14.2 vs 8.5 ± 4.4 years, P = 0.076). Hospitalization or ED visits for hypocalcemia occurred in none of the D2 group vs four of 14 in the calcitriol group (P = 0.03); three in the calcitriol group had multiple ED visits. There were no differences between D2 and calcitriol groups in hospitalizations or ED visits for hypercalcemia, serum creatinine or calcium, or kidney stones. We found less morbidity from hypocalcemia in hypoparathyroid patients treated chronically with D2 compared with calcitriol and found no difference in renal function or morbidity from hypercalcemia. Treatment with D2 should be considered in patients with hypoparathyroidism, particularly in those who experience recurrent hypocalcemia.

  15. D-2-hydroxyglutarate metabolism is linked to photorespiration in the shm1-1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, A; Engqvist, M K M; Jansen, E E W; Weber, A P M; Jakobs, C; Maurino, V G

    2013-07-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant shm1-1 is defective in mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 activity and displays a lethal photorespiratory phenotype at ambient CO2 concentration but grows normally at high CO2 . After transferring high CO2 -grown shm1-1 plants to ambient CO2 , the younger leaves remain photosynthetically active while developed leaves display increased yellowing and decreased FV /FM values. Metabolite analysis of plants transferred from high CO2 to ambient air indicates a massive light-dependent (photorespiratory) accumulation of glycine, 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Amino acid markers of senescence accumulated in ambient air in wild-type and shm1-1 plants maintained in darkness and also build up in shm1-1 in the light. This, together with an enhanced transcription of the senescence marker SAG12 in shm1-1, suggests the initiation of senescence in shm1-1 under photorespiratory conditions. Mitochondrial D-2HG dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) converts D-2HG into 2OG. In vitro studies indicate that 2OG exerts competitive inhibition on D-2HGDH with a Ki of 1.96 mm. 2OG is therefore a suitable candidate as inhibitor of the in vivo D-2HGDH activity, as 2OG is produced and accumulates in mitochondria. Inhibition of the D-2HGDH by 2OG is likely a mechanism by which D-2HG accumulates in shm1-1, however it cannot be ruled out that D-2HG may also accumulate due to an active senescence programme that is initiated in these plants after transfer to photorespiratory conditions. Thus, a novel interaction of the photorespiratory pathway with cellular processes involving D-2HG has been identified.

  16. Intravitreally-administered dopamine D2-like (and D4), but not D1-like, receptor agonists reduce form-deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of intravitreal injections of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists and D4 receptor drugs on form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates. In eleven groups (n = 7 per group), we measured the amount of FDM produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) over an 11-day treatment period. The untreated fellow eye served as a control. Animals also received daily 5 µL intravitreal injections in the FD eye. The reference group received 0.85% NaCl vehicle. Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D1-like receptor agonist (SKF38393) or antagonist (SCH23390). Four groups received a higher, or lower, dose of a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) or antagonist (spiperone). Two groups received the D4 receptor agonist (PD168077) or antagonist (PD168568). Refractions were measured daily; axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 (before treatment) and day 12. We found that in groups receiving the D1-like receptor agonist or antagonist, the development of FDM and altered ocular component dimensions did not differ from the NaCl group. Groups receiving the D2-like receptor agonist or antagonist at the higher dose developed significantly less FDM and had shorter vitreous chambers than the NaCl group. The D4 receptor agonist, but not the antagonist, was nearly as effective as the D2-like agonist in reducing FDM. Thus, using intravitreally-administered agents, we did not find evidence supporting a role for the D1-like receptor pathway in reducing FDM in tree shrews. The reduction of FDM by the dopamine D2-like agonist supported a role for the D2-like receptor pathway in the control of FDM. The reduction of FDM by the D4 receptor agonist, but not the D4 antagonist, suggests an important role for activation of the dopamine D4 receptor in the control of axial elongation and refractive development.

  17. Effect of supplementation with vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms on vitamin D status in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; O'Mahony, Louise; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Collier, John; Fraser, William D; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; Brennan, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is emerging worldwide and many studies now suggest its role in the development of several chronic diseases. Due to the low level of vitamin D naturally occurring in food there is a need for supplementation and use of vitamin D-enhanced products. The aim of the present study was to determine if daily consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased vitamin D status in free-living healthy adults or affected markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of ninety volunteers (aged 40-65 years) were randomly assigned to one of two 4-week studies: mushroom study (15 µg vitamin D2 or placebo mushroom powder) and capsule study (15 µg vitamin D3 or placebo capsules). Consumption of vitamin D2-enhanced mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) by 128 % from baseline (3·9 (sd 1·9) nmol/l; P D3 increased significantly in the vitamin D3 capsule group (a 55 % increase from a baseline of 44.0 (sd 17·1) nmol/l; P Vitamin D status (25(OH)D) was affected only in the vitamin D3 group. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was lowered by vitamin D2 intake. Vitamin D2 from enhanced mushrooms was bioavailable and increased serum 25(OH)D2 concentration with no significant effect on 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D.

  18. Vitamins D2 and D3 in new world primates: influence on calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R D; Garcia, F G; Hegsted, D M; Kaplinsky, N

    1967-08-25

    In Cebus albifrons monkeys it was demonstrated that vitamin D(3) promotes the intestinal absorption of calcium-47 and that vitamin D(2) does not increase absorption above that seen in monkeys deficient in vitamin D. These data support previous observations that vitamin D(2) is not effective in preventing metabolic bone disease in this species.

  19. Translational Modeling in Schizophrenia : Predicting Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M M; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of a previously developed hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PBPKPD) model in rats to predict the dopamine D2 receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following administration of antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: A hybrid PBPKPD model, previousl

  20. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Johannes W.; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Van Der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M.; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area

  1. Quantitative Imaging of D-2-Hydroxyglutarate in Selected Histological Tissue Areas by a Novel Bioluminescence Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelxen, Nadine F; Walenta, Stefan; Proescholdt, Martin; Dettmer, Katja; Pusch, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than 1 year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), a metabolite that was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various "gain-of-function" mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH1 and IDH2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities, including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0-10 μmol/g tissue (wet weight). In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  2. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y. M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinski, B.; Norde, W.; van Well, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the stabili

  3. Neural Substrates of Dopamine D2 Receptor Modulated Executive Functions in the Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) play a major role in cognition, mood and motor movements. Their blockade by antipsychotic drugs reduces hallucinatory and delusional behaviors in schizophrenia, but often fails to alleviate affective and cognitive dysfunctions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) expresses D2R and is altered in schizophrenia. We investigated how D2R modulate behavior and PFC function in monkeys. Two monkeys learned new and performed highly familiar visuomotor associations, where each cue was associated with a saccade to a right or left target. We recorded neural spikes and local field potentials from multiple electrodes while injecting the D2R antagonist eticlopride in the lateral PFC. Blocking prefrontal D2R impaired associative learning and cognitive flexibility, reduced motivation, but left the performance of familiar associations intact. Eticlopride reduced saccade-direction selectivity of prefrontal neurons, leading to a decrease in neural information about the associations, and an increase in alpha oscillations. These results, together with our recent study using a D1R antagonist, suggest that D1R and D2R in the primate lateral PFC cooperate to modulate several executive functions. Our findings help to gain insight into why antipsychotic drugs, with strong antagonistic actions on D2R, fail to ameliorate cognitive and emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  4. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and in D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y.M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinsky, B.; Norde, W.; Well, van A.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  5. Stability of globular proteins in H2O and D2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efimova, Y. M.; Haemers, S.; Wierczinski, B.; Norde, W.; van Well, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    In several experimental techniques D2O rather then H2O is often used as a solvent for proteins. Concerning the influence of the solvent on the stability of the proteins, contradicting results have been reported in literature. In this paper the influence of H2O-D2O solvent substitution on the

  6. Estimating Dopamine D-2 Receptor Occupancy for Doses of 8 Antipsychotics : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Knegtering, Henrikus; Bruggeman, Richard; Taxis, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Dose equivalents based on dopamine D-2 receptor occupancy can be used to compare antipsychotics on D-2 receptor-mediated (adverse) effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and altered emotional experiences. Previous meta-analyses modeling the dose-occupancy relationship hardly addressed po

  7. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in treatment resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart P de Kwaasteniet

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrated improvement of depressive symptoms in treatment resistant depression (TRD after administering dopamine agonists which suggest abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission in TRD. However, the role of dopaminergic signaling through measurement of striatal dopamine D(2/3 receptor (D2/3R binding has not been investigated in TRD subjects. We used [(123I]IBZM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT to investigate striatal D2/3R binding in TRD. We included 6 severe TRD patients, 11 severe TRD patients on antipsychotics (TRD AP group and 15 matched healthy controls. Results showed no significant difference (p = 0.75 in striatal D2/3R availability was found between TRD patients and healthy controls. In the TRD AP group D2/3R availability was significantly decreased (reflecting occupancy of D2/3Rs by antipsychotics relative to TRD patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 but there were no differences in clinical symptoms between TRD AP and TRD patients. This preliminary study therefore does not provide evidence for large differences in D2/3 availability in severe TRD patients and suggests this TRD subgroup is not characterized by altered dopaminergic transmission. Atypical antipsychotics appear to have no clinical benefit in severe TRD patients who remain depressed, despite their strong occupancy of D2/3Rs.

  8. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  9. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  10. Functional coupling between heterologously expressed dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungstrom, Trine; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Bo Skaaning

    2003-01-01

    Activation of KCNQ potassium channels by stimulation of co-expressed dopamine D(2) receptors was studied electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in mammalian cells. To address the specificity of the interaction between D(2)-like receptors and KCNQ channels, combinations of KCNQ1...... activation of the KCNQ channels was confirmed by co-expression of other neuronal K(+) channels (BK, K(V)1.1, and K(V)4.3) with the D(2L) receptor in Xenopus oocytes. None of these K(+) channels responded to stimulation of the D(2L) receptor. In the mammalian brain, dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels...... co-localise postsynaptically in several brain regions, so modulation of neuronal excitability by dopamine release could in part be mediated via an effect on KCNQ channels....

  11. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Lamprey, Its Expression in the Striatum and Cellular Effects of D2 Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brita; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Bolam, J. Paul; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Grillner, Sten

    2012-01-01

    All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum. Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role. We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound. We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates. PMID:22563388

  12. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  13. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  14. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  15. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    on the basis of a close reading of their imperialist program in the pamphlet Danmark Udslettes! from 1918. Rige had been a vague term for the larger Danish polity that originated in a pre-national conceptualization of the polity as a realm. The article suggests that rige-as-realm was translated by the radical...... to signify the ambition of being a great power, the spiritual elevation of the nation through the transcendence of the decaying liberal modernity. The program addressed the tension between a conservative political attitude and modernity and thus signified a kind of reactionary modernism, which rejected...

  16. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt......, as well as in user-generated comments in an online discussion. The television film represented an inclusive memory culture that made room for the difficult memories of all parties involved, including the radicalised, young hijackers. Based on a multidimensional model of mass media reception, the analysis...

  17. CIE D2 and Developments of Photometry Radiometry%CIE D2和光辐射测量动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘建根

    2005-01-01

    本文简单介绍国际照明委员会(CIE)第二分部(D2)的主要工作范围,介绍CIE D2目前已成立的技术委员会(TC),已出版的标准和技术文件等出版物.同时,本文还介绍在光和辐射测量领域内国际较为关注的热点问题和最新发展动态.

  18. Modulation of dopamine D(2) receptor signaling by actin-binding protein (ABP-280).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Bermak, J C; Wang, Z W; Zhou, Q Y

    2000-03-01

    Proteins that bind to G protein-coupled receptors have recently been identified as regulators of receptor anchoring and signaling. In this study, actin-binding protein 280 (ABP-280), a widely expressed cytoskeleton-associated protein that plays an important role in regulating cell morphology and motility, was found to associate with the third cytoplasmic loop of dopamine D(2) receptors. The specificity of this interaction was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed by protein binding. The functional significance of the D(2) receptor-ABP-280 association was evaluated in human melanoma cells lacking ABP-280. D(2) receptor agonists were less potent in inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in these cells. Maximal inhibitory responses of D(2) receptor activation were also reduced. Further yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that ABP-280 association is critically dependent on the carboxyl domain of the D(2) receptor third cytoplasmic loop, where there is a potential serine phosphorylation site (S358). Serine 358 was replaced with aspartic acid to mimic the effects of receptor phosphorylation. This mutant (D(2)S358D) displayed compromised binding to ABP-280 and coupling to adenylate cyclase. PKC activation also generated D(2) receptor signaling attenuation, but only in ABP-containing cells, suggesting a PKC regulatory role in D(2)-ABP association. A mechanism for these results may be derived from a role of ABP-280 in the clustering of D(2) receptors, as determined by immunocytochemical analysis in ABP-deficient and replete cells. Our results suggest a new molecular mechanism of modulating D(2) receptor signaling by cytoskeletal protein interaction.

  19. The Triple Functions of D2 Silencing in Treatment of Periapical Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Wang, Jue; Hao, Liang; Zhu, Guochun; Nguyen, Diep N; Li, Qian; Liu, Yuehua; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread chronic infectious disease. Inflammation in pulp tissues caused by dental caries will lead to periapical granulomas, bone erosion, loss of the tooth, and severe pain. Despite numerous efforts in recent studies to develop effective treatments for dental caries, the need for a potent therapy is still urgent. In this study, we applied a gene-based therapy approach by administering recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6v0d2 (d2) RNA interference knockdown of d2 gene expression to prevent periapical bone loss and suppress periapical inflammation simultaneously. The results showed that d2 depletion is simultaneously capable of reducing bone resorption with 75% protection through reducing osteoclasts, enhancing bone formation by increasing osterix expression, and inhibiting inflammation by decreasing T-cell infiltration. Notably, AAV-mediated gene therapy of d2 knockdown significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor α, interferon-γ, interleukin-1α, and interleukin 6 levels in periapical diseases caused by bacterial infection. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that d2 knockdown reduced osteoclast-specific functional genes (ie, Acp5 and Ctsk) and increased osteoblast marker genes (ie, Osx and Opg) in periapical tissues. Collectively, our results showed that AAV-mediated d2 depletion in the periapical lesion area can prevent the progression of endodontic disease and bone erosion while significantly reducing the inflammatory over-response. These findings show that the depletion of d2 simultaneously reduces bone resorption, enhances bone formation, and inhibits inflammation caused by periapical diseases and provide significant insights into the potential effectiveness of AAV-sh-d2-mediated d2 silencing gene therapy as a major endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction.

  1. L-DOPA-treatment in primates disrupts the expression of A(2A) adenosine-CB(1) cannabinoid-D(2) dopamine receptor heteromers in the caudate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Rico, Alberto J; Moreno, Estefanía; Sierra, Salvador; Sánchez, Marta; Luquin, Natasha; Farré, Daniel; Müller, Christa E; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; McCormick, Peter J; Lanciego, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Franco, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    The molecular basis of priming for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease (PD), which depends on the indirect pathway of motor control, is not known. In rodents, the indirect pathway contains striatopallidal GABAergic neurons that express heterotrimers composed of A(2A) adenosine, CB(1) cannabinoid and D(2) dopamine receptors that regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. The present study was designed to investigate the expression of these heteromers in the striatum of a primate model of Parkinson's disease and to determine whether their expression and pharmacological properties are altered upon L-DOPA treatment. By using the recently developed in situ proximity ligation assay and by identification of a biochemical fingerprint, we discovered a regional distribution of A(2A)/CB(1) /D(2) receptor heteromers that predicts differential D(2)-mediated neurotransmission in the caudate-putamen of Macaca fascicularis. Whereas heteromers were abundant in the caudate nucleus of both naïve and MPTP-treated monkeys, L-DOPA treatment blunted the biochemical fingerprint and led to weak heteromer expression. These findings constitute the first evidence of altered receptor heteromer expression in pathological conditions and suggest that drugs targeting A(2A)-CB(1) -D(2) receptor heteromers may be successful to either normalize basal ganglia output or prevent L-DOPA-induced side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. π to σ Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and its Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T.; Wiegand, Tyler J.; Hindi, Ragda M.; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    In this work iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron oxidized cytosine analogs including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2′-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2′-deoxycytidine 5′-monophosphate (5′-dCMP) were investigated in homogeneous aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine-iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical (cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)•). Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging ca. 8 to ca. 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)• and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that in the iminyl-σ radical, the unpaired spin is localized to the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG= −32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA-radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in dsDNA by a radiation-induced ionization–deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path. PMID:26237072

  3. Excited state dynamics of the astaxanthin radical cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarie, Sergiu; Förster, Ute; Gildenhoff, Nina; Dreuw, Andreas; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2010-07-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible and NIR and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy were used to examine the excited state dynamics of astaxanthin and its radical cation. For neutral astaxanthin, two kinetic components corresponding to time constants of 130 fs (decay of the S 2 excited state) and 5.2 ps (nonradiative decay of the S 1 excited state) were sufficient to describe the data. The dynamics of the radical cation proved to be more complex. The main absorption band was shifted to 880 nm (D 0 → D 3 transition), showing a weak additional band at 1320 nm (D 0 → D 1 transition). We found, that D 3 decays to the lower-lying D 2 within 100 fs, followed by a decay to D 1 with a time constant of 0.9 ps. The D 1 state itself exhibited a dual behavior, the majority of the population is transferred to the ground state in 4.9 ps, while a small population decays on a longer timescale of 40 ps. Both transitions from D 1 were found to be fluorescent.

  4. Criatividade, liberdade e dignidade: impactos do darwinismo no behaviorismo radical Carolina Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Laurenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A teoria da evolução pela seleção natural de Charles Darwin influenciou de modo decisivo a filosofia de B. F. Skinner denominada Behaviorismo Radical. Este artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o impacto do darwinismo na elaboração do modelo de explicação do comportamento behaviorista radical chamado seleção pelas consequências. Em primeiro lugar, examina-se como a ideia de seleção é fundamental para elucidar o papel do ambiente na explicação do comportamento. Em seguida, argumenta-se que a interpretação skinneriana da origem da variação comportamental abre espaço para a defesa da possibilidade da criatividade humana. Por fim, discute-se como a substituição da mente criativa (homem autônomo pelos processos de variação e seleção na explicação do comportamento lança nova luz sobre o tratamento da liberdade e dignidade humanas no Behaviorismo Radical.Skinner's Radical Behaviorism was strongly influenced by Charles Darwin's evolution theory by means of natural selection. This article aims to discuss the impact of the Darwinism in the development of the radical behaviorist explicative model called selection by consequences. In first place, we examine the importance of the concept of selection in the elucidation of the role of environment. Next, it is argued that Skinnerian interpretation of the origin of behavioral variation provides the means to the defense of the possibility of human creativity. Finally, it is discussed how the renouncement of the creative mind (autonomous man, and the subsequent adoption of variation and selection processes, sheds light on human liberty and dignity in Radical Behaviorism.

  5. Radical Reactions and Its Synthetic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeaki Naito

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Strategies involving radical reactions have become preeminent tools in organic synthesis. Free radical-mediated cyclization has developed as a powerful method for preparing various types of cyclic compounds via carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. In order to develop effective and convenient methods for the synthesis of biologically active cyclic amines, we have focused our efforts on radical reactions using aldehydes, ketones,and C-C multiple bonds as a radical precursor and/or an oxime ether, hydrazone, and nitrone as a radical acceptor. In this lecture, I would like to talk on radical addition-cyclization of oxime ether and its application to the synthesis of martinellines.

  6. Thermochemical properties and bond dissociation energies of C3-C5 cycloalkyl hydroperoxides and peroxy radicals: cycloalkyl radical + (3)O2 reaction thermochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzmendi-Murua, Itsaso; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2012-07-19

    Cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons are major components in modern fuels; they can be present in the reactants, and they can be formed during the gas-phase oxidation processes. In combustion and thermal oxidation processes, these cyclics will form radicals that react with (3)O(2) to form peroxy radicals. In this study, density functional theory and higher level ab initio calculations are used to calculate thermochemical properties and bond dissociation energies of 3-5-membered cycloalkanes, corresponding hydroperoxides, hydroperoxycycloalkyl radicals, and cycloalkyl radicals that occur in these reaction systems. Geometries, vibration frequencies, and thermochemical properties, ΔH(f 298)°, are calculated with the B3LYP/6-31 g(d,p), B3LYP/6-31 g(2d,2p), composite CBS-QB3, and G3MP2B3 methods. Standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K are evaluated using isodesmic reaction schemes with several work reactions for each species. Group additivity contributions are developed, and application of group additivity with comparison to calculated values is illustrated. Entropy and heat capacities, S°(T) and C(p)°(T) (5 K ≤ T ≤ 5000), are determined using geometric parameters and frequencies from the B3LYP/6-31 g(d,p) calculations.

  7. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations to provide for the safe use of vitamin D 2 bakers yeast as a source of vitamin D 2 and as a... vitamin D 2 per 100 grams (g) in the finished food. This action is in response to a petition filed...

  8. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahir ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  9. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  10. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Stephen R.; Lloyd, Judith; Zheng, Jun

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  11. Radical-free biology of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Free radical-induced macromolecular damage has been studied extensively as a mechanism of oxidative stress, but large-scale intervention trials with free radical scavenging antioxidant supplements show little benefit in humans. The present review summarizes data supporting a complementary hypothesis for oxidative stress in disease that can occur without free radicals. This hypothesis, which is termed the “redox hypothesis,” is that oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of disruption of thi...

  12. Superspecial radical%超特殊根

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑兰

    2001-01-01

    定义了超特殊根,即由无零因子的绝对半素环类所确定的上根,并证明了它是一个特殊根。%The superspecial radical is defined, it is the upper radical, determined by the rings class consisted without divisors of zero and absolutely semiprings. And it is a special radical.

  13. Aromatic Radicals-Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Ethynylcylcopentadiene (C5H5C2H) C CH m-Formylphenyl radical (C6H4CHO) C O Formyl cyclopentadiene (C5H5CHO) O Table 12. Structures of the species...FINAL REPORT Aromatic Radicals -Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry SERDP Project WP-1575 DECEMBER 2011 Kenneth Brezinsky University... Radicals -Acetylene Particulate Matter Chemistry W912HQ-07-C-0019 WP-1575Dr. Kenneth Brezinsky University of Illinois DBA: Office of Business and Financial

  14. Serendipitous Findings While Researching Oxygen Free Radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This review is based on the honor of receiving the Discovery Award from the Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The review is reflective and presents our thinking which led to experiments that yielded novel observations. Critical questioning of our understanding of oxygen free radicals in biomedical problems led us to use and develop more direct and extremely sensitive methods. This included nitrone free radical spin-trapping and HPLC-electrochemical detection. This technology led t...

  15. Neurotoxins: Free Radical Mechanisms and Melatonin Protection

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Toxins that pass through the blood-brain barrier put neurons and glia in peril. The damage inflicted is usually a consequence of the ability of these toxic agents to induce free radical generation within cells but especially at the level of the mitochondria. The elevated production of oxygen and nitrogen-based radicals and related non-radical products leads to the oxidation of essential macromolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA. The resultant damage is referred to as oxidative and nit...

  16. Bioinspired terpene synthesis: a radical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, José; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Jakoby, Verena; Gansäuer, Andreas; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    This tutorial review highlights the development of radical-based bioinspired synthesis of terpenes from the initial proposal to the development of modern catalytic methods for performing such processes. The power of the radical approach is demonstrated by the straightforward syntheses of many natural products from readily available starting materials. The efficiency of these processes nicely complements the described cationic polyolefin cyclisations and even suggests that modern radical methods provide means to improve upon nature's synthetic pathways.

  17. A natureza comportamental da mente: behaviorismo radical e filosofia da mente

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Diego Zilio [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende delinear uma possível interpretação do behaviorismo radical como teoria da mente, o que significa, em outros termos, contextualizá-lo no âmbito da filosofia da mente. Para tanto, primeiramente apresentaremos as principais teorias que figuram na filosofia da mente contemporânea, incluindo suas teses centrais e seus respectivos problemas. Em seguida, trataremos dos fundamentos do behaviorismo radical enquanto filosofia da ciência e enquanto teoria do comportamento. ...

  18. Affinity for dopamine D-2, D-3, and D-4 receptors of 2-aminotetralins. Relevance of D-2 agonist binding for determination of receptor subtype selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanVliet, LA; Tepper, PG; Dijkstra, D; Damsma, G; Wikstrom, H; Pugsley, TA; Akunne, HC; Heffner, TG; Glase, SA; Wise, LD

    1996-01-01

    A series of 2-aminotetralins, substituted with a methoxy or a hydroxy group on the 5- or 7-position, and with varying N-alkyl or N-arylalkyl substituents, were prepared and evaluated in binding assays for human dopamine (DA) D-2, D-3, and D-4 receptors. Some members of this series were prepared in f

  19. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by D2 receptor prevents apoptosis in dopaminergic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Venugopalan D; Olanow, C Warren; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2003-07-01

    Whereas dopamine agonists are known to provide symptomatic benefits for Parkinson's disease, recent clinical trials suggest that they might also be neuroprotective. Laboratory studies demonstrate that dopamine agonists can provide neuroprotective effects in a number of model systems, but the role of receptor-mediated signalling in these effects is controversial. We find that dopamine agonists have robust, concentration-dependent anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells that stably express human D(2L) receptors from cell death due to H(2)O(2) or trophic withdrawal and that the protective effects are abolished in the presence of D(2)-receptor antagonists. D(2) agonists are also neuroprotective in the nigral dopamine cell line SN4741, which express endogenous D(2) receptors, whereas no anti-apoptotic activity is observed in native PC12 cells, which do not express detectable D(2) receptors. Notably, the agonists studied differ in their relative efficacy to mediate anti-apoptotic effects and in their capacity to stimulate [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP[S]) binding, an indicator of G-protein activation. Studies with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase indicate that the PI 3-kinase pathway is required for D(2) receptor-mediated cell survival. These studies indicate that certain dopamine agonists can complex with D(2) receptors to preferentially transactivate neuroprotective signalling pathways and to mediate increased cell survival.

  20. NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF synapse. Results Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. Conclusion These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.

  1. A peptide disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects against dopamine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine reuptake from extracellular space to cytosol leads to accumulation of dopamine, which triggers neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies have shown that both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) are involved in dopamine neurotoxicity. However, blockade of either D2R or DAT causes side effects due to antagonism of other physiological functions of these two proteins. We previously found that DAT can form a protein complex with D2R and its cell surface expression is facilitated via D2R-DAT interaction, which regulates dopamine reuptake and intracellular dopamine levels. Here we found that an interfering peptide (DAT-S1) disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity, and this effect is mediated by inhibiting DAT cell surface expression and inhibiting both caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage. This study demonstrates the role of the D2R-DAT complex in dopamine neurotoxicity and investigated the potential mechanisms, which might help better understand the mechanisms of dopamine neurotoxicity. The peptide may provide some insights to improve treatments for dopamine neurotoxicity and related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, as well as methamphetamine- and 3,4-methsylenedioxy methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor. D2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D2 receptors. D2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  3. Observations of long-lived H-2 and D-2 ions from non-thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Liu, Xin; Yang, Xue-Feng

    2007-03-01

    Strong mass signals of H-2 and D-2 ions have been observed from low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge hydrogen and deuterium plasmas via molecular beam mass spectrometry. The observed H-2/H- and D-2/D- ratios (~0.35-0.4) are over five orders of magnitude higher than those observed by other techniques. The kinetic energy of H-2 and D-2 ions sampled from the plasmas was determined to be widely distributed, from a few eV to >100 eV, giving lifetimes greater than ~40 µs for H-2 and ~55 µs for D-2. The highest vib-rotational excitation of neutral H2 species in the plasma was determined to be about J = 0, v = 5 or J = 19, v = 0 via threshold ionization mass spectrometry. The possible pumping mechanisms for generating H-2 with further high J, required by the current high-rotation model, have been proposed. Similar to the lifetime of D-2 determined recently by another group, the H-2 lifetime observed in this work is about two orders of magnitude longer than that predicted by the current theoretical model. To explain these experimental observations regarding the meta-stability of long-lived H-2 and D-2 ions, the improved current high-rotation model or other new models, including the possible existence of some long-lived electronically excited states of H-2/D-2, need to be developed.

  4. Cannabidiol is a partial agonist at dopamine D2High receptors, predicting its antipsychotic clinical dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, P

    2016-01-01

    Although all current antipsychotics act by interfering with the action of dopamine at dopamine D2 receptors, two recent reports showed that 800 to 1000 mg of cannabidiol per day alleviated the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, although cannabidiol is not known to act on dopamine receptors. Because these recent clinical findings may indicate an important exception to the general rule that all antipsychotics interfere with dopamine at dopamine D2 receptors, the present study examined whether cannabidiol acted directly on D2 receptors, using tritiated domperidone to label rat brain striatal D2 receptors. It was found that cannabidiol inhibited the binding of radio-domperidone with dissociation constants of 11 nm at dopamine D2High receptors and 2800 nm at dopamine D2Low receptors, in the same biphasic manner as a dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic drug such as aripiprazole. The clinical doses of cannabidiol are sufficient to occupy the functional D2High sites. it is concluded that the dopamine partial agonist action of cannabidiol may account for its clinical antipsychotic effects. PMID:27754480

  5. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-08-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, as we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine, and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior.

  6. 基于D2shepp统计法的非序列局部比对%Local Alignment-Free Sequences Based on D2shepp Statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪梅; 文德华; 於黄忠; 高亚妮

    2012-01-01

    两条生物序列间的相似性比对是计算生物学探讨的主要问题之一,一种快速的依赖于k-元组的D2shepp统计法目前已被应用到非序列比对中.文中在零模型的基础上产生两条相互独立的随机序列,基于D2shepp统计法进行了两条序列的局部比对,找到局部比对的最优值并求和.在此基础上模拟了Power值的分布情况,并分析了不同k参数下的Power值分布.在相同参数下将文中提出的局部比对与已有的D2shepp统计的全局比对进行比较,发现局部比对D2shepp统计的Power值随着序列长度的增大而快速地接近于1,比全局比对更加快速、准确.%The similarities between two biological sequences is a major issue in computational biology, and a fast D2shepp statistics method based on the joint i-tuple content in two sequences has been used in the alignment-free sequence comparison. In this paper, two separate random sequences are generated based on the zero model, and their local alignment is conducted based on D2shepp statistics, thus obtaining the optimal values and the sum of these values. Then, the Power distribution is simulated and the distributions with different k values are analyzed. Finally, with the same parameters, the proposed local alignment is compared with the global alignment based on D2shepp statistics. It is found that the Power value of the proposed local alignment rapidly approaches 1 with the increase of the sequence length and that the proposed local alignment is quicker and more accurate than the global one.

  7. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanrong; Cuevas, Santiago; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Yang, Yu; Pascua, Annabelle M; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Grandy, David; Eisner, Gilbert; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2)-/-) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2)-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2)R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2)R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2)R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2)R expression and function.

  8. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2 receptor gene (DRD2 are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2-/- have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2 receptor (D(2R function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2R expression and function.

  9. Threshold of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Occupancy for Hyperprolactinemia in Older Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yusuke; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Suzuki, Takefumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Pollock, Bruce G; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K; Mamo, David C; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-12-01

    Although hyperprolactinemia carries a long-term risk of morbidity, the threshold of dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) occupancy for hyperprolactinemia has not been investigated in older patients with schizophrenia. Data were taken from a positron emission tomography (PET) study conducted between August 2007 and August 2015. The present post hoc study included 42 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) (mean ± SD age = 60.2 ± 6.7 years) taking olanzapine or risperidone. Subjects underwent [¹¹C]-raclopride PET scans to measure D2/3R occupancy before and after reducing their dose of antipsychotic by up to 40%. Blood samples were collected before each PET scan to measure prolactin levels. The relationship between prolactin levels and D2/3R occupancy was examined using stepwise linear regression analyses. The D2/3R occupancy thresholds for hyperprolactinemia were explored using Fisher exact tests. Prolactin levels decreased following dose reduction (mean ± SD = 24.1 ± 30.2 ng/mL to 17.2 ± 15.1 ng/mL; P D2/3R occupancy (β = .23, P = .04). Those with D2/3R occupancy of 66% or higher were more likely to have hyperprolactinemia than those with D2/3R occupancy lower than 66% (P = .03). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this threshold were 0.44, 0.81, 0.78, and 0.48, respectively. We identified a D2/3R occupancy threshold for hyperprolactinemia of 66% in older patients with schizophrenia, which is lower than that reported in younger patients (73%) by other researchers. Our results suggest a higher sensitivity to antipsychotics in older patients. Prolactin levels could assist in the determination of appropriate antipsychotic dosing to minimize adverse effects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00716755.

  10. Withdrawal from continuous or intermittent cocaine administration: changes in D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G R; Ellinwood, E H; Silvia, C; Joyner, C M; Xue, Z; Caron, M G; Lee, T H

    1994-05-01

    Intermittent cocaine administration produces sensitization, whereas the continuous administration of cocaine produces tolerance to the effects of subsequent cocaine administration during withdrawal. The present study examined whether the effects of these two dosing regimens are related to alterations in the functional status of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors. In all experiments, rats were withdrawn for 7 days from a 14-day pretreatment regimen involving either continuous or intermittent cocaine administration. Experiments examined changes in the behavioral response to an autoreceptor-selective dose of apomorphine, the effects of sulpiride on electrically stimulated DA release in striatal brain slices and striatal D2 receptor binding, and mRNA levels. The results indicate that the continuous administration of cocaine produces findings consistent with D2 autoreceptor supersensitivity; there was enhanced inhibition of behavior after the autoreceptor-selective dose of apomorphine, decreased electrically stimulated DA release in the absence of sulpiride, and enhanced electrically stimulated DA release in the presence of sulpiride. However, there were no changes in postsynaptic D2 receptor binding or mRNA levels. Intermittent cocaine administration did not produce evidence of D2 autoreceptor subsensitivity: there was no decrease in inhibition of behavior after the autoreceptor-selective dose of apomorphine, no changes in electrically stimulated DA release in the absence or presence of D2 receptor blockade, and no change in the levels of D2 receptor binding; however, D2 mRNA levels were decreased by 22%. Overall, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that the expression of tolerance induced by continuous cocaine administration is associated with D2 autoreceptor supersensitivity.

  11. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier

    2005-01-01

    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  12. Free radicals in the aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.; Laurence, G. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: The chemistry of the degradation of organic herbicides and fungicides in natural systems is important in determining operationally important parameters such as withholding times before planting or consumption. Disappearance rates in the field are frequently many time larger than expected from reactions such as hydrolysis arid photochemical- and radical-initiated reactions are frequently cited as causes of the degradation reactions. Reactions of OH and O{sub 2}{sup -} radicals and secondary radicals derived from these are increasingly postulated as being important in many aqueous environmental reactions. Free radical reactions may contribute to the degradation of organic pesticides and are directly implicated in the use of radical generating systems such as Fenton`s Reagent or hydrogen peroxide in the removal of chlorinated organic chemicals from drinking water. Natural sources of these radicals in aqueous systems are predominantly photochemical reactions or reactions initiated by transition metal ions. Hydrogen peroxide is present in many aqueous environments in relatively high concentrations and we are attempting to establish the presence of superoxide radicals in natural systems. The measurement of stationary state concentrations of free radicals as low as 10{sup -} {sup 15} M is a challenge to analytical and free radical chemists. Long term scavenging studies are difficult and generally non-specific. Current ideas will be reviewed and our approach to the measurement of superoxide in natural systems will be outlined.

  13. Formation of free radicals during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, A; Rolfsen, W; Svensson, B; Ollinger, K; Lundgren, B

    1993-04-01

    During phacoemulsification cavitation bubbles are formed. These bubbles are believed to be one source of damage to corneal endothelium seen after phacoemulsification. Free radicals are induced whenever cavitation bubbles implode. The aim of this study was to confirm the initiation of free radicals by phacoemulsification and to correlate the power of ultrasound in the phacoemulsification process to the amount of free radicals formed, using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. The formation of free radicals was determined by adding luminol to a buffer and measuring the chemoluminescence in vitro and in rabbit eyes (Lumacounter 2080 or a single-photon-counting apparatus) during phacoemulsification. The data obtained show that free radicals are formed during phacoemulsification and that the amount of free radicals correlates with the power of ultrasound. Furthermore, the radical formation could be inhibited by the radical scavengers SOD, Healon and Healon GV. These results were achieved both in vitro in the test tube and in vivo in rabbit eyes. By showing that the addition of SOD to the irrigation buffer during phacoemulsification decreases the corneal endothelial cell damage, we show that free radicals could have a role in postoperative complications seen clinically.

  14. Effect of free radicals and cultivation media on radiation sensitivities of escherichia coli and related bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-09-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on some strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in the presence of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} and with the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavengers glycerol, polyethylene glycerol and formate. Injured cell membrane of bacteria was detected using with MacConkey agar for E. coli and S. enteritidis and 7% NaCl Triptic soy agar for St. aureus instead of Tryptic soy agar for recovery medium. From this study, addition of glycerol significantly reduced the sensitivity in all of strains, and cell membrane was not injured significantly except in radiation sensitive strain E. coli A4-1. When superoxide radicals (O{sub 2}) were generated during irradiation in the presence of formate, injured cell membrane increased significantly in all of strains. However, molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) and OH radicals also had some effects on the damage of cell membrane. These results suggest that most radiation induced cell lethality was responsible to the cooperative effects of intracellular OH radicals and O{sub 2} on DNA with lessor effect of damage on cell membrane by O{sub 2} radicals, O{sub 2} and OH radicals. On the radiation sensitive strain of E. coli, cell lethality occurred significantly by the injury of cell membrane compared with other strains. (author)

  15. 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration for navigated prostate biopsy: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi, Sonia,; Promayon, Emmanuel; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to describe a 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration method for navigated prostate biopsy and its first results obtained on patient data. A system combining a low-cost tracking system and a 3D-2D registration algorithm was designed. The proposed 3D-2D registration method combines geometric and image-based distances. After extracting features from ultrasound images, 3D and 2D features within a defined distance are matched using an intensity...

  16. 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration for navigated prostate biopsy: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Sonia Y; Promayon, Emmanuel; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration method for navigated prostate biopsy and its first results obtained on patient data. A system combining a low-cost tracking system and a 3D-2D registration algorithm was designed. The proposed 3D-2D registration method combines geometric and image-based distances. After extracting features from ultrasound images, 3D and 2D features within a defined distance are matched using an intensity-based function. The results are encouraging and show acceptable errors with simulated transforms applied on ultrasound volumes from real patients.

  17. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  18. Dynamic Alignment of D2 Enhanced by Two Few-cycle Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-qiang Yang; Zhi-rong Guo; Bao-xiang Yin; Mao-zhu Sun

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic alignment of D2 induced by two few-cycle pulses was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schr(o)dinger equation numerically based on a rigid rotor model. The results show that alignment of D2 can be enhanced by two few-cycle pulses compared with the level achievable by a single fewcycle pulse as long as the time delay between two pulses is chosen properly, and the pulse duration of two lasers plays an important role in the aligning process of D2 molecules.

  19. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer signaling pathway in the brain: emerging physiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter modulating many physiological functions, and is linked to psychopathology of many diseases such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are the most abundant dopaminergic receptors in the striatum, and although a clear segregation between the pathways expressing these two receptors has been reported in certain subregions, the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers within a unique subset of neurons, forming a novel signaling transducing functional entity has been shown. Recently, significant progress has been made in elucidating the signaling pathways activated by the D1-D2 receptor heteromer and their potential physiological relevance.

  20. Inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and lipid free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, the inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and linoleic acid lipid radicals were found. The inhibitory ratio E for these two kinds of radicals is in proportion to the concentration of chitosan. It was also observed that E for linoleic acid lipid radicals increased with the increase of the degree of deacetylation and decreased with the increase of the molecular weight of chitosan.

  1. D2 to D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhuthachan, Bobby; Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    Starting from maximally supersymmetric (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory and using a duality transformation due to de Wit, Nicolai and Samtleben, we obtain the ghost-free Lorentzian 3-algebra theory that has recently been proposed to describe M2-branes. Our derivation does not invoke any properties of 3-algebras. Being derivable from SYM, the final theory is manifestly equivalent to it on-shell and should not be thought of as the IR limit that describes M2-branes, though it does have enhanced R-symmetry as well as superconformal symmetry off-shell.

  2. D2 to D2

    CERN Document Server

    Ezhuthachan, Bobby; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-01-01

    Starting from maximally supersymmetric (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory and using a duality transformation due to de Wit, Nicolai and Samtleben, we obtain the ghost-free Lorentzian 3-algebra theory that has recently been proposed to describe M2-branes. Our derivation does not invoke any properties of 3-algebras. Being derivable from SYM, the final theory is manifestly equivalent to it on-shell and should not be thought of as the IR limit that describes M2-branes, though it does have enhanced R-symmetry as well as superconformal symmetry off-shell.

  3. Supporting radical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Gertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    ). Pharmaceutical innovation is unique, as it opposed to most other industries’ product development is science-driven and not customer-driven. In addition, the pharmaceutical FEI, as represented by research, lasts up to 5 years and the entire R&D process constitutes a period of 10-12 years, which is highly...... regulated by external authorities, e.g. The American Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The research aim of this paper is: to contribute to the field of FEI by studying how FEI can be actively supported within the industry specific context of the pharmaceutical industry, and through a conceptual discussion...... of FEI, pharmaceutical FEI and radical innovation. Based on this understanding, empirical research through exploratory and inductive case studies is analyzed. The value added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI literature is in the study of the theoretical fields of research...

  4. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  5. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective...... was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D2/3 receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case-control study using...... single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D2/3-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls matched...

  8. ROLE OF D2 DOPAMINE RECEPTOR ON MODULATION OF THE LEUKOCYTE FORMULA IN RESTRAINT STRESSED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter of both central and peripheral nervous system. Its role in the neural-immune communication has been discussed in the present study. Results reveal that in vivo blockade of D2 dopamine receptor by means of sulpiride, a selective antagonist for D2 dopamine receptor produce changes in functional activities of the immune effector cells. Adults rats pretreated once with LPS (a bacterial product (25µg/250µl, i.p., produce an immune response, were subjected to i.p. injection with sulpiride (4 mg/kg b.w., i.p., a selective antagonist for D2 dopamine receptors, after 3 days postimmunization. After 18 days later, we assessed the total leukocyte number, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils number. In summary, we provide that D2 dopamine receptor blockade suppress or enhance the immune effector cells number in restraint stress.

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on laying hen performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini; Carla Orsi; Viviana Ferrazzi; Stefano Marelli; Maria Grazia Mangiagalli; Alberto Giardini; Daniele Gallazzi

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on hen performance and egg quality, 160 commercial Hy-Line Brown pullets, 17 weeks old, were...

  10. The puzzling detection of D2CO in the molecular cloud L1689N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Vastel, C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Castets, A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Loinard, L.; Caux, E.

    2002-01-01

    We present new observations of the D2CO emission towards the small cloud L1689N in the rho Ophiuchus complex. We surveyed five positions, three being a cut across a shock site and two probing the quiescent gas of the molecular cloud. We detected D2CO emission in the first three positions. The measured [D2CO]/[H2CO] is about 3%, whereas it is removed from the cold storage by the shock at the interface between the outflowing and quiescent gas. We review the predictions of the published models proposed to explain the observed high deuteration of formaldehyde. They fall in two basic schemes: gas phase and grain surface chemistry. None of the reviewed models is able to account for the observed [D2CO]/[H2CO] abundance ratio. A common characteristics shared by the models is apparently that all underestimate the atomic [D]/[H] ratio in the accreting gas.

  11. Selective Alignment of D2 Induced by Two Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-qiang Yang; Zhi-rong Guo; Gui-xian Ge

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of molecular rotational wave packets of D2 induced by ultrashort laser pulses was investigated numerically by solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. Results show that an ultrashort pulse can manipulate a coherent rotational wave packet of D2 se-lectively. In the calculation, a first laser pulse was used to create a coherent rotational wave packet from an initial thermal ensemble of D2 at the temperature of 300 K. The second laser pulse was used to manipulate the rotational wave packet selectively around the first quarter and the three quarters revival. The alignment parameter and its Fourier transform amplitude both illustrate that the relative populations of even and odd rotational states in the final rotational wave packet of D2 can be manipulated by precisely selecting the time delay between the first and the second ultrashort pulse.

  12. Theoretical calculation of the shock compression properties of liquid H2 + D2 mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其峰; 蔡灵仓; 陈栋泉; 经福谦

    1999-01-01

    Based on liquid variational perturbation theory with quantum mechanics correction, the effective exp-6 potential is adopted to compute the shock Hugoniot of liquid H2+D2 mixtures at different molar rations. An examination of the confidence of the above computation is performed by comparing experiments and calculations, in which similar calculation procedure used for H2+D2 is adopted for H2 and D2 each, since no experimental data are available to conduct this kind of comparison. Good agreement in both comparisons is found. This fact may look as if an indirect positive verification of calculation procedure was used here at least in the pressure and temperature domain covered by the experimental data of H2 and D2 used for comparison, numerically nearly up to 20 GPa and 104 K.

  13. Hydroxyl radical reaction with trans-resveratrol: initial carbon radical adduct formation followed by rearrangement to phenoxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Han, Rui-Min; Liang, Ran; Chen, Chang-Hui; Lai, Wenzhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2012-06-21

    In the reaction between trans-resveratrol (resveratrol) and the hydroxyl radical, kinetic product control leads to a short-lived hydroxyl radical adduct with an absorption maximum at 420 nm and a lifetime of 0.21 ± 0.01 μs (anaerobic acetonitrile at 25 °C) as shown by laser flash photolysis using N-hydroxypyridine-2(1H)-thione (N-HPT) as a "photo-Fenton" reagent. The transient spectra of the radical adduct are in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing an absorption maximum at 442 or 422 nm for C2 and C6 hydroxyl adducts, respectively, and showing the lowest energy for the transition state leading to the C2 adduct compared to other radical products. From this initial product, the relative long-lived 4'-phenoxyl radical of resveratrol (τ = 9.9 ± 0.9 μs) with an absorption maximum at 390 nm is formed in a process with a time constant (τ = 0.21 ± 0.01 μs) similar to the decay constant for the C2 hydroxyl adduct (or a C2/C6 hydroxyl adduct mixture) and in agreement with thermodynamics identifying this product as the most stable resveratrol radical. The hydroxyl radical adduct to phenoxyl radical conversion with concomitant water dissociation has a rate constant of 5 × 10(6) s(-1) and may occur by intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer or by stepwise proton-assisted electron transfer. Photolysis of N-HPT also leads to a thiyl radical which adds to resveratrol in a parallel reaction forming a sulfur radical adduct with a lifetime of 0.28 ± 0.04 μs and an absorption maximum at 483 nm.

  14. Dopamine D2 receptor radiotracers [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride are indistinguishably inhibited by D2 agonists and antagonists ex vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Patrick N. [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada)], E-mail: patrick.mccormick@camhpet.ca; Kapur, Shitij [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Seeman, Philip [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); PET Center, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Introduction: In vitro, the dopamine D2 receptor exists in two states, with high and low affinity for agonists. The high-affinity state is the physiologically active state thought to be involved in dopaminergic illnesses such as schizophrenia. The positron emission tomography radiotracer [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO ([{sup 11}C](+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4] oxazin-9-o l), being a D2 agonist, should selectively label the high-affinity state at tracer dose and therefore be more susceptible to competition by agonist as compared to the antagonist [{sup 3}H]raclopride, which binds to both affinity states. Methods: We tested this prediction using ex vivo dual-radiotracer experiments in conscious rats. D2 antagonists (haloperidol or clozapine), a partial agonist (aripiprazole), a full agonist [(-)-NPA] or the dopamine-releasing drug amphetamine (AMPH) were administered to rats prior to an intravenous coinjection of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride. Rats were sacrificed 60 min after radiotracer injection. Striatum, cerebellum and plasma samples were counted for {sup 11}C and {sup 3}H. The specific binding ratio {l_brace}SBR, i.e., [%ID/g (striatum)-%ID/g (cerebellum)]/(%ID/g (cerebellum){r_brace} was used as the outcome measure. Results: In response to D2 antagonists, partial agonist or full agonist, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs responded indistinguishably in terms of both ED{sub 50} and Hill slope (e.g., (-)-NPA ED{sub 50} values are 0.027 and 0.023 mg/kg for [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride, respectively). In response to AMPH challenge, [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO and [{sup 3}H]raclopride SBRs were inhibited to the same degree. Conclusions: We have shown that the SBRs of [{sup 11}C](+)-PHNO- and [{sup 3}H]raclopride do not differ in their response to agonist challenge. These results do not support predictions of the in vivo binding behavior of a D2 agonist radiotracer and cast some doubt on the in vivo

  15. D2: major subgenotype of hepatitis B virus in Russia and the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Tatjana; Tefanova, Valentina; Priimägi, Ljudmilla; Schmidt, Jelena; Katargina, Olga; Michailov, Michail; Mukomolov, Sergey; Magnius, Lars; Norder, Heléne

    2008-08-01

    Complete or almost complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes were sequenced for 13 genotype A and 42 genotype D strains from the former USSR. The strains were classifiable within subgenotypes A2, D1, D2 and D3. Comparison of the deduced gene products for the four ORFs of 89 genotype D strains revealed 27 subgenotype-specific residues, and a region spanning residues 58-128 in the spacer region of the P gene could be used to distinguish between D1 and D4. This enabled the allocation to subgenotype of strains with partially sequenced genomes. D2 was dominating, while D3 was found in low frequency in the whole region. D1 was most prevalent in the Middle Asian Republics. Mean inter-subgenotype divergences between D1 and D2, D1 and D3 and D2 and D3 were 2.7, 3.4 and 3.4 %, respectively. The intra-subgenotype divergence was 0.4, 1.1, 1.0 and 1.8 % for A2, D1, D2 and D3, respectively. All D1 and D3 strains encoded subtype ayw2, whereas most D2 strains encoded ayw3. Two D2 strains encoded ayw4. Strains with identical S genes were closely related at the level of complete genomes and formed geographically specific clades with low intraclade divergences, possibly indicating past iatrogenic spread. It is not clear whether the finding of four subgenotypes in the area corresponds to separate introductions of the virus or to previous population migrations into the area. An earlier introduction of D3 compared with D2 was supported by its higher intra-subgenotype divergence, while the lower divergence within D1 is probably due to a more recent emergence.

  16. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 levels and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, G V; Cohen, A; Arnar, D O; Hougaard, D M; Torfason, B; Palsson, R; Indridason, O S

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been associated with an increased risk of adverse effects after cardiac surgery. The metabolites, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, provide a good index of vitamin D status. In this study, we examined the association between preoperative plasma levels of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following open heart surgery. The levels of plasma 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in 118 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular surgery, were measured immediately prior to surgery and on postoperative day 3 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients who developed POAF had higher median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 than those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) (P = 0·003), but no significant difference was noted in levels of 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D between the two groups (P > 0·05). By univariate analysis, patients with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D2 levels above the median had higher frequency of POAF (P D2 (P = 0·001), an association that was independent of confounding factors. In both the SR and POAF groups, the median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and total 25(OH)D were lower (P D2 are associated with increased risk of POAF, while this is not the case for 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D. The reason for these discrepant results is not clear but warrants further study.

  17. Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized that blockade of D2 receptors might facilitate extinction in mice, while agonists should block extinction, as they do in rats. One day after fear con...

  18. Aberrant dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Lodge, Daniel J

    2012-11-01

    Based on the observation that antipsychotic medications display antagonist properties at dopamine D2-like receptors, aberrant dopamine signaling has been proposed to underlie psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, it is not surprising that considerable research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic action of these compounds. It is important to note that the majority of these studies have been performed in "normal" experimental animals. Given that these animals do not possess the aberrant neuronal information processing typically associated with schizophrenia, the aim of the current study was to examine the dopamine D2 receptor system in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrate that methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display an enhanced effect of quinpirole on dopamine neuron activity and an aberrant locomotor response to D2-like receptor activation, suggesting changes in postsynaptic D2-like receptor function. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced response to D2-like ligands in MAM-treated rats, we examined the expression of D2, D3, and dopamine transporter mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAM-treated rats displayed a significant increase in dopamine D3 receptor mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens with no significant changes in the expression of the D2 receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate robust alterations in dopamine D2-like receptor function in a rodent model of schizophrenia and provide evidence that preclinical studies examining the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action should be performed in animal models that mirror aspects of the abnormal neuronal transmission thought to underlie symptoms of schizophrenia.

  19. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshie Yamaguchi; Young-A. Lee; Akemi Kato; Emanuel Jas; Yukiori Goto

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially ...

  20. Dopaminergic isoquinolines with hexahydrocyclopenta[ij]-isoquinolines as D2-like selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párraga, Javier; Andujar, Sebastián A; Rojas, Sebastián; Gutierrez, Lucas J; El Aouad, Noureddine; Sanz, M Jesús; Enriz, Ricardo D; Cabedo, Nuria; Cortes, Diego

    2016-10-21

    Dopamine receptors (DR) ligands are potential drug candidates for treating neurological disorders including schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Three series of isoquinolines: (E)-1-styryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (series 1), 7-phenyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydrocyclopenta[ij]-IQs (HCPIQs) (series 2) and (E)-1-(prop-1-en-1-yl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydroisoquinolines (series 3), were prepared to determine their affinity for both D1 and D2-like DR. The effect of different substituents on the nitrogen atom (methyl or allyl), the dioxygenated function (methoxyl or catechol), the substituent at the β-position of the THIQ skeleton, and the presence or absence of the cyclopentane motif, were studied. We observed that the most active compounds in the three series (2c, 2e, 3a, 3c, 3e, 5c and 5e) possessed a high affinity for D2-like DR and these remarkable features: a catechol group in the IQ-ring and the N-substitution (methyl or allyl). The series showed the following trend to D2-RD affinity: HCPIQs > 1-styryl > 1-propenyl. Therefore, the substituent at the β-position of the THIQ and the cyclopentane ring also modulated this affinity. Among these dopaminergic isoquinolines, HCPIQs stood out for unexpected selectivity to D2-DR since the Ki D1/D2 ratio reached values of 2465, 1010 and 382 for compounds 3a, 3c and 3e, respectively. None of the most active THIQs in D2 DR displayed relevant cytotoxicity in human neutrophils and HUVEC. Finally, and in agreement with the experimental data, molecular modeling studies on DRs of the most characteristic ligands of the three series revealed stronger molecular interactions with D2 DR than with D1 DR, which further supports to the encountered enhanced selectivity to D2 DR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of D2 dopamine receptors of the ventral pallidum in inhibitory avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lénárd, László; Ollmann, Tamás; László, Kristóf; Kovács, Anita; Gálosi, Rita; Kállai, Veronika; Attila, Tóth; Kertes, Erika; Zagoracz, Olga; Karádi, Zoltán; Péczely, László

    2017-03-15

    In our present experiments, the role of D2 dopamine (DA) receptors of the ventral pallidum (VP) was investigated in one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked 3 times in the conditioning trial, with 0.5mA current for 1s. Subsequently bilateral microinjection of the D2 DA receptor agonist quinpirole was administered into the VP in three doses (0.1μg, 1.0μg or 5.0μg in 0.4μl saline). We also applied the D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.4μg in 0.4μl saline) alone or 15min prior to the agonist treatment to elucidate whether the agonist effect was specific for the D2 DA receptors. Control animals received saline. In a supplementary experiment, it was also investigated whether application of the same conditioning method leads to the formation of short-term memory in the experimental animals. In the experiment with the D2 DA receptor agonist, only the 0.1μg quinpirole increased significantly the step-through latency during the test trials: retention was significant compared to the controls even 2 weeks after conditioning. The D2 DA receptor antagonist sulpiride pretreatment proved that the effect was due to the agonist induced activation of the D2 DA receptors of the VP. The supplementary experiment demonstrated that short-term memory is formed after conditioning in the experimental animals, supporting that the agonist enhanced memory consolidation in the first two experiments. Our results show that the activation of the D2 DA receptors in the VP facilitates memory consolidation as well as memory-retention in inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproducing Kernel for D2(Ω, ρ) and Metric Induced by Reproducing Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen Gang

    2009-01-01

    An important property of the reproducing kernel of D2(Ω, ρ) is obtained and the reproducing kernels for D2(Ω, ρ) are calculated when Ω = Bn × Bn and ρ are some special functions. A reproducing kernel is used to construct a semi-positive definite matrix and a distance function defined on Ω×Ω. An inequality is obtained about the distance function and the pseudodistance induced by the matrix.

  3. Modeling Cellular Networks with Full Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Konpal S.

    2016-08-24

    Full-duplex (FD) communication is optimistically promoted to double the spectral efficiency if sufficient self-interference cancellation (SIC) is achieved. However, this is not true when deploying FD-communication in a large-scale setup due to the induced mutual interference. Therefore, a large-scale study is necessary to draw legitimate conclusions about gains associated with FD-communication. This paper studies the FD operation for underlay device-to-device (D2D) communication sharing the uplink resources in cellular networks. We propose a disjoint fine-tuned selection criterion for the D2D and FD modes of operation. Then, we develop a tractable analytical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, to calculate the outage probability and rate for cellular and D2D users. The results reveal that even in the case of perfect SIC, due to the increased interference injected to the network by FD-D2D communication, having all proximity UEs transmit in FD-D2D is not beneficial for the network. However, if the system parameters are carefully tuned, non-trivial network spectral-efficiency gains (64% shown) can be harvested. We also investigate the effects of imperfect SIC and D2D-link distance distribution on the harvested FD gains.

  4. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors increases parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Devon L; Durai, Heather H; Garden, Jamie D; Cohen, Evan L; Echevarria, Franklin D; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2015-02-18

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. The response to sulpiride in social anxiety disorder: D2 receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Caroline; Bhikha, Shamina; Colhoun, Helen; Carter, Frances; Frampton, Chris; Porter, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a hypoactive central dopaminergic system. Supporting this there have been reports from neuroimaging studies of reduced striatal D2 receptor binding in subjects with SAD. The aim of this study was to investigate D2 receptor sensitivity in patients with SAD compared with a group of matched, healthy controls using a neuroendocrine challenge with the selective D2 antagonist, sulpiride. D2 receptor function was assessed in 23 subjects with generalized SAD and 23 matched, healthy controls using a challenge with 400 mg of a selective D2 antagonist, sulpiride in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Response to sulpiride was measured by the change in prolactin level and changes in self-rated measures of social anxiety, mood and the ability to experience pleasure. There was no significant difference in prolactin response to sulpiride between the two groups. Sulpiride resulted in no effect in either the SAD or healthy control group on measures of social anxiety, mood or the ability to experience pleasure. Contrary to our hypothesis, in this study we found no evidence of reduced D2 receptor function in subjects with SAD compared with healthy controls.

  6. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-12-20

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (peccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p=0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, peccentric exercise.

  7. Sex Differences in Midbrain Dopamine D2-Type Receptor Availability and Association with Nicotine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kyoji; Petersen, Nicole; Robertson, Chelsea L; Dean, Andy C; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-11-01

    Women differ from men in smoking-related behaviors, among them a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. Unlike female smokers, male smokers have lower striatal dopamine D2-type receptor availability (binding potential, BPND) than nonsmokers and exhibit greater smoking-induced striatal dopamine release. Because dopamine D2-type autoreceptors in the midbrain influence striatal dopamine release, a function that has been linked to addiction, we tested for sex differences in midbrain dopamine D2-type receptor BPND and in relationships between midbrain BPND, nicotine dependence and striatal dopamine D2-type receptor BPND. Positron emission tomography was used with [(18)F]fallypride to measure BPND in a midbrain region, encompassing the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, in 18 daily smokers (7 women, 11 men) and 19 nonsmokers (10 women, 9 men). A significant sex-by-group interaction reflected greater midbrain BPND in female but not male smokers than in corresponding nonsmokers (F1, 32=5.089, p=0.03). Midbrain BPND was positively correlated with BPND in the caudate nucleus and putamen in nonsmokers and female smokers but not in male smokers and with nicotine dependence in female but not in male smokers. Striatal BPND was correlated negatively with nicotine dependence and smoking exposure. These findings extend observations on dopamine D2-type receptors in smokers and suggest a sex difference in how midbrain dopamine D2-type autoreceptors influence nicotine dependence.

  8. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  9. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  10. Dopamine D2 receptors and striatopallidal transmission in addiction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J; Voren, George; Johnson, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    Drug addiction and obesity share the core feature that those afflicted by the disorders express a desire to limit drug or food consumption yet persist despite negative consequences. Emerging evidence suggests that the compulsivity that defines these disorders may arise, to some degree at least, from common underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In particular, both disorders are associated with diminished striatal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability, likely reflecting their decreased maturation and surface expression. In striatum, D2Rs are expressed by approximately half of the principal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs), the striatopallidal neurons of the so-called 'indirect' pathway. D2Rs are also expressed presynaptically on dopamine terminals and on cholinergic interneurons. This heterogeneity of D2R expression has hindered attempts, largely using traditional pharmacological approaches, to understand their contribution to compulsive drug or food intake. The emergence of genetic technologies to target discrete populations of neurons, coupled to optogenetic and chemicogenetic tools to manipulate their activity, have provided a means to dissect striatopallidal and cholinergic contributions to compulsivity. Here, we review recent evidence supporting an important role for striatal D2R signaling in compulsive drug use and food intake. We pay particular attention to striatopallidal projection neurons and their role in compulsive responding for food and drugs. Finally, we identify opportunities for future obesity research using known mechanisms of addiction as a heuristic, and leveraging new tools to manipulate activity of specific populations of striatal neurons to understand their contributions to addiction and obesity.

  11. Organic chemistry: A radical step forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Ang

    2017-02-01

    Free radicals are notorious for unselective coupling reactions; however, the coupling of free radicals generated from acyl tellurides has now been shown to form C-C bonds with remarkable fidelity, which enables easy one-step assembly of densely oxygenated natural product motifs.

  12. Victimology: A Consideration of the Radical Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, David O.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new radical model in criminology and a new subdisciplinary area of concern, victimology, with roots in Marx and Engels' original formulations. Argues that the radical understanding of victimization provides an important corrective to mainstream approaches and broadens the focus of the concept of victimization. (JAC)

  13. Resonance raman studies of phenylcyclopropane radical cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godbout, J.T.; Zuilhof, H.; Heim, G.; Gould, I.R.; Goodman, J.L.; Dinnocenzo, J.P.; Myers Kelley, A.

    2000-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of the radical cations of phenylcyclopropane and trans-1-phenyl-2-methylcyclopropane are reported. A near-UV pump pulse excites a photosensitizer which oxidizes the species of interest, and a visible probe pulse delayed by 35 ns obtains the spectrum of the radical ion. The tr

  14. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  15. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  16. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebren, Leanne J; Devery, James J; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2014-02-07

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes.

  17. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  18. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  19. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  20. Magnetization of AN S=1/2 and 1 Ferrimagnetic Chain NiCu(pba)(D2O)32D2O in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, M.; Narumi, Y.; Tatani, K.; Kindo, K.; Minami, K.

    2004-11-01

    We report the results of high field magnetization measurements on a powder sample of NiCu (pba)(D2O)32D2O (pba = 1,3-propylenebis(oxamato), C7H6N2O6) which is regarded as a ferrimagnetic chain composed of spins S = 1/2 and 1. From a fit of the susceptibility of this compound to numerical calculations (exact diagonalization for ten sites), we evaluated the exchange constant J/kB = 121 K. In the magnetization measurements at 10 K up to 50 T, we observed a magnetization plateau of about 1.1 μB/(formula unit) corresponding to about one-third of the saturated magnetization. The increase of the magnetization at low magnetic fields is discussed and compared with some calculations.

  1. Place of Schauta's radical vaginal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michel; Plante, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Women affected by early stage invasive cancer of the cervix are usually treated by surgery. Radical abdominal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the most widely used technique. Because the morbidity of the abdominal approach can be important, the radical vaginal hysterectomy has gained acceptance in gynaecologic oncology. New instrumentation in laparoscopy also opens the possibility of treating cervical cancer by laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy and also total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy. Before these techniques become widely accepted, it has to be shown that safety and efficacy are comparable with the 'standard' abdominal approach. In this chapter, we review the technique of radical vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and evaluate results of published studies, comparing the abdominal, vaginal and laparoscopic approaches.

  2. Polymers based on stable phenoxyl radicals for the use in organic radical batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Thomas; Häupler, Bernhard; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-05-01

    Polymers with pendant phenoxyl radicals are synthesized and the electrochemical properties are investigated in detail. The monomers are polymerized using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) or free-radical polymerization methods. The monomers and polymers, respectively, are oxidized to the radical either before or after the polymerization. These phenoxyl radicals containing polymers reveal a reversible redox behavior at a potential of -0.6 V (vs Ag/AgCl). Such materials can be used as anode-active material in organic radical batteries (ORBs).

  3. 基于WPD和(2D)2PCA的步态识别方法%Gait Recognition Using WPD and (2D)2PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新武; 杨跃伟; 翟飞

    2013-01-01

    为了提高步态识别率,在步态能量图(gait energy image,GEI)基础上,提出了基于小波包分解(waveletpacket decomposition,WPD)和完全主成分分析(two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis,(2D)2PCA)的步态识别方法.该方法采用基于人体轮廓的GEI来解决步态数据量过大的问题,并采用WPD和(2D)2PCA进行步态特征提取,解决了已有基于小波变换的步态识别方法中高频分量丢失或维数过高问题.在NLPR步态数据库上对该方法进行了评测,并与经典方法进行了比较.实验结果表明:该方法具有更高的识别率和视角变化的鲁棒性.%To improve the gait recognition rate,a gait recognition method based on wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) and two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA)was proposed.In the method,gait energy image (GEI) of the body silhouette was firstly adopted to solve the problem of huge gait data.And then,WPD and (2D)2PCA were used to extract features to solve the problem existing in the gait recognition method based on wavelet transform at present:high frequency component loss or high dimension problem.The Experiment evaluation was conducted on NLPR gait database and compared with classical methods.Result shows that the proposed method has a higher recognition rate and is more robust to the change of view.

  4. The effect of D2 agonist versus D2 antagonist on the fear behavior in the male rats using plus-maze method: the prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehkhah S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dopaminergic is the most important neurotransmitter is fear. The dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway has essential role in excitable behavior, and it's role in Parkinson disease. The aim of this research in study, the effect of dopaminergic pathway in fear response. "n"nMethods: The elevated plus maze was used in combination with the percentage of time spent in the open arms of the maze (OAT% and the percentage of entries into the open arms (OAE% to measure fear. Increases in the OAT% and OAE% indicate an anxiolytic effect (reduction in anxiety, whereas decreases in the OAE% and OAT% indicate an anxiogenic effect. After five days, the rats were injected with saline and different doses of sulpiride and Bromocriptine."n"nResults: Results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, in the doses of 5, 20μg/rat and bromocriptine, D2 agonist in doses 65, 95μg/rat produced a significant effect comparing to sham groups (p<0.05. While intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride 15, 10μg/rat, and bromocriptine 70, 80μg/rat, did not show any significant effect comparing with sham group (p<0.05. In the current research intracerebroventricular administration of sulpiride, D2 antagonist at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20μg/rat and Bromocriptine, D2 agonist in the doses of 65, 70, 80, 95μg/rat were used and theire effect on the fear behavior were studied. "n"nConclusions: The possible effect of Dopaminergic system in the fear process, especially D2 receptor increase fear.

  5. NA44 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    General view of NA44 experiment. NA44 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN'S Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter in which quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  6. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-08-07

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D2 than on D1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine. Overall

  7. Determination of Vitamin D2 Content in Vitamin D2 and Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Tablets by RP-HPLC%反相高效液相色谱法测定维D2磷酸氢钙片中维生素D2含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a RP-HPLC method for the content determination of vitamin D2 in Vitamin D2 and Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Tablets.Methods The chromatographic column of AlltimaTM C18 was adopted with the mobile phase of acetonitrilemethanol(1∶9).The detection wavelength was set at 265 nm,the flow velocity was 1.0 mL/min and column temperature was 30 ℃.Results The sample size of vitamin D2 within the range of 0.005-0.065 μg(r=1.000 0)showed the good linearity with the peak area.The mean recovery rate was 99.38%,RSD =0.68% (n =9).Conclusion This method has the advantages of rapidness,simpleness,accuracy and low test cost,and can be used for the quality control of vitamin D2 in Vitamin D2 and Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Tablets.%目的 建立测定维D2磷酸氢钙片中维生素D2含量的反相高效液相色谱法.方法 采用Alhima C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-甲醇(1∶9),检测波长为265 nm,流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃.结果 维生素D2进样量在0.005~0.065 μg范围内与峰面积具有良好的线性关系,r=1.0000,平均回收率为99.38%,RSD=0.68%(n=9).结论 该法具有快速、简便、准确、检验成本低的优点,可用于维D2磷酸氢钙片中维生素D2的质量控制.

  8. Pilot study of radical hysterectomy versus radical trachelectomy on sexual distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Smith, Kelly B; Breckon, Erin; Plante, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Radical trachelectomy, which leaves the uterus intact, has emerged as a desirable surgical option for eligible women with early-stage cervical cancer who wish to preserve fertility. The available data suggest excellent obstetrical outcomes with radical trachelectomy, and no differences in sexual responding between radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy. There is a need to examine the effect of radical hysterectomy on sexual distress given that it is distinct from sexual function. Participants were 34 women diagnosed with early-stage cervical cancer. The authors report 1-month postsurgery data for 29 women (radical hysterectomy group: n = 17, M age = 41.8 years; radical trachelectomy group: n = 12, M age = 31.8 years), and 6-month follow-up data on 26 women. Whereas both groups experienced an increase in sex-related distress immediately after surgery, distress continued to increase 6 months after surgery for the radical hysterectomy group but decreased in the radical trachelectomy group. There were no between-group differences in mood, anxiety, or general measures of health. The decrease in sex-related distress in the radical trachelectomy but not in the radical hysterectomy group suggests that the preservation of fertility may have attenuated sex-related distress. Care providers should counsel women exploring surgical options for cervical cancer about potential sex distress-related sequelae.

  9. Structural effects on the reactivity 1,4-dihydropyridines with alkylperoxyl radicals and ABTS radical cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, C; López-Alarcón, C; Camargo, C; Valenzuela, V; Squella, J A; Núñez-Vergara, L J

    2004-05-01

    A series of eight commercial C-4 substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and other synthesized related compounds were tested for direct potential scavenger effect towards alkylperoxyl radicals and ABTS radical cation in aqueous Britton-Robinson buffer pH7.4. A direct quenching radical species was established. The tested 1,4-dihydropyridines were 8.3-fold more reactive towards alkylperoxyl radicals than ABTS cation radical, expressed by their corresponding kinetic rate constants. Furthermore, NPD a photolyte of nifedipine and the C-4 unsubstituted 1,4-DHP were the most reactive derivatives towards alkylperoxyl radicals. The pyridine derivative was confirmed by GC/MS technique as the final product of reaction. In consequence, the reduction of alkylperoxyl and ABTS radicals by 1,4-dihydropyridines involved an electron transfer process. Also, the participation of the hydrogen of the 1-position appears as relevant on the reactivity. Results of reactivity were compared with Trolox.

  10. Short-term outcomes of laparoscopic D2 lymphadenectomy with complete mesogastrium excision for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Daxing; Yu, Chaoran; Liu, Liang; Osaiweran, Hasan; Gao, Chun; Hu, Junbo; Gong, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    D2 lymphadenectomy has been widely accepted as a standard procedure of surgical treatment for local advanced gastric cancer [1, 2]. However, neither the dissection boundary nor the extent of the excision for perigastric soft tissues has been described [3-7]. Our previous researches demonstrate the existence of disseminated cancer cells in the mesogastrium [8, 9] and present an understandable mesogastrium model for gastrectomy [10]. Hence, the D2 lymphadenectomy plus complete mesogastrium excision (D2 + CME) is firstly proposed in this study, aiming to assess the safety, feasibility and corresponding short-term surgical outcomes. All of these patients underwent laparoscopy assisted D2 + CME radical gastrectomy with a curative R0 resection, and all the operations were performed by Prof. Jianping Gong, chief of GI surgery of Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. All participants provided informed written consent to participate in the study. This study was approved by the Tongji Hospital Ethics Committee. The standard surgical procedures in the video are described as follows. Dissect along the gastrocolic ligament and then toward the left colic flexture with special made gauze. Bluntly separate the adipose tissues to find fascia plane. Expose along the plane toward the splenic inferior polar area. Precede to the origins of left gastroepiploic vessels (LGEVs), clip and cut. All the mobilized adipose tissues in this area are defined as left gastroepiploic mesentery (LGEM) [10]. Next, turn to infra-pyloric area. Dissect the fascia plane between right gastroepiploic mesentery (RGEM) and transverse mesocolon. Turn to the pancreas head, remove the covering adipose tissues, identify the superior mesentery vein and expose the origins of right gastroepiploic vessels (RGEVs). Clip and cut. All the surrounding mobilized adipose tissues are defined as RGEM [10]. Move to the superior boarder of pancreas with the stomach reflected cephalad, incise the

  11. Comparison of metabolism of vitamins D2 and D3 in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Obadofin, Michael O; Levine, Michael A; Singh, Ravinder J; Pettifor, John M

    2010-09-01

    Children with calcium-deficiency rickets may have increased vitamin D requirements and respond differently to vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3). Our objective was to compare the metabolism of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in rachitic and control children. We administered an oral single dose of vitamin D(2) or D(3) of 1.25 mg to 49 Nigerian children--28 with active rickets and 21 healthy controls. The primary outcome measure was the incremental change in vitamin D metabolites. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ranged from 7 to 24 and 15 to 34 ng/mL in rachitic and control children, respectively (p vitamins D(2) and D(3) in children with rickets (29 ± 17 and 25 ± 11 ng/mL, respectively) and in control children (33 ± 13 and 31 ± 16 ng/mL, respectively). 1,25(OH)(2)D rose significantly (p vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively, in children with rickets. By contrast, control children had no significant increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D (19 ± 28 and 16 ± 38 pg/mL after vitamin D(2) and D(3) administration, respectively). We conclude that in the short term, vitamins D(2) and D(3) similarly increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations in rachitic and healthy children. A marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2)D in response to vitamin D distinguishes children with putative dietary calcium-deficiency rickets from healthy children, consistent with increased vitamin D requirements in children with calcium-deficiency rickets. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Presynaptic action of neurotensin on dopamine release through inhibition of D2 receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudeau Louis-Eric

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin (NT is known to act on dopamine (DA neurons at the somatodendritic level to regulate cell firing and secondarily enhance DA release. In addition, anatomical and indirect physiological data suggest the presence of NT receptors at the terminal level. However, a clear demonstration of the mechanism of action of NT on dopaminergic axon terminals is lacking. We hypothesize that NT acts to increase DA release by inhibiting the function of terminal D2 autoreceptors. To test this hypothesis, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FCV to monitor in real time the axonal release of DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc. Results DA release was evoked by single electrical pulses and pulse trains (10 Hz, 30 pulses. Under these two stimulation conditions, we evaluated the characteristics of DA D2 autoreceptors and the presynaptic action of NT in the NAcc shell and shell/core border region. The selective agonist of D2 autoreceptors, quinpirole (1 μM, inhibited DA overflow evoked by both single and train pulses. In sharp contrast, the selective D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (5 μM, strongly enhanced DA release triggered by pulse trains, without any effect on DA release elicited by single pulses, thus confirming previous observations. We then determined the effect of NT (8–13 (100 nM and found that although it failed to increase DA release evoked by single pulses, it strongly enhanced DA release evoked by pulse trains that lead to prolonged DA release and engage D2 autoreceptors. In addition, initial blockade of D2 autoreceptors by sulpiride considerably inhibited further facilitation of DA release generated by NT (8–13. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that NT enhances DA release principally by inhibiting the function of terminal D2 autoreceptors and not by more direct mechanisms such as facilitation of terminal calcium influx.

  13. Dosage-dependent effect of dopamine D2 receptor activation on motor cortex plasticity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnoza, Shane; Stiksrud, Elisabeth; Klinker, Florian; Liebetanz, David; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-08-06

    The neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. The effects depend on receptor subtypes, affinity, concentration level, and the kind of neuroplasticity induced. In animal experiments, dopamine D2-like receptor stimulation revealed partially antagonistic effects on plasticity, which might be explained by dosage dependency. In humans, D2 receptor block abolishes plasticity, and the D2/D3, but predominantly D3, receptor agonist ropinirol has a dosage-dependent nonlinear affect on plasticity. Here we aimed to determine the specific affect of D2 receptor activation on neuroplasticity in humans, because physiological effects of D2 and D3 receptors might differ. Therefore, we combined application of the selective D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine (2.5, 10, and 20 mg or placebo medication) with anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which induces nonfocal plasticity, and with paired associative stimulation (PAS) generating a more focal kind of plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy humans. Plasticity was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes. For facilitatory tDCS, bromocriptine prevented plasticity induction independent from drug dosage. However, its application resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on inhibitory tDCS, excitability-diminishing PAS, and to a minor degree on excitability-enhancing PAS. These data support the assumption that modulation of D2-like receptor activity exerts a nonlinear dose-dependent effect on neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex that differs from predominantly D3 receptor activation and that the kind of plasticity-induction procedure is relevant for its specific impact.

  14. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism.

  15. Postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptor supersensitivity in the striatum of mice lacking TAAR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Stefano; Ghisi, Valentina; Emanuele, Marco; Leo, Damiana; Sukhanov, Ilya; Sotnikova, Tatiana D; Chieregatti, Evelina; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-06-01

    Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) known to modulate dopaminergic system through several mechanisms. Mice lacking this receptor show a higher sensitivity to dopaminergic stimuli, such as amphetamine; however, it is not clear whether D1 or D2 dopamine receptors and which associated intracellular signaling events are involved in this modulation. In the striatum of TAAR1 knock out (TAAR1-KO mice) we found that D2, but not D1, dopamine receptors were over-expressed, both in terms of mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the D2 dopamine receptor-related G protein-independent AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway was selectively activated, as indicated by the decrease of phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β. The decrease in phospho-AKT levels, suggesting an increase in D2 dopamine receptor activity in basal conditions, was associated with an increase of AKT/PP2A complex, as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Finally, we found that the locomotor activation induced by the D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, but not by the full D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF-82958, was increased in TAAR1-KO mice. These data demonstrate pronounced supersensitivity of postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of TAAR1-KO mice and indicate that a close interaction of TAAR1 and D2 dopamine receptors at the level of postsynaptic structures has important functional consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  17. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  18. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl, nitric oxide radicals, play an important role in ... Active (or reactive) oxygen species and free radical-mediated reactions are ... of medicinal plants as antioxidants in reducing such free radical induced tissue ...

  19. Anthraquinone glycosides from Cassia roxburghii and evaluation of its free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toumy, Sayed A; El Souda, Sahar S; Mohamed, Tahia K; Brouard, Iñaki; Bermejo, Jame

    2012-10-01

    The methanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii DC., was investigated for its anthraquinone glycosides and antioxidant activity. Two new anthraquinone glycosides named emodin 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-glucopyranoside (1) and aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-glucopyranoside (2) along with aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), emodin (4), aloemodin (5) and one flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of C. roxburghii. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, HRESI-MS, and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The total extract and some isolated compounds were determined against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazinyl radical, for their free radical scavenging activity, the total alcoholic extract showed strong antioxidant activity while the two new compounds showed weak antioxidant activity.

  20. 胃癌合并肝硬化病人D1和D2淋巴结清扫术后并发症对比分析%Comparison of complications between D1 and D2 operative methods in gastric cancer with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 胡祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate complication after D1 and D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer with liver cirrhosis. Methods The clinical data of 54 cases of gastric caner with liver cirrhosis received radical gastrectomy between March 1994 and March 2006 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. The therapeutic efficacy of Dl and D2 lymph node dissection was compared. Results The 1-, 3- and 5- year survival rates of the 54 cases were 77.8%, 44.4% and 33.3%; of which those of Dl were 81.3%, 37.5% and 25.0% and those of D2 were 76.3%, 47.4% and 36.8%(P>0.05). Median survival time of 54 cases was 32 months; of which that of Dl was 23 months and that of D2 was 34 months. There was no significant difference in complication incidences between Dl and D2 in Child-Pugh grade A. (P>0.05). The incidence of hepatonepheric functional disturbance in D2 in Child-Pugh grade B and C was higher than that of Dl (P<0.05). Conclusion There is no significant difference in survival rates of gastric cancer with liver cirrhosis between Dl and D2. D2 lymph node dissection does not increase the risk of complications in Child-Pugh grade A . D2 lymph node dissection should be perform cautiously for gastric cancer with liver cirrhosis in Child-Pugh grade B or C.%目的 分析比较胃癌合并肝硬化病人接受胃癌根治术D1和D2淋巴结清扫的术后并发症情况.方法 回顾性分析1994年3月至2006年3月大连医科大学附属第一医院诊治54例胃癌合并肝硬化病人接受胃癌根治术的临床资料,比较D1和D2淋巴结清扫的临床疗效.结果 胃癌合并肝硬化病人接受胃癌根治术的1、3、5年存活率分别为77.8%、44.4%、33.3%.行D1淋巴结清扫术(D1组)1、3、5年存活率为81.3%、37.5%、25.0%,行D2淋巴结清扫术(D2组)为76.3%、47.4%、36.8% (P> 0.05),54例病人中位生存时间32个月,D1组为23个月,D2组为34个月.D1组和D2组肝功能Child-Pugh

  1. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel

    2013-08-27

    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. However, both reactive species may contribute to improve the outcomes of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Besides, high levels of reactive oxygen species may be indicators of genotoxic damage in non-irradiated normal tissues. The purpose of this article is to review recent research on free radicals and carcinogenesis in order to understand the pathways that contribute to tumor malignancy. This review outlines the involvement of free radicals in relevant cellular events, including their effects on genetic instability through (growth factors and tumor suppressor genes, their enhancement of mitogenic signals, and their participation in cell remodeling, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy processes; the possible relationship between free radicals and inflammation is also explored. This knowledge is crucial for evaluating the relevance of free radicals as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  2. Influence of different free radicals on scavenging potency of gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorović, Jelena; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Stepanić, Višnja; Begović, Nebojša; Amić, Dragan; Marković, Zoran

    2014-07-01

    The M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) and B3LYP-D2/6-311++G(d,p) models are used to evaluate scavenging potency of gallic acid. The hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), and single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) mechanisms of gallic acid with some radicals ((•)OO(-), (•)OH, and CH3OO(•)) were investigated using the corresponding thermodynamic quantities: bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), ionization potential (IP), and proton affinity (PA). Namely, the ΔHBDE, ΔHIP, and ΔHPA values of the corresponding reactions in some solvents (water, DMSO, pentylethanoate, and benzene) are investigated using an implicit solvation model (SMD). An approach based on the reactions enthalpies related to the examined mechanisms is applied. This approach shows that a thermodynamically favored mechanism depends on the polarity of reaction media and properties of free radical reactive species. The most acidic 4-OH group of gallic acid is the active site for radical inactivation. The results of this investigation indicate that the SPLET mechanism can be a favored reaction pathway for all three radicals in all solvents, except for (•)OH in the aqueous solution. In water, gallic acid can inactivate (•)OH by the HAT mechanism.

  3. COMPLICATIONS OF EXTRAPERITONEOSCOPIC RADICAL PROSTATECTOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernyshev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radical prostatectomy (RPE is today the gold standard treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. These operations are performed both openly and using video-assisted endosurgery. Since 2009, the Research Institute of Urology has been made 70 extraperitoneoscopic RPEs (ERPE.Objective: to assess the complications of ERPE with the validated Clavien complication scale.Materials and methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed the case histories of 70 patients with locally advanced PC who had undergone ERPE. The complications were allocated to 3 groups: intraoperative, early (within 1 month and late (over 1 month postoperative ones. All found complications were stratified using Clavien classification scale.Results. The total number of ERPE complications accounted for 35.7%. The most common complications, such as anastomotic incompetence and blood loss that required hemotransfusion, were 9.8 and 11.3%, respectively. Rectal damage was intraoperatively found in 2 cases. Obturator nerve damage was also recognized intraoperatively and did not result in the occurrence of neurological symptoms. The severest complication (Clavien scale grade V was pulmonary embolism causing death.Conclusion. Postoperative complications of ERPE were observed in a small percentage of the patients and posed no serious threat to their life. The analysis of the complications of ERPE suggests that this treatment for locally advanced PC is a current safe and low-traumatic method.

  4. COMPLICATIONS OF EXTRAPERITONEOSCOPIC RADICAL PROSTATECTOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernyshev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radical prostatectomy (RPE is today the gold standard treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. These operations are performed both openly and using video-assisted endosurgery. Since 2009, the Research Institute of Urology has been made 70 extraperitoneoscopic RPEs (ERPE.Objective: to assess the complications of ERPE with the validated Clavien complication scale.Materials and methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed the case histories of 70 patients with locally advanced PC who had undergone ERPE. The complications were allocated to 3 groups: intraoperative, early (within 1 month and late (over 1 month postoperative ones. All found complications were stratified using Clavien classification scale.Results. The total number of ERPE complications accounted for 35.7%. The most common complications, such as anastomotic incompetence and blood loss that required hemotransfusion, were 9.8 and 11.3%, respectively. Rectal damage was intraoperatively found in 2 cases. Obturator nerve damage was also recognized intraoperatively and did not result in the occurrence of neurological symptoms. The severest complication (Clavien scale grade V was pulmonary embolism causing death.Conclusion. Postoperative complications of ERPE were observed in a small percentage of the patients and posed no serious threat to their life. The analysis of the complications of ERPE suggests that this treatment for locally advanced PC is a current safe and low-traumatic method.

  5. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1(-/-)), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2(-/-)). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2(-/-) mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2(-/-) mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2(-/-) mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  6. From the tunneling dimer to the onset of microsolvation: Infrared spectroscopy of allyl radical water aggregates in helium nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Daniel; Kaufmann, Matin; Pal, Nitish; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina

    2017-03-01

    The infrared spectrum of allyl:water clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets was recorded. Allyl radicals were produced by flash vacuum pyrolysis and trapped in helium droplets. Deuterated water was added to the doped droplets, and the infrared spectrum of the radical water aggregates was recorded in the frequency range 2570-2820 cm-1. Several absorption bands are observed and assigned to 1:1 and 1:2 allyl:D2O clusters, based on pressure dependent measurements and accompanying quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the 1:1 cluster spectrum revealed a tunneling splitting as well as a combination band. For the 1:2 cluster, we observe a water dimer-like motif that is bound by one π-hydrogen bond to the allyl radical.

  7. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...... of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered...... a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found...

  8. Dopamine D2-like receptors modulate unconditioned fear: role of the inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. METHODS: The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS, and conditioned freezing. RESULTS: Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. CONCLUSIONS: Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response.

  9. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A.; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially housed Japanese macaques attenuated social dominance when the drug was given to high social class macaques. A similar attenuation of social dominance was observed in high social class mice with D2 antagonist administration. In contrast, D2 antagonist administration in low social class macaque resulted in more stable social hierarchy of the group, whereas such effect was not observed in mouse social group. These results suggest that D2 receptor signaling may play important roles in establishment and maintenance of social hierarchy in social groups of several species of animals. PMID:28233850

  10. Dopamine D2 receptors preferentially regulate the development of light responses of the inner retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ning; Xu, Hong-ping; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Retinal light responsiveness measured via electroretinography undergoes developmental modulation and is thought to be critically regulated by both visual experience and dopamine. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether the dopamine D2 receptor regulates the visual experience-dependent functional development of the retina. Accordingly, we recorded electroretinograms from wild type mice and mice with a genetic deletion of the gene that encodes the dopamine D2 receptor raised under normal cyclic light conditions and constant darkness. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially increases the amplitude of the inner retinal light responses evoked by high intensity light measured as oscillatory potentials in adult mice. During postnatal development, all three major components of electroretinograms, the a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potentials, increase with age. Comparatively, mutation of the dopamine D2 receptors preferentially reduces the age-dependent increase of b-waves evoked by low intensity light. Light deprivation from birth reduces the amplitude of b-waves and completely diminishes the increased amplitude of oscillatory potentials. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor plays an important role in the activity-dependent functional development of the mouse retina. PMID:25393815

  11. Molecular dissociation of D2+ scattered from a polycrystalline nickel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhami, M.; Djouhri, N.; Chami, A. C.; Richard-Viard, M.; Boudjema, M.

    2008-08-01

    We compare time of flight spectra of atomic D + and molecular D2+ ions specularly scattered from a polycrystalline nickel surface at 4° of incidence and with a velocity corresponding to 1 keV/u. Molecular dissociation is assumed to occur mostly upon resonant neutralisation into the antibonding triplet state of D 2. The kinetic energy released in the dissociation (KER) is distributed over both atomic fragments. We consider the D2+ spectrum as the result of atomic projectiles hitting the surface at different energies and different incidence or azimuthal angles given by the cinematic of the fragmentation. The electronic density of states of Ni, the vibrational levels of D2+ and the image potential shift are taken into consideration to calculate the KER distribution. The resulting broadening function is then applied to the experimental D + spectrum, which is finally compared to the spectrum of D2+. The good agreement found without any adjustable parameter is consistent with the assumption of a complete dissociation by resonant neutralisation on the incoming path.

  12. Diagnostic utility of Fli-1 and D2-40 in distinguishing atypical fibroxanthoma from angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Jonathan; Mirzamani, Neda; Kantipudi, Ramya; Robbins, Jason; Welsch, Micheal Jude; Sundram, Uma N

    2013-05-01

    Although in most cases one can easily distinguish between atypical fibroxanthomas and angiosarcomas, hemorrhagic atypical fibroxanthomas can pose a diagnostic problem. In rare cases, the large atypical cells of atypical fibroxanthoma can stain with CD31, leading to the erroneous diagnosis of angiosarcoma. We elected to further study this conundrum with 2 additional markers of lymphatic and vascular elements, namely D2-40 (podoplanin) and Fli-1, respectively. We studied 26 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma and 20 cases of angiosarcoma with Fli-1 and D2-40. We found that both Fli-1 and D2-40 stained a majority of cases of angiosarcoma (16/20 and 12/20, respectively), although only staining a minority of cases of atypical fibroxanthoma (8/26 for both). In addition, D2-40 staining of atypical fibroxanthoma was usually weak when positive, whereas Fli-1 staining of angiosarcomas was mostly strong and nuclear. Thus, both D2-40 and Fli-1 seem to be useful in distinguishing between atypical fibroxanthomas and angiosarcomas.

  13. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.

  14. Effect of D2O on growth properties and chemical structure of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Bali, Garima [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Reeves, David T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Sun, Qining [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Shah, Riddhi S [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    In present paper, we report the production and detailed structural analysis of deuterium-enriched rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) for neutron scattering experiments. An efficient method to produce deuterated biomass was developed by designing hydroponic perfusion chambers. In preliminary studies, the partial deuterated rye samples were grown in increasing levels of D2O to study the seed germination and the level of deuterium incorporation as a function of D2O concentration. Solution NMR method indicated 36.9 % deuterium incorporation in 50 % D2O grown annual rye samples and further significant increase in the deuterium incorporation level was observed by germinating the rye seedlings in H2O and growing in 50 % D2O inside the perfusion chambers. Moreover, in an effort to compare the substrate characteristics related to enzymatic hydrolysis on deuterated and protiated version of biomass, annual rye grown in 50 % D2O was selected for detailed biomass characterization studies. The compositional analyses, degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity were compared with its protiated control. The cellulose molecular weight indicated slight variation with deuteration; however, hemicellulose molecular weights and cellulose crystallinity remain unaffected with the deuteration. Besides the minor differences in biomass components, the development of deuterated biomass for neutron scattering application is essential to understand the complex biomass conversion processes.

  15. Deuterium oxide (D2O) enhances the photosensitivity of Stentor coeruleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwatsuki, K.; Song, P.S.

    1985-12-01

    Stentor coeruleus exhibits negative phototaxis and step-up photophobic response (avoiding reaction) to visible light (maximum at 610-620 nm in both responses). In the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) the step-up photophobic response was markedly enhanced, whereas the phototactic orientation response was inhibited. The induction time for the step-up photophobic response was longer in D2O than in H2O, and the duration of ciliary reversal for the response was also longer in D2O than in H2O, indicating that certain steps of the sensory transduction chain are subject to solvent deuterium isotope effects. The enhancement of the step-up photophobic response in D2O was canceled by LaCl3, while the inhibition of the phototactic orientation response in D2O was partially removed by LaCl3, even though LaCl3 did not affect the phototactic orientation response. These results suggest that the sensory transduction mechanisms for the two photoresponses are different, although the photoreceptors (stentorin) are the same.

  16. The Roles of Dopamine D2 Receptor in the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi; Jas, Emanuel; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-02-24

    Dopamine (DA) plays significant roles in regulation of social behavior. In social groups of humans and other animals, social hierarchy exists, which is determined by several behavioral characteristics such as aggression and impulsivity as well as social affiliations. In this study, we investigated the effects of pharmacological blockade of DA D2 receptor on social hierarchy of Japanese macaque and mouse social groups. We found acute administration of the D2 antagonist, sulpiride, in socially housed Japanese macaques attenuated social dominance when the drug was given to high social class macaques. A similar attenuation of social dominance was observed in high social class mice with D2 antagonist administration. In contrast, D2 antagonist administration in low social class macaque resulted in more stable social hierarchy of the group, whereas such effect was not observed in mouse social group. These results suggest that D2 receptor signaling may play important roles in establishment and maintenance of social hierarchy in social groups of several species of animals.

  17. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  18. Pathways of arachidonic acid peroxyl radical reactions and product formation with guanine radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Conor; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2008-02-01

    Peroxyl radicals were derived from the one-electron oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by sulfate radicals that were generated by the photodissociation of peroxodisulfate anions in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions. Reactions of these peroxyl and neutral guanine radicals, also generated by oxidation with sulfate radicals, were investigated by laser kinetic spectroscopy, and the guanine oxidation products were identified by HPLC and mass spectrometry methods. Sulfate radicals rapidly oxidize arachidonic (ArAc), linoleic (LnAc), and palmitoleic (PmAc) acids with similar rate constants, (2-4) x 10 (9) M (-1) s (-1). The C-centered radicals derived from the oxidation of ArAc and LnAc include nonconjugated Rn(.) ( approximately 80%) and conjugated bis-allylic Rba(.) ( approximately 20%) radicals. The latter were detectable in the absence of oxygen by their prominent, narrow absorption band at 280 nm. The Rn(.) radicals of ArAc (containing three bis-allylic sites) transform to the Rba(.) radicals via an intramolecular H-atom abstraction [rate constant (7.5 +/- 0.7) x 10 (4) s (-1)]. In contrast, the Rn(.) radicals of LnAc that contain only one bis-allylic site do not transform intramolecularly to the Rba(.) radicals. In the case of PmAc, which contains only one double bond, the Rba(.) radicals are not observed. The Rn(.) radicals of PmAc rapidly combine with oxygen with a rate constant of (3.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The Rba(.) radicals of ArAc are less reactive and react with oxygen with a rate constant of (2.2 +/- 0.2) x 10 (8) M (-1) s (-1). The ArAc peroxyl radicals formed spontaneously eliminate superoxide radical anions [rate constant = (3.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 (4) M (-1) s (-1)]. The stable oxidative lesions derived from the 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetylguanosine or 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetyl-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine radicals and their subsequent reactions with ArAc peroxyl radicals were also investigated. The major products found were the 2,5-diamino-4 H

  19. Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during oxidative polymerization. In this work, we report a novel protein engineering approach to improve the radical stability of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC). Phenylalanine residues that are vulnerable to modification by the phenoxyl radicals were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. UV-Vis and CD spectra showed that radical coupling did not change the secondary structure or the active site of HRPC. Four phenylalanine (Phe) residues (F68, F142, F143, and F179) were each mutated to alanine residues to generate single mutants to examine the role of these sites in radical coupling. Despite marginal improvement of radical stability, each single mutant still exhibited rapid radical inactivation. To further reduce inactivation by radical coupling, the four substitution mutations were combined in F68A/F142A/F143A/F179A. This mutant demonstrated dramatic enhancement of radical stability by retaining 41% of its initial activity compared to the wild-type, which was completely inactivated. Structure and sequence alignment revealed that radical-vulnerable Phe residues of HPRC are conserved in homologous peroxidases, which showed the same rapid inactivation tendency as HRPC. Based on our site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we have shown that engineering radical-vulnerable residues to eliminate multiple radical coupling can be a good strategy to improve the stability of peroxidases against radical attack.

  20. Presence of dopamine D-2 receptors in human tumoral cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokoloff, P.; Riou, J.F.; Martres, M.P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Centre Paul Broca, Paris (France))

    1989-07-31

    ({sup 125}I) Iodosulpride binding was examined on eight human cell lines derived from lung, breast and digestive tract carcinomas, neuroblastomas and leukemia. Specific binding was detected in five of these cell lines. In the richest cell line N417, derived from small cell lung carcinoma, ({sup 125}I) iodosulpride bound with a high affinity (Kd = 1.3 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding site (Bmax = 1,606 sites per cell). These sites displayed a typical D-2 specificity, established with several dopaminergic agonists and antagonists selective of either D-1 or D-2 receptor subtypes. In addition, dopamine, apomorphine and RU 24926 distinguished high- and low-affinity sites, suggesting that the binding sites are associated with a G-protein. The biological significance and the possible diagnostic implication of the presence of D-2 receptors on these cell lines are discussed.

  1. EFFECTS OF SULPIRIDE-INDUCED D2 DOPAMINE RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ON IMMUNE RESPONSIVENESS OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of catecholamine receptors (D2 dopamine was investigated in restraint stress, influence immune system, with concomitant changes in immune response. Adults rats pretreated once with LPS (a bacterial product (25μg/250μl, i.p., produce an immune response, were subjected to i.p. injection with sulpiride (4 mg/kg b.w., i.p., a selective antagonist for D2 dopamine receptors, after 3 days postimmunization. After 18 days later, we assessed the total protein number, antibody titer, lymphocyte number and albumin/globulin ratio. In summary, we provide that D2 dopamine receptor blockade impaired immune responsiveness in restraint stress.

  2. Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid Receptor Activation Leads to Metabolic Syndrome and Induction of Prostaglandin D2 Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanet, Riccardo; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Feraco, Alessandra; Venteclef, Nicolas; El Mogrhabi, Soumaya; Sierra-Ramos, Catalina; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Adler, Gail K; Quilliot, Didier; Rossignol, Patrick; Fallo, Francesco; Touyz, Rhian M; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacological antagonism of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, limits metabolic syndrome in preclinical models, but mechanistic studies are lacking to delineate the role of MR activation in adipose tissue. In this study, we report that MR expression is increased in visceral adipose tissue in a preclinical mouse model of metabolic syndrome and in obese patients. In vivo conditional upregulation of MR in mouse adipocytes led to increased weight and fat mass, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome features without affecting blood pressure. We identified prostaglandin D2 synthase as a novel MR target gene in adipocytes and AT56, a specific inhibitor of prostaglandin D2 synthase enzymatic activity, blunted adipogenic aldosterone effects. Moreover, translational studies showed that expression of MR and prostaglandin D2 synthase is strongly correlated in adipose tissues from obese patients.

  3. Chemically accurate simulation of dissociative chemisorption of D2 on Pt(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour Ghassemi, Elham; Wijzenbroek, Mark; Somers, Mark F.; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2017-09-01

    Using semi-empirical density functional theory and the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method, a specific reaction parameter (SRP) density functional is developed for the dissociation of dihydrogen on Pt(1 1 1). The validity of the QCT method was established by showing that QCT calculations on reaction of D2 with Pt(1 1 1) closely reproduce quantum dynamics results for reaction of D2 in its rovibrational ground state. With the SRP functional, QCT calculations reproduce experimental data on D2 sticking to Pt(1 1 1) at normal and off-normal incidence with chemical accuracy. The dissociation of dihydrogen on Pt(1 1 1) is non-activated, exhibiting a minimum barrier height of -8 meV.

  4. The infrared-induced temperature distributions of solid D2 ices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Peng; Xie Duan; Lin Wei; Wang Kai; Liu Jiang-Ping; Tang Yong-Jian; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    A specific-wavelength infrared (IR) light (λ =3140 nm) was irradiated into a solid D2 ice prepared in a cylinder target cell.The temperature in the solid D2 ice oscillated periodicaily with a high amplitude when irradiated by the IR light.The temperature oscillation has been well explained based on the two-dimensional heat transfer theory plus the IR-irradiation effect.The transmission optical imaging reveals that such a temperature oscillation is favorable to recrystallize the solid D2 ice from multicrystal to quasi single crystal.This suggests an efficient method to layer the solid hydrogen-isotope ice for the inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) experiments.

  5. Revealing the inner structure of the newly observed $D_2^*(3000)$

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jun-Zhang; Song, Qin-Tao; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated by the recent observation of the $D_2^\\ast(3000)$, we study the decay behaviors of the $3P$ and $2F$ charmed mesons in the present work. By comparing the masses and decay properties of the $3^3P_2$ and $2^3F_2$ charmed mesons with the observation of the $D_2^\\ast(3000)$, we conclude that the most possible assignment of the $D_2^\\ast(3000)$ is the $3^3P_2$ charmed meson, while the assignment of the $2^3F_2$ charmed meson could not be fully exclude. The results of the unobserved $3P$ and $2F$ charmed mesons in this work could provide some fundamental information of searching for these charmed mesons in the further experiments by LHCb and forthcoming Belle II.

  6. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda;

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... half duplex transmission may not be sufficient to provide fast discovery and cope with the strict latency targets of future 5G services. On the other hand, in-band full duplex, by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception, may complete the discovery phase faster. In this paper, the potential...... of full duplex in providing fast discovery for the next 5th generation (5G) system supporting D2D communication is investigated. A design for such system is presented and evaluated via simulations, showing that full duplex can accelerate the discovery phase by supporting a higher transmission probability...

  7. Spectroscopic investigation of the 3d 2D → nf 2F transitions in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzada, S.; Shah, M.; Haq, S. U.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Nadeem, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We report term energies and effective quantum numbers of the odd parity 3d 2D → nf 2F series of lithium using multi-step and multi-photon laser excitation schemes. The experiments were performed using three dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus and thermionic diode ion detector. The first ionization potential of lithium has been determined as 43,487.13 ± 0.02 cm- 1 from the much extended 3d 2D → nf 2F (17 ≤ n ≤ 70) series. In addition, the oscillator strengths of the 3d 2D → nf 2F (15 ≤ n ≤ 48) transitions have been determined, showing a decreasing trend with the increase in principal quantum number n.

  8. VUV excitation of a vibrational wavepacket in D2 measured through strong-field dissociative ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, A. R.; Harrington, J.; Kirrander, A.; Cacho, C.; Springate, E.; Bryan, W. A.; Minns, R. S.

    2015-10-01

    Femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses from a monochromated high harmonic generation source excite vibrational wavepackets in the {B}1{{{Σ }}}{{g}}+ state of D2. The wavepacket motion is measured through strong field ionization into bound and dissociative ion states yielding {{{D}}}2+ and D+ products. The time dependence of the {{{D}}}2+ and D+ ion signals provides a sensitive fingerprint of the quantum nuclear wavepacket, due to the different ionization rates for the two channels. The experiments are modelled with excitation and ionization processes included explicitly, with the results of the model showing a very good agreement with the experimental observations. The experiment demonstrates the level of detail attainable when studying ultrafast quantum nuclear dynamics using high harmonic sources.

  9. The virulence protein SopD2 regulates membrane dynamics of Salmonella-containing vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schroeder

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and a systemic typhoid-like illness in mice. The capacity of Salmonella to cause diseases relies on the establishment of its intracellular replication niche, a membrane-bound compartment named the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV. This requires the translocation of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell by type three secretion systems. Among these effectors, SifA is required for the SCV stability, the formation of Salmonella-induced filaments (SIFs and plays an important role in the virulence of Salmonella. Here we show that the effector SopD2 is responsible for the SCV instability that triggers the cytoplasmic release of a sifA(- mutant. Deletion of sopD2 also rescued intra-macrophagic replication and increased virulence of sifA(- mutants in mice. Membrane tubular structures that extend from the SCV are the hallmark of Salmonella-infected cells. Until now, these unique structures have not been observed in the absence of SifA. The deletion of sopD2 in a sifA(- mutant strain re-established membrane trafficking from the SCV and led to the formation of new membrane tubular structures, the formation of which is dependent on other Salmonella effector(s. Taken together, our data demonstrate that SopD2 inhibits the vesicular transport and the formation of tubules that extend outward from the SCV and thereby contributes to the sifA(- associated phenotypes. These results also highlight the antagonistic roles played by SopD2 and SifA in the membrane dynamics of the vacuole, and the complex actions of SopD2, SifA, PipB2 and other unidentified effector(s in the biogenesis and maintenance of the Salmonella replicative niche.

  10. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  11. GABAergic control of neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and behaviors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Beu, Markus; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Antke, Christina; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus

    2017-02-01

    The present study assessed the influence of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline and after challenge with either 1mg/kg muscimol or 1mg/kg bicuculline. In additional rats, D2 receptor binding was measured after injection of saline. After treatment with muscimol, bicuculline and saline, motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]S-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM). For baseline and challenges, striatal equilibrium ratios (V3″) were computed as estimation of the binding potential. Muscimol but not bicuculline reduced D2 receptor binding relative to baseline and to saline. Travelled distance, duration of rearing and frequency of rearing and of head-shoulder motility were lower after muscimol compared to saline. In contrast, duration of rearing and grooming and frequency of rearing, head-shoulder motility and grooming were elevated after bicuculline relative to saline. Moreover, bicuculline decreased duration of sitting and head-shoulder motility. The muscimol-induced decrease of motor/exploratory behaviors can be related to an elevation of striatal dopamine levels. In contrast, bicuculline is likely to elicit a decline of synaptic dopamine, which, however, is compensated by the time of D2 receptor imaging studies. The results indicate direct GABAergic control over D2 receptor binding in the neostriatum in relation to behavioral action, and, thus, complement earlier pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos(+) D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos(+) non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variants of dopamine D2 receptor impact heterodimerization with dopamine D1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błasiak, Ewa; Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The human dopamine D2 receptor gene has three polymorphic variants that alter its amino acid sequence: alanine substitution by valine in position 96 (V96A), proline substitution by serine in position 310 (P310S) and serine substitution by cysteine in position 311 (S311C). Their functional role has never been the object of extensive studies, even though there is some evidence that their occurrence correlates with schizophrenia. The HEK293 cell line was transfected with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (or genetic variants of the D2 receptor), coupled to fluorescent proteins which allowed us to measure the extent of dimerization of these receptors, using a highly advanced biophysical approach (FLIM-FRET). Additionally, Fluoro-4 AM was used to examine changes in the level of calcium release after ligand stimulation of cells expressing different combinations of dopamine receptors. Using FLIM-FRET experiments we have shown that in HEK 293 expressing dopamine receptors, polymorphic mutations in the D2 receptor play a role in dimmer formation with the dopamine D1 receptor. The association level of dopamine receptors is affected by ligand administration, with variable effects depending on polymorphic variant of the D2 dopamine receptor. We have found that the level of heteromer formation is reflected by calcium ion release after ligand stimulation and have observed variations of this effect dependent on the polymorphic variant and the ligand. The data presented in this paper support the hypothesis on the role of calcium signaling regulated by the D1-D2 heteromer which may be of relevance for schizophrenia etiology. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the Role of Dopamine D2 and D3 Receptors in Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kurt M.; Haight, Joshua L.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Flagel, Shelly B.

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire the ability to act as incentive stimuli may contribute to the development of successful treatments for addiction and related disorders. We used the sign-tracker/goal-tracker animal model to examine the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues. Following Pavlovian training, wherein a discrete lever-cue was paired with food reward, rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers based on the resultant conditioned response. We examined the effects of D2/D3 agonists, 7-OH-DPAT (0.01–0.32 mg/kg) or pramipexole (0.032–0.32 mg/kg), the D2/D3 antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), and the selective D3 antagonist, SB-277011A (6 or 24 mg/kg), on the expression of sign- and goal-tracking conditioned responses. The lever-cue acquired predictive value and elicited a conditioned response for sign- and goal-trackers, but only for sign-trackers did it also acquire incentive value. Following administration of either 7-OH-DPAT, pramipexole, or raclopride, the performance of the previously acquired conditioned response was attenuated for both sign- and goal-trackers. For sign-trackers, the D2/D3 agonist, 7-OH-DPAT, also attenuated the conditioned reinforcing properties of the lever-cue. The selective D3 antagonist did not affect either conditioned response. Alterations in D2/D3 receptor signaling, but not D3 signaling alone, transiently attenuate a previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned response, regardless of whether the response is a result of incentive motivational processes. These findings suggest activity at the dopamine D2 receptor is critical for a reward cue to maintain either its incentive or predictive qualities. PMID:26909847

  15. EVALUATION OF N-RATIO IN SELECTING PATIENTS FOR ADJUVANT CHEMORADIOTHERAPY AFTER D2-GASTRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz da COSTA JUNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may contribute to improve survival outcomes after D2-gastrectomy remains controvertial. Objective To explore the clinical utility of N-Ratio in selecting gastric cancer patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out on gastric cancer patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy alone or D2-gastrectomy plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (INT-0116 protocol at the Hospital A. C. Camargo from September 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis were performed using multiple conventional methods, such as c-statistic, adjusted Cox's regression and stratified survival analysis. Results Our analysis involved 128 patients. According to c-statistic, the N-Ratio (i.e., as a continuous variable presented “area under ROC curve” (AUC of 0.713, while the number of metastatic nodes presented AUC of 0.705. After categorization, the cut-offs provide by Marchet et al. displayed the highest discriminating power – AUC value of 0.702. This N-Ratio categorization was confirmed as an independent predictor of survival using multivariate analyses. There also was a trend of better survival by adding of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy only for patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread – 5-year survival of 23.1% vs 66.9%, respectively (HR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.150–1.202; P = 0.092. Conclusions This study confirms the N-Ratio as a tool to improve the lymph node metastasis staging in gastric cancer and suggests the cut-offs provided by Marchet et al. as the best way for its categorization after a D2-gastrectomy. In these settings, the N-Ratio appears a useful tool to select patients for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and the benefit of adding this type of adjuvancy to D2-gastrectomy is suggested to be limited to patients with milder degrees of lymphatic spread (i.e., NR2, 10%–25%.

  16. Pharmacology and Structural Analysis of Ligand Binding to the Orthosteric Site of Glutamate-Like GluD2 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Hansen, Kasper B; Naur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -term depression. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of the orthosteric binding site in GluD2 by examining the activity of analogs of D-Ser and GluN1 glycine site competitive antagonists at GluD2 receptors containing the lurcher mutation (GluD2(LC)), which promotes spontaneous channel activation. We identify...

  17. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Nr1d2 All cell types SRX109462,SRX12817...4,SRX128175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.Nr1d2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Nr1d2 All cell types SRX109462,SRX12817...4,SRX128175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.Nr1d2.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.Nr1d2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Nr1d2 All cell types SRX109462,SRX12817...4,SRX128175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.Nr1d2.AllCell.bed ...

  20. Novel cases of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria with IDH1 or IDH2 mosaic mutations identified by amplicon deep sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nota, Benjamin; Hamilton, Eline M; Sie, Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Mosaic IDH1 mutations are described as the cause of metaphyseal chondromatosis with increased urinary excretion of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (MC-HGA), and mutations in IDH2 as the cause of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2HGA) type II. Mosaicism for IDH2 mutations has not previously been reported as a...

  1. Functional characterisation of eel dopamine D2 receptors and involvement in the direct inhibition of pituitary gonadotrophins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolly, C.; Rousseau, K.; Prézeau, L.

    2016-01-01

    pharmacologically related to the D2 family. In the European eel, two distinct D2 receptor (D2‐R) paralogous genes have been identified (D2A‐R and D2B‐R) and both were shown to be expressed in the pituitary. We investigated the potential role of each paralogue in the control of gonadotroph function in this species....... Eel recombinant D2A‐R or D2B‐R were expressed in HEK 293 cells, with a universal Gα subunit, and receptor activation was followed by inositol phosphate production. Recombinant D2‐Rs exhibited a comparable affinity for DA, although they had differential affinities for mammalian D2‐R agonists...... and antagonists, supporting subtle structure/activity differences. Furthermore, using eel pituitary cell primary cultures, the expression by gonadotroph cells of both native eel D2‐R paralogues was examined by in situ hybridisation of D2A‐R or D2B‐R transcripts, coupled with immunofluorescence of luteinising...

  2. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2008-01-01

    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  3. Localization of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric Theories on $S^1 \\times D^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We study three dimensional N=2 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-Matter theories on the direct product of circle and two dimensional hemisphere (S^1 x D^2) with specified boundary conditions by the method of localization. We construct boundary interactions to cancel the supersymmetric variation of three dimensional superpotential term and Chern-Simons term and show inflows of bulk-boundary anomalies. It finds that the boundary conditions induce two dimensional N=(0,2) type supersymmetry on the boundary torus. We also study the relation between the 3d-2d coupled partition function of our model and three dimensional holomorphic blocks.

  4. Strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+: Nuclear wave packet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, A.; Borbély, S.; Halász, G. J.; Vibók, Á.

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical ab initio investigation of strong field dissociative ionization of the D2+ molecule in the multiphoton regime is reported. The dynamics is initiated by ultrashort laser pulses for fixed molecular axis orientations. Nuclear wave packet calculations are performed to provide the joint energy spectra (JES): ionization-dissociation probability density via electron (Ee) and nuclear (En) kinetic energy. Analyzing the time-dependent nuclear wave packet densities we have successfully identified the exact path followed by the D2+ target for each multiphoton peak.

  5. Providing Fast Discovery in D2D Communication with Full Duplex Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2016-01-01

    In Direct Device-to-Device (D2D), the device awareness procedure known as the discovery phase is required prior to the exchange of data. This work considers autonomous devices where the infrastructure is not involved in the discovery procedure. Commonly, the transmission of the discovery message...... technology to provide D2D fast discovery. Such framework provides an algorithm to estimate the number of neighbor devices and to dynamically decide the transmission probability, for adapting to network changes and meeting the 10 milliseconds target. Finally, a signaling scheme is proposed to reduce...

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on laying hen performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini; Carla Orsi; Viviana Ferrazzi; Stefano Marelli; Maria Grazia Mangiagalli; Alberto Giardini; Daniele Gallazzi

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on hen performance and egg quality, 160 commercial Hy-Line Brown pullets, 17 weeks old, were divided in control group (C) (N=80) and treated group (T) (N=80), with 4 alternate replicates of 20 animals each per group. C was fed with a “standard diet”, whereas the T group received the same diet with an inclusion of 1x109 CFU kg-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (freeze dried...

  7. [Comparative pharmacophore analysis of dual dopamine D2/5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-shen; Guo, Zong-ru

    2009-03-01

    Dual dopamine D2/5-HT2A receptor antagonists have potent activity and are referred to atypical antipsychotics due to their lower propensity to elicit EPS and their moderate efficacy toward negative symptoms. However, an on-going challenge in developing atypical antipsychotics drugs is to maintain the favorable profiles and avoid of cardiovascular risk. In this paper, comparative pharmacophore analysis of dual dopamine D2/5-HT2A receptor antagonists, hERG K+ channel blockers, and alA adrenoceptor antagonists is carried out, and the results could give some insight into multi-target drug design.

  8. Tracking the photodissociation probability of D$_2^+$ induced by linearly chirped laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Csehi, András; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Vibók, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of linearly varying frequency chirped laser pulses the photodissociation dynamics of D$_2^+$ is studied theoretically after ionization of D$_{2}$ . As a completion of our recent work (J. Chem. Phys. 143, 014305 (2015)) a comprehensive dependence on the pulse duration and delay time is presented in terms of total dissociation probabilities. Our numerical analysis carried out in the recently introduced light-induced conical intersection (LICI) framework clearly shows the effects of the changing position of the LICI which is induced by the frequency modulation of the chirped laser pulses. This impact is presented for positively, negatively and zero chirped short pulses.

  9. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST’s function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of ligands for D2-like receptors: the role of common pharmacophoric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikazwe, Donald M N; Nkansah, Nancy T; Altundas, Ramazan; Zhu, Xue Y; Roth, Bryan L; Setola, Vincent; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2009-02-15

    Arylcycloalkylamines, such as phenyl piperidines and piperazines and their arylalkyl substituents, constitute pharmacophoric groups exemplified in several antipsychotic agents. A review of previous reports indicates that arylalkyl substituents can improve the potency and selectivity of the binding affinity at D(2)-like receptors. In this paper, we explored the contributions of two key pharmacophoric groups, that is, 4'-fluorobutyrophenones and 3-methyl-7-azaindoles, to the potency and selectivity of synthesized agents at D(2)-like receptors. Preliminary observation of binding affinities indicates that there is little predictability of specific effects of the arylalkyl moieties but the composite structure is responsible for selectivity and potency at these receptors.

  11. Total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving lipid resolvin D2 using a common lynchpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving eicosanoid resolvin D2 (1 is described. The key steps involved a Wittig reaction between aldehyde 5 and the ylide derived from phosphonium salt 6 to give enyne 17 and condensation of the same ylide with aldehyde 7 to afford enyne 11. Desilylation of 11 followed by hydrozirconation and iodination gave the vinyl iodide 4 and Sonogashira coupling between this compound and enyne 3 provided alkyne 18. Acetonide deprotection, partial reduction and ester hydrolysis then gave resolvin D2 (1.

  12. D2D Technology Development and Its Impact on Cellular Network Evolution%D2D技术发展及其对蜂窝网络演进的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 宋玉

    2013-01-01

    It discusses the hybrid cellular network based on D2D communication, application scenarios and system requirements. It also discusses the implementation of LTE-D2D, analyzes the impact on network evolution and business model.%阐述了以端到端直通通信(D2D)为代表的混合蜂窝网络技术及应用场景、系统需求,探讨了LTE-D2D实现方案,分析了D2D对蜂窝网络和现商业模式的冲击。

  13. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    -assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very......One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper...... focuses on the involvement of such users that are in the position to play an active role as inventors and (co)-developers. A multiple case study analysis was conducted in the field of medical technology. Five radical innovation projects within four firms were selected including medical robots and computer...

  14. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  15. Radicalization and the Use of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of social media tools by individuals and organizations to radicalize individuals for political and social change has become increasingly popular as the Internet penetrates more of the world and mobile computing devices are more accessible. To establish a construct for radicalization,the power and reach of social media will be described so there is common understanding of what social media is and how it is utilized by various individuals and groups. The second section will answer the question of why social media applications are the perfect platform for the radical voice. Finally, the use of social media and its influence in radicalizing populations in Northern Africa and the Middle East during 2011 will be analyzed and recommendations proposed.

  16. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis;

    2015-01-01

    of evidence to develop an optimal pain management protocol in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Most studies assessed unimodal analgesic approaches rather than a multimodal technique. There is a need for more procedure-specific studies comparing pain and analgesic requirements for open and minimally......BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains...... invasive surgical procedures. Finally, while we wait for appropriate procedure specific evidence from publication of adequate studies assessing optimal pain management after radical prostatectomy, we propose a basic analgesic guideline....

  17. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem...

  18. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance ...

  19. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  20. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  1. Radicals involved in photoallergen/protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahanty, J.N.; Evans, J.C.; Rowlands, C.C.; Barratt, M.D.; Pendlington, R.U. (University College, Cardiff (England))

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous solutions (pH = 8) of both 3,3'-dimethyl and 4,4'-dimethyl substituted analogues of the photoallergen fentichlor (bis(2-hydroxy-5-chlorophenyl)sulphide) produced stable semiquinone radicals when irradiated with u.v. light (greater than 310 nm). These radicals have been characterised using electron spin resonance techniques: the results confirm the assignment of hyperfine coupling constants for the parent fentichlor radical. The binding of fentichlor to HSA was found to be partly oxygen dependent demonstrating a role for semiquinone type radicals in the binding mechanism. The stoichiometry and specificity of the binding of the dimethyl analogues to soluble proteins were found to be similar to that of fentichlor itself.

  2. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with orthotopic diversion in male ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes beyond 1 year, both ...

  3. Magnetic Trapping of Cold Methyl Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Djuricanin, Pavle; Zhou, Sida; Zhong, Wei; Mittertreiner, Tony; Carty, David; Momose, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH3) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to a standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for > 1 s. The translational temperature of the trapped CH3 radicals was about 200 mK. The methyl radical is a non-polar polyatomic molecule, which is predicted to be an ideal system for further cooling below 1 mK via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms. In addition, it is a highly reactive intermediate that plays an important role in various processes in cold environments such as planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. The demonstrated trapping capability of methyl radicals opens up various possibilities for realizing ultracold ensembles of molecules towards Bose-Einstein condensation of polyatomic molecules and investigations of reactions governed by quantum statistics.

  4. Magnetic Trapping of Cold Methyl Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Vashishta, Manish; Djuricanin, Pavle; Zhou, Sida; Zhong, Wei; Mittertreiner, Tony; Carty, David; Momose, Takamasa

    2017-03-01

    We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH3 ) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for >1 s . The trapped CH3 radicals have a mean translational temperature of about 200 mK with an estimated density of >5.0 ×1 07 cm-3 . The methyl radical is an ideal system for the study of cold molecules not only because of its high reactivities at low temperatures, but also because further cooling below 1 mK is plausible via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms. The demonstrated trapping capability of methyl radicals opens up various possibilities for realizing ultracold ensembles of molecules towards Bose-Einstein condensation of polyatomic molecules and investigations of reactions governed by quantum statistics.

  5. Free Radical Mechanisms of Xenobiotic Mammalian Cytotoxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-30

    frequent mechanism of xenobiotic liver toxicity is biotransformation by cytochrome P,5o- enzymes to toxic free radical intermediates. The primary objective...vascular cells was to incubate the cells with both the spin trapping agent methyl nitroso propane ( MNP ) and IRP chemicals to determine if free radical...gave a reasonably strong MNP -adduct signal. Figure 1 gives the MNP adduct signal for carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, as well as that for

  6. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  7. Hydroxyl radical generation by red tide algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, T; Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ishimatsu, A; Takeshita, S; Muramatsu, T; Maeda, H

    1992-04-01

    The unicellular marine phytoplankton Chattonella marina is known to have toxic effects against various living marine organisms, especially fishes. However, details of the mechanism of the toxicity of this plankton remain obscure. Here we demonstrate the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from a red tide unicellular organism, C. marina, by using ESR spectroscopy with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and by using the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence response. The spin-trapping assay revealed productions of spin adduct of superoxide anion (O2-) (DMPO-OOH) and that of hydroxyl radical (.OH) (DMPO-OH) in the algal suspension, which was not observed in the ultrasonic-ruptured suspension. The addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) almost completely inhibited the formation of both DMPO-OOH and DMPO-OH, and carbon-centered radicals were generated with the disappearance of DMPO-OH after addition of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, the generation of methyl and methoxyl radicals, which are thought to be produced by the reaction of hydroxyl radical and Me2SO under aerobic condition, was identified using spin trapping with a combination of PBN and Me2SO. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay also supported the above observations. These results clearly indicate that C. marina generates and releases the superoxide radical followed by the production of hydroxyl radical to the surrounding environment. The velocity of superoxide generation by C. marina was about 100 times faster than that by mammalian phagocytes per cell basis. The generation of oxygen radical is suggested to be a pathogenic principle in the toxication of red tide to susceptible aquaculture fishes and may be directly correlated with the coastal pollution by red tide.

  8. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  9. Synthesis of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and their (24R)-epimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicinski, R.R.; Tanaka, Y.; Phelps, M.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-02-15

    Synthesis of a C-24-epimeric mixture of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 and a C-24-epimeric mixture of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by the Grignard reaction of the corresponding 25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D2 and 1 alpha-acetoxy-25-keto-27-nor-vitamin D3 with tritiated methyl magnesium bromide is described. Separation of epimers by high-performance liquid chromatography afforded pure radiolabeled vitamins of high specific activity (80 Ci/mmol). The identities and radiochemical purities of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H(vitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 D2 were established by cochromatography with synthetic 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Biological activity of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the rat plasma binding protein for vitamin D compounds, and by its in vitro conversion to 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 by kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-deficient chickens. The biological activity of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-/sup 3/H)vitamin D2 was demonstrated by its binding to the chick intestinal receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

  10. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  11. Free radicals in biology. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    This volume covers topics ranging from radiation chemistry to biochemistry, biology, and medicine. This volume attempts to bridge the gap between chemical investigations and the medical applications and implications of free radical reactions. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the technique of radiation chemistry, the thermodynamics and kinetic factors that need be considered, the use of pulse radiolysis and flow techniques, and the application of these methods to free radicals of biological interest. Chapter 3 discusses the mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Chapter 4 reviews the morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and chemical nature of lipofuscin pigments. This chapter brings together the evidence that lipofuscin pigments arise from free radical pathology and that the formation of these pigments proves the presence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Chapter 5 reviews the evidence for production of free (i.e., scavengeable) radicals from the reactions of selected enzymes with their substrates. Chapter 6 discusses one of the systems in which free radical damage is clearly important in vivo, both for man and animal, the damage caused to skin by sunlight. The evidence that free radical reactions can contribute to carcinogenesis dates from the earliest observations that ionizing radiation often produces higher incidences of tumors. A current working hypothesis is that chemical toxins cause damage to DNA and that the repair of this damge may incorporate viral genetic information into the host cell's chromosomes, producing cell transformation and cancer. The mechanism whereby chemical carcinogens become bound to DNA to produce point defects is discussed in Chapter 7.

  12. Radical Scavenging Effects of Different Veronica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Şebnem Harput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the excessive production of reactive oxygen species is hazardous for living organisms and damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, lipid and protein. To find new products reducing free radical damage is very important researches in recent pharmaceutical investigations. Considering this information, fourteen Veronica species are decided to research in the view point of their antioxidant capacity and the chemical content. Water extracts of the plants were tested for their radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide (SO and nitric oxide (NO radicals spectroscopically. Dose dependent radical scavenging activity was observed and the results were found to be comparable to that of ascorbic acid, quercetin and BHA which are known antioxidative compounds. In addition, gallic acid equivalent total phenolic contents of the plants were also determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The most significant scavenging activity was found for V. chamaedrys against SO radical (IC50 113.40 μg/ml and V. officinalis against DPPH and NO radicals (IC50 40.93 μg/ml, 570.33 μg/ml, respectively .

  13. Oxygen radicals, inflammation, and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P A; Warren, J S; Johnson, K J

    1988-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions often result in the activation and recruitment of phagocytic cells (e.g., neutrophils and/or tissue macrophages) whose products result in injury to the tissue. In killing of endothelial cells by activated neutrophils as well as in lung injury produced by either activated neutrophils or activated macrophages there is evidence that H2O2 and iron play a role. HO. may be a key oxygen product related to the process of injury. Endothelial cells in some vascular compartments may be susceptible to neutrophil mediated injury in a manner that is independent of oxygen radicals. On the basis of in vitro observations, a synergy exits between platelets and neutrophils, resulting in enhanced oxygen radical formation by the latter. Finally, the cytokines, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, released from macrophages have both direct stimulatory effects on oxygen radical formation in neutrophils and can "prime" macrophages for enhanced oxygen radical responses to other agonists. Cytokines may also alter endothelial cells rendering them more susceptible to oxygen radical mediated injury by neutrophils. This suggests a complex network of interactions between phagocytic cells and peptide mediators, the result of which is acute, oxygen radical mediated tissue injury.

  14. Radioprotective thermally generated free-radical dextrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr TOMASIK; Oskar MICHALSKI; Ewa BIDZINSKA; Antonina CEBULSKA-WASILEWSKA; Krystyna DYREK; Maciej FIEDOROWICZ; Pawel OLKO

    2008-01-01

    Effect of doses of the X-ray radiation from 0 to 400 Gy upon granular cornstarch and dextrins (British gums, BG) thermally generated from it at 230-300℃ was recognized with quantitative EPR and IR ab-sorption spectroscopy, molecular mass distribution in the depolymerization products, Scanning Elec-tron Microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Fractal analysis of the profiles of molecular mass distribu-tion showed that the depolymerization involved debranching of amylopectin. Roasting of cornstarch produced BG which differed in concentration and EPR parameters of stable free radicals from BG generated by X-ray radiation. Two types of stable free radicals, with Gaussian and Lorentzian shapes of EPR signals, were recognized. The shapes of the signals and temperature dependence on free radical intensity indicated exchanging interactions of the antiferromagnetic type, causing partial quenching of the spins at -196℃ (77K). Upon X-ray irradiation, new radicals were generated, the number and stability of which strongly depended on the types of radicals present before irradiation. These radicals slowly ceased because of a repolymerization of BG on storage.

  15. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  16. 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms: a method and evaluation on clinical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Uroš; Špiclin, Žiga; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2013-08-01

    Endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGI) involve navigation of a catheter through the vasculature followed by application of treatment at the site of anomaly using live 2D projection images for guidance. 3D images acquired prior to EIGI are used to quantify the vascular anomaly and plan the intervention. If fused with the information of live 2D images they can also facilitate navigation and treatment. For this purpose 3D-2D image registration is required. Although several 3D-2D registration methods for EIGI achieve registration accuracy below 1 mm, their clinical application is still limited by insufficient robustness or reliability. In this paper, we propose a 3D-2D registration method based on matching a 3D vasculature model to intensity gradients of live 2D images. To objectively validate 3D-2D registration methods, we acquired a clinical image database of 10 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI and established "gold standard" registrations by aligning fiducial markers in 3D and 2D images. The proposed method had mean registration accuracy below 0.65 mm, which was comparable to tested state-of-the-art methods, and execution time below 1 s. With the highest rate of successful registrations and the highest capture range the proposed method was the most robust and thus a good candidate for application in EIGI.

  17. Ecodriver. D2.4: Plan for using and disseminating knowledge_Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winder, A.; et al

    2016-01-01

    The full D2.4 confidential deliverable describes the ecoDriver project’s key projected results and the plans for exploiting them. This public version omits the chapters on expoitoitable results and the project partners plans for exploiting them. This is the third year version of the deliverable repo

  18. Predicting dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in humans using a physiology-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Martin; Kozielska, Magdalena; Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Vermeulen, An; Barton, Hugh A.; Grimwood, Sarah; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: A hybrid physiology-based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model (PBPKPD) was used to predict the time course of dopamine receptor occupancy (D2RO) in human striatum following the administration of antipsychotic (AP) drugs, using in vitro and in silico information. Methods: A hybrid P

  19. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian;

    2013-01-01

    responses and receptor occupancies. The distinct CBV magnitudes between putamen and caudate at matched occupancies approximately matched literature differences in basal dopamine levels, suggesting that the relative fMRI measurements reflect basal D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy. These results can provide...

  20. Cannabinoids Regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D2 Expression in Pancreatic β Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed in pancreatic β cells, where they induce cell death and cell cycle arrest by directly inhibiting insulin receptor activation. Here, we report that CB1Rs regulate the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. Treatment of MIN6 and βTC6 cells with a synthetic CB1R agonist, WIN55,212-2, led to a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2, in turn inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CB1Rs after injury in mice led to increased levels of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 in pancreatic β cells. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of Bcl-2 and cyclin D2 mediated by CB1Rs in the regulation of β-cell survival and growth, and will serve as a basis for developing new therapeutic interventions to enhance β-cell function and growth in diabetes.

  1. Cerebellar LTD vs. motor learning-lessons learned from studying GluD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD), is believed to underlie learning and memory processes in vivo. The cerebellum is an ideal brain region to obtain definitive proof for this hypothesis. The current belief is that the acquisition of motor learning is stored by LTD at the parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellar cortex. Recently, however, several lines of mutant mice that display normal motor learning in the absence of cerebellar LTD have been reported. A similar dichotomy between synaptic plasticity at the circuitry level and learning at the behavioral level has also been reported in the hippocampus. One possible explanation for this dichotomy is that compensatory pathways at the molecular and circuitry levels play an important role in mice that have been genetically modified for their entire lives. Mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in or to express mutant versions of the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluD2) serve as an interesting model due to the predominant expression of GluD2 at PF-Purkinje cell synapses. Furthermore, two major functions of GluD2-PF synapse formation and LTD induction-can be mechanistically dissociated so that the role of LTD in motor learning can be investigated in the absence of morphological abnormalities caused by altered synapse formation. Therefore, genetic manipulations of GluD2 will help to clarify the relationship between LTD and motor learning in the cerebellum.

  2. Solvent extraction of copper and zinc from bioleaching solutions with LIX984 and D2EHPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Zhuo-yue; HU Yue-hua; LIU Jian-she; WANG Jun

    2005-01-01

    The solvent extraction of copper and zinc from the bioleaching solutions of low-grade sulfide ores with LIX984 and D2EHPA was investigated. The influences of extractant content, aqueous pH value, phase ratio and equilibration time on metals extraction were studied. The results show that LIX984 has a higher selectivity for copper than for iron, zinc and other metals, and has the copper extraction rate above 97%,while the zinc and iron extraction rate is less than 1.6% respectively. Zinc extraction is carried out following the copper extraction from the raffinate. The zinc extraction with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid(D2EHPA) is low due to its poor cation exchange. A sodium salt of D2EHPA is used and the zinc extraction rate is enhanced to above 98%. Though iron (Ⅲ) is strongly extracted before the extraction of zinc by D2EHPA, it is difficult to strip iron from the organic phase by sulfuric acid. The zinc stripping rate is above 99% with 100 g/L sulfuric acid, while that of iron is 0.16%. Hence, the separation of zinc from iron can be achieved by the selective stripping.

  3. Utilizing Semantic Interpretation of Junctions for 3D-2D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Yan, Shi; Grest, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the quality of 3D-2D pose estimates using hand labeled line and point correspondences. We select point correspondences from junctions in the image, allowing to construct a meaningful interpretation about how the junction is formed, as proposed in e.g. [1], [2], [3]. We...

  4. Fall and Rise of a D$_2$O Ice Cube in Liquid H$_2$O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration described in this article is to show thatwhile H$_2$O ice floats in water, D$_2$O ice sinks in water, provingthe higher density of ‘heavy water’. This experiment can bedone in a classroom or in an auditoriam.

  5. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  6. Frontostriatal Involvement in Task Switching Depends on Genetic Differences in D2 Receptor Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelzel, C.; Basten, U.; Montag, C.; Reuter, M.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an association of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability with flexibility in reward-based learning. We extend these results by demonstrating an association of genetically based differences in DRD2 density with the ability to intentionally switch between nonrewarded tasks:

  7. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  8. Bioanalysis and pharmacokinetics of the dopamine D2 agonist N-0923

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Pieter Jacob

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the bioanalysis and pharmacokinetics of the S(-) enantiomer (N-0923) of the selective and potent dopamine D2 agonist 2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethyl-amino)-5-hydroxytetralin, N-0437 which has possible applications in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The R(+) enantiomer

  9. Voluminous D2 source for intense cold neutron beam production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, K.; Mezei, F.

    2014-01-01

    the target for the complementary needs of certain fundamental physics experiments. To facilitate experiments depending on the total number of neutrons in a sizable beam, the option of a voluminous D2 moderator, in a large cross-section extraction guide is discussed and its neutronic performance is assessed....

  10. Improper activation of D1 and D2 receptors leads to excess noise in prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Michael C.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    The dopaminergic system has been shown to control the amount of noise in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and likely plays an important role in working memory and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We developed a model that takes into account the known receptor distributions of D1 and D2 receptors, the changes these receptors have on neuron response properties, as well as identified circuitry involved in working memory. Our model suggests that D1 receptor under-stimulation in supragranular layers gates internal noise into the PFC leading to cognitive symptoms as has been proposed in attention disorders, while D2 over-stimulation gates noise into the PFC by over-activation of cortico-striatal projecting neurons in infragranular layers. We apply this model in the context of a memory-guided saccade paradigm and show deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenic patients. We also show set-shifting impairments similar to those observed in rodents with D1 and D2 receptor manipulations. We discuss how the introduction of noise through changes in D1 and D2 receptor activation may account for many of the symptoms of schizophrenia depending on where this dysfunction occurs in the PFC. PMID:25814948

  11. Nonsequential double ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D+ fragments obtained from the ionization of D2 molecules with intense 20-fs pulses includes a high-energy component extending up to ˜10 eV. These fragments are only present for linearly, or slightly elliptically, polarized light. Both the maximum kinetic...

  12. Thermal behavior of TAXN and TCDXM D2 collimator mask, Finite element studies

    CERN Document Server

    Sklariks, Stepans

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to perform thermal loading simulations of TCDXM (D2 collimator mask) and TAXN so as to allow the preliminary evaluation of the suitability of the given parts for the upcoming high luminosity upgrade that is to be performed in LHC in the nearest future.

  13. Utilizing Semantic Interpretation of Junctions for 3D-2D Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Yan, Shi; Grest, Daniel;

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the quality of 3D-2D pose estimates using hand labeled line and point correspondences. We select point correspondences from junctions in the image, allowing to construct a meaningful interpretation about how the junction is formed, as proposed in e.g. [1], [2], [3]. We...

  14. Measurements of $d_{2}^{n}$ and $A_{1}^{n}$: Probing the neutron spin structure

    CERN Document Server

    Flay, D; Parno, D S; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; Deng, X; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Guo, L; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Hyde, C; Ibrahim, H F; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lukhanin, A; Mamyan, V; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Mihovilovič, M; Moffit, B; Muangma, N; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Peng, J C; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shabestari, M H; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, A; Troth, W; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of the E06-014 experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in Hall A, where a precision measurement of the twist-3 matrix element $d_2$ of the neutron ($d_{2}^{n}$) was conducted. This quantity represents the average color Lorentz force a struck quark experiences in a deep inelastic electron scattering event off a neutron due to its interaction with the hadronizing remnants. This color force was determined from a linear combination of the third moments of the spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ on $^{3}$He after nuclear corrections had been applied to these moments. The kinematics included two average $Q^{2}$ bins of $3.2$ GeV$^{2}$ and $4.3$ GeV$^{2}$, and Bjorken-$x$ $0.25 \\leq x \\leq 0.90$ covering the DIS and resonance regions. We found $d_2^n$ to be small and negative for $ = 3.2$ GeV$^{2}$, and smaller for $ = 4.3$ GeV$^{2}$, consistent with a lattice QCD calculation. The twist-4 matrix element $f_{2}^{n}$ was extracted by combining our $d_{2}^{n}$ with the world data on $\\Gamma_...

  15. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  16. On Secondary Electron Emission from Solid H2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The emission of secondary electrons from solid hydrogen (H2 , D2, T2) is often considered to be of importance for the interaction between a fusion plasma and pellets of solid hydrogens. A set-up was therefore built for studies of interactions between energetic particles and solid hydrogens. Studies...

  17. Coordinated Precoding for D2D Communications Underlay Uplink MIMO Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the coordinated precoding problem for device-to-device (D2D communications underlay multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO cellular networks. The system model considered here constitutes multiple D2D user pairs attempting to share the uplink radio resources of a cellular network. We first formulate the coordinated precoding problem for the D2D user pairs as a sum-rate maximization (SRM problem, which is subject to a total interference power constraint imposed to protect the base station (BS and individual transmit power budgets available for each D2D user pair. Since the formulated SRM problem is nonconvex in general, we reformulate it as a difference convex- (DC- type programming problem, which can be iteratively solved by employing the famous successive convex approximation (SCA method. Moreover, a proximal-point-based regularization approach is also pursued here to ensure the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Interestingly, the centralized precoding algorithm can also lend itself to a distributed implementation. By introducing a price-based interference management mechanism, we reformulate the coordinated precoding problem as a Stackelberg game. Then, a distributed precoding algorithm is developed based on the concept of Stackelberg equilibrium (SE. Finally, numerical simulations are also provided to demonstrate the proposed algorithms. Results show that our algorithms can converge fast to a satisfactory solution with guaranteed convergence.

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AW2D-2VENA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AW2D-2VENA 1AW2 2VEN D A --RHPVVMGNWKLNGSKEMVVDLLNGLNAELEGVTGVDV...RQLDAVINTQGVEALEGAIIAYEPIWAIGTGKAATAEDAQRIHAQIRAHIAEK-SEAVAKNVVIQYGGSVKPENAAAYFAQPDIDGALVGGAALDAKSFAAIAKAAAE...14> 2VEN A 2VENA...ndex> 2VEN A 2VENA E...x> 2 2VEN A

  19. Comparative d2/d3 LSU–rDNA sequence study of some Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... Key words: Tea, Pratylenchus loosi, D2/D3 LSU rDNA, sequencing, Iran .... picked and placed in 10 µl double distilled water on slide glass and cut them ... products were purified using a Qiaquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen.

  20. Equilibration in the Kac Model Using the GTW Metric d_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, H.

    2017-08-01

    We use the Fourier based Gabetta-Toscani-Wennberg metric d_2 to study the rate of convergence to equilibrium for the Kac model in 1 dimension. We take the initial velocity distribution of the particles to be a Borel probability measure μ on R^n that is symmetric in all its variables, has mean ěc {0} and finite second moment. Let μ _t(dv) denote the Kac-evolved distribution at time t, and let R_μ be the angular average of μ . We give an upper bound to d_2(μ _t, R_μ ) of the form \\min { B e^{-4 λ _1/n+3t}, d_2(μ ,R_μ )} , where λ _1 = n+2/2(n-1) is the gap of the Kac model in L^2 and B depends only on the second moment of μ . We also construct a family of Schwartz probability densities {f_0^{(n)}: R^n→ R} with finite second moments that shows practically no decrease in d_2(f_0(t), R_{f_0}) for time at least 1/2λ with λ the rate of the Kac operator. We also present a propagation of chaos result for the partially thermostated Kac model in Tossounian and Vaidyanathan (J Math Phys 56(8):083301, 2015).