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Sample records for radiation treatment method

  1. Radiation treatment of polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnik, E.I.; Onisko, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    The well-known methods of radiation treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are reviewed. Described is a new method of the production of decorative articles with the drawing inside the volume. This method permits to obtain the original ''dendritic'' drawing by electron treatment of PMMA. Presented are the technique which permits to obtain the drawing with the increased density of lines and the ways of changing the deposition depth, the drawing volume and the treatment duration. Shown is the possibility of the radiation treatment application for the increase of the specific volume resistance of PMMA

  2. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, Akihisa; Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Michimasa; Arai, Hidehiko

    1982-10-01

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  3. Radiation and chemoradiation treatment of esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhigaliev, N.; Kusherbaev, S.; Abdrakhmanov, Zh.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical and practical substantiation of dose fractionation regimes in radiation and chemoradiation treatment of esophagus cancer are presented. The indications and contraindications to radiotherapy, radiation reactions and complications resulting from the treatment process are considered. The preparation of patients to the application of chemoradiation treatment methods is described. The recommentations for the improvement of immediate and delayed results of treatment of esophagus cancer patients are given. 99 refs.; 15 figs

  4. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  5. Treatment of waste water by a combined technique of radiation and conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, A.; Miyata, T.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of waste water by radiation in combination with a conventional method such as biological oxidation, coagulation with Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and ozonation has been studied for reducing necessary dose. Ethylene glycol ethers, polyoxyethylene n-nonyl phenyl ether (NPE), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), ethylene glycol, phenol, and oxalic acid were used as a model pollutant. The combined use of radiation and biological oxidation markedly improved the removal of TOC in aqueous oxygenated solution of ethylene glycol ethers. The combined use of radiation and coagulation had remarkable effects on the reduction of TOC in aqueous deoxygenated solution of NPE or PVA. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone gave a synergistic effect on oxidative degradation of organic pollutants. The synergistic effect was suggested to arise from chain reactions having a powerful oxidizing agent (OH radical). The rate of TOC removal by the process depended on dose rate. Aqueous solution of 150 mg/l oxalic acid was treated by the combined use of electron beams and ozone using a new type of irradiation vessel to reduce TOC with G(-TOC) of 87 at 2.3 x 10 7 rad/h. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone is superior to the removal of TOC by other combined methods and can be applied irrespective of the type of organic matter. (author)

  6. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  7. Efficiency estimation methods of chemical radiation treatment of patients with disseminated cervicalcancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yivankova, V.S.; Nesterenko, T.M.; Khranovs'ka, N.M.; Baranovs'ka, L.M.; Khrulenko, T.V.; Shevchenko, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute developed methods chemoradiotherapy (CRT) patients with locally advanced cancers of the cervix (cervical cancer MR). Before treatment patients underwent complex examination, including DNA index determination by laser DNA flow cytometry based on biopsies of the cervix. During concomitant radiotherapy were used cytotoxic drugs in radiomodifying doses. Conducted to investigate the possibility of monitoring the effectiveness of treatment at the subcellular level. The treatment and analysis of the clinical and instrumental monitoring data in 79 patients with MR of cervical cancer (63 patients studied and 16 - control group). Effectiveness of CRT was evaluated by the degree of tumor regression, the dynamics of indicators DNA status of cervical cells and severity of toxic effects. Analysis of the direct method results CRT showed that the dynamics of DNA clones of tumor status correlates with clinical data obtained in response to cytotoxic therapy MR cervical cancer. Positive response of tumors in patients with cervical cancer MR after a full course chemoradiation increased by 25,0 % in comparison with standard methods. Toxic effects of treatment on the number and severity of patients in the study group did not differ from the control group, did not exceed the second degree

  8. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  9. A new method to assess the gonadal doses in women during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.S.; Pant, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The relative inaccessibility of the ovaries renders direct measurement of the gonadal doses difficult. A relatively simple method is described to tackle this problem - using the upper margin of the public symphysis as a reference point. Measurement of Radiation doses were done in a Masonite human phantom using T.L.D. and a Co-60 teletherapy unit. The accompanying figures document the observations made. The distance between the lower edge of the treatment port and the reference point is denoted by 'd'. First figure relates observed ratios of the radiation doses at the ovary and the reference point to 'd' for various port sizes and the second figure shows the relationship between the area of the port and the dose ratio (ovary: reference-point) for various values of 'd'. The advantage of this documentation is that it serves as a 'Ready Reckoner' to assess the ovarian doses under different treatment situations-once the doses at the reference point is measured

  10. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail: gpgiuliari@gmail.com; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    2011-01-15

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  11. Sucralfate paste enema: a new method of topical treatment for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvanna, K; Wilson, A; Irwin, T

    2014-04-01

    Rectal sucralfate has been reported to deliver clinical improvement in haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, but patients with active proctitis find the enema suspension difficult to retain thus reducing compliance and effectiveness. We describe a novel method of rectal administration via a low-volume sucralfate paste and report its results in a series of 23 patients. Patients with rectal bleeding occurring more than 6 months after radiotherapy were shown how to prepare and self-administer sucralfate paste enemas (SPEs) twice daily for 6 weeks. The SPE was prepared using two sucralfate 1-g tablets mixed with 4.5 ml of water in an enema applicator producing a low-volume paste. The clinical response was evaluated by comparison of pre- and posttreatment clinical proctitis scores (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer). Eighteen male (postprostatic radiotherapy) and five female (postcervical radiotherapy) patients with a median age of 67 (32-75) years were included. The median interval between pelvic irradiation and SPE treatment was 24 (7-69) months. Twenty-two patients had full clinical scoring, of whom 16 (73%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Six (27%) had neither clinical improvement nor deterioration. Seven (32%) had resolution of all symptoms. Most patients demonstrated clinical improvement. This initial experience of the sucralfate paste enema may provide the basis for a prospective study of its effectiveness in the treatment of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Semi-automatic watershed medical image segmentation methods for customized cancer radiation treatment planning simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum Oyeon; Kim Hye Kyung; Max, N.

    2007-01-01

    A cancer radiation treatment planning simulation requires image segmentation to define the gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, and planning target volume. Manual segmentation, which is usual in clinical settings, depends on the operator's experience and may, in addition, change for every trial by the same operator. To overcome this difficulty, we developed semi-automatic watershed medical image segmentation tools using both the top-down watershed algorithm in the insight segmentation and registration toolkit (ITK) and Vincent-Soille's bottom-up watershed algorithm with region merging. We applied our algorithms to segment two- and three-dimensional head phantom CT data and to find pixel (or voxel) numbers for each segmented area, which are needed for radiation treatment optimization. A semi-automatic method is useful to avoid errors incurred by both human and machine sources, and provide clear and visible information for pedagogical purpose. (orig.)

  13. Usefulness of radiation treatment planning allpied respiration factor for streotatic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Woon Young; Back, Geum Mun [Dept. of Medical Health Science, Graduate School, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We are evaluated the usefulness of radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer. Four dimensional computed tomography images were obtained in 10 patients with lung cancer. The radiation treatment plans were established total lung volume according to respiration images (new method) and conventional method. We was analyzed in the lung volume, radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs (ribs, tracheobronchus, esophagus, spinal cord) around the tumor, respectively. We were confirmed that lung volume and radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs around the tumor deference according to applied respiration. In conclusion, radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor seems to be useful for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer.

  14. Nonsurgical treatment for cancer using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The number of people who are dying from cancer has been increasing in association with population aging. Radiation therapy is now one of the three major cancer treatment methods, along with surgery and chemotherapy. People used to consider radiation therapy only as a ''noninvasive cancer treatment''; however, with the ceaseless effort by medical experts and corporations, different radiation therapy types and techniques including the latest technical advances have come out one after another, and the improvements in radiation therapies have provided treatments that are not only less traumatizing to patients but also as effective and therapeutic as surgery in certain body regions. The importance of radiation therapy has become and will become even greater in the society with more elderly cancer patients who do not have the physical strength to undergo surgery. In this article, the history of radiation therapy, rapidly developed high-precision radiation therapy techniques, and unsolved issues are discussed, and then, ''MHI vero4DRT'', which is the high-precision image-guided radiation therapy equipment developed for solving such issues, is introduced. (author)

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tony Choon Seng; Joseph, David; Oxer, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to assess, retrospectively, the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation proctitis in all patients who have completed treatment for this disease at the Fremantle Hyperbaric Oxygen Unit. This unit is the only one of its kind in Western Australia. Methods and Materials: Patients were assessed by a review of hospital records, blood bank records, and clinic review (if this was convenient), and all patients responded to a telephone survey. Patients were questioned regarding radiation proctitis symptoms and the degree to which each had improved. Results: Most patients had previously been treated with radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Patients with proctitis mainly suffered from bleeding, diarrhoea, incontinence, and pain. In more than half of these patients, symptoms partially or completely resolved after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusion: Radiation-induced proctitis is a difficult clinical problem to treat and will probably become more significant with the rising incidence of diagnosis of prostate cancer. Hyperbaric Oxygen should be considered in the treatment of radiation-induced proctitis. Further prospective trials with strict protocol guidelines are warranted

  16. Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benomar, S.; Hassam, B.; Boutayeb, S.; Errihani, H.; Lalya, I.; El Gueddari, B.K.

    2010-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)

  17. Method of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, L.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of radiation therapy treatment planning designed to allow the assignment of dosage limits directly to chosen points in the computer-displayed cross-section of the patient. These dosage limits are used as constraints in a linear programming attempt to solve for beam strengths, minimizing integral dosage. If a feasible plan exists, the optimized plan will be displayed for approval as an isodose pattern. If there is no feasible plan, the operator/therapist can designate some of the point dosage constraints as ''relaxed.'' Linear programming will then optimize for minimum deviation at the relaxed points. This process can be iterated and new points selected until an acceptable plan is realized. In this manner the plan is optimized for uniformity as well as overall low dosage. 6 claims, 6 drawing figures

  18. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hardy, D. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Favennec, Y., E-mail: yann.favennec@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Rousseau, B. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Hecht, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7598, inria de Paris, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  19. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Guidelines for the documentation of radiation treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.

    1984-01-01

    A great deal of thought has been given in recent years to the documentation of individual patients and their diseases, especially since the computerization of registry sytems facilitates the storage and retrieval of large amounts of data, but the documentation of radiation treatment methods has received surprisingly little attention. The guidelines which follow are intended for use both internally (within radiotherapy centres) and externally when a treatment method is reported in the literature or transferred from one centre to another. The amount of detail reported externally will, of course, depend on the circumstances: for example, a published paper will usually mention only the most important of the radiation and physical parameters, but it is important for the department of origin to list all parameters in a separate document, available on request. These guidelines apply specifically to the documentation of treatment by external radiation beams, although many of the suggestions would also apply to treatment by small sealed sources (brachytherapy) and by unsealed radionuclides. Treatment techniques which involve a combination of external and internal sources (e.g. Ca. cervix uteri treatd by intracavitary sources plus external beam therapy) require particularly careful documentation to indicate the relationship bwtween dose distribution (in both space and time) achieved by the two modalities

  20. The modern methods of treatment of patients with radiation syndrome in a specialized hospital (analytical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selidovkin, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Modern methods of treatment of patients with various symptoms of acute radiation disease in a specialized hospital are reviewed. The treatment starts from prophylactic prescription of antibacterial antibiotics of latest generations (imipinem, cephalosporin of 3-rd generation), antifungal and antiviral remedies, immunoglobulin G, selective decontamination of intestines should be carried out. Transfusion of donor thrombocytes and erythrocytes in the quantities adequate to the degree of explicit cytopenia should be provided. Full parenteral feeding should be prescribed, desintoxication and adjustment therapy is be administered. Transplantation of HLA-identical bone marrow may be recommended only over the range from 10 to 15 Gy close to uniform irradiation. The most promising in the therapy of acute radiation disease - 3, 4 are hemopoietic growth factors. 76 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Radiation treatment of wastes: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.S.; George, D.

    1975-01-01

    Since 1945 over 70 papers have been published on various applications of radiation to waste treatment. Work carried out up to 1970 showed consistently that radiation is effective in degrading organic matter in wastes, destroying pathogenic organisms, and enhancing the sedimentation and filterability of sludges, but at a cost about ten times that of conventional treatment methods. Increased cost of energy, scarcity of potable water, environmental awareness and consequent legislation, and technical developments may be changing the picture. For example, ozone, already being widely used as an alternative to chlorine for sterilization, is claimed to be produced by gamma-irradiation of air or oxygen at half the cost of electrical methods. Radiation may solve specific problems associated with industrial wastes and evidence is reported of synergistic effects with oxygen and chlorine. In-situ reactivation of carbon used as an absorbent for textile dye wastes has been observed, and is being further studied. Prototype plant for complete sterilization of sewage sludge for use as fertilizer is in operation. Safety precautions necessary if large radiation sources are used by non-technical operatives will also be considered. (author)

  2. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  3. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  4. Radiation treatment of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Flatby, J.; Backe, S.; Lundgren, L.

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with an estimation of the volume of radiation treatment of benign diseases in Norway and gives a survey of the subjective opinion of patients regarding the result of the treatment. Reported subjective recovery after radiation treatment seems to be at the same level as recovery without treatment. For an indication of the objective effect of radiation treatment of benign diseases, the subjective effect of this treatment has to be compared with objective findings

  5. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  6. Radiation and chemoradiation treatment of esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhigaliev, N.; Kusherbaev, S.; Abdrakhmanov, Zh.

    1988-01-01

    Indications and contraindications for radiation treatment of esophagus cancer are presented. The role of chemoradiation among esophagus cancer treatment methods is determined.Thechnical, dosimetric and clinical data are sequently delivered. Preparation of a patient for chemoradiation is described. Recommendations on their most efficient use are given

  7. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80

  8. Measurement of thermoluminescence - a new method for detecting radiation treatment of spices. Die Messung der Thermolumineszenz - ein neues Verfahren zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Gewuerze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, L; Boegl, W

    1984-12-01

    By the experiments described in this report it was examined in 14 different spices to which extent measurements of thermoluminescence intensity of up to 300/sup 0/C are suitable for detecting treatment with ionizing radiation. The optimal weight of each spice was first determined for a later investigation of the dependence of thermoluminescence intensity on dose and postirradiation storage. In most spices, radiation treatment is detectable as long as after a storage period of over 2 months. In general it may be stated that thermoluminescence measurement is a reliable method for detecting radiation treatment in supplement to chemiluminescence measurement.

  9. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit K.; Mai Weiyan; McGary, John E.; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian; Teh, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Methods: Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Results: Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Conclusion: Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions

  10. A method to combine three dimensional dose distributions for external beam and brachytherapy radiation treatments for gynecological neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, V.; Sahijdak, W.M.; Orton, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation treatment of gynecological neoplasms, such as cervical carcinoma, usually combines external radiation therapy with one or more intracavitary brachytherapy applications. Although the dose from external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy can be calculated and displayed in 3D individually, the dose distributions are not combined. At most, combined point doses are calculated for select points using various time-dose models. In this study, we present a methodology to combine external beam and brachytherapy treatments for gynecological neoplasms. Material and Methods: Three dimensional bio-effect treatment planning to obtain complication probability has been outlined. CT scans of the patient's pelvis with the gynecological applicator in place are used to outline normal tissue and tumor volumes. 3D external beam and brachytherapy treatment plans are developed separately and an external beam dose matrix and a brachytherapy dose matrix was calculated. The dose in each voxel was assumed to be homogeneous. The physical dose in each voxel of the dose matrix was then converted into extrapolated response dose (ERD) based on the linear quadratic model that accounts for the dose per fraction, number of fractions, dose rate, and complete or incomplete repair of sublethal damage (time between fractions). The net biological dose delivered was obtained by summing the ERD grids from external beam and brachytherapy since there was complete repair of sublethal damage between external beam and brachytherapy treatments. The normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability were obtained using the biological dose matrix based on the critical element model. Results: The outlined method of combining external beam and brachytherapy treatments was implemented on gynecological treatments using an applicator for brachytherapy treatments. Conclusion: Implementation of the biological dose calculation that combine different modalities is extremely useful

  11. Role of radiation treatment in craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, H.W.; Maruyama, Y.; Young, B.

    1983-12-01

    The long natural course of craniopharyngioma and short-term follow-up period in many reports make comparison of various treatment results difficult. Some patients may enjoy virtually symptom-free lives despite known recurrence. Some patients with recurrence may have a good response to retreatment. Such unpredictable behavior and treatment responses have led to considerable disparity in clinical reports concerning the best treatment method. Treatments using surgery alone and/or low dose postoperative radiation treatment could prolong survival time, but may not prevent recurrence leading to ultimate failure. High dose postoperative radiotherapy following radical surgery should be an ideal approach in dealing with this tumor.

  12. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  13. Main trends of radiation application for food stuff treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of radiation treatment of food stuff using γ, X-rays and electrons are presented. Radiation doses of various products permitted by the Expert Committee of WHO and other international organizations are presented. The problem of grain disinfestation permitted irradiation doses are in the interval between 50 and 100 krad is stiudied. The harmless effect of these doses for products is shown. The experience of raw fish, fish products, raw meat, meat and vegetable products radappertization is reviewed. The intensification of technological processes of food production using radiation treatment is also considered. The advantages and disadvantages of radiation devices with different radiation sources are shown. It is shown that the choice of this or that type should be primarily determined by the parameter of irradiated objects, the periodicity of their coming to the device and conditions of treating these objects [ru

  14. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: new methods for mini-beams radiation therapy and treatment follow-up by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deman, P.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative method of synchrotron radiation therapy, called mini-beams, was proposed by A. Dilmanian et al. in 2006. Mini-beams consists in tumor irradiation with monochromatic sub-millimetric x-ray beams spatially fractionated produced by a synchrotron source. To obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume, an interleaving is realized using two orthogonal incidences. Adjacent healthy tissue is only partially irradiated by mini-beams, the areas between the beams only receive scattered radiation and therefore the energy deposited is 10 to 15 times lower than on one mini-beam axis, leading to a sparing effect of healthy tissue even when a high dose is deposited in the target volume. The thesis project is the development of this experimental method of monochromatic mini-beams, which involves the control of the irradiation geometry, the control of dosimetry and its modeling by Monte Carlo simulations. To evaluate the method, preclinical experiments on models of brain tumors implanted in rats (F98) are performed. Follow-up by anatomical and functional imaging is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Functional imaging of cerebral perfusion (volume and cerebral blood flow, mean transit time of heavy elements) appears to be associated in the literature as a relevant method for monitoring prognostic. The key parameters of the cerebral vasculature are mainly studied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the harmlessness of this imaging modality. The relation between MRI signal and contrast agent concentration is very complex and no quantitative relationship is well known. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) is an imaging modality with performances to measure absolute contrast agent concentration very close to the theoretical limits and can be used as gold-standard. The used pharmacokinetic models need as input parameters a contrast agent concentration versus time. A comparison of perfusion measurements between MRI and SRCT

  15. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in radiation reactions; Hyperbar oksygenbehandling ved straalereaksjoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanderud, Leif; Thorsen, Einar; Bratteboe, Guttorm; Forland, Martha; Kristensen, Gunnar

    2000-07-01

    Background: A national hyperbaric centre was established in 1994 at Haukeland Hospital with responsibility of all hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in Norway. In hypoxic tissues with symptomatic radiation reactions, hyperbaric oxygen induces the formation of collagen and angiogenesis resulting in permanently improved local microcirculation. Material and method: 234 patients received elective HBO treatment at Haukeland Hospital in 12997 with total of 4048 treatments. All 47 patients treated for radiation reactions in the pelvic area in 1997 received a questionnaire 3-15 months after HBO therapy, 81% reported. Results: Rectal bleeding and haematuria were reported as much improved in 61% and 55% respectively, while bladder incontinence was much improved in 46%. Interpretation: this treatment modality may be an alternative in symptomatic radiation reactions at the urinary bladder and the bowel when conventional treatment has given unsatisfactory results.

  17. Detector Simulation: Data Treatment and Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, J

    2011-01-01

    Detector Simulation in 'Data Treatment and Analysis Methods', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '4.1 Detector Simulation' of Chapter '4 Data Treatment and Analysis Methods' with the content: 4.1 Detector Simulation 4.1.1 Overview of simulation 4.1.1.1 Uses of detector simulation 4.1.2 Stages and types of simulation 4.1.2.1 Tools for event generation and detector simulation 4.1.2.2 Level of simulation and computation time 4.1.2.3 Radiation effects and background studies 4.1.3 Components of detector simulation 4.1.3.1 Geometry modeling 4.1.3.2 External fields 4.1.3.3 Intro...

  18. The efficiency of water treatment and disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, J.

    1993-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of various water disinfection methods are discussed. The report examines the effectiveness of combined chlorine treatment and UV irradiation method of water disinfection and describes methods of determining UV radiation intensity, α absorption coefficient and radiation dose by means of measuring equipment constructed by the author. The α absorption coefficient dependence on the colour and turbidity of water exposed to radiation is defined. Enchytraeus albidus was applied as bioindicator in UV radiation intensity and disinfection effects measurements. The influence of UV radiation on microbiological, physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of water was determined. Prototype devices for water disinfection with UV radiation were made. (author)

  19. The efficiency of water treatment and disinfection by means of ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobotka, J [Medical Academy, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Social Medicine

    1993-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of various water disinfection methods are discussed. The report examines the effectiveness of combined chlorine treatment and UV irradiation method of water disinfection and describes methods of determining UV radiation intensity, [alpha] absorption coefficient and radiation dose by means of measuring equipment constructed by the author. The [alpha] absorption coefficient dependence on the colour and turbidity of water exposed to radiation is defined. Enchytraeus albidus was applied as bioindicator in UV radiation intensity and disinfection effects measurements. The influence of UV radiation on microbiological, physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of water was determined. Prototype devices for water disinfection with UV radiation were made. (author).

  20. Surgical treatment of intestinal radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, J.Ne.; Nevasaari, K.; Kairaluoma, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    A review of 43 consecutive patients requiring operation for serious intestinal radiation injury was undertaken to elucidate the efficacy of surgical treatment. The most common site of radiation injury was the rectum (19 cases), followed by the small bowel (13 cases), the colon (7 cases), and the combination of these (4 cases). The overall operative mortality was 14%; morbidity, 47%; and the postoperative symptom-free period, 18 +/- 30 months. Colostomy (N = 20) carried the lowest risk of mortality, 0%, as compared with resection (N = 17) and bypass procedure (N = 6), which were accompanied by the mortalities of 24% and 33%, respectively. During the follow-up (3-13 years) 12 patients (28%) died of recurrent cancer and 9 patients (21%) of persistent radiation injury, which yielded an overall mortality of 65% after resection and 50% and 65% after bypass and colostomy procedures, respectively. Continuing radiation damage led to 15 late reoperations. Ten of these were performed after colostomy, four after resection, and one after bypass. We conclude that colostomy cannot be regarded as a preferred operative method, because it does not prevent the progression of radiation injury and because it is, for this reason, associated with a higher late-complication rate. A more radical surgery is recommended but with the limitation that the operative method must be adapted to the operative finding

  1. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  2. An investigation of the adjoint method for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning using Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    A relatively new technique for achieving the right dose to the right tissue, is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, a megavoltage x-ray beam is rotated around a patient, and the intensity and shape of the beam is modulated as a function of source position and patient anatomy. The relationship between beam-let intensity and patient dose can be expressed under a matrix form where the matrix D ij represents the dose delivered to voxel i by beam-let j per unit fluence. The D ij influence matrix is the key element that enables this approach. In this regard, sensitivity theory lends itself in a natural way to the process of computing beam weights for treatment planning. The solution of the adjoint form of the Boltzmann equation is an adjoint function that describes the importance of particles throughout the system in contributing to the detector response. In this case, adjoint methods can provide the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient with respect to all points in the source field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using the adjoint method and Monte Carlo transport for radiation therapy treatment planning

  3. The role of radiation treatment in craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.W.; Maruyama, Y.; Young, B.

    1983-01-01

    The long natural course of craniopharyngioma and short-term follow-up period in many reports make comparison of various treatment results difficult. Some patients may enjoy virtually symptom-free lives despite known recurrence. Some patients with recurrence may have a good response to retreatment. Such unpredictable behavior and treatment responses have led to considerable disparity in clinical reports concerning the best treatment method. Treatments using surgery alone and/or low dose postoperative radiation treatment could prolong survival time, but may not prevent recurrence leading to ultimate failure. High dose postoperative radiotherapy following radical surgery should be an ideal approach in dealing with this tumor. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation safety assessment of treatment teletherapy linear accelerators using the method of the risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; Vilaragut Llanes, Juan J.; Morales Lopez, Jorge L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents in the world of radiation, demonstrating the need for deepen security assessments. This study evaluates the safety of the treatment of teletherapy linear accelerator (LINAC) at a hospital in Cuba, based on applying the method Risk Matrix. This method has been used for many years in conventional industry, is simple, easy to apply and is based on the equation General risk R = f * P * C (where: f frequency of occurrence of the initiating event, P probability of failure of all barriers and magnitude of the consequences C expected). We have evaluated 140 accident sequences that were identified during the analysis of the treatment process. It was identified that 5 sequences are associated with the level of risk is very low, 96 low-risk, high risk and 39 with no very high risk. All accident sequences associated with high risk (considered unacceptable), have an impact on patients, and no concerns workers and public, which reaffirms that major security problems are related to radiation protection of patients. 34 sequences accidental high risk are associated with human errors and failures only 5 to equipment (LINAC, TPS, TAC, etc.). demonstrating the importance of human error. It shows that 35 of the 39 high-risk accident sequences leading to serious or very serious consequences for patients, which would mean the death of one or more patients, making specific recommendations to reduce risk in these cases. The findings of this work and regulators allow users to refine their programs quality assurance and inspection and suggest the hospital management, prioritize material resources according to criteria of irrigation management. (author)

  5. Chemoluminescence measurement of 16 spices as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Boegl, W.

    1984-09-01

    This report is based on a series of experiments conducted with 16 spices to find out whether the chemiluminescence intensity measurements of the reaction to luminol solution is appropriate as an indicator of treatment with ionizing radiation. For this purpose the optimum conditions of reaction were first assessed for each spice in order to determine the dependence of the chemiluminescence intensity on the radiation dose and storage time after irradiation. Only in garlic the irradiation was not able to be identified any more after 3 days of storage time. In most of the spices it is possible to take proof of radiation exposure even after storage times of more than 2 months. (orig./PW) [de

  6. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail

  7. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  8. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  9. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzon, Renato G. [Univ. Hospital CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich (ed.) [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  10. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizzon, Renato G.

    2015-01-01

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  11. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, L. [Inst. of Knitting Technology and Techniques, Lodz (Poland); Perkowski, J. [Inst. of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ledakowicz, S. [Dept. of Bioprocess Engineering, Technical Univ. of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  12. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  13. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  14. Improved treatment of radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandl, E.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Wandl-Hainberger, I.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment concept developed by K.H. Kaercher was extended by a therapy using Elasten S cream. In the course of a highvoltage therapy using fast electrons or cobalt-60, interesting aspects in the treatment and progression of the radiation reactions of the skin were established. The dermato-therapeutic principles layed down by K.H. Kaercher with the treatment palette used hitherto, have without doubt invariably proven their value. The exclusive powder treatment, however, may be made more practical by application of the new treatment cream in accordance with the intervals in radiation treatment or as a basic treatment towards the end of therapy. Furthermore it is ideally suited for the care and after-treatment of skin, strained by radiation. It reduces considerably the remaining visible radiation reactions. The treatment with powder and emulsion has for more than 10 years proven effective. After the excellent results of the new cream during radiation treatment, additional positive effects are expected in a long-term trial which will be reported on separately. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  16. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P. M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J. P.; Botelho, M. L. [Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  17. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  18. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  19. Treatment of dyeing drainage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    Decolorization of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage by radiation treatment. Artifical dyeing drainage was prepared from water, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts, and artificial sewage, from water, peptone, broth, urea and several kinds of inorganic salts. The above mentioned sample liquors of artificial dyeing drainage and sewage were exposed to γ-radiation of 5 kCi of 60 Co source by aerating through a ball filter. Absorption spectra, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined after irradiation to evaluate radiation treatment effect. With the experimental data obtained, it was clarified that absorbance, COD and TOC was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Decoloring was made effectively and about 95 % of bleaching ratio was obtained at 5 kGy of radiation. COD was decreased also by irradiation rather slower decreasing rate than that of decolorization, and TOC decrease was very slow at the initial stage of radiation but 40 % of TOC was decomposed by 10 kGy radiation. Dye of chemically stable structure was found more resistant to radiation decolorization. Decomposition efficiency was found less for dyes in the artificial sewage but secondary treated sewage showed no adverse effect. With the obtained understandings, a tentative scheme was planned for the radiation decolorization of dyeing drainage after aeration treatment. (Takagi, S.)

  20. Modern Palliative Radiation Treatment: Do Complexity and Workload Contribute to Medical Errors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, Neil, E-mail: neil.dsouza@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Holden, Lori [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Robson, Sheila [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mah, Kathy; Di Prospero, Lisa; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward; Spayne, Jacqueline [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether treatment workload and complexity associated with palliative radiation therapy contribute to medical errors. Methods and Materials: In the setting of a large academic health sciences center, patient scheduling and record and verification systems were used to identify patients starting radiation therapy. All records of radiation treatment courses delivered during a 3-month period were retrieved and divided into radical and palliative intent. 'Same day consultation, planning and treatment' was used as a proxy for workload and 'previous treatment' and 'multiple sites' as surrogates for complexity. In addition, all planning and treatment discrepancies (errors and 'near-misses') recorded during the same time frame were reviewed and analyzed. Results: There were 365 new patients treated with 485 courses of palliative radiation therapy. Of those patients, 128 (35%) were same-day consultation, simulation, and treatment patients; 166 (45%) patients had previous treatment; and 94 (26%) patients had treatment to multiple sites. Four near-misses and 4 errors occurred during the audit period, giving an error per course rate of 0.82%. In comparison, there were 10 near-misses and 5 errors associated with 1100 courses of radical treatment during the audit period. This translated into an error rate of 0.45% per course. An association was found between workload and complexity and increased palliative therapy error rates. Conclusions: Increased complexity and workload may have an impact on palliative radiation treatment discrepancies. This information may help guide the necessary recommendations for process improvement for patients who require palliative radiation therapy.

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios, E-mail: aedellis@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papatsoris, Athanasios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Department of Urology, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios [Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  2. Handbook of engineering control methods for occupational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orn, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are widely used in industrial, medical, military, and other applications. In the workplace, the task of assuring the safety of workers exposed to radiation sources is generally assigned to the safety professional, industrial hygienist, or an engineer in some other discipline. Rarely do employers outside the nuclear industry have the luxury of a staff health physicist in the workplace. Consultants may be called in to provide initial assessments of the hazards and to assist with complex problems, but the day-to-day problem solving is usually a function of the safety professional or other professional with the responsibility for safety. The primary purpose of this book is to provide a practical reference for safety professionals that addresses the application of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation protection standards and the quantitative methods for evaluating and designing engineering controls to meet those standards. Although the emphasis of this book is on control methods, it is necessary to understand the physical nature of the radiation exposure, its units of measure, and its biological effects in order to apply the appropriate control methods. Consequently, a brief treatment of these topics precedes the discussion of control methods for each type of radiation exposure

  3. Classification and treatment of radiation maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Noel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation maculopathy is a sight-limiting consequence of radiotherapy in the management of uveal melanoma and other intraocular tumors. In this review, we consider clinical, fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings, propose a classification for radiation maculopathy and discuss the management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiation macular edema (RME) can be classified by optical coherence tomography into noncystoid or cystoid edema, with foveolar or extrafoveolar involvement. Optical coherence tomographic grading of RME has been found to correlate with visual acuity. Focal argon laser might have some limited benefit in the treatment of RME. Intravitreal triamcinolone and intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents can be of short-term benefit in the treatment of RME. In a randomized controlled trial, periocular triamcinolone significantly reduced rates of RME and vision loss up to 18 months following plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. SUMMARY: Currently, there is no proven treatment for established RME, though periocular triamcinolone has been shown to have a preventive benefit. An accepted classification system for radiation maculopathy would be of benefit in planning and comparing future treatment trials.

  4. An evaluation of the use of gamma radiation in sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhote, P.A.; Clouston, J.G.; Ford, G.W.K.; Gregory, J.N.

    1974-12-01

    Literature evaluating the potential use of gamma radiation for the treatment of sewage is critically reviewed. It is concluded that irradiation treatment cannot contribute significantly to the improvement of conventional processes for sewage water recovery. Irradiation methods at present have no cost or technical advantage, and no proven biological advantage over known treatment systems. (author)

  5. Rationale for methods of prevention and treatment of toxic infections complications of combined radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugov, R.S.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Makarov, G.F.; Ul'yanova, L.P.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the results of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTI) helped single out the factors aggravating the outcomes of such injuries. Potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of bacterial enteroendotoxicosis and early toxemia associated with burns is the principal factor augmenting the disorders in the reactivity of radiosensitive systems in CRTI. The authors' findings evidence the efficacy of enterosorption, of methods enhancing the gastrointestinal motoricity, and of a number of modifiers of biologic reactions and heterologous immunoglobulins for the prevention and treatment of toxic infectious complications of CRTI

  6. Treatment and Recycling Process for Biosolids by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Yoo, D. H.; Lee, B. J.; Park, C. K.; Lee, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The volume of sludge is increasing rapidly on a yearly basis in Korea. Liquid sewage sludge generated in Korea has been treated as reuse (7%), landfill (5%), incineration (12%) and ocean dump (72%) in 2003 [1]. Ocean dump is the main treatment of sewage sludge up to date but incineration and landfill will be increased because Korean government will restrict ocean dump in the near future. Desirable treatment of sewage sludge is still a sensitive issue though many scientists have vigorously studied the safe and environmentally sound treatment of sewage sludge and reducing sludge cake. Therefore reduction of moisture content in sludge and recycling by radiation is the main objective in this work. Here we studied the radiation technique as a pretreatment process to enhance sludge dewaterability, to disinfect micro-organisms, and to remove the toxic organics in sewage sludge simultaneously. The improvement of sludge compost after irradiation was also observed to develop the method for recycling of sludge

  7. Present and future prospects of external radiation cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuckas, K. P.; Aleknavicius, E.; Grybauskas, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the most applicable method in the treatment of cancer patients. Rapid advances in radiotherapy and imaging techniques allow improvement in definition of target margins, volumes, and organs at risk. Conformal radiotherapy using multileaf collimator was introduced towards the end of the 1980s. Further improvements in dose distribution were possible through intensity modulation radiation therapy based on the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators for creating the desired dose variation inside a radiation field. The dose of definite radiotherapy is limited by dose tolerance of organs or tissues at risk near the target. In the last 50 years radiotherapy modalities achieved rapid developments, particularly in field of treatment planning and dose distribution. The main goal of that development is to apply definite radiotherapy dose to target and minimize normal tissue irradiation, leaving the patient free of treatment related morbidity. (author)

  8. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  9. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  10. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  11. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  12. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  13. On radiative transfer in water spray curtains using the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, A. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique and Appliquee (LEMTA), CNRS UMR 7563, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques BP 239 - 54506 VANDOEUVRE Cedex (France); Boulet, P. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique and Appliquee (LEMTA), CNRS UMR 7563, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques BP 239 - 54506 VANDOEUVRE Cedex (France)]. E-mail: Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr; Lacroix, D. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique and Appliquee (LEMTA), CNRS UMR 7563, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques BP 239 - 54506 VANDOEUVRE Cedex (France); Jeandel, G. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique and Appliquee (LEMTA), CNRS UMR 7563, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques BP 239 - 54506 VANDOEUVRE Cedex (France)

    2005-04-15

    Radiative transfer through water spray curtains has been presently addressed in conditions similar to devices used in fire protection systems. The radiation propagation from the heat source through the medium is simulated using a 2D Discrete Ordinates Method. The curtain is treated as an absorbing and anisotropically scattering medium, made of droplets injected in a mixing of air, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Such a participating medium requires a careful treatment of its spectral response in order to model the radiative transfer accurately. This particular problem is dealt with using a correlated-K method. Radiative properties for the droplets are calculated applying the Mie theory. Transmissivities under realistic conditions are then simulated after a validation thanks to comparisons with some experimental data available in the literature. Owing to promising results which are already observed in this case of uncoupled radiative problem, next step will be to combine the present study with a companion work dedicated to the careful treatment of the spray dynamics and of the induced heat transfer phenomena.

  14. Radiation treatment for cervical esophagus: patterns of practice study in Canada, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Patricia; Van Dyk, Jake; Yu, Edward; Battista, Jerry; Schmid, Matthew; Stitt, Larry; Tonita, Jon; Coad, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the patterns of practice among Canadian radiation oncologists who treat esophageal cancers, using a trans-Canada survey, completed at the end of 1996. Methods and Materials: One of 3 case presentations of different stages of cervical esophageal cancer was randomly assigned and sent to participating radiation oncologists by mail. Respondents were asked to fill in questionnaires regarding treatment techniques and to outline target volumes for the boost phase of radiotherapy. Radiation oncologists from 26 of 27 (96%) of all Canadian centers participated. Results: High-energy X-rays (no. >=no. 10 MV) were employed by 68% of the respondents in part of the treatment course. The majority (83%) of the radiation oncologists used at least two phases of treatment. Very few, 10 of 59 (17%), responses started with multifield treatment. The most frequently used prescription dose was 60 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks, given with concurrent chemotherapy. Dose prescriptions were to the isocenter in 39 of 48 (81%) or to a particular isodose line in 9 of 48 (19%) of respondents. Conclusion: There was a variety of radiation treatment techniques in this trans-Canada survey. The majority of the patients had combined cisplatin-based chemoradiation. The isocenter was not used consistently as a dose prescription point

  15. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.) [de

  16. A method for evaluating treatment quality using in vivo EPID dosimetry and statistical process control in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Greer, Peter B; Simpson, John; Zwan, Benjamin J; Middleton, Richard H

    2017-03-13

    authors have demonstrated the capability of the method for both treatment specific QA and continuing quality improvement. Practical implications The proposed method is a valuable tool for assessing the accuracy of treatment delivery whilst also improving treatment quality and patient safety. Originality/value Assessing in vivo EPID dosimetry with SPC can be used to improve the quality of radiation treatment for cancer patients.

  17. American Society of Radiation Oncology Recommendations for Documenting Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Das, Rupak; Low, Daniel; Yin Fangfang; Balter, James; Palta, Jatinder; Eifel, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for approximately a decade, a lack of adequate guidelines for documenting these treatments persists. Proper IMRT treatment documentation is necessary for accurate reconstruction of prior treatments when a patient presents with a marginal recurrence. This is especially crucial when the follow-up care is managed at a second treatment facility not involved in the initial IMRT treatment. To address this issue, an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) workgroup within the American ASTRO Radiation Physics Committee was formed at the request of the ASTRO Research Council to develop a set of recommendations for documenting IMRT treatments. This document provides a set of comprehensive recommendations for documenting IMRT treatments, as well as image-guidance procedures, with example forms provided.

  18. Indications for radiation therapy and surgery in the treatment of fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, M.A.; Jennings, L.C.; Efird, J.T.; Mankin, H.J.; Springfield, D.S.; Gebhardt, M.C.; Spiro, I.J.; Rosenberg, A.E.; Suit, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the roles of radiation and surgery in treating fibromatosis (desmoid tumors). Methods and Materials: Records of 92 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. Treatment consisted of: radiation, 15 tumors; surgery, 37 tumors; radiation plus surgery, 40 tumors. Radiation doses ranged from 10 Gy to 72 Gy, and were delivered as megavoltage external beam, brachytherapy or a combination. Minimum follow up was 1 year (median 6.2 yrs). The margin status of resected specimens included: 14 negative, 11 negative at 18 yrs and 0% for age <18 yrs. Conclusions: Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice for fibromatosis. Radiation therapy, however, is also effective either as a primary treatment or a surgical adjuvent. Additional advantage in recurrence free survival with peri-operative treatment was seen in patients for whom negative margins were not achieved. Thus, radiation might be recommended to these patients, particularly if the lesion is located such that further recurrence and resection could result in a significant functional or cosmetic defect. Radiation would also be recommended as a primary therapy for those in which a primary resection could not be expected without such deficits. It should also be noted when considering the potential consequences of recurrence that these lesions may often fail locally even with negative margins. Of further interest lesions located in the planter or palmer regions appear as a different disease entity, with a very benign course in adults and an extremely aggressive course in children

  19. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  20. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  1. The treatment of late radiation effects with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plafki, C.; Carl, U.M.; Glag, M.; Hartmann, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Late radiation injuries may impose a negative influence on the quality of life in the affected patients. In several entities, standardized treatment protocols are lacking. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of late radiation sequelae. Material and methods: The basic principles of HBO are reviewed as well as clinical issues. Current study protocols are presented. Results: During HBO-therapy the patient breathes pure oxygen at pressures above 100 kPa. The oxygen solubility within the fluid phase of the blood is largely increased. Biological effects include an increased oxygen diffusibility, improved collagen synthesis and neoangiogenesis as well as an enhancement of antimicrobial defenses. By decreasing the capillary filtration pressure a reduction of edema becomes possible. HBO has been shown to prevent complications following surgery in irradiated tissues. Its efficacy as an adjunct in the treatment of osteonecroses in radiation patients could be demonstrated. In addition, the loss of osseointegrated implants in the maxillofacial bones of these patients could be significantly reduced. Further indications include soft tissue necroses, hemorrhagic cystitis and proctitis in tumor patients that have been treated by radiotherapy as part of a multimodality approach. Conclusions: HBO in the treatment of late radiation effects is still subject of investigation, but remarkable results have been reported. Optimized treatment protocols need to be determined in various entities. The rate of side effects is acceptable low. (orig.) [de

  2. Cutaneous reaction to radiation and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis were reported of iridium 172 under poor administration which radiated locally on the skin of hands and fingers of oil company workers. Atomic bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed many people by total body skin exposure. Many workers and firemen were radiated by beta and gamma rays in the Chernobyl' accident, where 19 of 28 death cases died by radiation burn. 8 patients with 60-100% burn area died in 15-24 days after the explosion. Of 12 patients with 30-60% burn area, 6 died by burn. 21 cases of 30% burn area did not die in spite of mild or severe bone marrow depression. In all these cases, areas of skin ulcers epithelized with dry and wet scales till 50-60 days after the explosion, except large area (20-25cm 2 ) transplanted. In this accident, severe radiation burn due to the beta ray irradiation occured with endogeneous intoxication, renal disturbance, blood biochemical changes and bleeding. Oral, pharyngeal and intestinal membrane were irradiated by beta ray and were ulcerated so they could hardly eat. The treatment of these cases with acute radiation dermatitis should be performed by the procedure of treatment of burn, locally and systematically. Local treatment should be performed by topical application of antibiotic ointment or adrenocortical steroid ointment with antibiotics. In severe burn, systemic treatment with plasma and other fluids for burn shock should be performed, corresponding to the area and depth of radiation burn. (A.Y.)

  3. Imaging modalities in radiation treatment planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, D.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation therapy is a standard treatment after surgery for most of malignant and some of benignant brain tumors. The restriction in acquiring local tumor control is an inability in realization of high dose without causing radiation necrosis in irradiated area and sparing normal tissues. The development of imaging modalities during the last years is responsible for better treatment results and lower early and late toxicity. Essential is the role of image methods not only in the diagnosis and also in the precise anatomical (during last years also functional) localisation, spreading of the tumor, treatment planning process and the effects of the treatment. Target delineation is one of the great geometrical uncertainties in the treatment planning process. Early studies on the use of CT in treatment planning documented that tumor coverage without CT was clearly inadequate in 20% of the patients and marginal in another 27 %. The image fusion of CT, MBI and PET and also the use of contrast materia helps to get over those restrictions. The use of contrast material enhances the signal in 10 % of the patients with glioblastoma multiform and in a higher percentage of the patients with low-grade gliomas

  4. Radiation area monitor device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Kosicek, Andrej

    2018-01-30

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.

  5. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  6. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  7. Rectal sonography before and after radiation treatment in inoperable cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutinger, J.; Bernaschek, G.; Tatra, G.

    1989-01-01

    Transrectal sonography is helpful in the classification of parametrial infiltration prior to treatment as well as in the follow-up. In this study, we performed rectal sonography in cases of inoperable cervical cancer to objectify the reduction of the infiltration of the uterine cervix and of the parametrium. Rectosonography was performed in 10 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the uterine cervix before and after radiation treatment. The patients were treated with brachytherapy and teletherapy with an average radiation dose of 7680 rad. The whole therapy was finished after 6 to 9 weeks. Rectosonography enabled us to objectify the effect of radiation therapy. The length and width of parametrial infiltration could be measured in relation to the pelvis wall. Furthermore, the configuration of the parametrium could be imaged. Therefore, in cervical cancer, rectosonography is a valuable method to check and the documentate the effect of treatment and to diagnose recurrency. (orig.) [de

  8. Effects of gamma-radiation treatment in somatic cell culture of indica rice Basmati 370 selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaokai, Min; Xiufang, Qi; Zhenmin, Xiong; Chengzhang, Zhao [China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Radiation treatment was applied at different doses to germinating embryo, callus, callus with green spots and callus with developing shoots. Results indicate: (1) induction rate of the callus was reduced with increased radiation dose applied to germinating embryos; (2) radiation effect on redifferentiation percentage and/or green plantlets percentage of the callus varied with different treatment dates in the order of callus treatment > treatment of callus with green spots > treatment of callus with developing shoots > treatment of germinating embryo; (3) in vitro irradiation reduced the fertility of regenerated plants, but was able to increase their exerted stigma rate and the frequency of early maturing variation in their progenies; (4) a number of promising mutants including 2 male sterile plants were obtained from the progenies of in vitro irradiation. The radiation treatment with 2.5-5.OkR to callus with green spots or shoots is a method worthy of adoption in rice improvement. (author)

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Doerter, G.; Gueclue, I.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the translation of IAEA Safety Reports Series No.2 ,Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries. This report is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measure and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assesment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  10. Development, Implementation and Compliance of Treatment Pathways in Radiation Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis ePotters

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes and avoid ad-hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multicenter radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. METHODS: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our EMR data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. RESULTS: This retrospective analysis of data from electronic medical records found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97% and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n=1 breast, 3 prostate or patient elected discontinuance of care (n=1 prostate or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n=3 breast. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians.

  11. Comparative evaluation of skin cancer therapy with impulse laser radiation and surgical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalik, K.G.; Kozlov, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Altogether 324 patients with skin basilomas, 559 with recurrent basiloma and 38 with squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin were treated by means of impulse neodymium laser radiation. A follow-up period was up to 7 years. It was shown that impulse laser radiation is a highly effective means of treating skin cancer, having a number of advantages over the radiation and surgical methods. Laser radiation is also highly effective in the treatment of basiloma relapses. If relapses accounted for by the development of a radioresistant tumour occur at the sites where surgical eXcision yields an unstatisfactory cosmetic effect, laser therapy should be considered a method of choice

  12. Radiation treatment in older patients: a framework for clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Grace L; Smith, Benjamin D

    2014-08-20

    In older patients, radiation treatment plays a vital role in curative and palliative cancer therapy. Radiation treatment recommendations should be informed by a comprehensive, personalized risk-benefit assessment that evaluates treatment efficacy and toxicity. We review several clinical factors that distinctly affect efficacy and toxicity of radiation treatment in older patients. First, locoregional tumor behavior may be more indolent in older patients for some disease sites but more aggressive for other sites. Assessment of expected locoregional relapse risk informs the magnitude and timeframe of expected radiation treatment benefits. Second, assessment of the competing cancer versus noncancer mortality and morbidity risks contextualizes cancer treatment priorities holistically within patients' entire spectrum and time course of health needs. Third, assessment of functional reserve helps predict patients' acute treatment tolerance, differentiating those patients who are unlikely to benefit from treatment or who are at high risk for treatment complications. Potential radiation treatment options include immediate curative treatment, delayed curative treatment, and no treatment, with additional consideration given to altered radiation target, dose, or sequencing with chemotherapy and/or surgery. Finally, when cure is not feasible, palliative radiation therapy remains valuable for managing symptoms and achieving meaningful quality-of-life improvements. Our proposed decision-making framework integrates these factors to help radiation oncologists formulate strategic treatment recommendations within a multidisciplinary context. Future research is still needed to identify how advanced technologies can be judiciously applied in curative and palliative settings to enhance risk-benefit profiles of radiation treatment in older patients and more accurately quantify treatment efficacy in this group. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Orgotein in radiation treatment of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.; Steenholdt, S.; Jakobsen, A.; Sell, A.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1987-01-01

    The possible protective effect of orgotein (a superoxide dismutase) an radiation cystitis and proctitis was studied in patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A double-blind study in 60 patients was planned but due to unacceptable side effects only 30 patients were included. Radiation treatment was given with curative intent at a dose of 63 Gy in 30 fractions. Orgotein was injected 15 min after each daily radiation treatment at a dose of 4 or 8 mg. No effect of orgotein on tumour radiation response or on the acute radiation reactions in the bladder and rectum was detected. Marked subcutaneous infiltration and redness was seen at the local injection site in 5 patients. No general symptoms were observed. Intradermal tests and antibody titration tests showed that the local reactions were due to allergic reactions to the drug itself. The lack of radioprotective effect and the high frequency of unaccaptable side effects makes orgotein an unsuitable drug in climical radiation therapy. (orig.)

  14. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be...

  15. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  16. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Charles; Lang, Philippe; Dessard-Diana, Bernadette; Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm 3 (range, 0.9-243 cm 3 ) and 116 cm 3 (range, 24-731 cm 3 ), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas

  17. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  18. SU-F-T-683: Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis and Radiation Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourkal, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor control probability in radiation therapy allows comparing different radiation treatments to each other by means of calculating the probability that a prescribed dose of radiation eradicates or controls the tumor. In the conventional approach, all cancer cells can divide unlimited number of times and the tumor control often means eradicating every malignant cell by the radiation. In recent years however, there is a mounting consensus that in a given tumor volume there is a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for tumor initiation and growth. Other or progenitor cancer cells can only divide limited number of times. This entails that only cancer stem cells may nned to be eliminated in order to control the tumor. Thus one may define TCP as the probability of eliminating CSCs for the given dose of radiation. Methods: Using stochastic methods, specifically the birth-and-death Markov processes, an infinite system of equations is set for probabilities of having m cancer stem cells at time t after the start of radiation. The TCP is calculated as the probability of no cancer stem cells surviving the radiation. Two scenarios are studied. In the first situation, the TCP is calculated for a unidirectional case when CSC gives birth to another CSC or a progenitor cell. In the second scenario, a bidirectional model is studied where the progenitor cell gives rise to CSC. Results: The proposed calculations show that the calculated TCP for CSC depends on whether one adopts unidirectional or bidirectional conversion models. The bidirectional model shows significantly lower TCP values for the given dose delivered to the tumor. Conclusion: Incorporating CSC hypothesis into the TCP modeling may notably influence the dose prescription as well as the concept of the expected TCP after the radiation treatments.

  19. SU-F-T-683: Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis and Radiation Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourkal, E [Pinnacle Health Cancer Center, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The tumor control probability in radiation therapy allows comparing different radiation treatments to each other by means of calculating the probability that a prescribed dose of radiation eradicates or controls the tumor. In the conventional approach, all cancer cells can divide unlimited number of times and the tumor control often means eradicating every malignant cell by the radiation. In recent years however, there is a mounting consensus that in a given tumor volume there is a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for tumor initiation and growth. Other or progenitor cancer cells can only divide limited number of times. This entails that only cancer stem cells may nned to be eliminated in order to control the tumor. Thus one may define TCP as the probability of eliminating CSCs for the given dose of radiation. Methods: Using stochastic methods, specifically the birth-and-death Markov processes, an infinite system of equations is set for probabilities of having m cancer stem cells at time t after the start of radiation. The TCP is calculated as the probability of no cancer stem cells surviving the radiation. Two scenarios are studied. In the first situation, the TCP is calculated for a unidirectional case when CSC gives birth to another CSC or a progenitor cell. In the second scenario, a bidirectional model is studied where the progenitor cell gives rise to CSC. Results: The proposed calculations show that the calculated TCP for CSC depends on whether one adopts unidirectional or bidirectional conversion models. The bidirectional model shows significantly lower TCP values for the given dose delivered to the tumor. Conclusion: Incorporating CSC hypothesis into the TCP modeling may notably influence the dose prescription as well as the concept of the expected TCP after the radiation treatments.

  20. The choice of treatment after incomplete adenomectomy in acromegaly: Proton - versus highvoltage radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedecke, D.K.; Lutz, B.S.; Niedworok, G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the results of a study designed to compare the effectiveness of two different types of radiation in patients with acromegaly where surgical therapy had failed to normalize growth hormone(GH). Longterm follow-up after conventional high voltage radiation in 17 patients and protons therapy in 13 patients confirmed a similar reduction of GH levels in both groups. After 4,5 years a decrease of about 80% was achieved. After 'conventional radiation' GH was normal in 8(47%) and near normal in 6(35%) while proton therapy resulted in normalization in 5 and improvement in 5(38%). The slightly better results of 'conventional radiation' must be attributed to lower pretreatment levels of GH. Side effects as additional pituitary deficits and oculomotor palsies were more often seen after proton treatment. Since the results of both radiation methods are similar and proton therapy has a tendency to more serious side effects we recommend 'conventional radiation' as secondary treatment of acromegaly. (Authors)

  1. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Reinstein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  2. New modalities in radiation therapy for treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. Cancer mortality is the second and most common cause of death in the USA and in most European countries. In India, it is the fourth leading disease and the major cause of death. Cancer remains one of the most dreadful disease and approximately ten million cases of cancer occur in the world every year. The course of cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, its location, and its state of advancement. Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy and targeted therapy. Radiation therapy is an important an affordable modality for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. Radiation kills cancer cells with high-energy rays targeted directly to the tumor. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA and preventing its replication: therefore, it preferentially kills cancer cells, which rapidly divides. Radiation therapy is used for cure, control, and palliation of cancers in more than 60% of cancer patients. The goal of radiotherapy is to treat the cancer and spare the normal tissue as much as possible. Advances have been made in radiotherapy that allow delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor while sparing a greater amount of surrounding tissue, thus achieving more cures and fewer acute and long-term side effects. Technological advances and research are being continued to result in improvements in the field. Several new devices and techniques are used these days in radiotherapy for accurate treatment of cancer. Teletherapy (external radiation therapy) used focused radiation beams targeting well defined tumor through extremely detailed imaging scans. Conventional external beam radiation therapy (2DXRT) is delivered via two-dimensional beams using linear accelerator machines (X

  3. Online external beam radiation treatment simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Sopin, Ivan; Zeidan, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective and widely accepted form of treatment for many types of cancer that requires extensive computerized planning. Unfortunately, current treatment planning systems have limited or no visual aid that combines patient volumetric models extracted from patient-specific CT data with the treatment device geometry in a 3D interactive simulation. We illustrate the potential of 3D simulation in radiation therapy with a web-based interactive system that combines novel standards and technologies. We discuss related research efforts in this area and present in detail several components of the simulator. An objective assessment of the accuracy of the simulator and a usability study prove the potential of such a system for simulation and training. (orig.)

  4. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  5. "I sleep better at night:" How peer review of radiation treatment plans indirectly improves quality of care across radiation treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Hart, Margaret; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Reddeman, Lindsay; Gutierrez, Eric; Foxcroft, Sophie; Warde, Padraig

    Peer review of radiation oncology treatment plans is increasingly recognized as an important component of quality assurance in radiation treatment planning and delivery. Peer review of treatment plans can directly improve the quality of those plans and can also have indirect effects on radiation treatment programs. We undertook a systematic, qualitative approach to describing the indirect benefits of peer review, factors that were seen to facilitate or act as barriers to the implementation of peer review, and strategies to address these barriers across a provincial jurisdiction of radiation oncology programs (ROPs). Semistructured qualitative interviews were held with radiation oncology department heads and radiation therapy managers (or delegates) in all 14 ROPs in Ontario, Canada. We used a theoretically guided phenomenological qualitative approach to design and analyze the interview content. Themes were recorded by 2 independent reviewers, and any discordance was resolved by consensus. A total of 28 interviews were completed with 32 interviewees. Twenty-two unique themes addressed perceived benefits of peer review, relating to either peer review structure (n = 3), process (n = 9), or outcome (n = 10). Of these 22 themes, 19 related to indirect benefits to ROPs. In addition, 18 themes related to factors that facilitated peer review activities and 30 themes related to key barriers to implementing peer review were identified. Findings were consistent with, and enhanced the understanding of, previous survey-based assessments of the benefits and challenges of implementing peer review programs. Although challenges and concerns regarding the implementation of peer review were evident, the indirect benefits to radiation programs are numerous, far outweigh the implementation challenges, and strongly complement the direct individual-patient benefits that result from peer review quality assurance of radiation treatment plans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effect of distance to radiation treatment facility on use of radiation therapy after mastectomy in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punglia, Rinaa S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers

  7. [Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment

  8. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  9. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  10. Applying Ionizing Radiation for the Treatment of Sewage Sludge for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elammari, M.; Mashai, M.; Dehmani, K.; Abokhabta, S.; Akrim, M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased waste production by human activities world wide raised the problem of how to get red of this waste which cause undesirable impact on human and the surrounding environment. Sewage sludge generally contains high concentrations of pathogens even after digestion or after treating with other conventional methods. This paper brings to light the radiation treatment of sludge by ionizing radiation as a simple and reliable process for sludge disinfection and also the effect of Gamma radiation on sludge characteristics and heavy metals which exist in the sludge. Samples of moist sludge were brought from Elhadba Elkhadra waste water treatment plant, the main sewage water treatment plant in the City of Tripoli; they were collected in sterile plastic bags from different locations. Samples were then irradiated using gamma irradiator at Tajura Research Centre with a dose rate of 10 Gy/min, using a Co60 Gamma irradiator. They received a dose ranged between 0 -5 kGy with an increment of 1 kGy. Microorganisms are damaged when exposed to gamma radiation and the extent of damage is proportional to the radiation dose absorbed by the organism. Gamma irradiation greatly reduced the pathogen density in the investigated samples, as the 5 kGy dose was sufficient to terminate the total bacterial count for all microorganisms. A 3 kGy was only needed to demolish Enterobacter ease, Total coliform and Fecal coliform, whereas spore forming needed a dose of 4 kGy for complete elimination. (authors)

  11. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  12. Conformal radiation therapy with or without intensity modulation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Peignaux, K.; Ammor, A.; Bolla, M.

    2005-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy has now to be considered as a standard treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinomas. Using conformational methods and intensity modulated radiation therapy requires a rigorous approach for their implementation in routine, focused on the reproducibility of the treatment, target volume definitions, dosimetry, quality control, setup positioning. In order to offer to the largest number of patients high-dose treatment, the clinicians must integrate as prognostic factors accurate definition of microscopic extension as well as the tolerance threshold of critical organs. High-dose delivery is expected to be most efficient in intermediary risks and locally advanced diseases. Intensity modulated radiation therapy is specifically dedicated to dose escalation. Perfect knowledge of classical constraints of conformal radiation therapy is required. Using such an approach in routine needs a learning curve including the physicists and a specific quality assurance program. (author)

  13. Investigation of induced changes after treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam in the case of paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Beside conventional food preservation methods, such new physical methods are also applied as ionising radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high-tension gradient, fluctuating strong magnetic field as well as treatments with high-pressure saturated steam and microwaves. Since radiation treatment is the best known, it can be regarded as a basic method in comparative tests. In our work the preservation-induced changes were investigated for paprika griests of various origin and quality (different dyestuff contents). Samples were treated with ionising radiation, high-pressure saturated steam (140 deg C, 30 s) or with combinations of these. The changes were followed as a function of absorbed dose (2, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) and storage time (0, 1, 2, 4, 12 weeks) using colour measurements, rheological and ESR methods. Our results are summarised as follows: (1) The treatment with high-pressure saturated steam is equivalent to that of 5 kGy absorbed γ-doses. Significant changes in dyestuff contents and surface colours can't be detected immediately after treatments. After storage of 12 weeks, decomposition of dyestuffs and changes in surface colours in samples treated with saturated steam are 20% greater than in control. Radiation results in a slight (few %) dyestuff decomposition and colour change (i.e. discolouration). (2) Rheological characteristics were changed in both treatments (apparent viscosities were increased) during storage. This is a reversible and permanent change in the case of treatments with ionising radiation and with high-pressure saturated steam, respectively. (3) Changes induced by microwave treatment are in accordance with rheological changes. (4) Treatment with saturated steam results in a decrease in the cellulose free radical content. The decrease is inversely proportional to dyestuff contents. (5) Decrease of cellulose radical concentration with the storage time is of exponential-like character. Radicals disappear at

  14. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, Charles, E-mail: c.dupin@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (France); Lang, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France); Dessard-Diana, Bernadette [Department of Radiotherapy, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.9-243 cm{sup 3}) and 116 cm{sup 3} (range, 24-731 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas.

  15. Method to treat a product infested with microorganisms with ionizing radiation and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1977-01-01

    The method applies to the reduction of the number of germs in infected products by combined treatment of the microorganisms with ionizing radiation and raised temperatures. In this process, at least part of the energy lost in the irradiation unit (e.g. electron linear accelerator or X-ray unit), which is not converted into ionizing radiation is used to heat the product. The invention can be used in the field of food and animal food treatment, for the sterilisation of medical equipment, or for the pasteurisation of waste water and fertilizers. (VJ) [de

  16. The cutaneous radiation syndrome: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, R.U.; Steinert, M.; Gottlober, P.

    2001-01-01

    Accidental exposure to ionising radiation may occur during such catastrophic events as the Chernobyl accident in 1986 or for days and weeks as in Goiania in 1987 and in the military camp during the training of soldiers in Lilo/Georgia in 1997 as well as in medical institutions. The cutaneous symptoms after radiation exposure are based on a combination of inflammatory processes and alteration of cellular proliferation as a result of a specific pattern of transcriptionally activated pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. They follow a time course consisting of prodromal erythema, manifestation, chronic stage, late stage and they are referred to as Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. The time course depends on several factors such as the applied radiation dose, radiation quality, individual radiation sensitivity, the extent of contamination and absorption and volume of the skin. For diagnostics of the cutaneous radiation syndrome the following procedures are used: 7.5 MHz to 20 MHz-B-scan-sonography, thermography, capillary microscopy, profilometry, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy and histology. Based on the results of experimental and clinical research of the last years pharmacotherapy of the cutaneous radiation syndrome includes topic or systemic application of corticosteroids, gamma-interferon, pentoxifylline and vitamin E and superoxide dismutase. The treatment depends on the stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. Due to the complexity of the clinical manifestations of radiation disease in most patients an interdisciplinary treatment in specialized centres is necessary. Dermatologists are asked to perform in most cases life-long therapy and follow-up of the patients. (author)

  17. A practical method of modeling a treatment couch using cone-beam computed tomography for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and RapidArc treatment delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosary, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.aldosary@mail.mcgill.ca [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal [Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moftah, Belal [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a treatment couch on dose perturbation is not always fully considered in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). In the course of inverse planning radiotherapy techniques, beam parameter optimization may change in the absence of the couch, causing errors in the calculated dose distributions. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for the treatment couch components, they are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield unit (HU) values may exist. Moreover, a radiotherapy facility may wish to have a third-party custom tabletop installed that is not included by the TPS vendor. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable computed tomography (CT) data for the treatment couch and shows how the absorbed dose calculated with the modeled treatment couch can differ from that with the default treatment couch found in the TPS. We also experimentally verified that neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch completely in the treatment planning process might result in dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% for 4-MV and 10-MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, 20 RapidArc and IMRT cases were used to quantify the change in calculated dose distributions caused by using either the default or modeled couch. From 2-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array measurements, we observed large dose distribution differences between the measurements and calculations when the couch was omitted that varied according to the planning technique and anatomic site. Thus, incorporating the treatment couch in the dose calculation phase of treatment planning significantly decreases dose calculation errors.

  18. Discussion of feasibility to carry out intensity modulated radiation therapy in conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haiyou; Liu Liping; Liang Yueqin; Zhang Liang; Yu Shui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility about the shielding effect of conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment in the existing rooms to carry out intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The estimation model given in NCRP REPORT No. 151- S tructural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities i s adopted by linking instances, which presents the calculation methods on radiation level at the ambience of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. Results: The radiation level, as well as the additional annual effect dose of occupational and public at the ambience of accelerator treatment room, in crease to a certain extent, when conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment room; are used to carry out IMRT. Conclusion: It is necessary to make environmental impact assessment for conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms, which will be used to execute IMRT. (authors)

  19. MINERVA - a multi-modal radiation treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, C.A. E-mail: cew@enel.gov; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Cogliati, J.J.; Milvich, M.L.; Frederickson, C.; Perkins, M.; Harkin, G.J

    2004-11-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Montana State University have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system. This system can be used for planning and analyzing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common modality independent image and geometry construction and dose reporting and guiding. It employs an integrated, lightweight plugin architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The MINERVA design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java Virtual Machine for interoperability. A full computation path has been established for molecular targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with the associated transport plugin developed by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Development of the neutron transport plugin module is proceeding rapidly, with completion expected later this year. Future development efforts will include development of deformable registration methods, improved segmentation methods for patient model definition, and three-dimensional visualization of the patient images, geometry, and dose data. Transport and source plugins will be created for additional treatment modalities, including brachytherapy, external beam proton radiotherapy, and the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy.

  20. Prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tingzhen; Ke Xiaoyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To look forward to the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness by analyzing the results using umbilical cord blood in laboratory experiments and clinical research. Method: The data on umbilical cord blood published in literature are reviewed. Results: The umbilical blood is rich in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, low in immunological activity of lymphocytes, expanded significantly ex vivo under selected culture condition readily available and collected easily. Conclusion: With the above advantages, the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood is encouraging, particularly in the clinical treatment of radiation sickness

  1. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.

    2005-01-01

    griseofulvin (500 mg daily for 6 weeks). Patients were followed up for 24 weeks. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated in all 287 patients while 43 (13.03%) cases were dropped out from the initial allocation. At the end of the follow up period (6 months after discontinuation of treatment) mycological cure rate was achieved 41 (42.70%), 36 (38.70%) and 65 (66.33%) in Group-A, Group-B and Group-C respectively. The mycological cure rate was highly significant (P=0.000) and considered to be the acceptable outcome of treatment. Clinical cure rate was considered as another way of assessment. Percentage of clinical cure rate was similar as mycological cure rate and equally significant (P=0.000). Recurrence rate of the disease was highest in griseofulvin-induced patients 21 (21.88%) and in beta radiation exposed patients was 14 (15.06%). This rate was least in combination therapy group of griseofulvin and beta radiation 4 (4.08%). Cure rate in Group C is significantly higher than Group A and B as well (P=0.000). Several known side effects causing systemic involvement of oral drugs are already being experienced, side effects like blackening of surrounding soft tissue of nail were observed which were transient and self-limiting. Further to this, all sample population underwent for biochemical and haematological tests pre and post radiation application. No significant change of tests results were observed excluding any observable radiation side affects to this particular type of radiation application. It can be concluded that the proposed new beta radiation treatment modality for onychomycosis exhibited a low risk- benefit ratio. It is well-tolerated and efficacious method to treat onychomycosis. From the observations of the present study it may be considered worthy to comment that in Group C as the cure rate is highest, recurrent rate is the lowest, duration and cost of treatment are significantly less, this modality of treatment can be considered as the more acceptable procedure for

  3. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  4. The results of local radiation application at organ-reserving treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Ponomar'ov, Yi.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the given study is the clinical morphological investigation of the breast cancer pre-operation radiotherapy effectiveness by the proposed method, and its influence to the apoptosis. The clinical morphological investigation has been carried out in 28 breast cancer patients, the treatment of which has been began with the pre-operation radiation therapy course by the dose large fractionating method on the breast gland with the local tumor radiation, inguinal lymph glands with the next execution of the organ-preserving operation. We can draw a conclusion, that this very method is effective, as it devitalizes the tumors, and gives the enough high indicator of survival

  5. Related radiation effects on the intestine and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpeshcheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumours of female genitalia and some other tumours due to which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumours, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation unjuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet

  6. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Pathophysiologie, approaches to treatment and prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Paulsen, F.; Budach, W.; Hoffmann, W.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal toxicity is frequently observed during radiotherapy of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. The proposed pathophysiology of radiation enteritis is complex and a variety of different treatment strategies have been suggested for the management of acute radiation-induced diarrhea. Material and methods: Data are presented from an extensive review of the current literature. Results: Radiation-induced diarrhea results from a variety of different pathophysiological mechanisms including malabsorption of bile salts and lactose, imbalances in local bacterial flora and changes in the intestinal patterns of motility. Up to date acute radiation diarrhea is predominantly treated symptomatically using opioide derivates (loperamide) or adsorbants of bile salts such as smectite. Clinical trials have been performed using L. acidophilus, smectite or sucralfate for diarrhea prophylaxis with moderate reduction of acute symptoms. Conclusions: Further evaluation of strategies for diarrhea prophylaxis is warranted. Due to the complex nature of radiation enteritis a multimodal approach taking into account alterations in intestinal motility patterns, malabsorption of bile salts and an imbalance of mucosal bacterial flora may offer new perspectives. (orig.) [de

  7. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  8. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2003-01-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika

  9. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  10. Influence of planning time and treatment complexity on radiation therapy errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Zeng, Jing; Carlson, Joshua; Spady, Phil; Jordan, Loucille; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning is a complex process with potential for error. We hypothesized that shorter time from simulation to treatment would result in rushed work and higher incidence of errors. We examined treatment planning factors predictive for near-miss events. Treatments delivered from March 2012 through October 2014 were analyzed. Near-miss events were prospectively recorded and coded for severity on a 0 to 4 scale; only grade 3-4 (potentially severe/critical) events were studied in this report. For 4 treatment types (3-dimensional conformal, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], neutron), logistic regression was performed to test influence of treatment planning time and clinical variables on near-miss events. There were 2257 treatment courses during the study period, with 322 grade 3-4 near-miss events. SBRT treatments had more frequent events than the other 3 treatment types (18% vs 11%, P = .04). For the 3-dimensional conformal group (1354 treatments), univariate analysis showed several factors predictive of near-miss events: longer time from simulation to first treatment (P = .01), treatment of primary site versus metastasis (P < .001), longer treatment course (P < .001), and pediatric versus adult patient (P = .002). However, on multivariate regression only pediatric versus adult patient remained predictive of events (P = 0.02). For the intensity modulated radiation therapy, SBRT, and neutron groups, time between simulation and first treatment was not found to be predictive of near-miss events on univariate or multivariate regression. When controlling for treatment technique and other clinical factors, there was no relationship between time spent in radiation treatment planning and near-miss events. SBRT and pediatric treatments were more error-prone, indicating that clinical and technical complexity of treatments should be taken into account when targeting safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 American

  11. Multileaf collimator leaf position verification and analysis for adaptive radiation therapy using a video-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Sohrab B.

    External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.

  12. Deterministic methods in radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community

  13. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  14. Application of photo-magnetic therapy for treatment of skin radiation damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova-Pushkar, L I; Gertman, V Z; Bilogurova, L V

    2014-09-01

    To improve methods of prevention and treatment of local radiation injury to the skin using the photomagnetic therapy. Materials and methods. Study was conducted on 60 male Wistar rats with 180-200 g bodyweight. The femoral area right hind limb of rats was locally irradiated by X-ray unit at a dose of 80.0 Gy. Exposed animals were divided into 2 groups: control and experimental. The rats of the experimental group received 2 courses of photo-magnetic therapy on the irradiated skin. The observations were carried out for 60 days. Methods - clinical, histological and statistical. Results. Local irradiation of rat skin causes the development of radiation ulcers in 60-70 % of the animals with the destruction of the structure in all layers of the skin. Spontaneous healing of radiation ulcer lasts at least two months with no complete skin recovery. Photo-magnetic therapy applied immediately after irradiation resulted in two-folddecrease of frequency of radiation ulcer incidence, accelerated the complete healing for 3 weeks and to ameliorated their progress. Histological examination showed that the photo-magnetic therapy reduced the extent of damage to all layers of the skin with restoration of epidermis and dermis structure and reduced the degree of inflammatory and destructive processes in the dermis. Conclusions. Photo-magnetic therapy produces a significant positive treatment effect by significantly reducing the inflammatory and destructive processes in all layers of the skin, stimulates the blood flow recovery in damaged tissue both with fibroblast proliferation and synthesis activation of native collagen fibers and other components of connective tissue, so almost a month accelerates ulcer healing radiation. L. I. Simonova-Pushkar, V. Z. Gertman, L. V. Bilogurova.

  15. The management of radiation treatment error through incident learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Brown, Robert J.; Ploquin, Jodi L.; Kind, Anneke L.; Grimard, Laval

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess efficacy of an incident learning system in the management of error in radiation treatment. Materials and methods: We report an incident learning system implementation customized for radiation therapy where any 'unwanted or unexpected change from normal system behaviour that causes or has the potential to cause an adverse effect to persons or equipment' is reported, investigated and learned from. This system thus captures near-miss (potential) and actual events. Incidents are categorized according to severity, type and origin. Results: Our analysis spans a period of 3 years with an average accrual of 11.6 incidents per week. We found a significant reduction in actual incidents of 28% and 47% in the second and third year when compared to the first year (p < 0.001), which we attribute to the many interventions prompted by the analysis of incidents reported. We also saw a similar significant reduction in incidents generated at the treatment unit correlating with the introduction of direct treatment parameter transfer and electronic imaging (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Implementation of an incident learning system has helped us to establish a just environment where all staff members report deviations from normal system behaviour and thus generate evidence to initiate safety improvements.

  16. Establishing the estimation model on radiation level at the ambience of 60Co radiotherapy treatment room based on NCRP REPORT No.151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haiyou; Liu Liping; Liang Yueqin; Yu Shui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish the estimation model to evaluate the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. Methods: The estimation model derives from NCRP REPORT No.151- S tructural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities b y making appropriate adjustment, which presents the calculation methods on radiation level at the ambience of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. Results: The application scope of estimation model from NCRP REPORT No.151 is extended to γ-radiotherapy facilities, and it can be regarded as a new model for calculating the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. Conclusion: The estimation model has certain reference value to evaluate the radiation level at the ambience of 60 Co radiotherapy treatment room. (authors)

  17. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, F.R.; Schwankoff, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in which visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals

  18. Overall response rates to radiation therapy for patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hoskin, Peter; Chow, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy has been shown to successfully palliate bone metastases. A number of systematic reviews and large clinical trials have reported response rates for initial treatment and retreatment. Objective: To determine overall response rates of patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment. Methods: Intent-to-treat and evaluable patient statistics from a systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for initial treatment of bone metastases and a randomized clinical trial of retreatment were pooled and analyzed to determine the overall response rates for patients receiving initial treatment and retreatment. Results: In the intent-to-treat calculation, 71–73% of patients had an overall response to radiation treatment and in the evaluable patient population; 85–87% of patients did so. Response rates varied slightly whether patients underwent single or multiple fractions in initial treatment or retreatment. Conclusions: Single and multiple fraction radiation treatment yielded very similar overall response rates. Patients treated with a single fraction for both initial and repeat radiation experience almost identical overall response to those patients treated with multiple fraction treatment. It is therefore recommended that patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases be treated with a single 8 Gy fraction of radiation at both the initial treatment and retreatment

  19. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Matthew T.; Ojerholm, Eric; Roses, Robert E.; Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M.; Mamtani, Ronac; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Datta, Jashodeep

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered

  20. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  1. Case study on utilization of radiation in sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Waichiro

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of radiation to sludge treatment has been studied as a case study of the utilization of radiation to environmental protection by the society for the utilization of radiation in Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., and the result is presented in this paper. The examined radiation sources to sterilize sludge were γ-ray and electron beam, and sludge was irradiated in the forms of slurry or cake. Four treatment conditions by the combination of the radiation sources and the sludge conditions were examined. From the examined results, it was estimated that in the case one (γ-ray and slurry), the output of 25 kW or 1.6 million curie was required for the sludge treatment capacity of 250 tons/day, in the case two (electron beam and slurry), an accelerator of 20 mA or 60 mA was required for the capacity of 250 or 750 tons/day, respectively, in the case three (γ-ray and cake), a radiation source of 0.6 million curie was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day, and in the case four (electron beam and cake), an accelerator of 4 mA or 12 mA was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day or 150 tons/day. (Yoshitake, I.)

  2. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  3. Geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and disparities of early-stage breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies of breast cancer treatment have focused on the Northern Plains of the United States, an area with a high mastectomy rate. This study examined the association between geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and receipt of breast cancer treatments among early-stage breast cancer patients in South Dakota. Based on 4,209 early-stage breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 in South Dakota, the study measured geographic proximity to radiation therapy facilities using the shortest travel time for patients to the closest radiation therapy facility. Two-level logistic regression models were used to estimate for early stage cases i the odds of mastectomy versus breast conserving surgery (BCS; ii the odds of not receiving radiation therapy after BCS versus receiving follow-up radiation therapy. Covariates included race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, tumour grade, tumour sequence, year of diagnosis, census tract-level poverty rate and urban/rural residence. The spatial scan statistic method was used to identify geographic areas with significantly higher likelihood of experiencing mastectomy. The study found that geographic accessibility to radiation therapy facilities was negatively associated with the likelihood of receiving mastectomy after adjustment for other covariates, but not associated with radiation therapy use among patients receiving BCS. Compared with patients travelling less than 30 minutes to a radiation therapy facility, patients travelling more than 90 minutes were about 1.5 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.11 and patients travelling more than 120 minutes were 1.7 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.42. The study also identified a statistically significant cluster of patients receiving mastectomy who were located in south-eastern South Dakota, after adjustment for other factors. Because

  4. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge

  5. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha [and others

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge.

  6. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  7. Reversal of cerebral radiation necrosis with bevacizumab treatment in 17 Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bevacizumab has been suggested as a new treatment modality for cerebral radiation necrosis due to its ability to block the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in leakage-prone capillaries, though its use still remains controversial in clinical practice. Methods The use of bevacizumab in 17 patients with symptomatic cerebral radiation necrosis poorly controlled with dexamethasone steroid treatments was examined between March 2010 and January 2012. Bevacizumab therapy was administered for a minimum of two cycles (7.5 mg/kg, at two-week interval with a median of four bevacizumab injections. Changes in bi-dimensional measurements of the largest radiation necrosis lesions were observed by gadolinium-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Additionally, dexamethasone dosage, Karnofsky performance status (KPS, adverse event occurrence and associated clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient. Results MRI analysis revealed that the average reduction was 54.9% and 48.4% in post-gadolinium and T2-weighted sequence analysis, respectively. Significant clinical neurological improvements were expressed in 10 patients according to KPS values. Dexamethasone reduction was achieved four weeks after initiation of bevacizumab in all patients, with four patients successfully discontinuing dexamethasone treatment. Mild to moderate bevacizumab-related adverse events, such as fatigue, proteinuria and hypertension were observed in three patients. Upon follow-up at 4 to 12 months, 10 patients showed clinical improvement, and 7 patient deaths occurred from tumor progression (5 patients, recurrent necrosis (1 patient, and uncontrolled necrosis-induced edema (1 patient. Conclusions These findings suggest bevacizumab as a promising treatment for cerebral radiation necrosis induced by common radiation therapies, including external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS, and fractionated stereotactic

  8. Prophylactic treatment with a potent corticosteroid cream ameliorates radiodermatitis, independent of radiation schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study will test the hypothesis that preventive topical steroid treatment instituted from start of radiotherapy can ameliorate acute radiation dermatitis. Subgroups of increased risk of dermatitis are included. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized trial...... of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant RT, independent of RT schedule. Preventive application of a potent corticosteroid cream should be used in the routine and instituted at the start of RT....... schedules as well as for anatomical sites, skin type, breast size and BMI. Patients treated the irradiated area during the radiation period and two weeks following cessation of radiation. RESULTS: Patients receiving hypofraction RT developed less skin reactions than those treated with conventional RT...

  9. Low-Dose Radiation Therapy (2 Gy × 2) in the Treatment of Orbital Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasola, Carolina E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Jones, Jennifer C. [Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Huang, Derek D. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles Olive View, Sylmar, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu; Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Low-dose radiation has become increasingly used in the management of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but has not been studied specifically for cases of ocular adnexal involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of low-dose radiation in the treatment of NHL of the ocular adnexa. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 20 NHL patients with 27 sites of ocular adnexal involvement treated with low-dose radiation consisting of 2 successive fractions of 2 Gy at our institution between 2005 and 2011. The primary endpoint of this study is freedom from local relapse (FFLR). Results: At a median follow-up time of 26 months (range 7-92), the overall response rate for the 27 treated sites was 96%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 85% (n=23) and a partial response rate of 11% (n=3). Among all treated sites with CR, the 2-year FFLR was 100%, with no in-treatment field relapses. The 2-year freedom from regional relapse rate was 96% with 1 case of relapse within the ipsilateral orbit (outside of the treatment field). This patient underwent additional treatment with low-dose radiation of 4 Gy to the area of relapse achieving a CR and no evidence of disease at an additional 42 months of follow-up. Orbital radiation was well tolerated with only mild acute side effects (dry eye, conjunctivitis, transient periorbital edema) in 30% of treated sites without any reports of long-term toxicity. Conclusions: Low-dose radiation with 2 Gy × 2 is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of indolent NHL of the ocular adnexa with high response rates and durable local control with the option of reirradiation in the case of locoregional relapse.

  10. Low-Dose Radiation Therapy (2 Gy × 2) in the Treatment of Orbital Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasola, Carolina E.; Jones, Jennifer C.; Huang, Derek D.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Hoppe, Richard T.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Low-dose radiation has become increasingly used in the management of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but has not been studied specifically for cases of ocular adnexal involvement. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of low-dose radiation in the treatment of NHL of the ocular adnexa. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 20 NHL patients with 27 sites of ocular adnexal involvement treated with low-dose radiation consisting of 2 successive fractions of 2 Gy at our institution between 2005 and 2011. The primary endpoint of this study is freedom from local relapse (FFLR). Results: At a median follow-up time of 26 months (range 7-92), the overall response rate for the 27 treated sites was 96%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 85% (n=23) and a partial response rate of 11% (n=3). Among all treated sites with CR, the 2-year FFLR was 100%, with no in-treatment field relapses. The 2-year freedom from regional relapse rate was 96% with 1 case of relapse within the ipsilateral orbit (outside of the treatment field). This patient underwent additional treatment with low-dose radiation of 4 Gy to the area of relapse achieving a CR and no evidence of disease at an additional 42 months of follow-up. Orbital radiation was well tolerated with only mild acute side effects (dry eye, conjunctivitis, transient periorbital edema) in 30% of treated sites without any reports of long-term toxicity. Conclusions: Low-dose radiation with 2 Gy × 2 is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of indolent NHL of the ocular adnexa with high response rates and durable local control with the option of reirradiation in the case of locoregional relapse

  11. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  12. Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Practice Patterns and IGRT's Impact on Workflow and Treatment Planning: Results From a National Survey of American Society for Radiation Oncology Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Nima, E-mail: nabaviza@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Elliott, David A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Chen, Yiyi [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kusano, Aaron S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mitin, Timur; Thomas, Charles R.; Holland, John M. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To survey image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) practice patterns, as well as IGRT's impact on clinical workflow and planning treatment volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: A sample of 5979 treatment site–specific surveys was e-mailed to the membership of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), with questions pertaining to IGRT modality/frequency, PTV expansions, method of image verification, and perceived utility/value of IGRT. On-line image verification was defined as images obtained and reviewed by the physician before treatment. Off-line image verification was defined as images obtained before treatment and then reviewed by the physician before the next treatment. Results: Of 601 evaluable responses, 95% reported IGRT capabilities other than portal imaging. The majority (92%) used volumetric imaging (cone-beam CT [CBCT] or megavoltage CT), with volumetric imaging being the most commonly used modality for all sites except breast. The majority of respondents obtained daily CBCTs for head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), lung 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT, anus or pelvis IMRT, prostate IMRT, and prostatic fossa IMRT. For all sites, on-line image verification was most frequently performed during the first few fractions only. No association was seen between IGRT frequency or CBCT utilization and clinical treatment volume to PTV expansions. Of the 208 academic radiation oncologists who reported working with residents, only 41% reported trainee involvement in IGRT verification processes. Conclusion: Consensus guidelines, further evidence-based approaches for PTV margin selection, and greater resident involvement are needed for standardized use of IGRT practices.

  13. Application of OMEGA Monte Carlo codes for radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Jiang, Steve B.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy of conventional dose algorithms for radiosurgery treatment planning is limited, due to the inadequate consideration of the lateral radiation transport and the difficulty of acquiring accurate dosimetric data for very small beams. In the present paper, some initial work on the application of Monte Carlo method in radiation treatment planning in general, and in radiosurgery treatment planning in particular, has been presented. Two OMEGA Monte Carlo codes, BEAM and DOSXYZ, are used. The BEAM code is used to simulate the transport of particles in the linac treatment head and radiosurgery collimator. A phase space file is obtained from the BEAM simulation for each collimator size. The DOSXYZ code is used to calculate the dose distribution in the patient's body reconstructed from CT slices using the phase space file as input. The accuracy of OMEGA Monte Carlo simulation for radiosurgery dose calculation is verified by comparing the calculated and measured basic dosimetric data for several radiosurgery beams and a 4 x 4 cm 2 conventional beam. The dose distributions for three clinical cases are calculated using OMEGA codes as the dose engine for an in-house developed radiosurgery treatment planning system. The verification using basic dosimetric data and the dose calculation for clinical cases demonstrate the feasibility of applying OMEGA Monte Carlo code system to radiosurgery treatment planning. (author)

  14. Physical methods of treatment of complications of anti tumoral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovets, A.G.; Ulashchik, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous experimental and clinical materials about expediency of the use of physical methods for lowering of frequency and heaviness of complications of radial therapy are reviewed. One of such methods, possessing most expressed radioprotection ability, is low intensity laser radiation. Some of the authors demonstrated that use of this method move aside the time of appearance of early radial reactions. Preliminary local use of laser irradiation (λ = 510 nm) permits to avoid of development of epidermis disease and such radial reactions as ulcer and skin fibrosis in cancer patients after neutron-photon therapy. There are good results of application of ultraviolet irradiation in the region of action of ionizing radiation in the case of medical treatment of skin cancer. Low frequency magnetic field can reduce the expression of radial reactions

  15. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may be...

  16. Radiation energy calibrating system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation energy calibrating system and method which uses a pair of calibrated detectors for measurements of radiation intensity from x-ray tubes for a non-invasive determination of the electrical characteristics; I.E., the tube potential and/or current

  17. Application of radiation for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bumsoo; Kim Jinkyu; Kim Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of wastewater is non-chemical, and uses fast formation of short-lived reactive radicals that can interact with a wide range of pollutants. Such reactive radicals are strong oxidizing or reducing agents that can transform the pollutants in the liquids wastes. The first studies on the radiation treatment of wastes were carried out in the 1950s principally for disinfection. In the 1960s, these studies were extended to the purification of water and wastewater. After some laboratory research on industrial wastewaters and polluted groundwater in 1970s and 1980s, several pilot plants were built for extended research in the 1990s. The first full-scale application was reported for the purification of wastewater at the Voronezh synthetic rubber plant in Russia. Two accelerators (50 kW each) were used to convert the non-biodegradable emulsifier, 'nekal', present in the wastewater to a biodegradable form . The installation treats up to 2000 m3 of effluent per day. A pilot plant of 1000 m 3 /d for treating textile-dyeing wastewater has been constructed in Daegu, Korea with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. High-energy irradiation produces instantaneous radiolytical transformations by energy transfer from accelerated electrons to orbital electrons of water molecules. Absorbed energy disturbs the electron system of the molecule and results in breakage of inter-atomic bonds. Hydrated electron eaq, H atom, . OH and HO 2 . radicals and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 and H 2 are the most important products of the primary interactions (radiolysis products). Generally, radiation processing of wastewater has maximum efficiency at pollutant concentration less than 10 -3 mol/L (∼100 ppm). The treatment of such wastewater is simple, requires low dose (about 1 kGy or less) and gives almost complete elimination of odor, color, taste and turbidity. The radiation processing of polluted water containing specific contaminants may require creation of special conditions to

  18. Parenteral nutrition in radiation therapy and combined treatment of patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudzhyan, A.V.; Buzovkina, L.P.; Biletov, B.V.; Breusenko, E.Ya.; Krasnova, A.I.; Tsaryuk, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Results obtained while studying 165 patients with esophageal cancer are presented. It is shown that radiation therapy and combined treatment result in the body mass loss, in the increase of katabolic processes in organism, in the negative nitrogen balance. Weaken patients, being under starvation conditions, are subjected more often to reaction changes and complications developing during the treatment. A comparison characteristics of two methods providing the organism with nutrition is given, i.e. gastrostomy and parenteral nutrition. Shown is the advantage of the adequate parenteral nutrition preventing the appearence of reaction changes and complications, improving the subjective state of patients, homeostasis indices, promoting the elimination of esophagitis phenomena, general radiation response and reaction to chemical preparations; resulting in the increase of quantity of leucocytes at leukopenia

  19. A multi-professional software tool for radiation therapy treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Tim; Brooks, Ken; Davis, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Verification of patient setup is important in conformal therapy because it provides a means of quality assurance for treatment delivery. Electronic portal imaging systems have led to software tools for performing digital comparison and verification of patient setup. However, these software tools are typically designed from a radiation oncologist's perspective even though treatment verification is a team effort involving oncologists, physicists, and therapists. A new software tool, Treatment Verification Tool (TVT), has been developed as an interactive, multi-professional application for reviewing and verifying treatment plan setup using conventional personal computers. This study will describe our approach to electronic treatment verification and demonstrate the features of TVT. Methods and Materials: TVT is an object-oriented software tool written in C++ using the PC-based Windows NT environment. The software utilizes the selection of a patient's images from a database. The software is also developed as a single window interface to reduce the amount of windows presented to the user. However, the user can select from four different possible views of the patient data. One of the views is side-by-side comparison of portal images (on-line portal images or digitized port film) with a prescription image (digitized simulator film or digitally reconstructed radiograph), and another view is a textual summary of the grades of each portal image. The grades of a portal image are assigned by a radiation oncologist using an evaluation method, and the physicists and therapists may only review these results. All users of TVT can perform image enhancement processes, measure distances, and perform semi-automated registration methods. An electronic dialogue can be established through a set of annotations and notes among the radiation oncologists and the technical staff. Results: Features of TVT include: 1) side-by-side comparison of portal images and a prescription image; 2

  20. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  1. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  2. "1"3"1I treatment of differentiated-type thyroid cancer: postoperative care and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Xiaoli; Gao Yuhua; Wang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical nursing and radiation protection measures of "1"3"1I therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid after operation. Methods: 806 patients with postoperative "1"3"1I treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included in this study. The study included three aspects: (1) data preparation, health education and psychological nursing before treatment; (2) observation and nursing and radiation protection for the quarantine period; (3) nursing and followup after treatment. Results: There were 11 cases with nausea and loss of appetite and 9 cases with insomnia, dreams and other symptoms in total 806 patients. 2 patients got Parotid swelling and mild pain for not taking VitC according to requirements, released after timely symptomatic treatment. The remaining patients were in stable condition, without obvious symptoms through the quarantine period. Conclusion: According to the characteristics of "1"3"1I treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer, it was important to do nurse service for patients in isolation period of treatment, take effective radiation protection measures, discover and treat patients timely with complications for securing smooth treatment and obtaining good clinical curative effect. Those measures would better to ensure the safety of patients and people around, avoid environmental pollution and make for rehabilitation of patients. (authors)

  3. Status of radiation treatment of liquid sample in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun-Joo

    2003-01-01

    For the wastewater treatment, electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000 m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater was constructed and has been successfully operated. In addition to this pilot plant study, construction of commercial scale plant for treatment of dyeing wastewater is being done under TC project organized by IAEA together with E-B Tech. Co., Ltd., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and dye wastewater treatment station in Korea. On the other hand, several studies using radiation are being carried out in the field of treatment of polluted groundwater, advanced treatment of sewage, sterilization of discharged water from sewage treatment plants. Many researches on water and wastewater treatment using radiation will be carried out under support of long term basis nuclear R and D program by government. (author)

  4. Radiation transport calculation methods in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivunoro, H.; Seppaelae, T.; Savolainen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is used as a radiotherapy for malignant brain tumours. Radiation dose distribution is necessary to determine individually for each patient. Radiation transport and dose distribution calculations in BNCT are more complicated than in conventional radiotherapy. Total dose in BNCT consists of several different dose components. The most important dose component for tumour control is therapeutic boron dose D B . The other dose components are gamma dose D g , incident fast neutron dose D f ast n and nitrogen dose D N . Total dose is a weighted sum of the dose components. Calculation of neutron and photon flux is a complex problem and requires numerical methods, i.e. deterministic or stochastic simulation methods. Deterministic methods are based on the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation. Such are discrete ordinates (SN) and spherical harmonics (PN) methods. The stochastic simulation method for calculation of radiation transport is known as Monte Carlo method. In the deterministic methods the spatial geometry is partitioned into mesh elements. In SN method angular integrals of the transport equation are replaced with weighted sums over a set of discrete angular directions. Flux is calculated iteratively for all these mesh elements and for each discrete direction. Discrete ordinates transport codes used in the dosimetric calculations are ANISN, DORT and TORT. In PN method a Legendre expansion for angular flux is used instead of discrete direction fluxes, land the angular dependency comes a property of vector function space itself. Thus, only spatial iterations are required for resulting equations. A novel radiation transport code based on PN method and tree-multigrid technique (TMG) has been developed at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Monte Carlo method solves the radiation transport by randomly selecting neutrons and photons from a prespecified boundary source and following the histories of selected particles

  5. GAUSS-SEIDEL AND SUCCESSIVE OVERRELAXATION METHODS FOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampoorna, M.; Bueno, J. Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    The linearly polarized solar limb spectrum that is produced by scattering processes contains a wealth of information on the physical conditions and magnetic fields of the solar outer atmosphere, but the modeling of many of its strongest spectral lines requires solving an involved non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer problem accounting for partial redistribution (PRD) effects. Fast radiative transfer methods for the numerical solution of PRD problems are also needed for a proper treatment of hydrogen lines when aiming at realistic time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar chromosphere. Here we show how the two-level atom PRD problem with and without polarization can be solved accurately and efficiently via the application of highly convergent iterative schemes based on the Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) radiative transfer methods that had been previously developed for the complete redistribution case. Of particular interest is the Symmetric SOR method, which allows us to reach the fully converged solution with an order of magnitude of improvement in the total computational time with respect to the Jacobi-based local accelerated lambda iteration method.

  6. Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation Methods for Radiative Transfer with Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampoorna, M.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2010-04-01

    The linearly polarized solar limb spectrum that is produced by scattering processes contains a wealth of information on the physical conditions and magnetic fields of the solar outer atmosphere, but the modeling of many of its strongest spectral lines requires solving an involved non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer problem accounting for partial redistribution (PRD) effects. Fast radiative transfer methods for the numerical solution of PRD problems are also needed for a proper treatment of hydrogen lines when aiming at realistic time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar chromosphere. Here we show how the two-level atom PRD problem with and without polarization can be solved accurately and efficiently via the application of highly convergent iterative schemes based on the Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) radiative transfer methods that had been previously developed for the complete redistribution case. Of particular interest is the Symmetric SOR method, which allows us to reach the fully converged solution with an order of magnitude of improvement in the total computational time with respect to the Jacobi-based local accelerated lambda iteration method.

  7. Optimization in radiotherapy treatment planning thanks to a fast dose calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mingchao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the radiotherapy treatments planning issue which need a fast and reliable treatment planning system (TPS). The TPS is composed of a dose calculation algorithm and an optimization method. The objective is to design a plan to deliver the dose to the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy and sensitive tissues. The treatment planning aims to determine the best suited radiation parameters for each patient's treatment. In this thesis, the parameters of treatment with IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy) are the beam angle and the beam intensity. The objective function is multi-criteria with linear constraints. The main objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the feasibility of a treatment planning optimization method based on a fast dose-calculation technique developed by (Blanpain, 2009). This technique proposes to compute the dose by segmenting the patient's phantom into homogeneous meshes. The dose computation is divided into two steps. The first step impacts the meshes: projections and weights are set according to physical and geometrical criteria. The second step impacts the voxels: the dose is computed by evaluating the functions previously associated to their mesh. A reformulation of this technique makes possible to solve the optimization problem by the gradient descent algorithm. The main advantage of this method is that the beam angle parameters could be optimized continuously in 3 dimensions. The obtained results in this thesis offer many opportunities in the field of radiotherapy treatment planning optimization. (author) [fr

  8. Development of transmission dose estimation algorithm for in vivo dosimetry in high energy radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul; Hun, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2004-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is very important for quality assurance purpose in high energy radiation treatment. Measurement of transmission dose is a new method of in vivo dosimetry which is noninvasive and easy for daily performance. This study is to develop a tumor dose estimation algorithm using measured transmission dose for open radiation field. For basic beam data, transmission dose was measured with various field size (FS) of square radiation field, phantom thickness (Tp), and phantom chamber distance (PCD) with a acrylic phantom for 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray. Source to chamber distance (SCD) was set to 150 cm. Measurement was conducted with a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber. By using regression analysis of measured basic beam data, a transmission dose estimation algorithm was developed. Accuracy of the algorithm was tested with flat solid phantom with various thickness in various settings of rectangular fields and various PCD. In our developed algorithm, transmission dose was equated to quadratic function of log(A/P) (where A/P is area-perimeter ratio) and the coefficients of the quadratic functions were equated to tertiary functions of PCD. Our developed algorithm could estimate the radiation dose with the errors within ±0.5% for open square field, and with the errors within ±1.0% for open elongated radiation field. Developed algorithm could accurately estimate the transmission dose in open radiation fields with various treatment settings of high energy radiation treatment. (author)

  9. The breast cancer patient's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia; Scutter, Sheila; Arbon, Paul; Borg, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have many decisions to make during the course of their treatment. The aims of this paper are to describe the women's experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer and to explore how women feel about receiving radiation therapy. An in-depth understanding of the women's experience was developed using a qualitative research approach underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women who had completed treatment for early breast cancer. The themes that emerged from the data were: being challenged, getting ready, beyond control, regaining a sense of control and getting through it. This study provides health professionals with an initial understanding of the women's perspective of the experience of making radiation therapy treatment decisions for early breast cancer. This study concludes by suggesting that further research needs to be conducted to gain an understanding of how other patients feel about treatment decision making and radiation therapy. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  10. [Advanced radiation therapy project for cancer treatment--from Hokkaido to the world, the world access to Hokkaido].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    Cancer is the most major cause of death in Japan recently. In this symposium, we explained advanced treatment technology for cancer treatment, now used and that will be used in near future at the Hokkaido University Hospital. Intensity Moderated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) are considered to be the most promising and advanced technologies for cancer treatment. Various kinds of radiation treatment equipment and methods have been developed and constructed at the Hokkaido University. One of the most worlds wide famous one is the real time tumor tracking radiotherapy system. The FIRST (Funding for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology) Program has been supporting us to produce cutting-edge technology. We hope that this symposium would help the audience to understand the latest technology for cancer treatment especially in the field of radiation therapy and also we wish the audience would recognize the importance of the research aspect that have been performed at Hokkaido University and its Hospital.

  11. Etching method employing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.N.; Winters, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a method for etching a silicon oxide, carbide, nitride, or oxynitride surface using an electron or ion beam in the presence of a xenon or krypton fluoride. No additional steps are required after exposure to radiation

  12. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  13. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  14. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Eric S., E-mail: epaulson@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  15. Treatment of radiation dental caries with fixed dental prosthetic constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dachev, B [Vissh Meditsinski Inst., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of clinical observations for many years the author established that the covering of the teeth, progressively developing radiation caries, with crowns of precious metal and plastics is a safe way for their protection. The crown isolates the teeth from the saliva with its changed composition, quantity and changed pH. A prophylactic effect is obtained with the covering of the morbid teeth with radiation caries, concerning the possibilities of osteoradionecrosis development, due to the restriction of the ways of secondary infection penetration. The carried out treatment with fixed crowns preserves the anatomical teeth shape, radiation caries stops its development and the masticatory function of the dentition is recovered. After radiation treatment in the maxillofacial region with hard dental tissues affection which cannot be restored by way of ordinary definite fillings--indications for crown covering exist. The carried out observations reveal that complex cares are necessary in the radiation caries treatment on the part of specialists in therapeutic and orthopedic stomatology with consultations with radiologists. (auth)

  16. Interface methods for hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion radiation-transport simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.

    2006-01-01

    Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations in diffusive media. An important aspect of DDMC is the treatment of interfaces between diffusive regions, where DDMC is used, and transport regions, where standard Monte Carlo is employed. Three previously developed methods exist for treating transport-diffusion interfaces: the Marshak interface method, based on the Marshak boundary condition, the asymptotic interface method, based on the asymptotic diffusion-limit boundary condition, and the Nth-collided source technique, a scheme that allows Monte Carlo particles to undergo several collisions in a diffusive region before DDMC is used. Numerical calculations have shown that each of these interface methods gives reasonable results as part of larger radiation-transport simulations. In this paper, we use both analytic and numerical examples to compare the ability of these three interface techniques to treat simpler, transport-diffusion interface problems outside of a more complex radiation-transport calculation. We find that the asymptotic interface method is accurate regardless of the angular distribution of Monte Carlo particles incident on the interface surface. In contrast, the Marshak boundary condition only produces correct solutions if the incident particles are isotropic. We also show that the Nth-collided source technique has the capacity to yield accurate results if spatial cells are optically small and Monte Carlo particles are allowed to undergo many collisions within a diffusive region before DDMC is employed. These requirements make the Nth-collided source technique impractical for realistic radiation-transport calculations

  17. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  18. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  19. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Schatz, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Four patients with radiation-induced optic neuropathies were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. They had received radiation therapy for treatment of pituitary tumors, reticulum cell sarcoma, and meningioma. Two presented with amaurosis fugax before the onset of unilateral visual loss and began hyperbaria within 72 hours after development of unilateral optic neuropathy. Both had return of visual function to baseline levels. The others initiated treatment two to six weeks after visual loss occurred in the second eye and had no significant improvement of vision. Treatment consisted of daily administration of 100% oxygen under 2.8 atmospheres of pressure for 14-28 days. There were no medical complications of hyperbaria. While hyperbaric oxygen is effective in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy, it must be instituted within several days of deterioration in vision for restoration of baseline function

  1. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  2. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2001-12-01

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  3. Comparison of surgical, radiation and cytostatic treatment of gastric carcinomas in world literature from 1973 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcker, A.

    1982-01-01

    Among the three possible therapeutic methods, surgical treatment gives the best results from a three-year survival time onwards. The five-year survival rate is between 8 and 18.6 pc. With radiation therapy the survival rate is already at 8.3 pc after three years. In cases of cytostatic treatment of locally restricted tumors, the rate of survival three years after the inception of the therapy is zero. The one-year survival rate with additional cytostatic treatment is 73.9 pc, without it there are 46.7 pc survivals. Surgery plus radiation therapy accounts for a one-year survival rate of 55.5 pc. This is more than with surgery alone (33 pc respectively 46.7 pc), but less than the one-year survival rate for surgical and cytostatic treatment (73.9 pc). Where radiation plus chemical therapy is applied, the percentage of survivals after two years is 28.5, respectively 40 for local tumors. None of the patients with metastases had survived two years after the treatment was started. (Comparison with surgery alone: five-year survival rate 9.4 pc of patients with affected lymph nodes). The best results are obtained by surgical combined with cytostatic treatment, possibly also by surgery in combination with radiation therapy. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Comparison in decoloration efficiency among radiation, ultraviolet ray and Fenton oxidation treatment for aqueous solution of dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshishige; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    To establish the methods of oxidation and decomposition treatment for dyeing waste water, the processes by radiation, ultraviolet ray and Fenton oxidation were examined comparatively for the decoloration efficiency. The dyes tested were commercially available reactive dyes, RBO-3R, DBR-BB, MBY-6GS and RBB-R. In the radiation process, the dye solution was irradiated with gamma ray of cobalt-60 while blowing air through it. Radiation process and Fenton oxidation were excellent for decoloration. Ultraviolet ray was low in the treatment efficiency, so it is not practical. In the radiation process, the addition of a reagent and the adjustment of pH are not required unlike the case of the Fenton oxidation process. Its continuous operation is also possible, so it is a highly practical means. (Mori, K.)

  5. Radiation therapy treatment planning for tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is essential to attempt to minimize the effect of radiation on the normal brain and spinal cord in treatment planning. The central nervous system was thought to be resistant to radiation; however, as data have accumulated concerning the late effects of radiation the nervous system has been shown to be more sensitive. Recently the late effects of radiation on the spinal cord have been evaluated and it has been shown the sensitivity of this portion of the nervous system to high doses of radiation and has pointed out the importance of fractionation. It is estimated that the spinal cord increases its sensitivity by 1.6 by increasing the dose per fraction from 2. to 3 Gy. Likewise, the sensitivity of the optic nerve to radiation has been reported particularly when the size of the fraction is greater than 2 Gy. In treatment planning, therefore, the size of the dose given per fraction is important in the initial part of the planning procedure. In order to keep the dose per fraction to a minimum (2 Gy or less), multiple fields may be used to minimize the dose gradient in the high dose area. When treating with multiple fields it is wise to treat each field every day. In planning treatment not only must one consider the normal brain and spinal cord but one must also consider the radiosensitivity of other surrounding organs. The eye, particularly the lens, should be avoided if possible in order to prevent the formation of a radiation cataract. The salivary gland is sensitive to radiation and the ear has recently been reported to have some sensitivity to high doses of radiation. When planning treatment for the spinal cord one must consider the sensitivity of the cord itself and as well as the effect of radiation on the bone marrow in the vertebral bodies adjacent to the spinal cord. The heat, the lungs, and organs in the abdomen must also be considered in planning treatment on the torso

  6. Effect of Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion-guided Biopsy on Radiation Treatment Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Aaron; Valle, Luca F.; Shankavaram, Uma; Krauze, Andra; Kaushal, Aradhana; Schott, Erica; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wood, Bradford [Center for Interventional Oncology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Pinto, Peter [Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Choyke, Peter; Turkbey, Baris [Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Citrin, Deborah E., E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy (MRI-Bx) has recently been compared with the standard of care extended sextant ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (SOC-Bx), with the former associated with an increased rate of detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. The present study sought to determine the influence of MRI-Bx on radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) recommendations. Methods and Materials: All patients who had received radiation treatment and had undergone SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx at our institution were included. Using the clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score, patients were categorized into National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk groups and radiation treatment or ADT recommendations assigned. Intensification of the recommended treatment after multiparametric MRI, SOC-Bx, and MRI-Bx was evaluated. Results: From January 2008 to January 2016, 73 patients received radiation therapy at our institution after undergoing a simultaneous SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx (n=47 with previous SOC-Bx). Repeat SOC-Bx and MRI-Bx resulted in frequent upgrading compared with previous SOC-Bx (Gleason score 7, 6.7% vs 44.6%; P<.001; Gleason score 8-10, 2.1% vs 38%; P<.001). MRI-Bx increased the proportion of patients classified as very high risk from 24.7% to 41.1% (P=.027). Compared with SOC-Bx alone, including the MRI-Bx findings resulted in a greater percentage of pathologically positive cores (mean 37% vs 44%). Incorporation of multiparametric MRI and MRI-Bx results increased the recommended use and duration of ADT (duration increased in 28 of 73 patients and ADT was added for 8 of 73 patients). Conclusions: In patients referred for radiation treatment, MRI-Bx resulted in an increase in the percentage of positive cores, Gleason score, and risk grouping. The benefit of treatment intensification in accordance with the MRI-Bx findings is unknown.

  7. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Chandra M.; Mageras, Gikas S.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: In this presentation we will look into the basic components of 3-dimensional conformal treatment planning, and will discuss planning for some selected sites. We will also review some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning. External beam radiation therapy is one of the arms of cancer treatment. In the recent years 3-D conformal therapy had significant impact on the practice of external beam radiation therapy. Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-D treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. In this course we will give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning, such as field shaping with multileaf collimation, computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into treatment planning process

  8. Application of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics for fingerprinting radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from apples and grapes employing solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS equipped with a transfer line without stationary phase. Single peak obtained was integrated to obtain total mass spectrum of the volatile fraction of samples. A data matrix having relative abundance of all mass-to-charge ratios was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify radiation treatment. PCA results suggested that there is sufficient variability between control and irradiated samples to build classification models based on supervised techniques. LDA successfully aided in segregating control from irradiated samples at all doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kGy). SPME-MS with chemometrics was successfully demonstrated as simple screening method for radiation treatment.

  9. Radiation treatment of brain tumors: Concepts and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has demonstrated clinical value for a multitude of CNS tumors. Application of the different physical modalities available has made it possible for the radiotherapist to concentrate the radiation in the region of the tumor with relative sparing of the surrounding normal tissues. Correlation of radiation dose with effect on cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor has shown increasing effect with increasing dose. By using different physical modalities to alter the distribution of radiation dose, it is possible to increase the dose to the tumor and reduce the dose to the normal tissues. Alteration of the volume irradiated and the dose delivered to cranial soft tissues, normal brain, and tumor are strategies that have been effective in improving survival and decreasing complications. The quest for therapeutic gain using hyperbaric oxygen, neutrons, radiation sensitizers, chemotherapeutic agents, and BNCT has met with limited success. Both neoplastic and normal cells are affected simultaneously by all modalities of treatment, including ionizing radiation. Consequently, one is unable to totally depopulate a tumor without irreversibly damaging the normal tissues. In the case of radiation, it is the brain that limits delivery of curative doses, and in the case of chemical additives, it is other organ systems, such as bone marrow, liver, lung, kidneys, and peripheral nerves. Thus, the major obstacle in the treatment of malignant gliomas is our inability to preferentially affect the tumor with the modalities available. Until it is possible to directly target the neoplastic cell without affecting so many of the adjacent normal cells, the quest for therapeutic gain will go unrealized.72 references

  10. Measurement of anatomy contouring in EPI review: a practical method for use in radiation therapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia; Williams, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment verification can be performed using hard copy portal films or digital Electronic Portal Images (EPI) of the treatment field, acquired at the time of treatment. This paper describes a practical method of assessing the accuracy of reference anatomy outlining, for treatment sites involving the pelvis, breast and lumbar spine. Seven original bone anatomy outlines contoured onto verification images of five patients, were printed on transparency sheets and reference points were marked at equal distances along the anatomy curves. Two sample anatomy contour sets were created by two independent radiation therapists who outlined visible bone anatomy on the same seven digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and hard copy outlines were obtained. Three independent observers with differing levels of experience, assessed the discrepancies between the original anatomy contours and the sample sets on two occasions one week apart, by measuring the distances between the original and sample set contours (absolute values in mm). The degree of agreement between the same assessor on two occasions (intra-rater reliability) and between assessors (inter-rater reliability) was analysed using parametric analysis for levels of relationship and significant differences. This simple method of reference anatomy outline measurement was shown to be highly reliable within assessors and between assessors (r > 0.87 and rz > 0.75 for both intra- and inter-rater comparisons). This measurement process may be a suitable method, for undertaking quality assurance activities in image verification within radiation therapy departments. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  12. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  13. Neutronics methods for thermal radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The equations of thermal radiative transfer are time discretized in a semi-implicit manner, yielding a linear transport problem for each time step. The governing equation in this problem has the form of a neutron transport equation with fission but no scattering. Numerical methods are described, whose origins lie in neutron transport, and that have been successfully adapted to this new problem. Acceleration methods that have been developed specifically for the radiative transfer problem, but may have generalizations applicable in neutronics problems, are also discussed

  14. Walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-kuo; Li, Meng-kun; Peng, Min-jun; Xie, Chun-li; Yuan, Cheng-qian; Wang, Shuang-yu; Chao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation environment modeling method is designed. • Path-evaluating method and segmented path-planning method are proposed. • Path-planning simulation platform for radiation environment is built. • The method avoids to be misled by minimum dose path in single area. - Abstract: Based on minimum dose path-searching method, walking path-planning method for multiple radiation areas was designed to solve minimum dose path problem in single area and find minimum dose path in the whole space in this paper. Path-planning simulation platform was built using C# programming language and DirectX engine. The simulation platform was used in simulations dealing with virtual nuclear facilities. Simulation results indicated that the walking-path planning method is effective in providing safety for people walking in nuclear facilities.

  15. Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Gammaknife Radiosurgery-Induced Brain Radiation Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifang; Zheng, Chutian; Feng, Yiping; Xu, Qingsheng

    2017-09-01

    Radiation necrosis is one of the complications of Gammaknife radiosurgery. The traditional treatment of radiation necrosis carries a high risk of failure, Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, a known mediator of cerebral edema. It can be used to successfully treat brain radiation necrosis. Two patients with a history of small cell lung cancer presented with metastatic disease to the brain. They underwent Gammaknife radiosurgery to brain metastases. Several months later, magnetic resonance imaging showed radiation necrosis with significant surrounding edema. The patients had a poor response to treatment with dexamethasone. They were eventually treated with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, 7.5 mg/kg every 3 weeks, respectively), and the treatment resulted in significant clinical and radiographic improvement. Bevacizumab can be successfully used to treat radiation necrosis induced by Gammaknife radiosurgery in patients with cerebral metastases. It is of particular benefit in patients with poor reaction to corticosteroids and other medications.

  16. Spectral radiative property control method based on filling solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Y.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling thermal radiation by tailoring spectral properties of microstructure is a promising method, can be applied in many industrial systems and have been widely researched recently. Among various property tailoring schemes, geometry design of microstructures is a commonly used method. However, the existing radiation property tailoring is limited by adjustability of processed microstructures. In other words, the spectral radiative properties of microscale structures are not possible to change after the gratings are fabricated. In this paper, we propose a method that adjusts the grating spectral properties by means of injecting filling solution, which could modify the thermal radiation in a fabricated microstructure. Therefore, this method overcomes the limitation mentioned above. Both mercury and water are adopted as the filling solution in this study. Aluminum and silver are selected as the grating materials to investigate the generality and limitation of this control method. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to investigate the spectral radiative properties of these filling solution grating structures. A magnetic polaritons mechanism identification method is proposed based on LC circuit model principle. It is found that this control method could be used by different grating materials. Different filling solutions would enable the high absorption peak to move to longer or shorter wavelength band. The results show that the filling solution grating structures are promising for active control of spectral radiative properties. -- Highlights: • A filling solution grating structure is designed to adjust spectral radiative properties. • The mechanism of radiative property control is studied for engineering utilization. • Different grating materials are studied to find multi-functions for grating

  17. Accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Arya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While conventionally fractionated radiation therapy alone is an acceptable option for poor prognostic patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, we hypothesized that accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy will have similar efficacy without increasing toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 300 patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC treated between 1993 and 2009. Patients included in the study were medically or surgically inoperable, were free of metastatic disease at initial workup and did not receive concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 received 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (Accelerated Radiotherapy (ACRT while group 2 received 60-63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy 1 (STRT1 and group 3 received > 63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy (STRT2. Results There were 119 (39.7% patients in the ACRT group, 90 (30.0% in STRT1 and 91 (30.3% in STRT2. More patients in the ACRT group had KPS ≤ 60 (p 5% (p = 0.002, and had stage 3B disease (p Conclusions Despite the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our experience of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 15 fractions appears to be an acceptable treatment option for poor performance status patients with stage III inoperable tumors. Such a treatment regimen (or higher doses in 15 fractions should be prospectively evaluated using modern radiation technologies with the addition of sequential high dose chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC.

  18. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James; Ruan, Su; Anastasio, Mark; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2016-08-01

    For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity coefficient (93.28%  ±  1

  19. A method for ultrashort electron pulse-shape measurement using coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a method for nondestructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The method is based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) spectrum produced by a bunch passing a dipole magnet system. This work also contains a systematic treatment of synchrotron radiation theory which lies at the basis of CSR. Standard theory of synchrotron radiation uses several approximations whose applicability limits are often forgotten: here we present a systematic discussion about these assumptions. Properties of coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron moving along an arc of a circle are then derived and discussed. We describe also an effective and practical diagnostic technique based on the utilization of an electromagnetic undulator to record the energy of the coherent radiation pulse into the central cone. This measurement must be repeated many times with different undulator resonant frequencies in order to reconstruct the modulus of the bunch form-factor. The retrieval of the bunch profile function from these data is performed by means of deconvolution techniques: for the present work we take advantage of a constrained deconvolution method. We illustrate with numerical examples the potential of the proposed method for electron beam diagnostics at the TESLA test facility (TTF) accelerator. Here we choose, for emphasis, experiments aimed at the measure of the strongly non-Gaussian electron bunch profile in the TTF femtosecond-mode operation. We demonstrate that a tandem combination of a picosecond streak camera and a CSR spectrometer can be used to extract shape information from electron bunches with a narrow leading peak and a long tail. (orig.)

  20. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma; Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Holguin, P.G.; Ferreira, A.M.R., E-mail: simonecsc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, L.A.V. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canary, P.C.; Reisner, M. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.N.; Souza, H.J.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Hypofractionated radiation therapy was applied to five cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of ten histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, two were staged as T{sub 1}, four as T{sub 2}, two as T{sub 3}, and two as T{sub 4}. The animals were submitted to four radiation fractions from 7.6 to 10 grays each, with one week intervals. The equipment was a linear accelerator with electrons beam. The cats were evaluated weekly during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 40% of the lesions had complete remission, 40% partial remission, and 20% did not respond to the treatment. Response rates were lower as compared to other protocols previously used. However, hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  1. Radiation method of sulfide compound transformation in petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.; Zajkin, Yu.A.; Mamonova, T.B.; Bakirova, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Processes of sulphuric compounds transformation for petroleum and heavy residuals under radiation and thermal treatment action are studied. It is shown that sulphuric compounds are concentrated in heavy fractions as a result of radiation processing. Heavy petroleum products irradiation provokes considerable decrease in the content of mercaptans, disulphides and sulphides, which transfer to sulphoxides and sulphones appearing during radiation-induced oxidation process. (author)

  2. Hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma - A prospective randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Niveditha B.; Lakier, Roy H.; Donde, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare a conventional fractionation regimen with a hypofractionated regimen in the treatment of Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma with radiation therapy. Materials and methods: Sixty patients were randomized to receive a standard regimen of 24 Gy in 12 fractions (ARM A) or the study regimen of 20 Gy in five fractions (ARM B). Radiation technique was individualized. Treatment response, local control and toxicity were recorded. Results: Thirty five sites were treated in ARM A and 30 sites in ARM B. Treatment arms were similar for gender, ECOG performance score, treated site, antiretroviral therapy usage, T stage, I stage and S stage. The overall survival using the Kaplan Meier method was 37% at 1 year. Complete responses were recorded at 28 sites (13 Arm A, 15 Arm B), partial responses at 19 sites (8 Arm A, 11 Arm B) and stable disease at three sites (2 Arm A, 1 Arm B). The mean time to maximum objective response was 3 months (range: 1-14 months). Response rates and local control were equal in the two arms (p = 0.73 and 0.77, respectively, log rank test). Acute skin toxicity (p = 0.77) and late skin toxicity (p = 0.24) were equal in the two arms. Conclusion: The two treatment regimens produced equivalent results for treatment response, local recurrence-free survival and toxicity

  3. Novel tracer for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.; Krause, B.J.; Herrmann, K.; Gaertner, F.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Klaesner, B.

    2011-01-01

    PET and PET/CT with innovative tracers gain increasing importance in diagnosis and therapy management, and radiation treatment planning in radio-oncology besides the widely established FDG. The introduction of [ 18 F]Fluorothymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) as marker of proliferation, [ 18 F]Fluoromisonidazole ([ 18 F]FMISO) and [ 18 F]Fluoroazomycin-Arabinoside ([ 18 F]FAZA) as tracer of hypoxia, [ 18 F]Fluoroethyltyrosine ([ 18 F]FET) and [ 11 C]Methionine for brain tumour imaging, [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC for somatostatin receptor imaging, [ 18 F]FDOPA for dopamine synthesis and radioactively labeled choline derivatives for imaging phospholipid metabolism have opened novel approaches to tumour imaging. Some of these tracers have already been implemented into radio-oncology: Amino acid PET and PET/CT have the potential to optimise radiation treatment planning of brain tumours through accurate delineation of tumour tissue from normal tissue, necrosis and edema. Hypoxia represents a major therapeutic problem in radiation therapy. Hypoxia imaging is very attractive as it may allow to increase the dose in hypoxic tumours potentially allowing for a better tumour control. Advances in hybrid imaging, i.e. the introduction of MR/PET, may also have an impact in radio-oncology through synergies related to the combination of molecular signals of PET and a high soft tissue contrast of MRI as well as functional MRI capabilities. (orig.)

  4. Test results of the experimental laser device for potato tubers radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrik, S.S.; Korzun, O.S.

    2007-01-01

    Results of 3 year investigation of the influence of the presowing low intensity laser radiation treatment of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers with the help of laser device with various spectral composition and exposition on plant growth, development and productivity and potato tubers quality and starch content in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were presented. Presowing tubers treatment of potato cultivars Sante, Yavar and Arkhideya was realized by He-Ne, Ar-, Cu (in course of 3 and 5 minutes) and CO2 (in course of 5 seconds) lasers. Research results have shown that presowing treatment with CO2 laser promoted the higher (on 1,7-6,6%) potato germination capacity in comparison with the control variant without radiation treatment. Height of potato plants of Sante variety after radiation treatment fell behind the control ones. Haulm quantity per one plant and yield quality did not depend on radiation treatment Treatment with CO2 laser exercised the stimulatory action on productivity of Sante variety without changing the starch content in tubers. Tuber weight increased up to 0,4 kg (0,2 kg in the control variant). Similar effect for Arkhideya and Yavar varieties was obtained after Cu-laser treatment in course of 5 minutes. Radiation treatment with He-Ne laser caused the increased starch accumulation (on 0,4-0,6% in comparison with the control variant) in potato tubers of all studied varieties

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on some materials used in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H. H. El-Sayed.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastewaters containing toxic pesticides poses a serious environmental problem. Many of the pesticides are not readily biodegradable and complete removal in many cases is a relatively expensive provess. On the other hand incomplete removal is a serious health hazard. Ionizing radiations proved to be more effective for the treatment of these wastewater than ordinary conventional methods. In the present study a try was made to explain the degradation kineti s due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some active ingredient pesticides in the absence of other specific pollutants. These pesticides are: two organophosphorous pesticides; dimethoate and sunithion; two organochlorine pesticides: Aldrin and DDT, one carbamate pesticide; applaud. Also, a chlorimated fungicide: Chlorothalonil; and triazing herbicide: Ametryn. A combined treatment of gamma irradiationand conventional methods will be applied to some concentrated waste solutions in manageable volumes. Factors affecting the radiolysis of pesticides such as pesticide concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions will be studied. The effect of different additives such as nitrogen and oxygen on the degradation process were investigated. Experiments on the adsorption of pesticides on some polymeric materials and on activated carbon were carried out. The results may be summarized as follows: 1- The effect of irradiation dose in Gy on the different pesticide solutions all an initial concentration 5 mg/1 showed that chlorothalonil was almost completely destroyed at dose of 10kGy, while dimethoate, sunithion, DDT and applaud insecticides were degraded to lesser extent. 2- The pH influence has proved to vary according to the type of the pesticide. 3-Synergistic treatment of the pesticide solutions by irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of the pesticide solutions with nitrogen enhanced the radiation degradation of these pesticides to a better extent than when

  6. The Impact of Radiation Treatment Time on Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Talha; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Murphy, Colin T.; Mehra, Ranee; Ridge, John A.; Galloway, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiation treatment time (RTT) in head and neck cancers on overall survival (OS) in the era of chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with diagnoses of tongue, hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, or tonsil cancer were identified by use of the National Cancer Database. RTT was defined as date of first radiation treatment to date of last radiation treatment. In the definitive setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >56 days, accelerated RTT was defined as 49 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <40 days, and standard RTT was defined as 40 to 49 days. We used χ"2 tests to identify predictors of RTT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare OS among groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used for OS analysis in patients with known comorbidity status. Results: 19,531 patients were included; 12,987 (67%) had a standard RTT, 4,369 (34%) had an accelerated RTT, and 2,165 (11%) had a prolonged RTT. On multivariable analysis, accelerated RTT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.97) was associated with an improved OS, and prolonged RTT (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT. When the 9,200 (47%) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation were examined, prolonged RTT (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11-1.50) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT, whereas there was no significant association between accelerated RTT and OS (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57-1.01). Conclusion: Prolonged RTT is associated with worse OS in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, even in the setting of chemoradiation. Expeditious completion of radiation should continue to be a quality metric for the management of head and neck malignancies.

  7. Commissioning and quality assurance of computerized planning systems for radiation treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Cancer is a significant health care problem; on average about half of all cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy worldwide. This mode of treatment uses complex technology that involves megavoltage radiation that, if not handled with the greatest of care, could lead to significant patient treatment errors and exposures of staff. Recent years have seen a rapid development in the technology of radiation oncology. One of the prime factors contributing to this rapid development has been the evolution of computer technology and its applications in: (a) patient diagnosis using sophisticated computerized diagnostic imaging equipment; (b) the process of radiation treatment planning using computerized radiation treatment planning systems (TPSs) that are capable of using data from diagnostic imagers; and (c) radiation dose delivery using relatively simple 60 Co machines or complex linear accelerators with computer controlled delivery systems including multileaf collimators (MLCs) for field shaping, possibly in a dynamic mode while the beam is on. The radiation treatment process involves the application of some or all of these technologies to provide the desired dose to the target volume while minimizing exposure to adjacent normal tissues. While dose computational equipment was available as early as 1951, more generalized treatment planning calculations evolved, including under the sponsorship of the IAEA, in the 1960s that made use of time sharing systems to develop atlases of isodose distributions for general use. In the 1970s and 1980s treatment planning computers became more specialized and readily available to individual radiation therapy centres. As computer technology evolved and became more compact so did TPSs, while at the same time dose calculation algorithms and image display capabilities became more sophisticated. While there is a substantial variation in capabilities, today's treatment planning computers have become readily available to virtually all

  8. Radiation methods for purification of water, wastewater and flue gases at international chemical congress of Pacific basic societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Content of report, presented at the symposium Ecological applications of ionizing radiation (water, waste water and technological waste products), which took place within the frames of the International Chemical Congress of the Pacific Ocean Region counters (the PacifiChem'95, December 17-22, 1995, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA) is briefly presented. The problems on electron-radiation purification of natural water, domestic and technological waste waters, flue gases and contaminated soils, radiation treatment of the waste water sediments, ionizing radiation sources, applied in this area of technology and economics of radiation purification methods were discussed

  9. A Photon Free Method to Solve Radiation Transport Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, B

    2006-01-01

    The multi-group discrete-ordinate equations of radiation transfer is solved for the first time by Newton's method. It is a photon free method because the photon variables are eliminated from the radiation equations to yield a N group XN direction smaller but equivalent system of equations. The smaller set of equations can be solved more efficiently than the original set of equations. Newton's method is more stable than the Semi-implicit Linear method currently used by conventional radiation codes

  10. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, Peter D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene; Bhatti, Parveen; Ronckers, Cécile; Rajaraman, Preetha; Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan; Hammond, Sue; Henderson, Tara O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  11. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippeter@gmail.com [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bhatti, Parveen [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ronckers, Cécile [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rajaraman, Preetha [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); The University of Oran School of Medicine (Algeria); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Children' s Hospital and Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Henderson, Tara O. [University of Chicago Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, Illinois (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  12. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  13. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R2. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  14. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R 2 . The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods

  15. Progresses in studies on radiation treatment of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Shen Zhongqun; Yang Ruiyuan; Ma Hongjuan; Zhao Jun; Wang Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a review on recent progresses in E-beam purification of flue gases, radiation degra- dation of volatile organic compounds, and radiation treatment of sewerage and industrial wastewater. And research activities in this area at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics are given in particular details. (authors)

  16. Computer-aided beam arrangement based on similar cases in radiation treatment-planning databases for stereotactic lung radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Taiki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for determination of beam arrangements based on similar cases in a radiotherapy treatment-planning database for stereotactic lung radiation therapy. Similar-case-based beam arrangements were automatically determined based on the following two steps. First, the five most similar cases were searched, based on geometrical features related to the location, size and shape of the planning target volume, lung and spinal cord. Second, five beam arrangements of an objective case were automatically determined by registering five similar cases with the objective case, with respect to lung regions, by means of a linear registration technique. For evaluation of the beam arrangements five treatment plans were manually created by applying the beam arrangements determined in the second step to the objective case. The most usable beam arrangement was selected by sorting the five treatment plans based on eight plan evaluation indices, including the D95, mean lung dose and spinal cord maximum dose. We applied the proposed method to 10 test cases, by using an RTP database of 81 cases with lung cancer, and compared the eight plan evaluation indices between the original treatment plan and the corresponding most usable similar-case-based treatment plan. As a result, the proposed method may provide usable beam arrangements, which have no statistically significant differences from the original beam arrangements (P>0.05) in terms of the eight plan evaluation indices. Therefore, the proposed method could be employed as an educational tool for less experienced treatment planners. (author)

  17. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  18. Bioinformatics Methods for Learning Radiation-Induced Lung Inflammation from Heterogeneous Retrospective and Prospective Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J.; Almiron Bonnin, Damian; Deasy, Joseph O.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between physical and biological factors, reflecting both treatment conditions and underlying genetics. Recent advances in radiotherapy and biotechnology provide new opportunities and challenges for predicting radiation-induced toxicities, particularly radiation pneumonitis (RP), in lung cancer patients. In this work, we utilize datamining methods based on machine learning to build a predictive model of lung injury by retrospective analysis of treatment planning archives. In addition, biomarkers for this model are extracted from a prospective clinical trial that collects blood serum samples at multiple time points. We utilize a 3-way proteomics methodology to screen for differentially expressed proteins that are related to RP. Our preliminary results demonstrate that kernel methods can capture nonlinear dose-volume interactions, but fail to address missing biological factors. Our proteomics strategy yielded promising protein candidates, but their role in RP as well as their interactions with dose-volume metrics remain to be determined. PMID:19704920

  19. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  20. Detection by EPR method of radiation treatment in dried fruits containing crystalline sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The results of EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements are presented on the detection ability and stability of radiation induced sugar-born radicals in the samples of dried (dehydrated) fruits available in the market and related to doses of 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy, respectively. The experiments have been conducted during 12 months of storage. Measurements were done with an EPR - 10 MINI spectrometer in X band (frequency of microwaves 9.5 GHz), St. Petersburg Instruments Ltd. The aim of the work was to prove the reliability of acceptability of the method in routine control of irradiated food. (author)

  1. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author)

  2. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, E [Mevaterapia Medical Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author).

  3. Audit in radiation therapy: long-term survival and cost of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.; Firth, I.

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine the cost of radiation treatment and the survival rate of a cohort of patients treated in a 6 month period in 1988, estimates of the capital and recurrent costs of this service were made for the calendar year 1988, expressed as $A(1988). Data collected prospectively included workload statistics (including number of attendances), field treated and complexity of treatment. Patient and tumour-related data included tumour site, intent of treatment and survival. The survival rate of patients during this period was determined in June 1995. The cost per field in 1988 was estimated at $A44.32. The 1988 costs of courses of definitive, adjuvant and palliative radiation therapy were estimated at $A2545, $A2482 and $A929, respectively. The major contributor to the cost of salaries and consumables within the Radiation Oncology Department (81.6%), with capital costs accounting for 13.5%, overheads accounting for 4.5% of the costs and planned admissions accounting for 0.2%. The median survival time of 580 patients with malignant disease treated during this period in 1988 was 12.4 months. The overall 5 year survival rate was 27%. For 105 patients treated definitively with radiation therapy, the median and 5 year survival rate figures were 26.0 months and 40%. For 149 patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy, the 5 year survival rate was 62% (median survival rate not reached). For 279 patients treated palliatively, median and 5 year survival rate figures were 5.2 months and 3%. The cost per month of survival for all patients with malignancy was $A67; the figures for definitive , adjuvant and palliative treatments being $A74, $A48 and $A105, respectively. A sensitivity analysis indicated that these figures were robust. The cost of radiation treatment per field was comparable to reports for other centres and emphasizes the utility of radiation therapy as a cost-effective cancer treatment modality. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis

  5. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, K. N.

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  6. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, K. N., E-mail: Kushita.kouhei@iaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Human Resource Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 309-1195 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in Skin Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin; Cheol; Lee, Kyung Jae; Jung, Sung Min; Oh, Tae Seong; Park, Jong Il; Shin, Hyun Kye [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The sufficiency of skin dose and the reemergence of patient set-up position to the success of skin cancer radiation treatment is a very important element. But the conventional methods to increase the skin dose were used to vacuum cushion, bolus and water tank have several weak points. For this reason, we produced Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion and evaluated the efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in skin cancer Radiation treatment. We measured absolute dose for 3 materials (Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion, bolus and solid water phantom) and compared each dose distribution. We irradiated 6 MV 100 MU photon radiation to every material of 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm thickness at three times. We measured absolute dose and compared dose distribution. Finally we inspected the CT simulation and radiation therapy planing using the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion. Absolute dose of Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion was similar to absolute dose of bolus and solid water phantom's result in each thickness. it Showed only the difference of 0.1-0.2% between each material. Also the same result in dose distribution comparison. About 97% of the dose distribution was within the margin of error in the prescribed ranges (100{+-}3%), and achieved the enough skin dose (Gross Tumor Volume dose : 100{+-}5%) in radiation therapy planing. We evaluated important fact that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is no shortage of time to replace the soft tissue equivalent material and normal vacuum cushion at the low energy radiation transmittance. Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion can simultaneously achieve the enough skin dose in radiation therapy planing with maintaining normal vacuum cushion' function. Therefore as above We think that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is very useful in skin cancer radiation treatment.

  8. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60 0 C for 20 minutes; heat at 80 0 C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60 0 ); radiation plus heat 80 0 C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5±3 0 C) up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  9. Radiation oncology - Linking technology and biology in the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman

    2002-01-01

    Technical advances in radiation oncology including CT-simulation, 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques, and brachytherapy have allowed greater treatment precision and dose escalation. The ability to intensify treatment requires the identification of the critical targets within the treatment field, recognizing the unique biology of tumor, stroma and normal tissue. Precision is technology based while accuracy is biologically based. Therefore, the intensity of IMRT will undoubtedly mean an increase in both irradiation dose and the use of biological agents, the latter considered in the broadest sense. Radiation oncology has the potential and the opportunity to provide major contributions to the linkage between molecular and functional imaging, molecular profiling and novel therapeutics for the emerging molecular targets for cancer treatment. This process of 'credentialing' of molecular targets will require multi disciplinary imaging teams, clinicians and basic scientists. Future advances will depend on the appropriate integration of biology into the training of residents, continuing post graduate education, participation in innovative clinical research and commitment to the support of basic research as an essential component of the practice of radiation oncology

  10. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Victoria, James; Dempsey, James [ViewRay Incorporated, Inc., Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States); Ruan, Su [Laboratoire LITIS (EA 4108), Equipe Quantif, University of Rouen, Rouen 76183 (France); Anastasio, Mark [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Methods: Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity

  11. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James; Ruan, Su; Anastasio, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Methods: Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity

  12. Can radiation therapy treatment planning system accurately predict surface doses in postmastectomy radiation therapy patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Sharon; Back, Michael; Tan, Poh Wee; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jaide Jay

    2012-01-01

    Skin doses have been an important factor in the dose prescription for breast radiotherapy. Recent advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and new treatment schemes such as hypofractionated breast therapy have made the precise determination of the surface dose necessary. Detailed information of the dose at various depths of the skin is also critical in designing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of surface dose calculation by a clinically used treatment planning system and those measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in a customized chest wall phantom. This study involved the construction of a chest wall phantom for skin dose assessment. Seven TLDs were distributed throughout each right chest wall phantom to give adequate representation of measured radiation doses. Point doses from the CMS Xio® treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated for each relevant TLD positions and results correlated. There were no significant difference between measured absorbed dose by TLD and calculated doses by the TPS (p > 0.05 (1-tailed). Dose accuracy of up to 2.21% was found. The deviations from the calculated absorbed doses were overall larger (3.4%) when wedges and bolus were used. 3D radiotherapy TPS is a useful and accurate tool to assess the accuracy of surface dose. Our studies have shown that radiation treatment accuracy expressed as a comparison between calculated doses (by TPS) and measured doses (by TLD dosimetry) can be accurately predicted for tangential treatment of the chest wall after mastectomy.

  13. Do prostate cancer patients want to choose their own radiation treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol-Geerdink, Julia J. van; Stalmeier, Peep F.M.; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van; Schimmel, Erik C.; Huizenga, Henk; Daal, Wim A.J. van; Leer, Jan-Willem

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate whether prostate cancer patients want to be involved in the choice of Radiation dose, and which patients want to be involved. Methods and Materials: This prospective study involved 150 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. A decision aid was used to explain the effects of two alternative radiation doses (70 and 74 Gy) in terms of cure and side effects. Patients were then asked whether they wanted to choose their treatment (accept choice), or leave the decision to the physician (decline choice). The treatment preference was carried out. Results: Even in this older population (mean age, 70 years), most patients (79%) accepted the option to choose. A lower score on the designations Pre-existent bowel morbidity, Anxiety, Depression, Hopelessness and a higher score on Autonomy and Numeracy were associated with an increase in choice acceptance, of which only Hopelessness held up in multiple regression (p < 0.03). The uninformed participation preference at baseline was not significantly related to choice acceptance (p = 0.10). Conclusion: Uninformed participation preference does not predict choice behavior. However, once the decision aid is provided, most patients want to choose their treatment. It should, therefore, be considered to inform patients first and ask participation preferences afterwards

  14. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  15. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  16. Application of ionizing radiation in treatment of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlackova, J.

    1984-01-01

    Processes used for meat treatment for storage (cooling, radurization + cooling, freezing, heat treatment and radappertization) are compared with regard to energy demand. The effect of doses above 10 kGy and below 10 kGy are discussed. Doses of ionizing radiation may be combined with other techniques (heat treatment, the addition of certain chemicals or antibiotics). Czechoslovak experience with irradiation of meat with tapeworm cysticerci is described. (E.F.)

  17. Interfractional Uncertainty in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, Priya; Minn, A. Yuriko; Van Dam, Jacques; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values. Results: A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy. Conclusions: There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

  18. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa; Branco, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  19. Radiation treatment planning using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsqui, A.R.; Calil, S.J.; Rocha, J.R.O.; Alexandre, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation treatment planning requires a lenght manipulation of data from isodose charts to obtain the best irradiation technique. Over the past 25 years this tedious operation has been replaced by computerized methods. These can reduce the working time by at least 20 times. It is being developed at the Biomedical Engineering Center a software to generate a polychromatic image of dose distribution. By means of a digitizing board, the patient contour and the beam data are transfered to the computer and stored as polinomial and Fourier series respectively. To calculate the dose distribution, the irradiated region is represented by a variable size bidimensional dot matrix. The dose at each point is calculated by correcting and adding the stored data for each beam. An algorithm for color definition according to the dose intensity was developed to display on a computer monitor the resultant matrix. A hard copy can be obtained be means of a six color plotter. (author)

  20. Treatment and follow-up of patients suffering from the cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, R.U.; Gottloeber, P.; Heckmann, M.; Braun-FaIco, O.; Plewig, G.

    1996-01-01

    The hazards of acute radiation exposure are commonly addressed with respect to total body gamma or neutron irradiation, resulting primarily in bone marrow failure as the main clinically relevant aspect of the acute radiation disease. Under conditions of inhomogeneous exposure, as they are characteristic for many accident scenarios, other organ systems, such as the skin may become more important in determining clinical prognosis. This became especially obvious in the two worst radiation accidents since 1945, the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 and the Goiania accident in September 1987. The characteristic chronic sequelae of accidental cutaneous radiation exposure and therapeutic results have been described based on own clinical experience with treating patients with acute and late cutaneous effects after therapeutic irradiation, and a distinct group of patients having survived the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident of April 26, 1986. Apart from clinical examination, histological analysis and high-frequency (20 MHz) ultrasound as well as a variety of functional tests have been used to determine the extent of radiation fibrosis and to exclude malignant transformation of keratoses and ulcers. Treatment included, apart from dermatosurgical procedures and plastic surgery for disabling contractures or ulcers, argon laser treatment of telangiectasias, topical tretinoin 0,005% (Epi-Aberel R , Cilag, Frankfurt), etretinate and acitretin (Tigason R , Neotigason R , Hoffmann LaRoche, Grenzach) for radiation keratoses, partly combined with a novel, nonatrophogenic steroid, Mometasonefuroate (Elocon R , Schering-Plough, New Jersey) to antagonize inflammatory reactions, and low-dose interferon-gamma (Polyferon R , Rentschler, Laupheim) for extensive radiation fibrosis. Basic dermatotherapy was performed with an ointment containing linoleic acid (Linola R , Wolff, Bielefeld). With this combination treatment, transepidermal water loss could be sustained, progression of

  1. Positron emission tomography in pediatric radiation oncology: integration in the treatment-planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, M.J.; Hudson, M.M.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The application of PET imaging to pediatric radiation oncology allows new approaches to targeting and selection of radiation dose based not only on the size of a tumor, but also on its metabolic activity. In order to integrate PET into treatment planning for radiation oncology, logistical issues regarding patient setup, image fusion, and target selection must be addressed. Through prospective study, the role of PET in pediatric malignancies will be established for diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. To explore the potential role of PET and its incorporation into treatment planning in pediatric radiation oncology, an example case of pediatric Hodgkin's disease is discussed. (orig.)

  2. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R; Kong, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity to different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more patients and demonstrated for

  3. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V 15Gy by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V 15Gy by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney and liver

  4. Systematization of types and methods of radiation therapy methods and techniques of irradiation of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajnberg, M.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the principles of systematization and classification of types and methods of radiation therapy, approaches to the regulation of its terminology. They are based on the distinction of the concepts of radiation therapy and irradiation of patients. The author gives a consice historical review of improvement of the methodology of radiation therapy in the course of developing of its methods and facilities. Problems of terminology are under discussion. There is a table of types and methods of radiation therapy, methods and techniques of irradiation. In the appendices one can find a table of typical legends and examples of graphic signs to denote methods of irradiation. Potentialities of a practical use of the system are described

  5. External beam radiation for retinoblastoma: Results, patterns of failure, and a proposal for treatment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Carlos; Brady, Luther W.; Shields, Jerry A.; Shields, Carol L.; Potter, Patrick de; Karlsson, Ulf L.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Singh, Arun

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment results and patterns of failure following external beam radiation for retinoblastoma and propose treatment guidelines according to specific clinical variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 27 patients (34 eyes) with retinoblastoma who received external beam radiation as initial treatment at Hahnemann University Hospital from October 1980 to December 1991 and have been followed for at least 1 year. Of the 34 eyes, 14 were Groups I-II (Reese-Ellsworth classification), 7 were Group III, and 13 were Groups IV-V. Doses ranged from 34.5-49.5 Gy (mean 44.3 Gy, median 45 Gy) in 1.5-2.0 Gy fractions generally delivered through anterior and lateral wedged pair fields. Results: At a mean follow up of 35.2 months (range 12-93 months), local tumor control was obtained in 44% (15 out of 34) of eyes with external beam radiation alone. Salvage therapy (plaque brachytherapy, cryotherapy, and/or photocoagulation) controlled an additional 10 eyes (29.5%), so that overall ocular survival has been 73.5%. Local tumor control with external beam radiotherapy alone was obtained in 78.5% (11 out of 14) of eyes in Groups I-II, but in only 20% (4 out of 20) of eyes in Groups III-V. A total of 67 existing tumors were identified prior to treatment in the 34 treated eyes and local control with external beam radiation alone was obtained in 87% (46 out of 53) of tumors measuring 15 mm or less and in 50% (7 out of 14) of tumors measuring more than 15 mm. When analyzing patterns of failure in the 19 eyes that relapsed, a total of 28 failure sites were identified and consisted of progression of vitreous seeds in seven instances (25% of failure sites) recurrences from previously existing tumors in 10 instances (36% of failure sites) and development of new tumors in previously uninvolved retina in 11 instances (39% of failure sites). Conclusions: 1) We find that external beam radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in fractions of 1.5 to 2.0 Gy provides adequate tumor control

  6. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  7. A study of the radiobiological modeling of the conformal radiation therapy in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakuryal, Anil Prasad

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortalities in the world. The precise diagnosis of the disease helps the patients to select the appropriate modality of the treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The physics of X-radiation and the advanced imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the efficient diagnosis and therapeutic treatments in cancer. However, the accuracy of the measurements of the metabolic target volumes (MTVs) in the PET/CT dual-imaging modality is always limited. Similarly the external beam radiation therapy (XRT) such as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most common modality in the radiotherapy treatment. These treatments are simulated and evaluated using the XRT plans and the standard methodologies in the commercial planning system. However, the normal organs are always susceptible to the radiation toxicity in these treatments due to lack of knowledge of the appropriate radiobiological models to estimate the clinical outcomes. We explored several methodologies to estimate MTVs by reviewing various techniques of the target volume delineation using the static phantoms in the PET scans. The review suggests that the more precise and practical method of delineating PET MTV should be an intermediate volume between the volume coverage for the standardized uptake value (SUV; 2.5) of glucose and the 50% (40%) threshold of the maximum SUV for the smaller (larger) volume delineations in the radiotherapy applications. Similarly various types of optimal XRT plans were designed using the CT and PET/CT scans for the treatment of various types of cancer patients. The qualities of these plans were assessed using the universal plan-indices. The dose-volume criteria were also examined in the targets and organs by analyzing the conventional dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The biological models such as tumor

  8. Hafnium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with ionizing radiation for lung cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hua; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Huang, Jian-Yuan; Li, Keng-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Pin; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the new clinical options by generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cancer cells. However, the optical approach of PDT is limited by tissue penetration depth of visible light. In this study, we propose that a ROS-enhanced nanoparticle, hafnium-doped hydroxyapatite (Hf:HAp), which is a material to yield large quantities of ROS inside the cells when the nanoparticles are bombarded with high penetrating power of ionizing radiation. Hf:HAp nanoparticles are generated by wet chemical precipitation with total doping concentration of 15mol% Hf(4+) relative to Ca(2+) in HAp host material. The results show that the HAp particles could be successfully doped with Hf ions, resulted in the formation of nano-sized rod-like shape and with pH-dependent solubility. The impact of ionizing radiation on Hf:HAp nanoparticles is assessed by using in-vitro and in-vivo model using A549 cell line. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) results reveal that after being exposed to gamma rays, Hf:HAp could significantly lead to the formation of ROS in cells. Both cell viability (WST-1) and cytotoxicity (LDH) assay show the consistent results that A549 lung cancer cell lines are damaged with changes in the cells' ROS level. The in-vivo studies further demonstrate that the tumor growth is inhibited owing to the cells apoptosis when Hf:HAp nanoparticles are bombarded with ionizing radiation. This finding offer a new therapeutic method of interacting with ionizing radiation and demonstrate the potential of Hf:HAp nanoparticles in tumor treatment, such as being used in a palliative treatment after lung surgical procedure. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the new clinical options by generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, the approach of PDT is usually limited to the treatment of systemic disease and deeper tumor, due to the limited tissue penetration depth of visible

  9. Chemotherapy-Induced and/or Radiation Therapy-Induced Oral Mucositis-Complicating the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddireddy Umameshwar Rao Naidu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The term mucositis is coined to describe the adverse effects of radiation and chemotherapy treatments. Mucositis is one of the most common adverse reactions encountered in radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, as well as in chemotherapy, in particular with drugs affecting DNA synthesis (Sphase-specific agents such as fluorouracil, methotrexate, and cytarabine. Mucositis may limit the patient's ability to tolerate chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and nutritional status is compromised. It may drastically affect cancer treatment as well as the patient's quality of life. The incidence and severity of mucositis will vary from patient to patient. It will also vary from treatment to treatment. It is estimated that there is 40% incidence of mucositis in patients treated with standard chemotherapy and this will not only increase with the number of treatment cycles but also with previous episodes. Similarly, patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and who receive high doses of chemotherapy have a 76% chance of getting mucositis. Patients receiving radiation, in particular to head and neck cancers, have a 30% to 60% chance. The exact pathophysiology of development is not known, but it is thought to be divided into direct and indirect mucositis. Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy will interfere with the normal turnover of epithelial, cells leading to mucosal injury; subsequently, it can also occur due to indirect invasion of Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species because most of the cancer drugs will cause changes in blood counts. With the advancement in cytology, a more precise mechanism has been established. With this understanding, we can select and target particular mediators responsible for the mucositis. Risk factors such as age, nutritional status, type of malignancy, and oral care during treatment will play important roles in the development of mucositis. Many treatment options are available to prevent and treat this

  10. MO-DE-210-03: Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities. It is inexpensive, portable and provides good soft tissue contrast. For challenging soft tissue targets such as pancreatic cancer, ultrasound imaging can be used in combination with pre-treatment MRI and/or CT to transfer important anatomical features for target localization at time of treatment. The non-invasive and non-ionizing nature of ultrasound imaging is particularly powerful for intra-fraction localization and monitoring. Recognizing these advantages, efforts are being made to incorporate novel robotic approaches to position and manipulate the ultrasound probe during irradiation. These recent enabling developments hold potential to bring ultrasound imaging to a new level of IGRT applications. However, many challenges, not limited to image registration, robotic deployment, probe interference and image acquisition rate, need to be addressed to realize the full potential of IGRT with ultrasound imaging. Learning Objectives: Understand the benefits and limitations in using ultrasound to augment MRI and/or CT for motion monitoring during radiation therapy delivery. Understanding passive and active robotic approaches to implement ultrasound imaging for intra-fraction monitoring. Understand issues of probe interference with radiotherapy treatment. Understand the critical clinical workflow for effective and reproducible IGRT using ultrasound guidance. The work of X.L. is supported in part by Elekta; J.W. and K.D. is supported in part by a NIH grant R01 CA161613 and by Elekta; D.H. is support in part by a NIH grant R41 CA174089

  11. MO-DE-210-03: Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K. [Johns Hopkins University: Development of Intra-Fraction Soft Tissue Monitoring with Ultrasound Imaging (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound imaging is an attractive method for image guided radiation treatment (IGRT), by itself or to complement other imaging modalities. It is inexpensive, portable and provides good soft tissue contrast. For challenging soft tissue targets such as pancreatic cancer, ultrasound imaging can be used in combination with pre-treatment MRI and/or CT to transfer important anatomical features for target localization at time of treatment. The non-invasive and non-ionizing nature of ultrasound imaging is particularly powerful for intra-fraction localization and monitoring. Recognizing these advantages, efforts are being made to incorporate novel robotic approaches to position and manipulate the ultrasound probe during irradiation. These recent enabling developments hold potential to bring ultrasound imaging to a new level of IGRT applications. However, many challenges, not limited to image registration, robotic deployment, probe interference and image acquisition rate, need to be addressed to realize the full potential of IGRT with ultrasound imaging. Learning Objectives: Understand the benefits and limitations in using ultrasound to augment MRI and/or CT for motion monitoring during radiation therapy delivery. Understanding passive and active robotic approaches to implement ultrasound imaging for intra-fraction monitoring. Understand issues of probe interference with radiotherapy treatment. Understand the critical clinical workflow for effective and reproducible IGRT using ultrasound guidance. The work of X.L. is supported in part by Elekta; J.W. and K.D. is supported in part by a NIH grant R01 CA161613 and by Elekta; D.H. is support in part by a NIH grant R41 CA174089.

  12. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: first reported treatment in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, J.; Joon, D.L.; Hope, G.; Smylie, J.; Henkul, Z.; Wills, J.; Cramb, J.; Towns, S.; Archer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an exciting new advance in the practice of radiation oncology. It is the use of non-uniform radiation beams to achieve conformal dose distributions. As a result of the high initial capital costs and the time and complexity of planning, IMRT is not yet a widely available clinical treatment option. We describe the process involved in applying this new technology to a case of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  14. Probabilistic safety analysis of radiation treatments with linear accelerator (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This publication addresses the issue of accidental exposures of radiotherapy patients and how to avoid them. More proactive approaches are required to anticipate and thus avoid situations that could lead to accidental exposures. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Ibero American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear and Safety Regulatory Agencies (the FORO) have applied proactive methods, such as probabilistic safety assessment to radiotherapy treatments with accelerators. The methodology and results of this exercise are described in this publication.

  15. Numerical methods for characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical characterization of synchrotron radiation based on the Wigner function method is explored in order to accurately evaluate the light source performance. A number of numerical methods to compute the Wigner functions for typical synchrotron radiation sources such as bending magnets, undulators and wigglers, are presented, which significantly improve the computation efficiency and reduce the total computation time. As a practical example of the numerical characterization, optimization of betatron functions to maximize the brilliance of undulator radiation is discussed.

  16. Radiation therapy treatment planning: CT, MR imaging and three-dimensional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichter, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy and sophistication of radiation therapy treatment planning have increased rapidly in the last decade. Currently, CT-based treatment planning is standard throughout the country. Care must be taken when CT is used for treatment planning because of clear differences between diagnostic scans and scans intended for therapeutic management. The use of CT in radiation therapy planning is discussed and illustrated. MR imaging adds another dimension to treatment planning. The ability to use MR imaging directly in treatment planning involves an additional complex set of capabilities from a treatment planning system. The ability to unwarp the geometrically distorted MR image is a first step. Three-dimensional dose calculations are important to display the dose on sagittal and acoronal sections. The ability to integrate the MR and CT images into a unified radiographic image is critical. CT and MR images are two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional problem. Through sophisticated computer graphics techniques, radiation therapists are now able to integrate a three-dimensional image of the patient into the treatment planning process. This allows the use of noncoplanar treatment plans and a detailed analysis of tumor and normal tissue anatomy; it is the first step toward a fully conformational treatment planning system. These concepts are illustrated and future research goals outlined

  17. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  18. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  19. Application of improved AHP method to radiation protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Jianguo; Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the deficiency of traditional AHP method, a hierarchy model for optimum project selection of radiation protection was established with the improved AHP method. The result of comparison between the improved AHP method and the traditional AHP method shows that the improved AHP method can reduce personal judgment subjectivity, and its calculation process is compact and reasonable. The improved AHP method can provide scientific basis for radiation protection optimization. (authors)

  20. Radiation Planning Assistant - A Streamlined, Fully Automated Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Laurence E.; Kisling, Kelly; McCarroll, Rachel; Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Jinzhong; Simonds, Hannah; du Toit, Monique; Trauernicht, Chris; Burger, Hester; Parkes, Jeannette; Mejia, Mike; Bojador, Maureen; Balter, Peter; Branco, Daniela; Steinmann, Angela; Baltz, Garrett; Gay, Skylar; Anderson, Brian; Cardenas, Carlos; Jhingran, Anuja; Shaitelman, Simona; Bogler, Oliver; Schmeller, Kathleen; Followill, David; Howell, Rebecca; Nelson, Christopher; Peterson, Christine; Beadle, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The Radiation Planning Assistant (RPA) is a system developed for the fully automated creation of radiotherapy treatment plans, including volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for patients with head/neck cancer and 4-field box plans for patients with cervical cancer. It is a combination of specially developed in-house software that uses an application programming interface to communicate with a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. It also interfaces with a commercial secondary dose verification software. The necessary inputs to the system are a Treatment Plan Order, approved by the radiation oncologist, and a simulation computed tomography (CT) image, approved by the radiographer. The RPA then generates a complete radiotherapy treatment plan. For the cervical cancer treatment plans, no additional user intervention is necessary until the plan is complete. For head/neck treatment plans, after the normal tissue and some of the target structures are automatically delineated on the CT image, the radiation oncologist must review the contours, making edits if necessary. They also delineate the gross tumor volume. The RPA then completes the treatment planning process, creating a VMAT plan. Finally, the completed plan must be reviewed by qualified clinical staff. PMID:29708544

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerma, Marjan; Roberto, Kerrey A.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and α-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and α-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 ± 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 ± 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and α-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 ± 7; late treatment: 53 ± 6). PTX and α-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 ± 0.2 μm 2 per 100 μm 2 ; early treatment: 2.7 ± 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 ± 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 ± 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 ± 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 ± 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and α-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD

  2. Application of gamma radiation and physicochemical treatment to improve the bioactive properties of chitosan extracted from shrimp shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktar Jesmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to exploit a suitable chitosan extraction method from the chitin of indigenous shrimp shells by employing different physicochemical treatments and to improve different bioactive properties of this extracted chitosan (CS by applying gamma radiation. Chitin was prepared from shrimp shell by pretreatment (deproteination, demineralization and oxidation. Chitosan was extracted from chitin by eight different methods varying different physicochemical parameters (reagent concentration, temperature and time and assessed with respect to the degree of deacetylation, requirement of time and reagents. The method where chitin was repeatedly treated with 121°C for 30 min with 20 M NaOH, produced the highest degree of deacetylation (DD value (92% as measured by potentiometric titration, with the least consumption of time and chemicals, and thus, selected as the best suitable extraction method. For further quality improvement, chitosan with highest DD value was irradiated with different doses (i.e., 5, 10, 15, 20 and 50 kGy of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 gamma irradiator. As the radiation dose was increased, the molecular weight of the wet irradiated chitosan, as measured by the viscosimetric method, decreased from 1.16 × 105 to 1.786 × 103, 1.518 × 103, 1.134 × 103, 1.046 × 103 and 8.23 × 102 dalton, respectively. The radiation treatment of chitosan samples increased the antimicrobial activity significantly in concentration dependent manner on both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria, as determined by the well-diffusion method. Four to five percent wet chitosan treated with a radiation dose range of 5.0–10.0 kGy rendered the highest antimicrobial activity with least energy and time consumption. Solubility, water binding capacity (WBC and fat binding capacity (FBC also improved due to irradiation of chitosan.

  3. Cost-minimization analysis: radiation treatment with and without a multi-leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroudi, Farshad; Lapsley, Helen; Manderson, Christine; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the costs of radiation treatment on a linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator (MLC) versus treatment on a linear accelerator without an MLC. The study was designed to determine whether the increased throughput of fields and decreased block cutting made the MLC cost effective from an institutional perspective. Methods and Materials: The number of fields, basic treatment equivalent, equivalent simple treatment visits, and blocks were prospectively collected for the four linear accelerators. Building, equipment, staffing, and service costs were all obtained in 1999 Australian dollars from the manufacturers and hospital department heads. The Joint Radiation Oncology Centre at Westmead and Nepean Hospitals, which are Australian public hospitals, runs as one unit, with the same staff, and currently operates five linear accelerators. Currently, four of the linear accelerators are used for general radiotherapy, operating for exactly the same hours; the final machine operates more limited hours and is used for specialized radiotherapy techniques and emergency cases. Results: The two machines with MLCs, on average, treated 5,169 fields each, while the two machines without MLCs treated 4,543 fields in a 3-month period, a 12% increase in throughput. The two non-MLC machines required 155 premounted trays (PMTs) in total, while the MLC machines required 17 PMTs. Linear accelerators with MLCs were demonstrably more efficient, and while their capital costs were higher, the reduction in labor costs associated with block cutting and, particularly the increased throughput, more than offset these initial costs. The total cost of a radiation field with an MLC was found to be $A101.69 compared to $A106.98 without an MLC. A multiway sensitivity analysis showed the results to be robust. The worst-case scenario was a departmental savings of $A168,000 per year; the best-case scenario was a savings of $A680,000 per year. Conclusion: Under the conditions pertaining

  4. Physics strategies for sparing neural stem cells during whole-brain radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean; Hwang, Andrew; Barani, Igor J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, there are no successful long-term treatments or preventive strategies for radiation-induced cognitive impairments, and only a few possibilities have been suggested. One such approach involves reducing the dose to neural stem cell compartments (within and outside of the hippocampus) during whole-brain radiation treatments for brain metastases. This study investigates the fundamental physics issues associated with the sparing of neural stem cells during photon radiotherapy for brain metastases. Methods: Several factors influence the stem cell dose: intracranial scattering, collimator leakage, beam energy, and total number of beams. The relative importance of these factors is investigated through a set of radiation therapy plans, which are all variations of an initial 6 MV intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan designed to simultaneously deliver a whole-brain dose of 30 Gy and maximally reduce stem cell compartment dose. Additionally, an in-house leaf segmentation algorithm was developed that utilizes jaw motion to minimize the collimator leakage. Results: The plans are all normalized such that 50% of the PTV receives 30 Gy. For the initial 6 MV IMRT plan, 50% of the stem cells receive a dose greater than 6.3 Gy. Calculations indicate that 3.6 Gy of this dose originates from intracranial scattering. The jaw-tracking segmentation algorithm, used in conjunction with direct machine parameter optimization, reduces the 50% stem cell dose to 4.3 and 3.7 Gy for 6 and 10 MV treatment beams, respectively. Conclusions: Intracranial scattering alone is responsible for a large dose contribution to the stem cell compartment. It is, therefore, important to minimize other contributing factors, particularly the collimator leakage, to maximally reduce dose to these critical structures. The use of collimator jaw tracking in conjunction with modern collimators can minimize this leakage.

  5. MO-D-BRB-00: Pediatric Radiation Therapy Planning, Treatment, and Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    , neuroblastoma, requiring focal abdominal irradiation to avoid kidney, liver, and vertebral body damage, retinoblastoma, requiring treatment to an eye while minimizing dose to surrounding tissues, and a variety of other tumors which occur anywhere in the body. Case studies will be presented showing the treatment technique and resulting dosimetry, highlighting the objectives for tumor coverage and organ-at-risk sparing. Practical issues that have to be faced when treating children will also be discussed such as daily sedation and immobilization. Late effects based on the current understanding of dose-volume response in normal tissues will be discussed. In the second presentation, specific focus will be on pediatric proton therapy. We will review literature publications on dosimetric comparison of proton versus photon plans, common pediatric tumors treated with protons, and available clinical outcomes. We will describe simulation technique, treatment planning, image guidance for setup verification, and proton beam delivery unique to pediatric and adolescent patients. Finally, we will discuss desired improvements, outlook, and opportunities for medical physicists in pediatric proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Improve understanding about childhood cancer and treatment with radiation Understand treatment planning and delivery issues and associated late effects specific to children Become aware of specific treatment methods for the most challenging pediatric cancers Know the current status, techniques, and desired improvements for pediatric proton therapy.

  6. The treatment of colorectal liver metastases with conformal radiation therapy and regional chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, John M; Lawrence, Theodore S; Walker, Suzette; Kessler, Marc L; Andrews, James C; Ensminger, William D

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: Whole-liver radiation, with or without chemotherapy, has been of modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. A Phase I/II study combining escalating doses of conformally planned radiation therapy (RT) with intraarterial hepatic (IAH) fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd) was performed. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, 14 of whom had progressed after previous chemotherapy (2 with prior IAH FdUrd), were treated with concurrent IAH FdUrd (0.2 mg/kg/day) and conformal hepatic radiation therapy (1.5-1.65 Gy/fraction twice a day). The total dose of radiation given to the tumor (48-72.6 Gy) depended on the fraction of normal liver excluded from the high-dose volume. All patients were assessed for response, toxicity, hepatobiliary relapse, and survival. Median potential follow-up was 42 months. Results: Eleven of 22 patients demonstrated an objective response, with the remainder showing stable disease. Actuarial freedom from hepatic progression was 25% at 1 year. The most common acute toxicity was mild to moderate nausea and transient liver function test abnormalities. There were three patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (none requiring surgical intervention) after the completion of treatment. Overall median survival was 20 months. The presence of extrahepatic disease was associated with decreased survival (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Combined conformal radiation therapy and IAH FdUrd can produce an objective response in 50% of patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. However, response was not durable, and hepatic progression was frequent. Improvements in hepatic tumor control for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer may require higher doses of conformal radiation and/or improved radiosensitization. In an effort to increase radiosensitization, we have recently initiated a clinical trial combining IAH bromodeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog

  7. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  8. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  9. Recovery of immunological indices after reflexotherapy in combined treatment of upper limb radiation edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.; Degtyareva, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of combined treatment (routine drug therapy, massage, application of DMSO) alone and in combination with acupuncture and laser puncture on a degree of secondary (radiation) edema and immunological indices in 36 patients treated for breast cancer 2-15 years ago. These methods were shown to decrease effectively a degree of edema by 22-37%. The highest effect was achieved using laser puncture against a background of the main treatment. All types of combined modality treatment promoted the return of the patients' immunological status to normal (an increase in low and a decrease in high values)

  10. Simple Method to Estimate Mean Heart Dose From Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy According to Simulation X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimwegen, Frederika A. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cutter, David J. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schaapveld, Michael [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutten, Annemarieke [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Karen [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Krol, Augustinus D.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Janus, Cécile P.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Darby, Sarah C. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P., E-mail: b.aleman@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Methods and Materials: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case–control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. Results: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor

  11. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2019-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  12. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Hoof, Stefan van; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  13. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  14. Statistics of Monte Carlo methods used in radiation transport calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation transport calculation can be carried out by using either deterministic or statistical methods. Radiation transport calculation based on statistical methods is basic theme of the Monte Carlo methods. The aim of this lecture is to describe the fundamental statistics required to build the foundations of Monte Carlo technique for radiation transport calculation. Lecture note is organized in the following way. Section (1) will describe the introduction of Basic Monte Carlo and its classification towards the respective field. Section (2) will describe the random sampling methods, a key component of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation, Section (3) will provide the statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo estimates, Section (4) will describe in brief the importance of variance reduction techniques while sampling particles such as photon, or neutron in the process of radiation transport

  15. Sound transmission analysis of plate structures using the finite element method and elementary radiator approach with radiator error index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jaesoon; Kook, Junghwan; Goo, Seongyeol

    2017-01-01

    combines the FEM and Elementary Radiator Approach (ERA) is proposed. The FE-ERA method analyzes the vibrational response of the plate structure excited by incident sound using FEM and then computes the transmitted acoustic pressure from the vibrating plate using ERA. In order to improve the accuracy...... and efficiency of the FE-ERA method, a novel criterion for the optimal number of elementary radiators is proposed. The criterion is based on the radiator error index that is derived to estimate the accuracy of the computation with used number of radiators. Using the proposed criterion a radiator selection method...... is presented for determining the optimum number of radiators. The presented radiator selection method and the FE-ERA method are combined to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency. Several numerical examples that have been rarely addressed in previous studies, are presented with the proposed method...

  16. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Prasad, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the application of the Monte Carlo method in radiation protection. It may be noted that an exhaustive review has not been attempted. The special advantage of the Monte Carlo method has been first brought out. The fundamentals of the Monte Carlo method have next been explained in brief, with special reference to two applications in radiation protection. Some sample current applications have been reported in the end in brief as examples. They are, medical radiation physics, microdosimetry, calculations of thermoluminescence intensity and probabilistic safety analysis. The limitations of the Monte Carlo method have also been mentioned in passing. (author)

  17. Essential role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Novel study concepts and established treatment recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobiasch, Sophie; Goerig, Nicole L.; Fietkau, Rainer; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human tumors and the incidence has increased over the last 6 years. In the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis where surgery, the only curative treatment, is no longer an option and explains the still abysmal overall survival. The role of radiation therapy as treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer is controversially discussed although radiation oncology has emerged as a central pillar in the combined oncological treatment. The present manuscript gives an overview of advanced radiotherapeutic strategies in the context of chemotherapy and surgery according to the current American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines in comparison with the German guidelines and to elucidate the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Advanced modern radiotherapeutic techniques in combination with individualized high-precision radiation concepts are new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer in a multimodal setting with tolerable side effects. Several clinical studies together with experimental approaches are in process, to deliver further evidence and ultimately allow true personalized medicine. (orig.) [de

  18. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  19. An exploration of the feasibility of radiation therapist participation in treatment reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, Clare Maree; Wrightson, Stephanie Jane [Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Smith, Tony Neil [Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Taree, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    As radiation oncologists' (ROs') workload has increased over time, treatment review clinics have become recognized as an area of RO practice into which radiation therapist (RT) practice could extend. There has been limited utilization of RTs in this role in Australia and a paucity of data on the acceptability and opinions regarding RTs practising in this role in an Australian context. The purpose of this audit was to investigate the feasibility of RT participation in review clinics at Calvary Mater Newcastle. Feasibility was determined by two methods: an audit of 200 treatment reviews to determine medical intervention (MI) levels required and a survey of 80 clinical staff to explore attitudes towards RT participation in clinics. Medical intervention was required in 59% (n = 118) of observed reviews, with the lowest being for breast (33%) and prostate (28%) cancers. MI peaked at 73% between fractions 16–20 and was lowest early and late in the treatment period at 48%. There were 60 responses to the staff survey. All but one respondent agreed that RTs would be willing to participate in treatment review clinics, but all five consultant ROs indicated they would not be willing to delegate reviews to RTs. Neither feasibility measure reached acceptable levels to recommend RT participation in treatment review clinics. Further investigation and RT education are required to help meet the future RO workforce shortfall. As MI rates are lowest for breast and prostate cancer RT participation could be targeted to these clinics.

  20. An exploration of the feasibility of radiation therapist participation in treatment reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, Clare Maree; Wrightson, Stephanie Jane; Smith, Tony Neil

    2013-01-01

    As radiation oncologists' (ROs') workload has increased over time, treatment review clinics have become recognized as an area of RO practice into which radiation therapist (RT) practice could extend. There has been limited utilization of RTs in this role in Australia and a paucity of data on the acceptability and opinions regarding RTs practising in this role in an Australian context. The purpose of this audit was to investigate the feasibility of RT participation in review clinics at Calvary Mater Newcastle. Feasibility was determined by two methods: an audit of 200 treatment reviews to determine medical intervention (MI) levels required and a survey of 80 clinical staff to explore attitudes towards RT participation in clinics. Medical intervention was required in 59% (n = 118) of observed reviews, with the lowest being for breast (33%) and prostate (28%) cancers. MI peaked at 73% between fractions 16–20 and was lowest early and late in the treatment period at 48%. There were 60 responses to the staff survey. All but one respondent agreed that RTs would be willing to participate in treatment review clinics, but all five consultant ROs indicated they would not be willing to delegate reviews to RTs. Neither feasibility measure reached acceptable levels to recommend RT participation in treatment review clinics. Further investigation and RT education are required to help meet the future RO workforce shortfall. As MI rates are lowest for breast and prostate cancer RT participation could be targeted to these clinics

  1. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  2. Transport methods: general. 1. The Analytical Monte Carlo Method for Radiation Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative Monte Carlo method for solving the coupled equations of radiation transport and material energy. This method is based on incorporating the analytical solution to the material energy equation directly into the Monte Carlo simulation for the radiation intensity. This method, which we call the Analytical Monte Carlo (AMC) method, differs from the well known Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method of Fleck and Cummings because there is no discretization of the material energy equation since it is solved as a by-product of the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport equation. Our method also differs from the method recently proposed by Ahrens and Larsen since they use Monte Carlo to solve both equations, while we are solving only the radiation transport equation with Monte Carlo, albeit with effective sources and cross sections to represent the emission sources. Our method bears some similarity to a method developed and implemented by Carter and Forest nearly three decades ago, but there are substantive differences. We have implemented our method in a simple zero-dimensional Monte Carlo code to test the feasibility of the method, and the preliminary results are very promising, justifying further extension to more realistic geometries. (authors)

  3. Apparatus and method for radiation processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberg, W.B.; Luniewski, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiation degradation processing of polytetrafluoroethylene makes use of a simultaneous irradiation, agitation and cooling. The apparatus is designed to make efficent use of radiation in the processing. (author)

  4. The Impact of Radiation Treatment Time on Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Talha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Handorf, Elizabeth A. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Murphy, Colin T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mehra, Ranee [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ridge, John A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galloway, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Galloway@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiation treatment time (RTT) in head and neck cancers on overall survival (OS) in the era of chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with diagnoses of tongue, hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, or tonsil cancer were identified by use of the National Cancer Database. RTT was defined as date of first radiation treatment to date of last radiation treatment. In the definitive setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >56 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <47 days, and standard RTT was defined as 47 to 56 days. In the postoperative setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >49 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <40 days, and standard RTT was defined as 40 to 49 days. We used χ{sup 2} tests to identify predictors of RTT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare OS among groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used for OS analysis in patients with known comorbidity status. Results: 19,531 patients were included; 12,987 (67%) had a standard RTT, 4,369 (34%) had an accelerated RTT, and 2,165 (11%) had a prolonged RTT. On multivariable analysis, accelerated RTT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.97) was associated with an improved OS, and prolonged RTT (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT. When the 9,200 (47%) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation were examined, prolonged RTT (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11-1.50) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT, whereas there was no significant association between accelerated RTT and OS (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57-1.01). Conclusion: Prolonged RTT is associated with worse OS in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, even in the setting of chemoradiation. Expeditious completion of radiation should continue to be a quality metric for the management of head and neck malignancies.

  5. Simple method to estimate mean heart dose from Hodgkin lymphoma radiation therapy according to simulation X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, Frederika A; Cutter, David J; Schaapveld, Michael; Rutten, Annemarieke; Kooijman, Karen; Krol, Augustinus D G; Janus, Cécile P M; Darby, Sarah C; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Aleman, Berthe M P

    2015-05-01

    To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case-control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor-intensive representative CT-based method. This simpler method may produce a

  6. Predictors of delay in starting radiation treatment for patients with early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, Veronique; Ho, Vivian; Fortin, Paul R.; Zhang, G.; Levinton, Carey; Freeman, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors predicting waiting time for radiation treatment in early breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1992 and December 1993, 739 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with conservative treatment at three McGill University Hospitals. Waiting time was defined as the interval between the date of surgery and the date of the first radiation treatment. Delay was defined as a waiting time of more than 7 weeks for women who did not receive chemotherapy (Group NC, n 478), and as a waiting time of more than 24 weeks for those who received chemotherapy (Group C, n = 261). We analyzed predictive factors related to the patient (age, stage, treatment on protocol, income by postal code) and to the referring hospital (university or community hospital). Results: For the entire population, 54% of patients were delayed, 72% in Group NC and 21.4% in Group C. Univariate analysis showed an impact of referring hospital in both groups, and of stage and treatment on protocol in Group C (all p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that delays were significantly less in Group NC for women referred from a community hospital (p = 0.001) and in Group C for women with Stage I disease (p = 0.06), those treated on protocol, and those referred from a university hospital (p = 0.001). Conclusion: More than half of patients with early breast cancer waited more than the recommended intervals for radiation therapy. However, lower income breast cancer patients did not wait longer for treatment than higher income patients, possibly a result of the Canadian Medicare system which provides universal access to health care

  7. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Stone, J M

    2007-11-20

    We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments.

  8. Numerical Methods for Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics in Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R I; Stone, J M

    2007-01-01

    We describe numerical methods for solving the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for astrophysical fluid flow. Such methods are essential for the investigation of the time-dependent and multidimensional dynamics of a variety of astrophysical systems, although our particular interest is motivated by problems in star formation. Over the past few years, the authors have been members of two parallel code development efforts, and this review reflects that organization. In particular, we discuss numerical methods for MHD as implemented in the Athena code, and numerical methods for radiation hydrodynamics as implemented in the Orion code. We discuss the challenges introduced by the use of adaptive mesh refinement in both codes, as well as the most promising directions for future developments

  9. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  10. How can laparoscopic management assist radiation treatment in cervix carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaulet, A.; Lartigau, E.; Haie-Meder, C.; Castaigne, D.; Morice, P.; Breton, C.; Pautier, P.; Duvillard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (pelvis ± para-aortic nodes) and laparoscopic hysterectomy in cervical cancer compared to 'classic radical surgery' in patients undergoing surgery in comparison with modern imaging in patients treated with radiotherapy alone.Materials and methods: The limitations of modern imaging are presented as well as how complication rates can be increased when classic laparotomy is followed by radiation therapy.Laparoscopic procedures are described with particular emphasis on how to provide information on lymph node metastases with the risk of overlooking microscopic involvement. A number of clinical experiences are cited to illustrate this problem and show how treatment approaches can be adapted.Results: The role of laparoscopy is evaluated according to different clinical situations and treatment protocols emphasizing the possibilities offered by this method to the radiotherapist. Conclusion: When developing laparoscopic techniques for the management of cervical carcinoma, caution must be exercised to ensure that these techniques are not detrimental to the prognosis. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pär [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  12. Radiation therapy for painful bone metastases. Aiming at optimal treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Saito, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pain relief obtained by radiation therapy for painful bone metastases, with a special regard to general condition. Between June 1998 and May 2000, 54 patients with 86 painful bone metastases were treated with radiation therapy whose effects could be evaluated for a minimum period of 6 months or until death. Treatment schedules were 3 Gy/fraction/day (30-36 Gy/10-12 fractions) in usual cases (61 lesions), 4-8 Gy/fraction/day (8-20 Gy/1-5 fractions) in patients with a poor general condition (9 lesions), and 2 Gy/fraction/day (40-50 Gy/20-25 fractions) in lesions with a large radiation field (16 lesions). Complete pain relief without medication (CR) was achieved in 40 lesions (47%). Significant predictors for CR were primary site (p=0.0003), performance status (p=0.0060), pain score (p=00190), narcotic score (p<0.0001), and prognosis (p<0.0001), but no difference was found in CR among treatment schedules. No evidence of severe radiation-induced complication was seen. General condition (performance status and prognosis) has an influence on pain relief. Compared with the daily 2 Gy protocol, the daily 3 Gy protocol has the advantage of shorter treatment time. The treatment schedule should be assessed in patients with a large radiation field and/or poor general condition. Especially for the patients with poor general condition, combined pain medication should be considered. (author)

  13. Method for evaluation of radiative properties of glass samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohelnikova, Jitka [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mohelnikova.j@fce.vutbr.cz

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a simple calculation method which serves for an evaluation of radiative properties of window glasses. The method is based on a computer simulation model of the energy balance of a thermally insulated box with selected glass samples. A temperature profile of the air inside of the box with a glass sample exposed to affecting radiation was determined for defined boundary conditions. The spectral range of the radiation was considered in the interval between 280 and 2500 nm. This interval is adequate to the spectral range of solar radiation affecting windows in building facades. The air temperature rise within the box was determined in a response to the affecting radiation in the time between the beginning of the radiation exposition and the time of steady-state thermal conditions. The steady state temperature inside of the insulated box serves for the evaluation of the box energy balance and determination of the glass sample radiative properties. These properties are represented by glass characteristics as mean values of transmittance, reflectance and absorptance calculated for a defined spectral range. The data of the computer simulations were compared to experimental measurements on a real model of the insulated box. Results of both the calculations and measurements are in a good compliance. The method is recommended for preliminary evaluation of window glass radiative properties which serve as data for energy evaluation of buildings.

  14. The rule of radiation therapy in the treatment of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Gen; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yamada, Kei

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal in pediatric radiation oncology is to improve survival and quality of life. In particular, a sound balance is needed between tumor elimination and minimization of the late effects of radiation therapy on growth and development, cognition, neuroendocrine function, and the induction of secondary malignancies. It is well documented that radiation causes damage to normal tissues and organs in a dose-dependent and volume-dependent way. Reducing the exposure of normal tissues to therapeutic radiation would presumably decrease the risk of late effects. Thanks to its physical properties, proton beam therapy (PBT) is a possible candidate to achieve this goal. PBT would be widely used in pediatric patients to reduce toxicities in Japan in the near future. But the treatment time for PBT can be longer than that for photon radiotherapy and similar sedatives or anesthesia are required. The preparation process which is to become familiar with the treatment room and staff before treatment may be useful for reducing the need for anesthesia, allowing PBT to be performed in less time. (author)

  15. Analysis of Radiation Treatment Planning by Dose Calculation and Optimization Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Sup; Yoon, In Ha; Lee, Woo Seok; Baek, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Analyze the Effectiveness of Radiation Treatment Planning by dose calculation and optimization algorithm, apply consideration of actual treatment planning, and then suggest the best way to treatment planning protocol. The treatment planning system use Eclipse 10.0. (Varian, USA). PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm) Apply to Dose calculation, DVO (Dose Volume Optimizer 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), PRO II (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 8.9.17) and PRO III (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of VAMT. A phantom for experiment virtually created at treatment planning system, 30x30x30 cm sized, homogeneous density (HU: 0) and heterogeneous density that inserted air assumed material (HU: -1,000). Apply to clinical treatment planning on the basis of general treatment planning feature analyzed with Phantom planning. In homogeneous density phantom, PBC and AAA show 65.2% PDD (6 MV, 10 cm) both, In heterogeneous density phantom, also show similar PDD value before meet with low density material, but they show different dose curve in air territory, PDD 10 cm showed 75%, 73% each after penetrate phantom. 3D treatment plan in same MU, AAA treatment planning shows low dose at Lung included area. 2D POP treatment plan with 15 MV of cervical vertebral region include trachea and lung area, Conformity Index (ICRU 62) is 0.95 in PBC calculation and 0.93 in AAA. DVO DVH and Dose calculation DVH are showed equal value in IMRT treatment plan. But AAA calculation shows lack of dose compared with DVO result which is satisfactory condition. Optimizing VMAT treatment plans using PRO II obtained results were satisfactory, but lower density area showed lack of dose in dose calculations. PRO III, but optimizing the dose calculation results were similar with optimized the same conditions once more. In this study, do not judge the rightness of the dose

  16. Analysis of Radiation Treatment Planning by Dose Calculation and Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup; Yoon, In Ha; Lee, Woo Seok; Baek, Geum Mun

    2012-01-01

    Analyze the Effectiveness of Radiation Treatment Planning by dose calculation and optimization algorithm, apply consideration of actual treatment planning, and then suggest the best way to treatment planning protocol. The treatment planning system use Eclipse 10.0. (Varian, USA). PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm) Apply to Dose calculation, DVO (Dose Volume Optimizer 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), PRO II (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 8.9.17) and PRO III (Progressive Resolution Optimizer V 10.0.28) used for optimized algorithm of VAMT. A phantom for experiment virtually created at treatment planning system, 30x30x30 cm sized, homogeneous density (HU: 0) and heterogeneous density that inserted air assumed material (HU: -1,000). Apply to clinical treatment planning on the basis of general treatment planning feature analyzed with Phantom planning. In homogeneous density phantom, PBC and AAA show 65.2% PDD (6 MV, 10 cm) both, In heterogeneous density phantom, also show similar PDD value before meet with low density material, but they show different dose curve in air territory, PDD 10 cm showed 75%, 73% each after penetrate phantom. 3D treatment plan in same MU, AAA treatment planning shows low dose at Lung included area. 2D POP treatment plan with 15 MV of cervical vertebral region include trachea and lung area, Conformity Index (ICRU 62) is 0.95 in PBC calculation and 0.93 in AAA. DVO DVH and Dose calculation DVH are showed equal value in IMRT treatment plan. But AAA calculation shows lack of dose compared with DVO result which is satisfactory condition. Optimizing VMAT treatment plans using PRO II obtained results were satisfactory, but lower density area showed lack of dose in dose calculations. PRO III, but optimizing the dose calculation results were similar with optimized the same conditions once more. In this study, do not judge the rightness of the dose

  17. Treatment Guidelines for Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma: Preliminary Consensus of an International Expert Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Elizabeth H., E-mail: ebaldini@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Dian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Haas, Rick L.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catton, Charles N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Indelicato, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Salerno, Kilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Deville, Curtiland [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Le Pechoux, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Evidence for external beam radiation therapy (RT) as part of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is limited. Preoperative RT is the subject of a current randomized trial, but the results will not be available for many years. In the meantime, many practitioners use preoperative RT for RPS, and although this approach is used in practice, there are no radiation treatment guidelines. An international expert panel was convened to develop consensus treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Methods and Materials: An expert panel of 15 academic radiation oncologists who specialize in the treatment of sarcoma was assembled. A systematic review of reports related to RT for RPS, RT for extremity sarcoma, and RT-related toxicities for organs at risk was performed. Due to the paucity of high-quality published data on the subject of RT for RPS, consensus recommendations were based largely on expert opinion derived from clinical experience and extrapolation of relevant published reports. It is intended that these clinical practice guidelines be updated as pertinent data become available. Results: Treatment guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS are presented. Conclusions: An international panel of radiation oncologists who specialize in sarcoma reached consensus guidelines for preoperative RT for RPS. Many of the recommendations are based on expert opinion because of the absence of higher level evidence and, thus, are best regarded as preliminary. We emphasize that the role of preoperative RT for RPS has not been proven, and we await data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study of preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for patients with RPS. Further data are also anticipated pertaining to normal tissue dose constraints, particularly for bowel tolerance. Nonetheless, as we await these data, the guidelines herein can be used to establish treatment uniformity to aid future assessments of efficacy

  18. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity to different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more

  19. Possibilities and tasks of ray hematology in the radiation treatment of mamma carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozsa, Sz.

    1980-01-01

    The hematologic implications the ray treatment of mamma carcinomas are outlined. The main lines of the evolution of the problem, the causes of the increasing interest in radiation hematology as well as the pathophysiological bases of clinical phenomena are discussed. Also, the more detailed hematological clinical characteristics, the critical peripheric values, the problem of the local inactivation bone marrow dose, and finally, the problems of the cell reserves and the provocative methods are dealt with. Because of its theoretical importance the kinetic problems of the T/B-lymphocytes are discussed. The most important factors of the chemo and hormone therapy and the laboratory examinations and the principles of general radiation hematology are also reviewed. (N.I.)

  20. Software Design for Interactive Graphic Radiation Treatment Simulation Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Ira J.; Sweeney, Christine; Jacky, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    We examine issues in the design of interactive computer graphic simulation programs for radiation treatment planning (RTP), as well as expert system programs that automate parts of the RTP process, in light of ten years of experience at designing, building and using such programs. An experiment in object-oriented design using standard Pascal shows that while some advantage is gained from the design, it is still difficult to achieve modularity and to integrate expert system components. A new design based on the Common LISP Object System (CLOS) is described. This series of designs for RTP software shows that this application benefits in specific ways from object-oriented design methods and appropriate languages and tools.

  1. Biomedical applications of two- and three-dimensional deterministic radiation transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Multidimensional deterministic radiation transport methods are routinely used in support of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Typical applications of two-dimensional discrete-ordinates methods include neutron filter design, as well as phantom dosimetry. The epithermal-neutron filter for BNCT that is currently available at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) was designed using such methods. Good agreement between calculated and measured neutron fluxes was observed for this filter. Three-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations are used routinely for dose-distribution calculations in three-dimensional phantoms placed in the BMRR beam, as well as for treatment planning verification for live canine subjects. Again, good agreement between calculated and measured neutron fluxes and dose levels is obtained

  2. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  3. Treatment of radiation burns, 1987 [videorecording][Radiation injuries following an accident at a nuclear power plant, 1986. Medical aspects of Chernobyl, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    After the accident at Chernobyl, patients with various degrees of radiation burns were given treatment at Moscow hospital No. 6. The video shows the radiation injuries as well as therapy and treatment in detail.

  4. Consensus Recommendations for Radiation Therapy Contouring and Treatment of Vulvar Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, David K., E-mail: david.gaffney@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); King, Bronwyn [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Epworth Radiation Oncology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Barkati, Maroie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Eifel, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proedtert and Medical College Clinical Cancer Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Fyles, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goulart, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Harkenrider, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Koh, Wui-Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Lim, Karen [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre, Radiation Oncology Unit, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [Radiation Oncology Department, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); and others

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a radiation therapy (RT) contouring atlas and recommendations for women with postoperative and locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An international committee of 35 expert gynecologic radiation oncologists completed a survey of the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. An initial set of recommendations for contouring was discussed and generated by consensus. Two cases, 1 locally advanced and 1 postoperative, were contoured by 14 physicians. Contours were compared and analyzed using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), and a 95% confidence interval contour was developed. The level of agreement among contours was assessed using a kappa statistic. STAPLE contours underwent full committee editing to generate the final atlas consensus contours. Results: Analysis of the 14 contours showed substantial agreement, with kappa statistics of 0.69 and 0.64 for cases 1 and 2, respectively. There was high specificity for both cases (≥99%) and only moderate sensitivity of 71.3% and 64.9% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Expert review and discussion generated consensus recommendations for contouring target volumes and treatment for postoperative and locally advanced vulvar cancer. Conclusions: These consensus recommendations for contouring and treatment of vulvar cancer identified areas of complexity and controversy. Given the lack of clinical research evidence in vulvar cancer radiation therapy, the committee advocates a conservative and consistent approach using standardized recommendations.

  5. Consensus Recommendations for Radiation Therapy Contouring and Treatment of Vulvar Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, David K.; King, Bronwyn; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Barkati, Maroie; Beriwal, Sushil; Eifel, Patricia; Erickson, Beth; Fyles, Anthony; Goulart, Jennifer; Harkenrider, Matthew; Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann; Koh, Wui-Jin; Lim, Karen; Petersen, Ivy; Portelance, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a radiation therapy (RT) contouring atlas and recommendations for women with postoperative and locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An international committee of 35 expert gynecologic radiation oncologists completed a survey of the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. An initial set of recommendations for contouring was discussed and generated by consensus. Two cases, 1 locally advanced and 1 postoperative, were contoured by 14 physicians. Contours were compared and analyzed using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), and a 95% confidence interval contour was developed. The level of agreement among contours was assessed using a kappa statistic. STAPLE contours underwent full committee editing to generate the final atlas consensus contours. Results: Analysis of the 14 contours showed substantial agreement, with kappa statistics of 0.69 and 0.64 for cases 1 and 2, respectively. There was high specificity for both cases (≥99%) and only moderate sensitivity of 71.3% and 64.9% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Expert review and discussion generated consensus recommendations for contouring target volumes and treatment for postoperative and locally advanced vulvar cancer. Conclusions: These consensus recommendations for contouring and treatment of vulvar cancer identified areas of complexity and controversy. Given the lack of clinical research evidence in vulvar cancer radiation therapy, the committee advocates a conservative and consistent approach using standardized recommendations.

  6. Evaluation of patient preferences towards treatment during extended hours for patients receiving radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer: A time trade-off study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Alison M.; Atyeo, John; Field, Nikki; Cox, Jennifer; Bull, Colin; Gebski, Val J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To reduce the waiting time between diagnosis and the start of radiation therapy, some departments have introduced appointments outside of conventional working hours, but the inconvenience this may cause to patients is unknown. We examined, from the patient's perspective, whether reduced waiting times to treatment would be sufficient to trade off against potentially inconvenient appointment times. Method: We interviewed patients receiving radiation therapy at a major teaching hospital between January and May 2005. Two patient groups were considered: those treated during conventional working hours (8.30 am to 4.30 pm), and those treated outside these hours. Patients were asked to trade a reduction in waiting time to the start of treatment against treatment outside conventional working hours. Results: Of 129 patients interviewed, 77 were treated during conventional working hours and 52 outside these hours. Fifty-seven (44%) were male and 52 (40%) were aged over 60 years. To prefer treatment out of working hours, patients being treated during conventional working hours required a larger reduction in waiting time (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 0.97-5.76). Patients with curable disease and those who had made few changes in their lifestyle throughout the treatment were more likely to accept treatment outside of conventional working hours. Conclusion: It is impractical to satisfy the treatment-time preferences of all patients. However, many patients prefer treatment outside of normal treatment times if this would reduce the time until the start of radiation therapy. Evaluating the effect of waiting times on patients' perceptions of their disease control provides important information in allocating treatment hours and appointment times

  7. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  8. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  9. POSSIBILITIES OF DIAGNOSIS OF RADIATION INJURIES AND REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER COMBINED TREATMENT OF MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop and introduce into practice health facility individual programs of rehabilitation treatment and rehabilitation after combined treatment of breast cancer with the use of thermal imaging diagnostic method.Materials and methods. The study included 259 women who had undergone combined treatment of breast cancer. The main contingent of the test (82.4% were middle-aged women from 33 to 59 years old. For an objective diagnosis of the state of post-radiation fibrosis and scarring using modern methods of instrumental diagnostics: Sonoelastography, infrared thermography and thermal imaging diagnostics. In individual cases, to assess the developmental stages of lymphedema using lymphoscintigraphy and MRI.Results. The proposed method of of research of the thermal state of postoperative functional area allows to identify disease and organic components in the form of scars and radiation fibrosis. This method allows to visualize the state of the heat balance on the surface of the skin and evaluate the impact of means of rehabilitation of the thermal regime of post-operative area. Critical thermal asymmetry increase by 2–3 degrees on Celsius indicates negative impact on homeostasis means of rehabilitation of post-operative area.Conclusions. Thermal imaging diagnostics of scares, radiation damage and postmastectomy syndrome is a highly informative method of objective evaluation of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process and can be recommended for use in specialized medical rehabilitation offices. For this, it developed adhesive-correcting method of prevention and treatment of late radiation damage, fibrosis, and keloids through innovative adhesive ekzoform. Develop a model structure and staffing with specialized rehabilitation rooms for women after combined treatment of breast cancer. Traditional means of rehabilitation (silicone-biological prosthetics have a number of significant shortcomings in the

  10. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial

  11. Laser radiation in tennis elbow treatment: a new minimally invasive alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Stefan; Thal, Dietmar R.; Werkmann, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    The epicondylitis humeri radialis (EHR) (tennis elbow), is a common disease in elbow joint pain syndromes. We treated patients with chronic pain for at least one year and no improvement with conservative or operative therapies with a new minimal invasive method, the EHR-Laser radiation (EHR- LR). With this method periepicondylar coagulations were applied to the trigger points of the patients. For this the previously established technique of facet joint coagulation with the Nd:Yag-laser was modified. In a follow-up study of between 6 weeks and 2 years all patients reported either a significant pain reduction or were symptom free. EHR-LR is a new method situated between conservative and surgical treatments for minimal invasive therapy of EHR. Several therapeutic rationales were discussed for the resulting pain reduction.

  12. Characteristics and correlation of various radiation measuring methods in spatial radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kazuhiro; Tonouchi, Shigemasa

    1992-01-01

    When the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution was carried out, for the purpose of examining the useful measuring method, the comparison of the γ-ray dose rate calculated from survey meter method, in-situ measuring method and the measuring method by sampling soil was carried out. Between the in-situ measuring method and the survey meter method, the correlation Y=0.986X+5.73, r=0.903, n=18, P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation having the inclination of nearly 1 was shown. Between the survey meter method and the measuring method by sampling soil, the correlation Y=1.297X-10.30, r=0.966, n=20 P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation was shown, but as for the dose rate contribution, the disparities of 36% in U series, 6% in Th series and 20% in K-40 were observed. For the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution, the method of using in combination the survey meter method and the in-situ measuring method or the measuring method by sampling soil is suitable. (author)

  13. The role of PET/CT in radiation treatment planning for cancer patient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and, more recently, integrated positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) have appeared as significant diagnostic imaging systems in clinical medicine. Accurate recognition of cancers in patients by means of PET scanning with Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) has illustrated a need to determine a mode of therapy to achieve better prognoses. The clinical management of cancer patients has improved dramatically with the introduction of clinical PET. For treatment of cancer patients, on the other hand, radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role as a non-invasive therapy. It is crucial that cancers are encompassed by high dose irradiation, particularly in cases of curative RT. Irradiation should precisely target the entire tumour and aim to minimise the size of microscopic extensions of the cancer, as well as minimize radiation damage to normal tissues. A new imaging technique has therefore been sought to allow precise delineation of the cancer target to be irradiated. Clinical PET, combined with utilization of 18 F-FDG, may have an important role in radiation treatment planning (RTP) in lung cancer. In addition to determining if RT is appropriate and whether therapy will be given with curative or palliative intent, 18 F-FDG-PET is useful for determining therapy ports. It can be used both to limit ports to spare normal tissue and to include additional involved regions. Several studies have shown that PET has an impact on RTP in an important proportion of patients. It is to be hoped that treatment plans that include all the 18 F-FDG-avid lesions or the 18 F-FDG-avid portions of a complex mass will result in more effective local control with less unnecessary tissue being treated. The IAEA has placed emphasis on the issue of application of clinical PET for radiation treatment planning in various cancer patients. Two consultants meetings were held in 2006 and their results are summarized into this IAEA

  14. Application of Gamma Radiation and Adsorption Treatment to the Remediation of Wastewater Containing Toxic Detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; EI-Boohy, H.A.; Eid, M.; Ismail, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of gamma radiation induced destruction of anionic detergents (UN-ET and Comperlan) and non-ionic detergent (Tween-60) present in wastewater was investigated. Irradiation dose concentration and ph were studied as factors affecting the degradation process. It was found that anionic detergents are more destruct at a lower dose than the non-ionic one. In solutions of equal concentration , a dose of 35 kGy caused higher degree of destruction in the anionic detergents than a dose of 100 kGy does in the nonionic detergent. Radiation treatment of wastewater in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide showed an enhancement in the radiation degradation, while nitrogen showed no change. Adsorption and exchange purification of detergents onto GAC, agricultural by-products, ion exchange resins and polymeric membranes were carried out. The results showing that, GAC oxidized with H 2 O 2 and the anion exchanger Merck III having the highest adsorption capacity. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation followed by adsorption was the best method for the total removal of these toxic pollutants as well as their radiolysis products

  15. Calibration method of radiation monitoring system at TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Qingli; Liu Jinjin; Miao Yuxing; Geng Lixin; Zhuang Yun; Dong Jianfeng; He Change

    2009-04-01

    The calibration methods and calibration device for standard monitor of radioactive particulate, iodine, noble gas and so on are not yet set up at home. On consideration of the present situation of the radiation monitoring system at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., we have studied the calibration method of these radiation monitoring instruments used for measuring the waste liquid, particulate, iodine and noble gas produced during the operation of nuclear reactor. Through the check against these instruments during the No. 202 and No. 103 overhaul, we got initially the method of the calibration and obtained the transfer coefficient of calibration when secondary solid sources are used for calibration. Through the testing and calibration, the credibility of the radiation monitoring system is enhanced. And at the same time, the problems existing in the calibration are discussed. (authors)

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation treatment machine heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of radiation treatment machine heads provide practical means for obtaining energy spectra and angular distributions of photons and electrons. So far, most of the work published in the literature has been limited to photons and the contaminant electrons knocked out by photons. This chapter will be confined to megavoltage photon beams produced by medical linear accelerators and 60 Co teletherapy units. The knowledge of energy spectra and angular distributions of photons and contaminant electrons emerging from such machines is important for a variety of applications in radiation dosimetry

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes; Pomerane, Armando; Genovese, Jorge; Perez, Maria R.; Gisone, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  18. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  19. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them.

  20. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam eBaskar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET, total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE. In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.

  1. Use of ionizing radiation for color removal and increased biodegradability in tannery wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyfantis, G.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The special problems associated with the treatment of waste-waters generated by the vegetable leather tanning process have been studied to determine their treatability utilizing ionizing radiation. Conventional treatment schemes do not provide an effective means for the removal of color from vegetable tanning wastes. Radiation treatment is an advanced treatment method that does effectively remove the color. In addition to color removal, radiation treatment of vegetable tanning wastes increases the biodegradability. The results of this study show that radiation treatment of wastes offers a viable method for removing color and increasing biodegradability. An economic analysis, which is also included, indicates that in the near future radiation treatment will be competitive with other advanced waste treatment methods

  2. Radiation therapy in the treatment of irresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, J.B.; Cavanaugh, P.J.; Stroup, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic carcinoma is rising in the United States, but the problems of diagnosis and treatment are largely unsolved. However, in the classic article selected for this paper, a study at Duke University demonstrated in 1973 that radiation therapy given in moderately high doses can be given without substantial morbidity, can be locally effective in achieving good palliation, and can occasionally be curative. The authors' goals as physicians and surgeons caring for patients with pancreatic carcinoma should be to assess the potential for cure and attempt to achieve it in the fortunate very few, to palliate or delay symptoms with a minimum of inflicted morbidity in the unfortunate many, and to attempt to extend comfort and useful survival in all. To accomplish these goals is not easy and requires artful selective application of the available therapies. Many of these, including total pancreatectomy, specialized methods of radiation, and multidrug chemotherapy, are relatively new and their ultimate roles are neither fully developed nor adequately assessed. This paper tries to highlight the present state of the art in radiation therapy to assist clinicians who must now make decisions for the management of their patients with pancreatic carcinoma

  3. Television system for verification and documentation of treatment fields during intraoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Harrington, F.S.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) involves direct treatment of tumors or tumor beds with large single doses of radiation. The verification of the area to be treated before irradiation and the documentation of the treated area are critical for IORT, just as for other types of radiation therapy. A television system which allows the target area to be directly imaged immediately before irradiation has been developed. Verification and documentation of treatment fields has made the IORT television system indispensable

  4. High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 μm) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

  5. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  6. Use of activated carbon adsorption in conjunction with radiation treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, L.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Toft-Hall, A.; Kremers, W.; Singh, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the potential applications of combined adsorption-irradiation treatment processes. The rationale for the study was to determine whether the cost of radiation treatment could be reduced by concentrating target species on an adsorbent in the radiation field. Several different studies on adsorption-irradiation treatment were identified in the literature, and experimental work was done on both the conversion of sulphur dioxide to elemental sulphur, and the removal of trihalomethanes from water by adsorption on activated carbon and subsequent irradiation. Adsorption-irradiation treatment would appear to be less costly than irradiation alone for radiolytic decomposition of target species at low concentration in liquid streams, in the presence of high-surface-area, electrically insulating adsorbents. 116 refs

  7. Barriers affecting adherence to radiation treatment and strategies to overcome those barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, R; Jayaraman, K

    2017-01-01

    The WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a patient's behavior coincides with recommendations from a health-care provider. Nonadherence to cancer treatment has a major impact on the therapeutic outcome. To assess the prevalence of nonadherence to radiation regimen and to analyze the factors that affect adherence to cancer treatment. Patients receiving radiation treatment in our hospital were screened for adherence to appointment keeping and to the prescribed radiation regimen and patients who had unplanned treatment breaks during treatment were interviewed. Between January and July 2013, we identified 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment. We analyzed the social, emotional, educational, economic, and therapeutic barriers that led to nonadherence. Of the 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment, 54% were males and 46% were females. Fifty-seven percent of patients had head and neck cancers and 25% had gynecological cancers. Seventy-one percent of patients were planned for concurrent chemoradiation. The number of days of unplanned treatment breaks ranged from 3 to 27 days. Social and therapeutic barriers were found to be the most common factor that led to nonadherence in these patients. Identification of barriers that lead to nonadherence, designing strategies to overcome such barriers and effective communication becomes imperative to ensure uninterrupted treatment. Based on the above analysis, we have designed several strategies to improve adherence to treatment among our patients.

  8. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  9. Clinical Outcomes of Image Guided Adaptive Hypofractionated Weekly Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer in Patients Unsuitable for Radical Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Shaista, E-mail: shaista.hafeez@icr.ac.uk [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); McDonald, Fiona; Lalondrelle, Susan [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); McNair, Helen; Warren-Oseni, Karole; Jones, Kelly [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Harris, Victoria [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Taylor, Helen; Khoo, Vincent [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, Karen [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Hansen, Vibeke; Dearnaley, David; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose and Objectives: We report on the clinical outcomes of a phase 2 study assessing image guided hypofractionated weekly radiation therapy in bladder cancer patients unsuitable for radical treatment. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with T2-T4aNx-2M0-1 bladder cancer not suitable for cystectomy or daily radiation therapy treatment were recruited. A “plan of the day” radiation therapy approach was used, treating the whole (empty) bladder to 36 Gy in 6 weekly fractions. Acute toxicity was assessed weekly during radiation therapy, at 6 and 12 weeks using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Late toxicity was assessed at 6 months and 12 months using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading. Cystoscopy was used to assess local control at 3 months. Cumulative incidence function was used to determine local progression at 1 at 2 years. Death without local progression was treated as a competing risk. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median age was 86 years (range, 68-97 years). Eighty-seven percent of patients completed their prescribed course of radiation therapy. Genitourinary and gastrointestinal grade 3 acute toxicity was seen in 18% (10/55) and 4% (2/55) of patients, respectively. No grade 4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Grade ≥3 late toxicity (any) at 6 and 12 months was seen in 6.5% (2/31) and 4.3% (1/23) of patients, respectively. Local control after radiation therapy was 92% of assessed patients (60% total population). Cumulative incidence of local progression at 1 year and 2 years for all patients was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2%-17%) and 17% (95% CI 8%-29%), respectively. Overall survival at 1 year was 63% (95% CI 48%-74%). Conclusion: Hypofractionated radiation therapy delivered weekly with a plan of the day approach offers good local control with acceptable toxicity in a patient population not suitable for radical bladder treatment.

  10. Clinical Outcomes of Image Guided Adaptive Hypofractionated Weekly Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer in Patients Unsuitable for Radical Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Shaista; McDonald, Fiona; Lalondrelle, Susan; McNair, Helen; Warren-Oseni, Karole; Jones, Kelly; Harris, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Khoo, Vincent; Thomas, Karen; Hansen, Vibeke; Dearnaley, David; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: We report on the clinical outcomes of a phase 2 study assessing image guided hypofractionated weekly radiation therapy in bladder cancer patients unsuitable for radical treatment. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with T2-T4aNx-2M0-1 bladder cancer not suitable for cystectomy or daily radiation therapy treatment were recruited. A “plan of the day” radiation therapy approach was used, treating the whole (empty) bladder to 36 Gy in 6 weekly fractions. Acute toxicity was assessed weekly during radiation therapy, at 6 and 12 weeks using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Late toxicity was assessed at 6 months and 12 months using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading. Cystoscopy was used to assess local control at 3 months. Cumulative incidence function was used to determine local progression at 1 at 2 years. Death without local progression was treated as a competing risk. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median age was 86 years (range, 68-97 years). Eighty-seven percent of patients completed their prescribed course of radiation therapy. Genitourinary and gastrointestinal grade 3 acute toxicity was seen in 18% (10/55) and 4% (2/55) of patients, respectively. No grade 4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Grade ≥3 late toxicity (any) at 6 and 12 months was seen in 6.5% (2/31) and 4.3% (1/23) of patients, respectively. Local control after radiation therapy was 92% of assessed patients (60% total population). Cumulative incidence of local progression at 1 year and 2 years for all patients was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2%-17%) and 17% (95% CI 8%-29%), respectively. Overall survival at 1 year was 63% (95% CI 48%-74%). Conclusion: Hypofractionated radiation therapy delivered weekly with a plan of the day approach offers good local control with acceptable toxicity in a patient population not suitable for radical bladder treatment.

  11. Dosimetric quality control of treatment planning systems in external radiation therapy using Digital Test Objects calculated by PENELOPE Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hdech, Yassine

    2011-01-01

    To ensure the required accuracy and prevent from mis-administration, cancer treatments, by external radiation therapy are simulated on Treatment Planning System or TPS before radiation delivery in order to ensure that the prescription is achieved both in terms of target volumes coverage and healthy tissues protection. The TPS calculates the patient dose distribution and the treatment time per beam required to deliver the prescribed dose. TPS is a key system in the decision process of treatment by radiation therapy. It is therefore essential that the TPS be subject to a thorough check of its performance (quality control or QC) and in particular its ability to accurately compute dose distributions for patients in all clinical situations that be met. The 'traditional' methods recommended to carry out dosimetric CQ of algorithms implemented in the TPS are based on comparisons between dose distributions calculated with the TPS and dose measured in physical test objects (PTO) using the treatment machine. In this thesis we propose to substitute the reference dosimetric measurements performed in OTP by benchmark dose calculations in Digital Test Objects using PENELOPE Monte-Carlo code. This method has three advantages: (i) it allows simulation in situations close to the clinic and often too complex to be experimentally feasible; (ii) due to the digital form of reference data the QC process may be automated; (iii) it allows a comprehensive TPS CQ without hindering the use of an equipment devoted primarily to patients treatments. This new method of CQ has been tested successfully on the Eclipse TPS from Varian Medical Systems Company. (author) [fr

  12. Application of NCRP REPORT No.151 for evaluating the radiation level at the ambience of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haiyou; Yu Shui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The estimation model,on radiation level at the ambience of medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms, is derived on the basis of NCRP REPORT No.151, which presents the calculation model of shielding design about barrier thicknesses of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms. Methods: The estimation model comes from NCRP REPORT No.151- S tructural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities , which presents the calculation model of shielding design about megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms, and the dose rate at isocenter replaces the workload, and the occupancy factor and the use factor are forsaken, then the converse deduction is done according to barrier thicknesses of shielding materials. Ultimately, the estimation model, on radiation level at the ambience of medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms, is derived. Results: It can be regarded as a systematic estimation model for calculating the radiation level at the ambience of medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. Conclusion: The estimation model has certain practical value to evaluate the radiation level at the ambience of medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. (authors)

  13. The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.; Yoo, S.; Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Thomadsen, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-meter from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum

  14. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Masaharu; Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi; Tomita, Naoto; Iijima, Yasuhito; Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko; Ogino, Ichiro; Inoue, Tomio

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I E A in 29 patients and stage II E A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  15. Treatment Effects and Sequelae of Radiation Therapy for Orbital Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Masaharu, E-mail: mhata@syd.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomita, Naoto [Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhito [Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Minagawa, Yumiko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Among extranodal lymphomas, orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a relatively rare presentation. We performed a review to ascertain treatment efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy for orbital MALT lymphoma. We also evaluated changes in visual acuity after irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with orbital MALT lymphoma underwent radiation therapy with curative intent. Clinical stages at diagnosis were stage I{sub E}A in 29 patients and stage II{sub E}A in 1 patient. Total doses of 28.8 to 45.8 Gy (median, 30 Gy) in 15 to 26 fractions (median, 16 fractions) were delivered to the tumors. Results: All irradiated tumors were controlled during the follow-up period of 2 to 157 months (median, 35 months) after treatment. Two patients had relapses that arose in the cervical lymph node and the ipsilateral palpebral conjunctiva outside the radiation field at 15 and 67 months after treatment, respectively. The 5-year local progression-free and relapse-free rates were 100% and 96%, respectively. All 30 patients are presently alive; the overall and relapse-free survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 96%, respectively. Although 5 patients developed cataracts of grade 2 at 8 to 45 months after irradiation, they underwent intraocular lens implantation, and their eyesight recovered. Additionally, there was no marked deterioration in the visual acuity of patients due to irradiation, with the exception of cataracts. No therapy-related toxicity of grade 3 or greater was observed. Conclusions: Radiation therapy was effective and safe for patients with orbital MALT lymphoma. Although some patients developed cataracts after irradiation, visual acuity was well preserved.

  16. Automation and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Individualized High-Quality Tangent Breast Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Dinniwell, Robert E.; Fyles, Anthony; Sharpe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the large-scale clinical implementation and performance of an automated treatment planning methodology for tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Automated planning was used to prospectively plan tangential breast IMRT treatment for 1661 patients between June 2009 and November 2012. The automated planning method emulates the manual steps performed by the user during treatment planning, including anatomical segmentation, beam placement, optimization, dose calculation, and plan documentation. The user specifies clinical requirements of the plan to be generated through a user interface embedded in the planning system. The automated method uses heuristic algorithms to define and simplify the technical aspects of the treatment planning process. Results: Automated planning was used in 1661 of 1708 patients receiving tangential breast IMRT during the time interval studied. Therefore, automated planning was applicable in greater than 97% of cases. The time for treatment planning using the automated process is routinely 5 to 6 minutes on standard commercially available planning hardware. We have shown a consistent reduction in plan rejections from plan reviews through the standard quality control process or weekly quality review multidisciplinary breast rounds as we have automated the planning process for tangential breast IMRT. Clinical plan acceptance increased from 97.3% using our previous semiautomated inverse method to 98.9% using the fully automated method. Conclusions: Automation has become the routine standard method for treatment planning of tangential breast IMRT at our institution and is clinically feasible on a large scale. The method has wide clinical applicability and can add tremendous efficiency, standardization, and quality to the current treatment planning process. The use of automated methods can allow centers to more rapidly adopt IMRT and enhance access to the documented

  17. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  18. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  19. Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1996-01-01

    When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 (by Nordic Association of Clinica Physics) to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ''Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy''. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed

  20. Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, P [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-08-01

    When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ``Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy``. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed dose to the Target Volume is delivered.

  1. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a 60Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, H. Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min; DeWees, Todd; Kashani, Rojano; Olsen, Jeff; Michalski, Jeff; Yang, Deshan; Tanderup, Kari; Hu, Yanle; Li, H. Harold; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating 60 Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. Methods and Materials: The ViewRay treatment planning system (Oakwood Village, OH) was used to create 60 Co IMRT treatment plans for 33 cancer patients with disease in the abdominal, pelvic, thorax, and head and neck regions using physician-specified patient-specific target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) objectives. Backup plans using a third-party linear accelerator (linac)-based planning system were also created. Plans were evaluated by attending physicians and approved for treatment. The 60 Co and linac plans were compared by evaluating conformity numbers (CN) with 100% and 95% of prescription reference doses and heterogeneity indices (HI) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and maximum, mean, and dose-volume histogram (DVH) values for OARs. Results: All 60 Co IMRT plans achieved PTV coverage and OAR sparing that were similar to linac plans. PTV conformity for 60 Co was within <1% and 3% of linac plans for 100% and 95% prescription reference isodoses, respectively, and heterogeneity was on average 4% greater. Comparisons of OAR mean dose showed generally better sparing with linac plans in the low-dose range <20 Gy, but comparable sparing for organs with mean doses >20 Gy. The mean doses for all 60 Co plan OARs were within clinical tolerances. Conclusions: A commercial 60 Co MR-IGRT device can produce highly conformal IMRT treatment plans similar in quality to linac IMRT for a variety of disease sites. Additional work is in progress to evaluate the clinical benefit of other novel features of this MR-IGRT system

  2. Application of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics for fingerprinting radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Volatile compounds were isolated from apples and grapes employing solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS equipped with a transfer line without stationary phase. Single peak obtained was integrated to obtain total mass spectrum of the volatile fraction of samples. A data matrix having relative abundance of all mass-to-charge ratios was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify radiation treatment. PCA results suggested that there is sufficient variability between control and irradiated samples to build classification models based on supervised techniques. LDA successfully aided in segregating control from irradiated samples at all doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kGy). SPME-MS with chemometrics was successfully demonstrated as simple screening method for radiation treatment. - Highlights: • Total mass spectra obtained from HS-MS for control and irradiated fruits. • Grapes and apples are chosen for present study. • Total mass spectrum was analyzed by two chemometric techniques (PCA and LDA). • Successful segregation of control and irradiated samples achieved using chemometrics

  3. On radiation damage to normal tissues and its treatment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to transiently inhibiting cell cycle progression and sterilizing those cells capable of proliferation, irradiation disturbs the homeostasis effected by endogenous mediators of intercellular communication (humoral component of tissue response to radiation). Changes in the mediator levels may modulate radiation effects either by a assisting a return to normality (e.g., through a rise in H-type cell lineage-specific growth factors) or by aggravating the damage. The latter mode is illustrated with reports on changes in eicosanoid levels after irradiation and on results of empirical treatment of radiation injuries with anti-inflammatory drugs. Prodromal, acute and chronic effects of radiation are accompanied by excessive production of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxanes and leukotrienes). These endogenous mediators of inflammatory reactions may be responsible for the vasodilatation, vasoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, thrombosis and chemotaxis observed after radiation exposure. Glucocorticoids inhibit eicosanoid synthesis primarily by interfering with phospholipase A 2 whilst non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin/thromboxane synthesis by inhibiting cycloxygenase. When administered after irradiation on empirical grounds, drugs belonging to both groups tend to attenuate a range of prodomal, acute and chronic effects of radiation in man and animals. Taken together, these two sets of observations are highly suggestive of a contribution of humoral factors to the adverse responses of normal tissues and organs to radiation. A full account of radiation damage should therefore consist of complementary descriptions of cellular and humoral events. Further studies on anti-inflammatory drug treatment of radiation damage to normal organs are justified and desirable. (orig.)

  4. The role of radiation therapy in multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikoz, N.G.; Kudryashov, O.G.; Ponomar'ov, V.V.; Osipenkov, R.A.; Anyishchenko, A.O.; Kudryashova, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer (pT any, N any, M0) using pre- operative large-fraction irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that radiation therapy does not aggravate the conditions for surgery and improves long-term results. The data about efficacy of multimodality treatment (palliative nephrectomy with radiation therapy) in patients with primary metastatic kidney cancer T any, N any, M1) are also reported.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity (i.e. those handling the emergency situation may not know the extent and severity of the accident). Experience has shown that in addition to occupational physicians, the complete management of an emergency case involves other professionals such as haematologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, dermatologists, vascular surgeons, psychiatrists and consultants in other medical specialities. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measures and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assessment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  6. A comparison of moving beam methods for the treatment of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S S; Lee, D H; Park, C Y; Choi, B S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, J W [National Institute of Health, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-12-15

    The method of tangential rotation therapy for non-operated breast cancer has been developed in Yonsei Cancer Center. This method is in principle to avoid the disorder of the lung field by radiotherapy as well as possible and to make an adequate radiation dosage according to each treated region, including breast, axilla, supra or infraclavicullar fossa, and sternum. We have various irradiation methods conducted today, but this continuous and repeated tangential rotation therapy is extraordinary superior to a traditional fixed tangential therapy. The advantages of this method are summarized as follows: 1) Simultaneous treatment with different dose is possible to the breast and the thorax including the sternum. 2) The radiation effect on the intrathoracic organs including lung and heart is almost absent. 3) It is easy to simultaneous irradiation in the large treated region. 4) The dose distribution of various types is possible by changed a rotation angle and an eccentric angle in accordance with irradiated region. 5) The irradiated fields are not overlapped and not so complicated as a fixed polytagential therapy. Therefor the continuous and repeated tangential rotation therapy is an adequate method for the non-operated breast cancer and may be sure of helping for radiation therapy.

  7. Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Gozde [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Kiratli, Hayyam [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozyigit, Gokhan; Sari, Sezin Yuce; Cengiz, Mustafa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Tarlan, Bercin [Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida (United States); Mocan, Burce Ozgen [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Zorlu, Faruk, E-mail: fzorlu@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results of stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRS/FSRT) for uveal melanoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 181 patients with 182 uveal melanomas receiving SRS/FSRT between 2007 and 2013. Treatment was administered with CyberKnife. Results: According to Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria, tumor size was small in 1%, medium in 49.5%, and large in 49.5% of the patients. Seventy-one tumors received <45 Gy, and 111 received ≥45 Gy. Median follow-up time was 24 months. Complete and partial response was observed in 8 and 104 eyes, respectively. The rate of 5-year overall survival was 98%, disease-free survival 57%, local recurrence-free survival 73%, distant metastasis-free survival 69%, and enucleation-free survival 73%. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and disease-free survival, SRS/FSRT dose and enucleation-free survival; and both were prognostic for local recurrence-free survival. Enucleation was performed in 41 eyes owing to progression in 26 and complications in 11. Conclusions: The radiation therapy dose is of great importance for local control and eye retention; the best treatment outcome was achieved using ≥45 Gy in 3 fractions.

  8. Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Gozde; Kiratli, Hayyam; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Sari, Sezin Yuce; Cengiz, Mustafa; Tarlan, Bercin; Mocan, Burce Ozgen; Zorlu, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results of stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRS/FSRT) for uveal melanoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 181 patients with 182 uveal melanomas receiving SRS/FSRT between 2007 and 2013. Treatment was administered with CyberKnife. Results: According to Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria, tumor size was small in 1%, medium in 49.5%, and large in 49.5% of the patients. Seventy-one tumors received <45 Gy, and 111 received ≥45 Gy. Median follow-up time was 24 months. Complete and partial response was observed in 8 and 104 eyes, respectively. The rate of 5-year overall survival was 98%, disease-free survival 57%, local recurrence-free survival 73%, distant metastasis-free survival 69%, and enucleation-free survival 73%. There was a significant correlation between tumor size and disease-free survival, SRS/FSRT dose and enucleation-free survival; and both were prognostic for local recurrence-free survival. Enucleation was performed in 41 eyes owing to progression in 26 and complications in 11. Conclusions: The radiation therapy dose is of great importance for local control and eye retention; the best treatment outcome was achieved using ≥45 Gy in 3 fractions.

  9. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL

  10. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL.

  11. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  12. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  13. Organization of medical aid and treatment of individuals affected in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.G.; Andreev, E.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    The emergency programme of the medical service for radiation accidents constitutes part of the whole emergency programme of the establishment whose production process is derectly connected with the utilization of ionizing radiation sources. The chief of the establishment health centre also heads the operative radiation accident group. When a radiation accident occurs the medical personnel, according to a previously developed plan, reports at the Health centre. The medical aid is based on the principle of step treatment and evacuation of the affected persons, according to the prescriptions. The first step of the medical evacuation is the health centre; the second - the District hospital, where a team of specialists is formed, all of them previously well trained in the recognition and treatment of radiation sickness. The third step is the specialized clinic for radiation injuries. Persons, who have received irradiation dose of up to 100 rad, or are in a shock state, or have incorporated radioactive substances, are temporarily hospitalized at the health centre. The assistance rended to them consists of: control of shock, asphyxia and bleeding, primary surgical treatment of wounds in cases of complex injuries, deactivation under dosimetric control, attempt for accelerated removal of the radioactive substances, etc. At the District hospital and the specialized clinic the therapeutic measures are conformed to the pathogenetic mechanism and severity of clinical symptoms, and their dynamics. Their aim is first of all to block the earlier radiation effects, to prevent and to treat the haemorrhagic phenomena and infectious complications, to restore the activity of the blood organs, etc. (A.B.)

  14. Method and apparatus for determining accuracy of radiation measurements made in the presence of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactivity measuring instrument, and a method related to its use, for determining the radioactivity of a sample measured in the presence of significant background radiation, and for determining an error value relating to a specific probability of accuracy of the result are presented. Error values relating to the measurement of background radiation alone, and to the measurement of sample radiation and background radiation together, are combined to produce a true error value relating to the sample radiation alone

  15. A rapid and simple screening test to detect the radiation treatment of fat-containing foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years several international efforts have been made to develop analytical detection methods for the radiation treatment of foods. A number of methods has indeed been developed. Particularly, for fat-containing foods several methods are already in an advanced stage. In addition to the sophisticated techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry which require relatively expensive equipment and/or extended sample preparation time, it would be desirable to have quick and simple screening tests, which immediately on-the-spot give some indication whether a food product has been irradiated or not. A solution to this problem for lipid-containing foods has been put forward by Furuta and co-workers (1991, 1992), who estimated the amount of carbon monoxide originating from the lipid fraction in poultry meat after irradiation. The carbon monoxide was expelled from the frozen meat by quick microwave heating and in the head space of the sample, the formed carbon monoxide was determined by gas chromatography. In order to speed up time of analysis, we have used an electrochemical CO sensor, as also is being used to estimate CO in ambient air in workplaces, to determine the CO content in the vapor expelled from the irradiated samples. This CO test is very simple, cheap and easy to perform. It takes only a few minutes to screen food samples for evidence of their having been radiation processed. If doubts concerning the radiation treatment of a sample arise, the more sophisticated - and expensive -methods for analyzing lipid-containing foods can be applied. Certainly the test is limited to food products which contain a certain amount of fat. A preliminary test with lean shrimps showed practically no difference between irradiated (2.5 and 5 kGy) and non-irradiated samples. By relating CO production to the fat content, possibly a better parameter for classification can be obtained. (orig./vhe)

  16. Hormonal homeostasis in lung cancer patients under combined and radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotova, I.A.; Firsova, P.P.; Matveenko, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of hormonal homeostasis was performed in 200 lung cancer patients before and after combined and radiation treatment and in 25 healthy subjects (controls). The study showed an increase in the basal level of hormones of pituitary - adrenal system matched by a decline in thyroid function. Adequate combined and radiation treatment brought hormone levels to normal. Hormonal disorders accompanying recurrence were identical to those registered at disease onset. In some cases, changes in hormonal homeostasis developed as early as 3-6 months prior to clinically manifest recurrences or dissemination

  17. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  18. Plastic and reconstructive surgical treatment of the radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Nobutaka; Ogo, Ken; Uchiyama, Kanenari; Fukushima, Hisaki

    1977-01-01

    Eleven cases of radiation injury are reported. Three of them were relatively superficial ''radiation dermatitis''. They received radical excision and free skin-grafting to the cosmetic and functional satisfaction. Eight patients had deeper injury, ''radiation ulcer''. Six cases were treated by ''local flap''. The local flap technique is the simplest and the most effective way to treat the radiation ulcer. The reason is 1) it is a one stage operation, 2) it has a permanent pedicle supplying good blood flow, 3) it has very close texture and color match to the area. However, a skin-grafting performed on one patient of radiation ulcer ended up with failure. The indication of the skin-grafting and the local flap was discussed from the point of the stage or degree of radiation injuries and the recommendable method is the skin-grafting to the radiation dermatitis and the local flap to the radiation ulcer. (auth.)

  19. Radiation treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Willich, N.

    1996-01-01

    The study reported was intended to present own experience with irradiation for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal conditions and examine the long-term effects of this treatment. A retrospective study was performed covering the period from 1985 until 1991, examining 157 patients suffering from painful degenerative skeletal conditions who entered information on the success of their radiation treatment in a questionnaire. 94 of the questionnaires could be used for evaluation. Pain anamnesis revealed periods of more than one year in 45% of the cases. 74% of the patients had been treated without success with drug or orthopedic therapy. Immediately after termination of the radiotherapy, 38% of the patients said to be free of pain or to feel essentially relieved, while at the time the questionnaire was distributed, the percentage was 76%. Thus in our patient material, radiotherapy for treatment of painful degenerative skeletal lesions was successful in 76% of the cases and for long post-treatment periods, including those cases whith long pain anamnesis and unsuccessful conventional pre-treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.

    1991-01-01

    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  1. SU-E-T-211: Peer Review System for Ensuring Quality of Radiation Therapy Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R; Kapur, P; Kumar, S A; Alex, D; Ranka, S; Palta, J

    2012-06-01

    To demonstrate a Web-based electronic peer review system that has the potential to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. The system provides tools that allow radiation oncologists to seek peer review of target and critical structure delineation, treatment plans, and share clinical data with peers to optimize radiation therapy treatments. Peer review of radiation therapy treatment planning data prior to its initiation improves the quality of radiation therapy and clinical outcomes. Web-based access to radiation therapy treatment planning data and medical records mitigate existing geographical and temporal constraints. With internet access, the healthcare provider can access the data from any location and review it in an interactive and collaborative manner. Interoperability standard like DICOM-RT and IHE-RO compliant RT Systems have facilitated the design and implementation of PRS with Silverlight Web technology, .net Framework and SQL Server. Local DICOM-RT archive and cloud based services are deployed to facilitate remote peer reviews. To validate the PRS system, we tested the system for 100 patients with Philips Pinnacle v 9.0 and Varian Eclipse v 8.9 treatment planning system (TPS). We transmitted the DICOM RT data from the TPS to the cloud based services via the PRS local DICOM RT Archive. Various CT simulation based parameters such as orientation of CT, properties of RT structures etc. were compared between the TPS and PRS system. Data integrity of other parameters such as patient demographics (patient name, ID, attending physician etc.) and dose volume related parameters were also evaluated. Such rigorous testing allowed us to optimize the functionalities and clinical implementation of the PRS. We believe that the PRS will improve the quality and safety of a broad spectrum of radiation therapy patients treated in underserved areas while discouraging the overutilization of expensive radiation treatment modalities. This research and

  2. To the development of numerical methods in problems of radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germogenova, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Review of studies on the development of numerical methods and the discrete ordinate method in particular, used for solution of radiation protection physics problems is given. Consideration is given to the problems, which arise when calculating fields of penetrating radiation and when studying processes of charged-particle transport and cascade processes, generated by high-energy primary radiation

  3. Geriatrics and radiation oncology. Pt. 1. How to identify high-risk patients and basic treatment principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fels, Franziska; Kraft, Johannes W.; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Until the mid of this century, 33% of the Western population will be ≥ 65 years old. The percentage of patients being ≥ 80 years old with today 5% will triple until 2050. Therefore, radiation oncologists must be familiar with special geriatric issues to meet the increasing demand for multidisciplinary cooperation and to offer useful and individual treatment concepts. Patients and Methods: This review article will provide basic data on the definition, identification and treatment of geriatric cancer patients. Results: The geriatric patient is defined by typical multimorbidity (15 items) and by age-related increased vulnerability. Best initial identification of geriatric patients will be provided by assessment including the Barthel Index evaluating self-care and activity in daily life, by the Mini-Mental Status Test that will address cognitive pattern, and by the Timed 'Up and Go' Test for evaluation of mobility. As for chemotherapy, standard treatment was associated with increased toxicity, consequently, dose modifications and supportive treatment are of special importance. Conclusion: Geriatric cancer patients need to be identified by special assessment instruments. Due to increased toxicity following chemotherapy, supportive measures seem important. Radiation treatment as a noninvasive and outpatient-based treatment remains an important and preferable option. (orig.)

  4. Radiation treatment of surface and sewage waters and decontamination of effluents from livestock farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusentseva, S.A.; Dolin, P.I.; Fel', N.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report deals with the use of high level radiation for treatment of surface and sewage waters. The surface water radiation treatment at the dose of 0,1 Mrad produces a complex effect of color, taste and odor control and desinfection of water. In order to reduce the cost of radiation it is necessary to use the synergistic effect and optimization of treatment. Sewage from animal breeding complexes was studied during the introduction of air and ammonia. E. coli, salmonellum and staphylloccocus aureus were used as test microorganisms (10 4 -10 6 cell/ml). The sources of radiation-accelerators (energy 8 and 0.4 MeV, dose rates 0.1-10 2 Krad/s). When air and ammonia are introduced into the sewage the adequate decontamination dose is 4-5 times reduced. (author)

  5. Phenomenological modelling of second cancer incidence for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, Asja; Oelfke, Uwe; Schneider, Uwe; Poppe, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    It is still an unanswered question whether a relatively low dose of radiation to a large volume or a higher dose to a small volume produces the higher cancer incidence. This is of interest in view of modalities like IMRT or rotation therapy where high conformity to the target volume is achieved at the cost of a large volume of normal tissue exposed to radiation. Knowledge of the shape of the dose response for radiation-induced cancer is essential to answer the question of what risk of second cancer incidence is implied by which treatment modality. This study therefore models the dose response for radiation-induced second cancer after radiation therapy of which the exact mechanisms are still unknown. A second cancer risk estimation tool for treatment planning is presented which has the potential to be used for comparison of different treatment modalities, and risk is estimated on a voxel basis for different organs in two case studies. The presented phenomenological model summarises the impact of microscopic biological processes into effective parameters of mutation and cell sterilisation. In contrast to other models, the effective radiosensitivities of mutated and non-mutated cells are allowed to differ. Based on the number of mutated cells present after irradiation, the model is then linked to macroscopic incidence by summarising model parameters and modifying factors into natural cancer incidence and the dose response in the lower-dose region. It was found that all principal dose-response functions discussed in the literature can be derived from the model. However, from the investigation and due to scarcity of adequate data, rather vague statements about likelihood of dose-response functions can be made than a definite decision for one response. Based on the predicted model parameters, the linear response can probably be rejected using the dynamics described, but both a flattening response and a decrease appear likely, depending strongly on the effective cell

  6. Radiation treatment of combustion gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Tokunaga, O.; Nishimura, K.; Hasimoto, S.; Kawakami, W.; Washino, M.; Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Adachi, K.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot plant for the radiation treatment of combustion gas in a flow-system was planned and completed in 1974 at the Abara Mfg. Co. Ltd., Central Laboratory in Fujisawa. The plant has been successfully operated for more than one year. The capacity of the pilot plant is 1000 Nm 3 per hour of the gas with the use of an electron accelerator of 60 mA and 0.75 MeV. The objective of this paper is to review a series of the researches including recent unpublished results, and to discuss the characteristics of the process. The outline and typical results of the pilot plant are first reported here. (author)

  7. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Tan, K.E.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  8. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  9. Survey of Radiation Oncology Centres in Australia: report of the radiation oncology treatment quality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klybaba, M.; Kenny, L.; Kron, T.; Harris, J.; O'Brien, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the first steps towards the development of a comprehensive quality program for radiation oncology in Australia has been a survey of practice. This paper reports on the results of the survey that should inform the development of standards for radiation oncology in Australia. A questionnaire of 108 questions spanning aspects of treatment services, equipment, staff, infrastructure and available quality systems was mailed to all facilities providing radiation treatment services in Australia (n = 45). Information of 42 sites was received by June 2006 providing data on 113 operational linear accelerators of which approximately 2/3 are equipped with multi-leaf collimators. More than 75% of facilities were participating in a formal quality assurance (QA) system, with 63% following a nationally or internationally recognised system. However, there was considerable variation in the availability of policies and procedures specific to quality aspects, and the review of these. Policies for monitoring patient waiting times for treatment were documented at just 71% of all facilities. Although 85% of all centres do, in fact, monitor machine throughput, the number and types of efficiency measures varied markedly, thereby limiting the comparative use of these results. Centres identified workload as the single most common factor responsible for limiting staff involvement in both QA processes and clinical trial participation. The data collected in this 'snapshot' survey provide a unique and comprehensive baseline for future comparisons and evaluation of changes

  10. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arguiri Evguenia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaxseed (FS is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD. Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT. However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated. Methods We evaluated the effects of a 10%FS or isocaloric control diet given to mice (C57/BL6 in 2 separate experiments (n = 15-25 mice/group on 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks post a single dose 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT and compared it to an established radiation-protective diet given preventively, starting at 3 weeks prior to XRT. Lungs were evaluated four months post-XRT for blood oxygenation levels, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Irradiated mice fed a 0%FS diet had a 4-month survival rate of 40% as compared to 70-88% survival in irradiated FS-fed mouse groups. Additionally, all irradiated FS-fed mice had decreased fibrosis compared to those fed 0%FS. Lung OH-Proline content ranged from 96.5 ± 7.1 to 110.2 ± 7.7 μg/ml (Mean ± SEM in all irradiated FS-fed mouse groups, as compared to 138 ± 10.8 μg/ml for mice on 0%FS. Concomitantly, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL protein and weight loss associated with radiation cachexia was significantly decreased in all FS-fed groups. Inflammatory cell influx to lungs also decreased significantly except when FS diet was delayed by 4 and 6 weeks post XRT. All FS-fed mice (irradiated or not, maintained a higher blood oxygenation level as compared to mice on 0%FS. Similarly, multiplex cytokine analysis in the

  11. Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Pal, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies

  12. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for radiative transfer in spherical symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, D.; Bolte, J.; Patzer, A. B. C.

    2016-11-01

    The discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) is successfully applied to treat a broad variety of transport problems numerically. In this work, we use the full capacity of the DG-FEM to solve the radiative transfer equation in spherical symmetry. We present a discontinuous Galerkin method to directly solve the spherically symmetric radiative transfer equation as a two-dimensional problem. The transport equation in spherical atmospheres is more complicated than in the plane-parallel case owing to the appearance of an additional derivative with respect to the polar angle. The DG-FEM formalism allows for the exact integration of arbitrarily complex scattering phase functions, independent of the angular mesh resolution. We show that the discontinuous Galerkin method is able to describe accurately the radiative transfer in extended atmospheres and to capture discontinuities or complex scattering behaviour which might be present in the solution of certain radiative transfer tasks and can, therefore, cause severe numerical problems for other radiative transfer solution methods.

  13. Ionizing radiation as optimization method for aluminum detection from drinking water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazante-Yamguish, Renata; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water samples is often responsible for metal complexation; depending on the analytic method, the organic fraction may dissemble the evaluation of the real values of metal concentration. Pre-treatment of the samples is advised when organic compounds are interfering agents, and thus sample mineralization may be accomplished by several chemical and/or physical methods. Here, the ionizing radiation was used as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), for sample pre-treatment before the analytic determination of total and dissolved aluminum by ICP-OES in drinking water samples from wells and spring source located at Billings dam region. Before irradiation, the spring source and wells' samples showed aluminum levels of 0.020 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l respectively; after irradiation, both samples showed a 8-fold increase of aluminum concentration. These results are discussed considering other physical and chemical parameters and peculiarities of sample sources. (author)

  14. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  15. Radiation therapy for the treatment of feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Ferreira, A.M.R; Carvalho, L.A.V.; Holguin, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of radiation therapy for feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. A full course radiation therapy protocol was applied to six cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of seven histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, one was staged as T 1 , and six as T 4 according to WHO staging system of epidermal tumors. The animals were submitted to twelve radiation fractions of 4 Gy each, on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule, and the equipment used was an orthovoltage unit. Energy used was 120 kV, 15 mA and 2 mm aluminum filter. The cats were evaluated during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 87% of the lesions had complete remission and 13% partial remission to the treatment. Side effects were considered mild according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity criteria, and included erythema, epilation and rhinitis. Radiation Therapy was considered safe for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, leading to mild side effects and can represent a good therapeutic option. (author)

  16. Inactivation of B. Pumilus spores by combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment of parenteral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial spores are inactivated by moderate hydrostatic pressures. The radiation dose required to sterilize radiation sensitive pharmaceuticals can be considerably reduced using a combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment. This paper describes a combination pressure-radiation sterilization process using Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water, 0.9% saline, and 5% dextrose solutions. The optimum temperatures for spore inactivation at 35 MPa and the degree of inactivation at 35, 70 and 105 MPa applied for times up to 100 min have been determined. Inactivation was greatest in saline and least in dextrose. Spores in dextrose were only slightly less radiation resistant than in saline or water. It was calculated that the radiation dose required for sterilization could be halved with appropriate compression treatment. Examples of combinations of pressure-radiation suitable for sterilization are given. One combination is compression at 105 MPa for 18 min for a dose of 1.25 Mrad. (author)

  17. Beam angle optimization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a guided pattern search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M; Ferreira, Brígida C; Lopes, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the inverse planning of radiation therapy consists mainly of the fluence optimization. The beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) consists of selecting appropriate radiation incidence directions and may influence the quality of the IMRT plans, both to enhance better organ sparing and to improve tumor coverage. However, in clinical practice, most of the time, beam directions continue to be manually selected by the treatment planner without objective and rigorous criteria. The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel approach that uses beam’s-eye-view dose ray tracing metrics within a pattern search method framework in the optimization of the highly non-convex BAO problem. Pattern search methods are derivative-free optimization methods that require a few function evaluations to progress and converge and have the ability to better avoid local entrapment. The pattern search method framework is composed of a search step and a poll step at each iteration. The poll step performs a local search in a mesh neighborhood and ensures the convergence to a local minimizer or stationary point. The search step provides the flexibility for a global search since it allows searches away from the neighborhood of the current iterate. Beam’s-eye-view dose metrics assign a score to each radiation beam direction and can be used within the pattern search framework furnishing a priori knowledge of the problem so that directions with larger dosimetric scores are tested first. A set of clinical cases of head-and-neck tumors treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Coimbra is used to discuss the potential of this approach in the optimization of the BAO problem. (paper)

  18. Fast film dosimetry calibration method for IMRT treatment plan verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, N.; Wygoda, A.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatments are delivered dynamically and as so, require routinely performed verification measurements [1]. Radiographic film dosimetry is a well-adapted method for integral measurements of dynamic treatments fields, with some drawbacks related to the known problems of dose calibration of films. Classically, several films are exposed to increasing doses, and a Net Optical Density (N.O.D) vs. dose sensitometric curve (S.C.) is generated. In order to speed up the process, some authors have developed a method based on the irradiation of a single film with a non-uniform pattern of O.D., delivered with a dynamic MLC. However, this curve still needs to be calibrated to dose by the means of measurements in a water phantom. It is recommended to make a new calibration for every series of measurements, in order to avoid the processing quality dependence of the film response. These frequent measurements are very time consuming. We developed a simple method for quick dose calibration of films, including a check of the accuracy of the calibration curve obtained

  19. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  20. Distributed approximation of Pareto surfaces in multicriteria radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    We consider multicriteria radiation therapy treatment planning by navigation over the Pareto surface, implemented by interpolation between discrete treatment plans. Current state of the art for calculation of a discrete representation of the Pareto surface is to sandwich this set between inner and outer approximations that are updated one point at a time. In this paper, we generalize this sequential method to an algorithm that permits parallelization. The principle of the generalization is to apply the sequential method to an approximation of an inexpensive model of the Pareto surface. The information gathered from the model is sub-sequently used for the calculation of points from the exact Pareto surface, which are processed in parallel. The model is constructed according to the current inner and outer approximations, and given a shape that is difficult to approximate, in order to avoid that parts of the Pareto surface are incorrectly disregarded. Approximations of comparable quality to those generated by the sequential method are demonstrated when the degree of parallelization is up to twice the number of dimensions of the objective space. For practical applications, the number of dimensions is typically at least five, so that a speed-up of one order of magnitude is obtained. (paper)

  1. Distributed approximation of Pareto surfaces in multicriteria radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2013-06-07

    We consider multicriteria radiation therapy treatment planning by navigation over the Pareto surface, implemented by interpolation between discrete treatment plans. Current state of the art for calculation of a discrete representation of the Pareto surface is to sandwich this set between inner and outer approximations that are updated one point at a time. In this paper, we generalize this sequential method to an algorithm that permits parallelization. The principle of the generalization is to apply the sequential method to an approximation of an inexpensive model of the Pareto surface. The information gathered from the model is sub-sequently used for the calculation of points from the exact Pareto surface, which are processed in parallel. The model is constructed according to the current inner and outer approximations, and given a shape that is difficult to approximate, in order to avoid that parts of the Pareto surface are incorrectly disregarded. Approximations of comparable quality to those generated by the sequential method are demonstrated when the degree of parallelization is up to twice the number of dimensions of the objective space. For practical applications, the number of dimensions is typically at least five, so that a speed-up of one order of magnitude is obtained.

  2. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  3. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  4. Methods of measurements on incidental X-radiation from electron tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The standard describes the method for detection of x-radiation and the method for the direct and indirect measurement of field pattern and exposure rate of random incidental radiation emanating from high voltage electron tubes. Required apparatus and calibration procedure for the exposure rate meter or film mount are described. (M.G.B.)

  5. Surgical treatment of delayed radiation effects in the skin and its indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilkorn, H.; Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1960 a total of 1200 patients with skin disease as delayed radiation effects were treated at the Hornheide special clinic, 40% of whom received plastic surgery. This requires knowledge of the type of radiation applied and when it was applied, additional harmful influences, exposure, differentiation in cases of ulcers between primary, cumulative, and combination effect, early radiation effects, and late radiation effects. Secondary factors leading possibly to necrosis may be: recidivation of the primary tumours, benign or malignant neoplasms, traumatic injuries such as injections, sampling, tight clothing, chemical factors like therapeuticals for local application, allergies, infections of the skin with bacteria or fungi, osteomyelitis, non-infections skin disease, and internal disease. A precondition for successful dermatological and surgical treatment are a careful review of the previous case history and exact diagnosis. Some clinical cases serve to illustrate the theoretical explanations and point out possibilities for surgical treatment. (TRV) [de

  6. Clinical Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Radiation Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristophanous, Michalis, E-mail: maristophanous@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Berbeco, Ross I.; Killoran, Joseph H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yap, Jeffrey T. [Department of Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Sher, David J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Larson, Elysia; Chen, Aileen B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The potential role of four-dimensional (4D) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in radiation treatment planning, relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT, was examined. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with non-small-cell lung cancer had sequential 3D and 4D [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans in the treatment position prior to radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume and involved lymph nodes were contoured on the PET scan by use of three different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; a technique with a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5; and an automatic segmentation technique. For each technique, the tumor volume was defined on the 3D scan (VOL3D) and on the 4D scan (VOL4D) by combining the volume defined on each of the five breathing phases individually. The range of tumor motion and the location of each lesion were also recorded, and their influence on the differences observed between VOL3D and VOL4D was investigated. Results: We identified and analyzed 22 distinct lesions, including 9 primary tumors and 13 mediastinal lymph nodes. Mean VOL4D was larger than mean VOL3D with all three techniques, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The range of tumor motion and the location of the tumor affected the magnitude of the difference. For one case, all three tumor definition techniques identified volume of moderate uptake of approximately 1 mL in the hilar region on the 4D scan (SUV maximum, 3.3) but not on the 3D scan (SUV maximum, 2.3). Conclusions: In comparison to 3D PET, 4D PET may better define the full physiologic extent of moving tumors and improve radiation treatment planning for lung tumors. In addition, reduction of blurring from free-breathing images may reveal additional information regarding regional disease.

  7. Method for decontaminating radiation metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a method for decontaminating radiation metal waste characterized by the following properties: in order to decontaminate radiation metal waste of various shapes produced by facilities involved with radioactive substances, non-complex shapes are decontaminated by electropolishing the materials in a neutral saline solution. Complex shapes are chemically decontaminated by means of an acid solution containing permanganic acid or an alkaline solution and a mineral acid solution. After neutralizing the solutions used for chemical decontamination, the radioactive material is separated and removed. Further, in the decontamination method for radioactive metal waste, a supernatant liquid is reused as the electrolyte in electropolishing decontamination. Permanganic ions (MnO 4 - ) are reduced to manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) and deposited prior to neutralizing the solution used for chemical decontamination. Once manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) has been separated and removed, it is re-used as the electrolyte in electropolishing decontamination by means of a process identical to the separation process for radioactive substances. 3 figs

  8. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  9. Report of the 2nd RCM on Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the search for appropriate technologies capable of treating wastewater for reuse or safe discharge. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating some of these complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters. Another emerging problem is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptor compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) has been a major issue in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, evaluate reliability and cost of treating specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” has been launched with the objective to study the effectiveness, reliability and economics of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic

  10. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  11. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  12. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  13. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  14. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  15. Radiation therapy for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Impact of fractionation on treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Yuzuru; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Igaki, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Hisao; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of fractionation on the treatment outcome of radiation therapy for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Thirty-six inoperable or operation-refused hypopharyngeal patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy between 1976 and May 2001. Seventeen patients were treated with conventional radiation therapy, 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction, totaling 64.0 Gy (conventional fractionation (CF) group), and 19 were treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy, 1.2 Gy per fraction, totaling 74.4 Gy (hyperfractionation (HF) group). The radiation response of the two groups at the end of radiation therapy was almost the same. However, the 2-year local control rates of the HF and CF groups were 59.0% and 26.1% (p=0.012), respectively, a statistically significant differences. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that HF was an independent prognostic factor for local control. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy was superior to conventional radiation therapy for local control. Local control of hypopharyngeal carcinoma correlated with laryngeal preservation, suggesting that hyperfractionated radiation therapy for hypopharyngeal carcinoma could be beneficial for patient quality of life (QOL). (author)

  16. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  17. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  18. Application of the equivalent radiator method for radiative corrections to the spectra of elastic electron scattering by nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Timchenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For calculating the radiative tails in the spectra of inelastic electron scattering by nuclei, the approximation, namely, the equivalent radiator method (ERM, is used. However, the applicability of this method for evaluating the radiative tail from the elastic scattering peak has been little investigated, and therefore, it has become the subject of the present study for the case of light nuclei. As a result, spectral regions were found, where a significant discrepancy between the ERM calculation and the exact-formula calculation was observed. A link was established between this phenomenon and the diffraction minimum of the squared form-factor of the nuclear ground state. Varieties of calculations were carried out for different kinematics of electron scattering by nuclei. The analysis of the calculation results has shown the conditions, at which the equivalent radiator method can be applied for adequately evaluating the radiative tail of the elastic scattering peak.

  19. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.; Boward, C.A.; Bogo, V.

    1988-01-01

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness

  20. Radiation treatment of toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Jung, I.H.; Jo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced from 1920s as complex mixtures containing multiple isomers for a variety of applications. They are very toxic, chemically stable and resist microbial, photochemical, chemical, and thermal degradation. The public, legal, and scientific concerns about PCBs arose from research indicating they were environmental contaminants that had a potential to adversely impact the environment, and, therefore, were undesirable as commercial products. Eventually, most producers reduced or stopped production of PCBs in the 1970s. Stockholm convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), which was effective on May 2004 and 151 nations including Korea were joined on June 2005, asked to dispose of PCBs by 2028 with environmental friendly methods. Korean government also has declared to conduct by 2015. According to the Environmental law of Korea, over 2 ppm of PCBs has to be decomposed by legal methods of incineration and thermal destruction. But those are inapplicable owing to the environmental groups. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has recently developed a remarkable technology for radiation treatment of toxic chemicals including chlorides using an electron beam accelerator. Electron beam accelerator of 2.5 MeV energy and 100 kW power capacity was used to decompose of PCBs having been used as a commercial transformer oil for more than 30 years. The oil were irradiated with ∼ 0.1 percent of TEA (Triethyl Amin) to make chloride ion aparted off from the PCBs into precipitate at the conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The concentrations of PCBs were measured by GC (Gas Chromatography) with ECD (Electron Capture Detector) following the KS (Korean Standard) test procedure. Electron beam should be a useful tool for environmental conservation. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation were depended on the absorption dose of electron beam energy. Advantages comparing to other methods such as

  1. Treatment of radiation exposure and regeneration medicine. Regeneration treatment of blood vessels by transplantation of autologous marrow monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Kazuhiro; Kamihira, Shimeru; Matsumaru, Ichiro; Fukushima, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Hakuichiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yamachika, Shiro; Eishi, Kiyoyuki; Tomonaga, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Described are usefulness and future view of regenerative medicine in the treatment of radiation exposure as exemplified by the vascular regeneration by autologous marrow cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial cells (VEC), possessing a high ability to divide, are known sensitive to radiation, which gives damage of blood vessel to alter its permeability leading to apoptosis of VEC, organ/tissue injuries and final damages in the cerebral blood vessels, central nervous system and skin, the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Authors present successful cases of patients with chronic limb ischemia in the Therapeutic Angiogenesis using Cell Transplantation Trial (TACT), to whom the treatment is conducted with transplantation of autologous marrow monocyte fraction containing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate to VEC. As well, they touch on a case of the patient encountered in a nuclear accident, mentioning that VEC are found partly derived from the donor after heamatopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficacy of HSCT in a literature is reviewed and commented to be an only limited one in 31 patients of various radiation accidents. However, treatment of ARS where stem cells are target, with regenerative medicine will become more useful in future, as basic and clinical researches will provide requisite findings. (T.I.)

  2. Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Koji; Ono, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-17

    Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.).

  3. Short-Course Treatment With Gefitinib Enhances Curative Potential of Radiation Therapy in a Mouse Model of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokobza, Sivan M.; Jiang, Yanyan; Weber, Anika M.; Devery, Aoife M.; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the combination of radiation and an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in preclinical models of human non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Sensitivity to an EGFR TKI (gefitinib) or radiation was assessed using proliferation assays and clonogenic survival assays. Effects on receptor signal transduction pathways (pEGFR, pAKT, pMAPK) and apoptosis (percentage of cleaved PARP Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)) were assessed by Western blotting. Radiation-induced DNA damage was assessed by γH2AX immunofluorescence. Established (≥100 mm 3 ) EGFR-mutated (HCC287) or EGFR wild-type (A549) subcutaneous xenografts were treated with radiation (10 Gy, day 1) or gefitinib (50 mg/kg, orally, on days 1-3) or both. Results: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with activating EGFR mutations (PC9 or HCC827), gefitinib treatment markedly reduced pEGFR, pAKT, and pMAPK levels and was associated with an increase in cleaved PARP but not in γH2AX foci. Radiation treatment increased the mean number of γH2AX foci per cell but did not significantly affect EGFR signaling. In contrast, NSCLC cell lines with EGFR T790M (H1975) or wild-type EGFR (A549) were insensitive to gefitinib treatment. The combination of gefitinib and radiation treatment in cell culture produced additive cell killing with no evidence of synergy. In xenograft models, a short course of gefitinib (3 days) did not significantly increase the activity of radiation treatment in wild-type EGFR (A549) tumors (P=.27), whereas this combination markedly increased the activity of radiation (P<.001) or gefitinib alone (P=.002) in EGFR-mutated HCC827 tumors, producing sustained tumor regressions. Conclusions: Gefitinib treatment increases clonogenic cell killing by radiation but only in cell lines sensitive to gefitinib alone. Our data suggest additive rather than synergistic interactions between gefitinib and radiation and that a

  4. Radiation therapy tolerance doses for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    To adequately plan acceptable dose distributions for radiation therapy treatments it is necessary to ensure that normal structures do not receive unacceptable doses. Acceptable doses are generally those that are below a stated tolerance dose for development of some level of complication. To support the work sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to low-LET radiation has been compiled from a number of sources. These tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD 5 ) or 50% (TD 50 ) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represent doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same end point. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Radiative heat transfer by the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Yang, Wen-Jei; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the basic principles and applications of radiative heat transfer used in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering, and can serve as a reference book for engineers and scientists in researchand development. A PC disk containing software for numerical analyses by the Monte Carlo method is included to provide hands-on practice in analyzing actual radiative heat transfer problems.Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than journals or texts usually allow.Key Features* Offers solution methods for integro-differential formulation to help avoid difficulties* Includes a computer disk for numerical analyses by PC* Discusses energy absorption by gas and scattering effects by particles* Treats non-gray radiative gases* Provides example problems for direct applications in energy, space, and geo-environmental engineering

  6. Radiation therapy treatment of acute refractory renal allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, J.; Thisted, R.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Thistlethwaite, J.R.; Powers, C.; Haraf, D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the use of radiotherapy to preserve the renal graft in patients with recurrent graft rejection that failed to respond to medical treatment and identify risk factors to predict the probability of graft loss. Material and Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal graft recipients were treated at our institution after experiencing several episodes of rejection. Rejection was defined as an unexplained, consecutive, daily rise in serum creatinine. Each episode was confirmed with renal biopsy. Patients who experienced rejection were initially treated with solu medrol bolus and prednisone. Patients with steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody, FK506, or mycophenolate mofetil. Those who failed to respond to medical treatment were referred for radiotherapy. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, AP or AP/PA. All patients underwent ultrasound kidney localization; a 2 cm margin was given around the kidney. Results: Median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months (range 1-83 months), the median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow up was 10 months (range 0.1 to 64 months). Of these 34 men and 19 women, median age of 3), Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients., human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A and HLA-B (zero antigens in 26 patients/one or two shared antigens in 27 patients), HLA-DR locus (zero antigens in 34 patients/one or two shared antigens in 19 patients), transplant panel-reactive antibodies at transplantation (median PRA-Curr of 3% and median PRA-Max of 8%), number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection (median 1 month, range 5 days to 68 months), serum creatinine levels at the time of the first

  7. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  8. Perspectives and problems of application of the effects of ionizing radiation in water treatment technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the possibilities of the utilization of physico-chemical and biological effects of ionizing radiation in water treatment technology has been carried out in Czechoslovakia since 1976. In the area of water sources the radiation recovery of wells clogged with Fe(III) hydroxyoxides as a result of activity of some microorganism begins to be used. Other possible methods of the application of ionizing radiation as increase of disinfection efficiency of chlorination during irradiation, radiation deodorization and discoloration of drinking water are not utilized for economic reasons. In the area of waste water the radiation destruction of solution of some dyestuffs in the presence of charcoal was investigated. This process is complicated and cannot compete with current technologies. Radiation hygienization of sewage sludge with their perspective utilization as fertilizers was also investigated. At present a part of sewage sludge is agrotechnically used, yet with various restrictions. Technical and economic analysis showed that hygienization using electron accelerators would be very desirable as soon as renewed hygienic regulations of sludge depositions become valid. (Auth.)

  9. Radiation sources and methods for producing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.; Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation sources contain a substrate with an electrically conducting, non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal isotope of the scandium group as well as a percentage of non-radioactive binding metal being coated on the surface by means of an electroplating method. Besides examples for β sources ( 147 Pm), γ sources ( 241 Am), and neutron sources ( 252 Cf) there is described an α-radiation source ( 241 Am, 244 Cu, 238 Pu) for smoke detectors. There are given extensive tables and a bibliography. (DG) [de

  10. Comparison between gamma radiation and conventional methods on bacteria removal from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Ahmed, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Digested liquid sludge (3% solid content)was collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (North East of Cairo City). The sludge was tested, before and after irradiation, for its pathogenic bacteria content (total coliform, faecal coliform, e.coli, salmonellae and shigella). treatment included sludge exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0.0, 0.5, 1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0,4.5,5.0,5.5,6.0 kGy). Determination of the lethal dose of every species was performed. Results indicated that primary, secondary and digestion treatments are not efficient in removing pathogenic bacteria. Digestion for 27 days at 35 degree c resulted in sludge with high content of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, radiation treatment is recommended. The lethal radiation dose for the different species vary. The lethal doses are as follows: 3.5 kGy for total coliform, 3.0 kGy for faecal coliform,3.0 kGy for e.coli and 2.5 kGy for salmonella and shigella. The re-growth at room temperature indicated that there is a potential for re-growth at the low radiation doses (<3.5 kGy)

  11. Radiation degradation adsorption treatment of some toxic dyes present in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Hegazy, E.A.; El-Kelesh, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The degradation kinetics due to gamma irradiation of aqueous solutions of some organic pollutants (reactive yellow dye, acidic yellow Dye and fast yellow Dye) were investigated. A combined treatment of gamma irradiation and conventional methods was applied and is much more effective than either alone. Factors affecting the radiolysis of the pollutants such as concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and ph of the solutions was studied. Radiochemical degradation yields were calculated to elucidate the mechanism of the degradation process. Also, the feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resins (Merck I, III, Iv) for the removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution were studied. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation methods showed that the saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of O 2 , H 2 O 2 or Na Ocl resulted in remarkable enhancement. Adsorption of the dyes into GAC and some ion-exchangers, showed that GAC has the highest adsorption capacity compared with ion-exchangers. Irradiation followed by adsorption resulted in the removal of these toxic pollutants from wastewater

  12. Radiation degradation adsorption treatment of some toxic dyes present in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dousougi, A. M.; Hijarzi, A. A.; Al-Qalash, N. A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The degradation kinetics due to gamma irradiation of aqueous solutions of some organic pollutants (Reactive Yellow Dye, acidic yellow dye and fast yellow dye) were investigated. A combined treatment of gamma irradiation and conventional methods was applied and is much more effective than either alone. Factors affecting the radiolysis of the pollutants such as concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate, and pH of the solutions was studied. Radiochemical degradation yields were calculated to elucidate the mechanism of the degradation process. Also, the feasibility of using granular Activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resins (Metck I, II, III, IV) for the removal of these pollutants from aqueous solutions were studied. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation methods showed that the saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of O 2 , H 2 O 2 or NaOCI resulted in remarkable enhancement. Adsorption of the dyes onto GAC and some ion-exchangers, showed that GAC has the highest adsorption capacity compared with ion-exchangers. Irradiation followed by adsorption resulted in the removal of these toxic pollutants from wastewater. (author)

  13. Quantitative evaluation of radiation oncologists' adaptability to lower reimbursing treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Beant S; Beriwal, Sushil; Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Wang, Hong; Hodges, Kimberly; Greenberger, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid development of sophisticated modalities has challenged radiation oncologists to evaluate workflow and care delivery processes. Our study assesses treatment modality use and willingness to alter management with anticipated limitations in reimbursement and resources. A web-based survey was sent to 43 radiation oncologists in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center network. The survey contained 7 clinical cases with various acceptable treatment options based on our institutional clinical pathways. Each case was presented in 3 modules with varying situations: (1) unlimited resources with current reimbursement, (2) restricted reimbursement (bundled payment), and (3) both restricted reimbursement and resources. Reimbursement rates were based on the 2013 Medicare fee schedule. Adoption of lower reimbursing options (LROs) was defined as the percentage of scenarios in which a respondent selected an LRO compared with baseline. Forty-three physicians completed the survey, 11 (26%) at academic and 32 (74%) at community facilities. When bundled payment was imposed (module 1 vs 2), an increase in willingness to adopt LROs was observed (median 11.1%). When physicians were limited to both bundled payment and resource restriction, adoption of LROs was more pronounced (module 1 vs 3; median 22.2%, P 25 years, P = .02). Radiation oncologists were more likely to choose lower reimbursing treatment options when both resource restriction and bundled payment were presented. Those with fewer years of clinical practice were less inclined to alter management, perhaps reflecting modern residency training. Future cost-utility analyses may help to better guide radiation oncologists in selection of LROs. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of postirradiation heat treatment as a means to mitigate radiation embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear-radiation service typically produces a progressive reduction in the notch ductility of low-alloy steels. The reduction is manifested by a decrease in Charpy-V (Csub(v)) upper-shelf energy level and by an elevation in temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Post irradiation heat treatment (annealing) is being investigated as a method for the reversal of these detrimental radiation effects for reactor-vessel steels. This study was undertaken to analyze factors which could affect annealing response, report data available to qualify suspected influences on annealing, and summarize experimental results generated for many commercially produced reactor materials and companion materials produced in the laboratory

  15. Impact of Boost Radiation in the Treatment of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakovitch, Eileen, E-mail: Eileen.rakovitch@sunnybrook.ca [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Narod, Steven A. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Women’s College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Nofech-Moses, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Thiruchelvam, Deva; Saskin, Refik; Taylor, Carole [Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tuck, Alan [London Health Sciences Center, London, Ontario (Canada); Youngson, Bruce; Miller, Naomi; Done, Susan J. [University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sengupta, Sandip [Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Elavathil, Leela [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Henderson General Hospital, 711 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Jani, Prashant A. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, Michel [Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Metcalfe, Stephanie [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Paszat, Lawrence [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a population of women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation and to evaluate the independent effect of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence. Methods and Materials: All women diagnosed with DCIS and treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in Ontario from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatments and outcomes were identified through administrative databases and validated by chart review. The impact of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence was determined using survival analyses. Results: We identified 1895 cases of DCIS that were treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy; 561 patients received boost radiation. The cumulative 10-year rate of local recurrence was 13% for women who received boost radiation and 12% for those who did not (P=.3). The 10-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate among women who did and who did not receive boost radiation was 88% and 87%, respectively (P=.27), 94% and 93% for invasive LRFS (P=.58), and was 95% and 93% for DCIS LRFS (P=.31). On multivariable analyses, boost radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local recurrence (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.15) (P=.25). Conclusions: Among a population of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation for DCIS, additional (boost) radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local or invasive recurrence.

  16. Medulloblastoma: Conventional Radiation Therapy in Comparison to Chemo Radiation Therapy in The Post-operative Treatment of High-Risk Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, H.H.; Mokhtar, M.M.; Habib, E.E.; El-Kashef, A.T.; Fahmy, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess treatment results of 48 pediatric high-risk medulloblastoma cases that were treated by surgery, radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. The impact of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on treatment results will be assessed. Forty-eight cases of pediatric high-risk medulloblastoma treated from July 2001 to July 2004 were randomized into two groups. The first (group I) included 21 patients who received postoperative craniospinal radiation therapy (36 Gy + boost 20 Gy to the posterior fossa). The second (group II) included 27 cases who received postoperative combination cranio-spinal radiation therapy (with the same dose as the first group) and chemotherapy (vincristine, etoposide, cisplatin). Both groups were compared as regards overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), response rate and treatment toxicity. In-group I, complete remission (CR) was achieved in 71.4% of the cases; partial remission (PR) in 14.3% of the patients; stationary disease (SD) in 14.3% and none of the cases suffered from progressive disease. The three year OS was 69.5% and the three-year OFS was 61.3%. In-group II, CR was achieved in 59.3% of the cases; PR in 3.7%; SO in 3.7% and PO in 37.3% of the cases. The three-year OS was 48.4% and the 3-year OFS was 48.9%. Regarding acute treatment toxicity in group I, nine patients (31.5%) developed grade I myelo-suppression and seven cases (24.5%) developed grade II myelo-suppression with three to five days treatment interruption. Whereas in group II, 13 patients (45.5%) developed grade I myelosuppression and seven cases (24.5%) developed grade II myelo-suppression requiring interruption of treatment for a period ranging from five to seven days with spontaneous recovery. In group I no other acute toxicity was recognized, whereas in group II other toxicities related to chemotherapy were noticed. For example, three patients (II %) developed peripheral neuritis during the course of treatment and two patients

  17. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I. Treatment modalities of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M.; Taylor, R.E.; Scarzello, G.; Gnekow, A.K.; Dieckmann, K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas is a challenging issue owing to their low incidence and the lack of consensus about ''optimal'' treatment approach. Material and Methods: Reports in the literature spanning 60 years of radiation therapy, including orthovoltage, megavoltage and recently modern high-precision treatments, were reviewed with respect to visual function, survival, prognostic factors, dose prescriptions, target volumes, and treatment techniques. Based on these experiences, future strategies in the management of childhood low-grade glioma are presented. Results: Evaluation of published reports is difficult because of inconsistencies in data presentation, relatively short follow-up in some series and failure to present findings and results in a comparable way. Even with the shortcomings of the reports available in the literature, primarily concerning indications, age at treatment, dose response, timing and use of ''optimal'' treatment fields, radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of these tumors achieving long-term survival rates up to 80% or more. Particularly in gliomas of the visual pathway, high local tumor control and improved or stable function is achieved in approximately 90% of cases. Data on dose-response relationships recommend dose prescriptions between 45 and 54 Gy with standard fractionation. There is consensus now to employ radiation therapy in older children in case of progressive disease only, regardless of tumor location and histologic subtype. In younger children, the role of radiotherapy is unclear. Recent advances in treatment techniques, such as 3-D treatment planning and various ''high-precision'' treatments achieved promising initial outcome, however with limited patient numbers and short follow-ups. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in children with low-grade glioma regarding tumor control and improvement and/or preservation of neurologic function or

  18. Some method for teaching physics to residents in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.B.

    A method is presented for teaching physics to residents in radiation therapy. Some of the various responsabilities of a hospital physicist are listed, with particular reference to radiation therapy departments [pt

  19. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W. [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  20. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  1. In silico modelling of radiation effects towards personalised treatment in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Loredana G.; Marcu, David

    2017-12-01

    In silico models applied in medical physics are valuable tools to assist in treatment optimization and personalization, which represent the ultimate goal of today's radiotherapy. Next to several biological and biophysical factors that influence tumour response to ionizing radiation, hypoxia and cancer stem cells are critical parameters that dictate the final outcome. The current work presents the results of an in silico model of tumour growth and response to radiation developed using Monte Carlo techniques. We are presenting the impact of partial oxygen tension and repopulation via cancer stem cells on tumour control after photon irradiation, highlighting some of the gaps that clinical research needs to fill for better customized treatment.

  2. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam[Food conservation; Spice paprika; Rheology; Colorimetry; Free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispeter, J. E-mail: kispeter@szef.u-szeged.hu; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T. E-mail: tpali@nucleus.szbk.u-szeged.hu

    2003-12-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika.

  3. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiation in the Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Predictors of Response and Treatment Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Andrea L., E-mail: alrusso@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Biostatistics Core, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E.; Vinjamoori, Anant; Luthy, Sarah K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Freedman, Arnold [Department of Hematologic Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michaelson, Evan M.; Silver, Barbara; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate clinical and pathologic factors significant in predicting local response and time to further treatment after low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (LD-IFRT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Records of NHL patients treated at a single institution between April 2004 and September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Low-dose involved-field radiation therapy was given as 4 Gy in 2 fractions over 2 consecutive days. Treatment response and disease control were determined by radiographic studies and/or physical examination. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the effect of tumor and patient characteristics on disease response. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess time to further treatment. Results: We treated a total of 187 sites in 127 patients with LD-IFRT. Histologies included 66% follicular, 9% chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 10% marginal zone, 6% mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and 8% other. Median follow-up time was 23.4 months (range, 0.03-92.2 months). The complete response, partial response, and overall response rates were 57%, 25%, and 82%, respectively. A CLL histology was associated with a lower response rate (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5, P=.02). Tumor size, site, age at diagnosis, and prior systemic therapy were not associated with response. The median time to first recurrence was 13.6 months. Those with CLL and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment for local failures (hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, P=.01 and HR 5.50, P=.02, respectively). Those with CLL and MCL had a shorter time to further treatment for distant failures (HR 11.1 and 16.3, respectively, P<.0001). Conclusions: High local response rates were achieved with LD-IFRT across most histologies. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and MCL histologies and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment after LD-IFRT.

  4. SU-F-P-28: A Method of Maximize the Noncoplanar Beam Orientations and Assure the Beam Delivery Clearance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J [Presence St. Joseph Medical Ctr., Joliet, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to maximize the noncoplanar beam orientations and assure the beam delivery clearance for SBRT, therefore, optimize the dose conformality to the target, increase the dose sparing to the critical normal organs and reduce the hot spots in the body. Methods: A SBRT body frame (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) was used for patient immobilization and target localization. The SBRT body frame has CT fiducials on its side frames. After patient’s CT scan, the radiation treatment isocenter was defined and its coordinators referring to the body frame was calculated in the radiation treatment planning process. Meanwhile, initial beam orientations were designed based on the patient target and critical organ anatomy. The body frame was put on the linear accelerator couch and positioned to the calculated isocenter. Initially designed beam orientations were manually measured by tuning the body frame position on the couch, the gantry and couch angles. The finalized beam orientations were put into the treatment planning for dosimetric calculations. Results: Without patient presence, an optimal set of beam orientations were designed and validated. The radiation treatment plan was optimized and guaranteed for delivery clearance. Conclusion: The developed method is beneficial and effective in SBRT treatment planning for individual patient. It first allows maximizing the achievable noncoplanar beam orientation space, therefore, optimize the treatment plan for specific patient. It eliminates the risk that a plan needs to be modified due to the gantry and couch collision during patient setup.

  5. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeev A.V.; Naumova L.A.; Kharitonov S.V.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and tec...

  6. Patient treatment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanum, G.; Bruland, Oe.S.; Hjelle, D.; Reitan, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Accidental human injury due to ionizing radiation is rare. Industrial accidents are comparatively the most common. Life saving procedures should always have priority to any concern about radiation injury or contamination. The personal risks for emergency medial personnel is negligible when simple measures are taken. Repeated clinical examinations and blood lymphocyte counts should be performed on all patients with suspected radiation injury to allow a diagnosis. The radiation syndrome develops within days or weeks depending on total radiation dose, dose rate and dose distribution. Damage to the bone marrow and gut are the most important. Local radiation injuries to the hands are common in industrial accidents. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority should always be called when a potential ionizing radiation accident takes place within Norway

  7. PKI, Gamma Radiation Reactor Shielding Calculation by Point-Kernel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhuai; Zhang Liwu; Zhang Yuqin; Zhang Chuanxu; Niu Xihua

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This code calculates radiation shielding problem of gamma-ray in geometric space. 2 - Method of solution: PKI uses a point kernel integration technique, describes radiation shielding geometric space by using geometric space configuration method and coordinate conversion, and makes use of calculation result of reactor primary shielding and flow regularity in loop system for coolant

  8. Method of radiation degradation of PTFE under vacuum conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, Sergey E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    A new method of radiation degradation of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) under vacuum conditions is considered in this report. The combination of glow gas discharge and electrical surface discharge (on surface and inside PTFE) increases the efficiency of thermal-radiation degradation. The main mechanism of this degradation method consists of the breaking of C-C and C-F bonds. The vacuum conditions allow decreasing of the concentration of toxic compounds, such as a HF. Experimental results for degradation of PTFE are presented.

  9. Method of radiation degradation of PTFE under vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2004-09-01

    A new method of radiation degradation of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) under vacuum conditions is considered in this report. The combination of glow gas discharge and electrical surface discharge (on surface and inside PTFE) increases the efficiency of thermal-radiation degradation. The main mechanism of this degradation method consists of the breaking of C-C and C-F bonds. The vacuum conditions allow decreasing of the concentration of toxic compounds, such as a HF. Experimental results for degradation of PTFE are presented.

  10. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-08

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  11. Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Robert Michael, E-mail: hermann@strahlentherapie-westerstede.com [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Andreas [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Gemeinschaftspraxis für Strahlentherapie Hildesheim/Goslar (Germany); Becker, Alexandra [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Schneider, Michael [Orthopaedic Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Würzburg (Germany); Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Universität Kiel (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ≤6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice.

  12. Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Robert Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Becker, Alexandra; Schneider, Michael; Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin; Christiansen, Hans; Nitsche, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ≤6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice

  13. Radiation scatter apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Preoperative Treatment of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Patrick, E-mail: patrjr@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Davidson, Darin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kim, Edward; Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Create a cost-effectiveness model comparing preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Input parameters included 5-year local recurrence rates, rates of acute wound adverse events, and chronic toxicities (edema, fracture, joint stiffness, and fibrosis). Health-state utilities were used to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Overall treatment costs per QALY or incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Roll-back analysis was performed using average costs and utilities to determine the baseline preferred radiation technique. One-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed for input parameters with the largest impact on the ICER. Results: Overall treatment costs were $17,515.58 for 3DCRT compared with $22,920.51 for IMRT. The effectiveness was higher for IMRT (3.68 QALYs) than for 3DCRT (3.35 QALYs). The baseline ICER for IMRT was $16,842.75/QALY, making it the preferable treatment. The ICER was most sensitive to the probability of local recurrence, upfront radiation costs, local recurrence costs, certain utilities (no toxicity/no recurrence, grade 1 toxicity/no local recurrence, grade 4 toxicity/no local recurrence), and life expectancy. Dominance patterns emerged when the cost of 3DCRT exceeded $15,532.05 (IMRT dominates) or the life expectancy was under 1.68 years (3DCRT dominates). Furthermore, preference patterns changed based on the rate of local recurrence (threshold: 13%). The PSA results demonstrated that IMRT was the preferred cost-effective technique for 64% of trials compared with 36% for 3DCRT. Conclusions: Based on our model, IMRT is the preferred technique by lowering rates of local recurrence, severe toxicities, and improving QALYs. From a third-party payer perspective, IMRT should be a supported approach for extremity soft tissue sarcomas.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Preoperative Treatment of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Patrick; Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade; Davidson, Darin; Kim, Edward; Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Create a cost-effectiveness model comparing preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Input parameters included 5-year local recurrence rates, rates of acute wound adverse events, and chronic toxicities (edema, fracture, joint stiffness, and fibrosis). Health-state utilities were used to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Overall treatment costs per QALY or incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated. Roll-back analysis was performed using average costs and utilities to determine the baseline preferred radiation technique. One-way, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were performed for input parameters with the largest impact on the ICER. Results: Overall treatment costs were $17,515.58 for 3DCRT compared with $22,920.51 for IMRT. The effectiveness was higher for IMRT (3.68 QALYs) than for 3DCRT (3.35 QALYs). The baseline ICER for IMRT was $16,842.75/QALY, making it the preferable treatment. The ICER was most sensitive to the probability of local recurrence, upfront radiation costs, local recurrence costs, certain utilities (no toxicity/no recurrence, grade 1 toxicity/no local recurrence, grade 4 toxicity/no local recurrence), and life expectancy. Dominance patterns emerged when the cost of 3DCRT exceeded $15,532.05 (IMRT dominates) or the life expectancy was under 1.68 years (3DCRT dominates). Furthermore, preference patterns changed based on the rate of local recurrence (threshold: 13%). The PSA results demonstrated that IMRT was the preferred cost-effective technique for 64% of trials compared with 36% for 3DCRT. Conclusions: Based on our model, IMRT is the preferred technique by lowering rates of local recurrence, severe toxicities, and improving QALYs. From a third-party payer perspective, IMRT should be a supported approach for extremity soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobroś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Overall improvement in the nationwide system of medical services has consequently boosted the number of successfully treated patients who suffer from head and neck cancer. It is essential to effectively prevent development of radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy. Incidence and severity of radiation-induced changes within the teeth individually vary depending on the patient’s age, actual radiation dose, size of radiation exposure field, patient’s general condition and additional risk factors. Inadequately managed treatment of caries may lead to loss of teeth, as well as prove instrumental in tangibly diminishing individual quality of life in patients. Furthermore, the need to have the teeth deemed unyielding or unsuitable for the application of conservative methods of treatment duly extracted is fraught for a patient with an extra hazard of developing osteoradionecrosis (ORN, while also increasing all attendant therapeutic expenditures. The present paper aims to offer some practical insights into currently available methods of preventing likely development of radiation-induced caries.

  17. Bone marrow transplantation for treatment of radiation disease. Problems involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells still is one of the major means available for treatment of radiation injuries. The decisive indication is the diagnostic of irreversible damage to the hemopoietic stem cells, which becomes manifest about 5 or 6 days after exposure, by severe granulocytopenia and simultaneous, progressive thrombopenia. The radiation dose provoking such severe injury is estimated to be at least 9-10 Gy of homogeneous whole-body irradiation. Preparatory measures for transplantation include proof of tissue compatibility of donor and patient, sufficient immunosuppression prior to and/or after irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. The donor's marrow should be free of T-cells. In spite of preparatory treatment, complications such as immunological reactions or disturbance of organ functions are to be very probable. These are treated according to therapy protocols. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Application of gamma radiation and heat treatment for the preparation of fish protein concentrates from Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.B.K.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Limitations in the conventional procedures for the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPG), such as residual toxicity of the solvents and loss in functional properties necessitate the need for evolving newer methods. A simple method has been developed for the preparation of FPC from the muscle of Bombay duck employing radiation-heat combination treatments. This involves extraction of the muscle proteins in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 5 percent sodium chloride, pH 7.5, irradiation at a dose of 100-250 krad followed by heat treatment at 60 degC for 10 min. The procedure permits the precipitation of fibrillar proteins to the extent of 83 percent. There is no change in the digestibility of the precipitated proteins as revealed by the tryptic hydrolysis. These results point to the synergestic effect of radiation and heat on the precipitation of proteins - an observation that has high potential for scaling up as a new process. (author)

  19. Dosimetry methods for the estimation of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejarano, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, by their nature, have required for their detection the use of suitable devices generically referred detecting systems. The detection of secondary particles arising during the processes of ionization and excitation to the passage of radiation in the environment, have constituted the basis of the measurement methods. A detector system is a device that converts the energy of the incident radiation on a signal (electrical, photochemical, etc.) that is easily processable from the technological point of view, but without distorting the original information. These devices have provided qualitative or quantitative information about the radiation of interest. The detector system is a set of a detector together with a processing system. This system has based its operation in methods of: gas ionization, scintillation, semiconductor, film, thermoluminescence, among others. (author) [es

  20. Intra-operative radiation treatment of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Solassol, C.; Pujol, H.

    1986-01-01

    Intra-operative radiation treatment (I.O.R.T.) is concerning the treatment either of an unresectable tumor or of tumor bed after complete excision of a primary tumor and its first draining lymph nodes. We describe X-ray and electrons techniques and we discuss the delivered doses according to experimental and clinical data. According to the residual disease (macroscopic or microscopic), to the healthy tissues in the target volume, and the histological type, single doses from 20 Gy to 40 Gy can be delivered. Our preliminary results are reported: 25 patients with resectable tumors of the cardia, the stomach and the pancreas, 5 patients with pelvic recurrences of colon and rectum carcinomas. Therapeutic results of the I.O.R.T. providing from the literature are discussed. The I.O.R.T. indications are defined as palliative (unresectable tumors) and curative (irradiation of tumor bed after complete excision of the tumor) [fr

  1. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of liver metastases: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, B.; Guillet, M.; Mornex, F.

    2011-01-01

    Liver metastases are frequently found in oncologic patients. Chemotherapy is the standard treatment in pluri-metastatic patients, with the possibility to obtain a clear improvement of their prognosis. Local treatment (surgery, radiofrequency, cryo-therapy, radiotherapy, etc.) could be proposed for oligo-metastatic patients, particularly for those with a good prognosis. Historically, radiation therapy has had a limited role in the treatment of liver metastases because of its toxicity when whole liver irradiation was delivered. Improvements in the knowledge of liver radiobiology and radio-pathology as well as technical innovations in delivering radiation therapy are the basis of the modern partial liver irradiation concept. In this historical and therapeutic landscape, extracranial stereotactic radiation therapy is particularly interesting for the treatment of liver metastases. This review summarises published data on stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of liver metastases. (authors)

  2. THE METHODS OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of choledocholithiasis treatment, which are currently used in clinics of the Russian Federa-tion, has been presented. The problems of diagnosis and treatment of gallstones (GSD in individuals of different age groups are spotlighted. In the study of treatment of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, including arising complications, it can be concluded that so far the ideal method of treatment of this pa-thology has not been found. Up to now, the majority of doctor’s main treatment is surgical removal of gall stones by some method or other.This article also considers a conservative approach (drug: antispasmodics (selective and nonselective, and non-pharmacological: treatment, diet, describes the criteria and assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions that help in the question of further treatment: the continuation of drug therapy or assignment of surgical treatment. Invasive techniques that are covered in the article, namely, a tech-nique of remote and endoscopic lithotripsy, are high-tech and in demand at the moment, which, along with high efficiency removal of a stone, reduced the number and severity of postoperative complications. Additionally, in the analysis of the features of a particular method of treatment, advantages and disadvantages of different treatment methods are described, indications and contraindications (absolute and relative together with complications, possible outcomes, and further prognosis are high-lighted. 

  3. Development of a Whole Body Atlas for Radiation Therapy Planning and Treatment Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qatarneh, Sharif

    2006-01-01

    The main obj