WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation transmission measurements

  1. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  2. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10 −3 at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively

  3. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING AND TRANSMISSION THE SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's energy is distributed over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum and Sun behaves approximately like a "blackbody" radiating at a temperature of about 5800 K with maximum output in the green-yellow part of the visible spectrum, around 500 nm. Not all solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface due to a various optical phenomena in regard to solar radiation crossing the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to investigate them, there are two general categories of instruments used to measure the transmission of solar radiation through Earth's atmosphere: instruments that measure radiation from the entire sky and instruments that measure only direct solar radiation. Within each of these categories, instruments can be further subdivided into those that measure radiation over a broad range of wavelengths and those that measure only specific wavelengths.

  4. Low-cost sensor integrators for measuring the transmissivity of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been designed, tested and evaluated for measuring the transmissivities of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The system consists of filtered silicon photocells in cosine corrected mounts with outputs integrated by the use of chemical coulometers. The reading accumulated by the coulometers was taken electronically by the use of microcomputers. The low-cost sensor integrators, which do not require batteries, performed as expected and proved ideal for the study of agroforestry systems in remote areas. Information on the PAR transmissivity of a temperate agroforestry system in the form of an intercropped orchard is also presented. (author)

  5. Radiation transmission type pipe wall thinning detection device and measuring instruments utilizing ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We developed the device to detect thinning of pipe thorough heat insulation in Power Plant, etc, even while the plant is under operation. It is necessary to test many parts of many pipes for pipe wall thinning management, but it is difficult within a limited time of the routine test. This device consists of detector and radiation source, which can detect the pipe (less than 500 mm in external diameter, less than 50 mm in thickness) with 1.6%-reproducibility (in a few-minutes measurement), based on the attenuation rate. Operation is easy and effective without removing the heat insulation. We will expand this thinning detection system, and contribute the safety of the Plant. (author)

  6. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  7. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m -2 . Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm -2 , the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author) [fr

  8. Backscattered radiation into a transmission ionization chamber: Measurement and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Maira T.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered radiation (BSR) from field-defining collimators can affect the response of a monitor chamber in X-radiation fields. This contribution must be considered since this kind of chamber is used to monitor the equipment response. In this work, the dependence of a transmission ionization chamber response on the aperture diameter of the collimators was studied experimentally and using a Monte Carlo (MC) technique. According to the results, the BSR increases the chamber response of over 4.0% in the case of a totally closed collimator and 50 kV energy beam, using both techniques. The results from Monte Carlo simulation confirm the validity of the simulated geometry.

  9. Radiation exposure during transmission measurements: comparison between CT- and germanium-based techniques with a current PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tung-Hsin; Huang, Yung-Hui; Lee, Jason J.S.; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Su-Cheng; Su, Cheng-Tau; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2004-01-01

    In positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning, transmission measurements for attenuation correction are commonly performed by using external germanium-68 rod sources. Recently, combined PET and computed tomographic (CT) scanners have been developed in which the CT data can be used for both anatomical-metabolic image formation and attenuation correction of the PET data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference between germanium- and CT-based transmission scanning in terms of their radiation doses by using the same measurement technique and to compare the doses that patients receive during brain, cardiac and whole-body scans. Measurement of absorbed doses to organs was conducted by using a Rando Alderson phantom with thermoluminescent dosimeters. Effective doses were calculated according to the guidelines in the International Commission on Radiation Protection Publication Number 60. Compared with radionuclide doses used in routine 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose PET imaging, doses absorbed during germanium-based transmission scans were almost negligible. On the other hand, absorbed doses from CT-based transmission scans were significantly higher, particularly with a whole-body scanning protocol. Effective doses were 8.81 mSv in the high-speed mode and 18.97 mSv in the high-quality mode for whole-body CT-based transmission scans. These measurements revealed that the doses received by a patient during CT-based transmission scanning are more than those received in a typical PET examination. Therefore, the radiation doses represent a limitation to the generalised use of CT-based transmission measurements with current PET/CT scanner systems. (orig.)

  10. Basic evaluation of signal transmission in a real-time internal radiation dose measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohe, K.; Takura, T.; Sato, F.; Matsuki, H.; Yamada, S.; Sato, T.

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy, excessive exposure to radiation occurs because the dose actually delivered to the tumor is not known. As a result, a patient suffers from side effects. To solve this problem, a system is needed in which the delivered dose is measured inside the body and the dose data are transmitted from inside to outside of the body during radiation therapy. If such a system is realized, it will be possible to treat cancer safely and effectively. The proposed real-time internal radiation dose measurement system consists of an implantable dosimeter, a wireless communication system, and a wireless feeding system. In this study, a wireless communication system that uses magnetic fields was investigated. As a result, a communication distance of 200 mm was obtained. It was confirmed that radiation dose data could be transmitted outside the body when the communication distance is the required 200 mm. (author)

  11. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  12. Solar radiation transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse through measurements on scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Kyritsis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The solar transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse has been investigated experimentally using a scale model, of dimensions 40 cm width and 80 cm length. The solar transmissivity was measured at 48 positions on the “ground” surface of the scale model using 48 small silicon solar cells. The greenhouse model was positioned horizontally on a specially made goniometric mechanism. In this way, the greenhouse azimuth could be changed so that typical days of the year could be simulated using different combinations of greenhouse azimuth and the position of the sun in the sky. The measured solar transmissivity distribution at the “ground” surface and the average greenhouse solar transmissivity are presented and analysed, for characteristic days of the year, for winter and summer for a latitude of 37°58′ (Athens, Greece). It is shown that for the latitude of 37°58′ N during winter, the E–W orientation is preferable to the N–S one. The side walls, and especially the East and West ones for the E–W orientation, reduce considerably the greenhouse transmissivity at areas close to the walls for long periods of the day when the angle of incidence of the solar rays to these walls is large. (author)

  13. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers.

  14. SU-E-P-09: Radiation Transmission Measurements and Evaluation of Diagnostic Lead-Based and Lead-Free Aprons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to ensure that various lead shield apron manufacturers provided accurate attenuation factors regardless of whether the apron was made of lead-based or lead-free equivalent material. Methods: A calibrated ionization survey meter was placed at chest height and 36 cm horizontally away from a solid water phantom on a simulator couch. Measurements were done with or without apron. Radiation field was set to 24cmx24cm with the phantom at 100cm source-to-surface distance. Irradiation time was set for 1 minute at voltages of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp. Current was set at 6mA. Results: Between 60 kVp and 120 kVp, the transmission through 0.50 mm of lead-based apron was between 1.0% and 6.5% with a mean value of 3.2% and a standard deviation (s.d.) of 1.4%. The transmissions through the 0.50 mm lead-free aprons were 1.0 % to 12.0% with a mean value of 6.1% and s.d. of 2.6%. At 120 kVp, the transmission value was 6.5% for 0.50 mm lead-based apron and 11.1% to 12.0% for 0.50 mm lead-free aprons. The radiation transmissions at 80 kVp, measured in two different 0.5 mm lead-free aprons, were 4.3% each. However, only 1.4% transmission was found through the lead-based apron. Overall, the radiation transmitted through the lead-based apron was 1/3 transmission of lead-free at 80kVp, and half value of lead-free aprons at 100 and 120 kVp. Conclusion: Even though lead-based and lead-free aprons all claimed to have the same lead equivalent thickness, the transmission might not be the same. The precaution was needed to exercise diligence in quality assurance program to assure adequate protection to staff who wear it during diagnostic procedures. The requirement for aprons not only should be in certain thickness to meet state regulation but also to keep reasonably achievable low exposure with the accurate labeling from manufacturers

  15. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  16. Measurement of the wetting profile in concrete samples with vertical water by gamma radiation transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.M. da; Rocha, M.C. da; Appoloni, C.R.; Portezan Filho, O.; Lopes, F.; Melquiades, F.L.; Santos, E.A. dos; Santos, A.O. dos; Moreira, A.C.; Poetker, W.E.; Almeida, E. de; Tannous, C.Q.; Kuramoto, R.; Cavalcante, F.H. de M.; Barbieri, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of concrete for popular habitation (0,1x0,03x0,1 m) and cellular concrete (0,1x0,05x0,1 m) were submitted to water vertical ascending infiltration. The moisture content spatial and temporal evolution of each sample it was monitored in three halfway positions in a same horizontal line, applying the gamma rays transmission method. The data were taken with a 137 Cs (3,7x10 10 Bq, 0662 MeV) source, NaI (Tl) of 2x2' detector coupled to between wetting profiles and concrete strength. The cellular concrete showed a wetting profile compatible to its greater porosity. (author)

  17. Evaluation of moving-coil loudspeaker and passive radiator parameters using normal-incidence sound transmission measurements: theoretical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Timothy W; Anderson, Brian E

    2013-07-01

    The parameters of moving-coil loudspeaker drivers are typically determined using direct electrical excitation and measurement. However, as electro-mechano-acoustical devices, their parameters should also follow from suitable mechanical or acoustical evaluations. This paper presents the theory of an acoustical method of excitation and measurement using normal-incidence sound transmission through a baffled driver as a plane-wave tube partition. Analogous circuits enable key parameters to be extracted from measurement results in terms of open and closed-circuit driver conditions. Associated tools are presented that facilitate adjacent field decompositions and derivations of sound transmission coefficients (in terms of driver parameters) directly from the circuits. The paper also clarifies the impact of nonanechoic receiving tube terminations and the specific benefits of downstream field decompositions.

  18. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  19. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  20. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 11. Application of imaging plate in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    Properties and application of the imaging plate (IP) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reviewed. TEM has the resolution level of around 0.2 nm, which enables direct observation of molecules and atoms. In TEM, there are such recording systems as photographic film, TV camera, slow-scan CCD camera and IP. IP, to the electron beam, has the higher sensitivity than the film and has the broad dynamic range. Linearity between the input beam intensity and output signal is good, which makes it possible to record the image even with the small electron dose. Signal/noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency are important factors for precise image analysis. Fading phenomenon is a defect of IP, which weakens the signal output as time passing. For instance of application, IP is used for imaging of AgBr crystal fragile to strong electron beam required for the film. IP is necessary for quantitative analysis of TEM images and for the recently developed energy-filter TEM. (K.H.)

  1. Modeling of spectral atmosphere transmission for infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, B.; Olbrycht, R.

    2009-01-01

    IR radiation transmission of the atmosphere is an important factor during the thermovision remote sensing and measurement. Transmission coefficient of the atmosphere depends on its content and it is attenuated mainly due to the vapor concentration. Every calibrated thermal camera should be equipped with the digital system which implements the transmission model of the atmosphere. The model presented in this work is based on Beer and Bouguer laws. The proposed simplified model of transmission atmosphere is suitable for implementation in the thermal cameras. A simple digital controller of the camera can calculate the transmission coefficient and correct the temperature measurement. The model takes in account both scattering and absorption due the quantum effects when the photons are interacting with the molecules. (author)

  2. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  3. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  4. Radiation-induced transmission spectral variations of Ce3+-doped heavy germanate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunxia; Baccaro, S.; Cecilia, A.; Rao Jinhua; Zhang Junbiao; Xia Fang; Chen Guorong

    2005-01-01

    Radiation-induced transmission spectral variations of Ce 3+ -doped heavy germanate glasses used as scintillating materials are presented. Glass matrix contains mainly GeO 2 , BaO and Gd 2 O 3 with a density higher than 5 g/cm 3 . Glasses are melted in the different atmosphere. The transmission spectra of glasses before and after radiation treatments are measured and compared. Unlike exhibiting the monotonous deterioration effect on the glass matrix, radiation plays the radiation protection role, even making enhanced transmission of Ce 3+ -doped glasses, depending upon glass melting atmosphere and radiation dose. Radiation-induced reducing and oxidizing mechanism is proposed to explain phenomena

  5. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  6. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  7. Automatic control unit for neutron transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Eid, Y.; Ashry, A.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Inshas (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed to control the neutron transmission measurements carried out using the time-of-flight spectrometer. The function of the automatic unit is to control the measurements of the neutron counting rate distribution transmitted through a sample at a selected channel group of the time analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. At the end of this time, the unit removes the sample out of the neutron beam, selects a second equal channel group of the time analyzer and provides the measurement of the neutron counting rate distribution for the same time period as in the case with the sample on. Such a measuring cycle can be repeated as much as the experiment requires. At the end of these cycles the stored information can be immediately obtained through the analyzer read out unit. It is found that the time of removing the sample out of the neutron beam or returning it back does not exceed 20 seconds instead of the five minutes required in case of manual operation. The most important advantages of using such an automatic unit are saving about 20 percent of the reactor operating time avoidng unnecessary radiation exposure of the experimentalists.

  8. Realistic modeling of radiation transmission inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sale, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied Monte Carlo particle transport methods to assess a proposed neutron transmission inspection system for checked luggage. The geometry of the system and the time, energy and angle dependence of the source have been modeled in detail. A pulsed deuteron beam incident on a thick Be target generates a neutron pulse with a very broad energy spectrum which is detected after passage through the luggage item by a plastic scintillator detector operating in current mode (as opposed to pulse counting mode). The neutron transmission as a function of time information is used to infer the densities of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in the volume sampled. The measured elemental densities can be compared to signatures for explosives or other contraband. By using such computational modeling it is possible to optimize many aspects of the design of an inspection system without costly and time consuming prototyping experiments or to determine that a proposed scheme will not work. The methods applied here can be used to evaluate neutron or photon schemes based on transmission, scattering or reaction techniques

  9. Transmission coefficient of solar radiation in Manaus (AM-Brazil), in June

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Nova, N.A.; Santos, J.M.; Goes Ribeiro, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    Global and diffuse solar radiation measurements, obtained by means of an Eppley pyrheliometer, were made two days in June 1975, one was clear day, (june, 11), and the other and overcast day (June, 19). The mean transmission coefficient for global and direct radiation were determined to be 0,81 and 0,70 respectively. The date on daily global solar radiation indicated that the values measured with the actinograph under estimate the real solar radiation values reaching the ground [pt

  10. Positron-annihilation-radiation transmission gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padawer, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A radiographic method and apparatus for nondestructively monitoring a specimen for density variations are disclosed. A positron-annihilation-radiation-emitting point source is situated approximately midway along the axis separating two detectors sensitive to positron-annihilation (0.511-MeV photon) radiation. The outputs of the two detectors are fed to an electronic circuit that reckons only time-coincident events that are sensed simultaneously in the two detectors. The specimen to be measured is positioned between the source and one of the detectors such that the cone of detected, i.e., coincident, photons intercepts the region of interest. The number of coincidences that are counted in a preset time interval are recorded, or, alternatively, the coincidence count rate is monitored directly with a ratemeter. A linear scan of the region of interest is performed by the sequential displacing of the source/detectors axis with respect to the measured specimen, or the specimen with respect to the source/detectors axis. The number of coincidence counts accumulated within a preset time interval are recorded for each displacement. The spatial variation of density within the specimen is inferred from corresponding variations in the coincidence count rate

  11. Development of transmission dose estimation algorithm for in vivo dosimetry in high energy radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Shin, Kyo Chul; Hun, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2004-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is very important for quality assurance purpose in high energy radiation treatment. Measurement of transmission dose is a new method of in vivo dosimetry which is noninvasive and easy for daily performance. This study is to develop a tumor dose estimation algorithm using measured transmission dose for open radiation field. For basic beam data, transmission dose was measured with various field size (FS) of square radiation field, phantom thickness (Tp), and phantom chamber distance (PCD) with a acrylic phantom for 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray. Source to chamber distance (SCD) was set to 150 cm. Measurement was conducted with a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber. By using regression analysis of measured basic beam data, a transmission dose estimation algorithm was developed. Accuracy of the algorithm was tested with flat solid phantom with various thickness in various settings of rectangular fields and various PCD. In our developed algorithm, transmission dose was equated to quadratic function of log(A/P) (where A/P is area-perimeter ratio) and the coefficients of the quadratic functions were equated to tertiary functions of PCD. Our developed algorithm could estimate the radiation dose with the errors within ±0.5% for open square field, and with the errors within ±1.0% for open elongated radiation field. Developed algorithm could accurately estimate the transmission dose in open radiation fields with various treatment settings of high energy radiation treatment. (author)

  12. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  13. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  14. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  15. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  16. Radiation exposure to the patient caused by single-photon transmission measurement for 3D whole-body PET; Die Strahlenexposition des Patienten durch die Einzelphotonen-Transmissionsmessung bei der PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Donsch, P.; Kirsch, C.M. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Seifert, H. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie der Radiologischen Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was the determination of the radiation exposure to the patient caused by single-photon transmission measurement for 3D whole-body PET. Material and method: Single-photon-transmission measurement is performed using two Cs-137 pointsources (E{gamma}=662 keV, A=2*614 MBq) on a 3D PET scanner (ECAT ART). During a simulation of a whole body transmission scan (axial length: 75 cm, 6 contigous bed positions) dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters were carried out using a thorax and an abdomen phantom. Following the guidelines of the ICRU report No. 60 an estimation of the effective dose caused by a single-photon transmission measurement was calculated. Results: For a total acquisition time of 360 min (6 beds with an acquisition time of 60 min per bed) the absorbed doses amounted to: Surface (xyphoid) 189 {mu}Gy, heart 196 {mu}Gy, lungs 234 {mu}Gy, vertebra 240 {mu}Gy, liver 204 {mu}Gy, gonads 205 {mu}Gy, thyroid 249 {mu}Gy and bladder 185 {mu}Gy resulting in a conversion factor of 1.7*10{sup -4} mSv/(h*MBq). The estimation of the effective dose for a patient's transmission (acquisition time of 3.2 min per bed) yields a value of 11 {mu}Sv. An estimation of the ratio of the conversion factors for transmission measurements in single-photon- and in coincidence mode (two Ge-68/Ga-68 rod sources of 40 MBq each), respectively, resulted in a value of 0.18. The comparison of the effective doses caused by single-photon transmission and by emission measurement (injection of 250 MBq of FDG) yields a ratio of 2.3*10{sup -3}. Conclusion: The radiation exposure of the patient caused by the transmission measurement for 3D whole-body-PET can be neglected. In comparison with the coincidence-transmission using uncollimated line sources of low activity the radiation exposure is still reduced using single photon transmission with collimated point sources of high activity. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ziel war die Bestimmung der Strahlenexposition des

  17. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications

  18. Radiation measurements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.C.; Rogers, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This 1990 symposium was the seventh in a series of meetings which began in 1964. The 300 participants from 23 countries and the 65 oral and 77 poster presentations were more than double the size of the 1985 symposium. Some of this increase derived from the broadened scope of the program. Previous meetings emphasized X-rays and gamma-rays, but it has been increasingly clear that distinction from other forms of radiation (i.e., electrons, alpha-particles and neutrons) was contrived. This broadening led to papers in fields such as ''airport'' monitors and arms control. However, most of the increase in size of the symposium is simply a reflection of the vigorous activity, both academic and industrial in radiation measurements and their many applications. The papers in these Proceedings are arranged by major topic without regard to whether the paper was invited or contributed, oral or poster. Discussion, although an important part of the meeting, was not recorded and therefore is not included in the Proceedings

  19. Transmission coefficients of radiation dose equivalents in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, R.; Marinkovic, N.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an exponential formula wa proposed for calculating transmission of neutron and secondary gamma radiation through soil slabs. Parameters α and A of the transmission formula are given as rational functions dependent on the percent of water in the soil. Results are compared to those obtained by SABINE-3 code and a satisfactory agreement is shown for soil slab thicknesses for 50 - 500 cm (author) [sr

  20. On the Transmission Line Pulse Measurement Technique

    OpenAIRE

    X. Rodriguez; M. Eduardo; M. Harington

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Line Pulse is a short pulse (25ns to 150ns) measurement of the current-voltage (I/V) characteristics of the ESD protection built into an integrated circuit. The short TLP pulses are used to simulate the short ESD pulse threats and integrated circuit must tolerate without being damaged. In this work the fundamental principles of how the TLP pulse is generated and used to create I-V characteristic plots will be explored. The measurement will be then used to characterize the I-V cha...

  1. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  2. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  3. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  4. Underwater radiation measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring, under water, radiation from spent fuels (long members to be detected) of nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities. Namely, a detecting insertion tube (insertion tube) is disposed so as to be in parallel with axial direction of the long member to be detected stored underwater. A γ-ray detector is inserted to the inside of the insertion tube. A driving mechanism is disposed for moving the γ-ray detector in axial direction inside of the insertion tube. The driving mechanism preferably has a system that it moves the γ-ray detector by winding a detection signal cable around a driving drum. The driving mechanism is formed by inserting and securing a driving tube having screws formed on the side surface and inserting it into the insertion tube. It may have a system of moving the γ-ray detector together with the driving tube while engaging the teeth of a driving transfer mechanism with the screws of the driving tube. (I.S.)

  5. ''Intelligent'' radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of three applications of current microprocessor technology which are characterized by the use of the microprocessor to impart a degree of intelligence to conventional radiation detection techniques. In the first application the microcomputer computes the radiation dose from the observed counting rate in a Geiger counter. In the second application the microcomputer provides the pulse height distribution and the radioisotopes used, from the spectrum of pulses from a scintillation counter. The third application is an arrangement for radiation monitor calibration. (H.K.)

  6. Measuring Transmission Spectra from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andres; Espinoza, Nestor; Eyheramendy, Susana

    2015-08-01

    Transmission spectroscopy allows study of the atmospheres of exoplanets without the need of spatially resolving them from their parent stars and is one of the most valuable follow-up possibilities offered by transiting systems. The measurement of a transmission spectrum, i.e. the apparent planetary size in units in the stellar radius as a function of wavelength, is conceptually simple, but the expected features that need to be discerned are on the order of one part in a thousand or less, and need to be extracted against a background of (potentially correlated) noise and systematic effects with amplitudes greatly exceeding that of the sought signal. In this talk I will describe how we have tackled the estimation of transmission spectra in a ground based survey we are carrying out with IMACS at Las Campanas Observatory, the Arizona-CfA-Catolica Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey. Our treatment assumes an additive model consisting of the signal, common systematics and one of a set of stochastic processes with different memory characteristics for the noise. Common systematics are estimated from comparison stars using principal component analysis and the model parameter posterior distributions are estimated using MCMC. Model comparison is used to let the data select the model with the most appropriate noise component. I will illustrate the performance of our approach, and discuss possible avenues of improvement. I will also illustrate the importance of potential biases arising from our incomplete knowledge of stellar properties. In particular, I will show that limb darkening assumptions can limit the accuracy of our estimates of planetary radii above the achievable precisions in regimes currently being probed.

  7. Transmission of electric dipole radiation through an interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldus, Henk F., E-mail: hfa1@msstate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, P.O. Drawer 5167, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5167 (United States); Berg, Matthew J., E-mail: matt.berg@msstate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University, P.O. Drawer 5167, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5167 (United States); Li, Xin, E-mail: Xin.Li@millersville.edu [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville University, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    We consider the transmission of electric dipole radiation through an interface between two dielectrics, for the case of a vertical dipole. Energy flows along the field lines of the Poynting vector, and in the optical near field these field lines are curves (as opposed to optical rays). When the radiation passes through the interface into a thicker medium, the field lines bend to the normal (as rays do), but the transmission angle is not related to the angle of incidence. The redirection of the radiation at the interface is determined by the angle dependence of the transmission coefficient. This near-field redistribution is responsible for the far-field angular power pattern. When the transmission medium is thinner than the embedding medium of the dipole, some energy flows back and forth through the interface in an oscillating fashion. In each area where field lines dip below the interface, an optical vortex appears just above the interface. The centers of these vortices are concentric singular circles around the dipole axis.

  8. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  9. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  10. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  11. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantell, Judith M; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  12. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Judith M.; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P.

    2012-07-01

    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  13. Atmospheric effects on low elevation transmission measurements at EOPACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forand, J.L.; Duffy, M.; Zeisse, C.; Gathman, S.G.; Jong, A.N. de; Dion, D.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis is presented showing the effects of refraction, aerosol extinction, and molecular extinction on transmission measurements obtained during the EO Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE) campaign carried out in San Diego during March and April 1996. Infrared transmission

  14. Radiation detector device for measuring ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake, D. von der.

    1983-01-01

    The device contains a compensating filter circuit, which guarantees measurement of the radiation dose independent of the energy or independent of the energy and direction. The compensating filter circuit contains a carrier tube of a slightly absorbing metal with an order number not higher than 35, which surrounds a tubular detector and which carries several annular filter parts on its surface. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the Department of Energy goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul [Dankook Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung Koo [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within {+-}1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within {+-}1.0% in most situations and within {+-}3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry.

  17. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within ±1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ±1.0% in most situations and within ±3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry

  18. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  19. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  20. Effects of preferential concentration on direct radiation transmission in a turbulent duct flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafane, Laura; Banko, Andrew; Kim, Ji Hoon; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2017-11-01

    Inertial particles in turbulent flows preferentially concentrate, giving rise to spatial and temporal fluctuations of particle number density that affect radiation transmission through the medium. Positive particle correlations enhance direct transmission when compared to the exponential attenuation predicted by the Beer's Law for randomly distributed particles. In the context of a particle based solar receiver, this work studies the effects of preferential concentration and optical depth on direct transmission through a particle laden turbulent duct flow. Time resolved measurements of transmission through the mixture were performed for various particle loadings and Reynolds numbers, thus varying particle correlation lengths, optical depth and concentration fluctuations. These measurements were made using a photodiode to record the transmission of a collimated laser beam along the wall bisector of the duct. A synchronized high-speed camera provided particle positions along most of the beam path. Average and fluctuating radiation transmission results are compared to predictions derived from the imaged number density fields and to simplified analytical models. Simplified models are able to capture the correct trends with varying loading and preferential concentration. This work is funded by the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, Grant #DE-NA0002373-1.

  1. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  3. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  4. Radiation measurements and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate measurements are essential to research leading to a successful radiation process and to the commissioning of the process and the facility. On the other hand, once the process is in production, the importance to quality control of measuring radiation quantities (i.e., absorbed dose, dose rate, dose distribution) rather than various other parameters of the process (i.e. conveyor speed, dwell time, radiation field characteristics, product dimensions) is not clearly established. When the safety of the product is determined by the magnitude of the administered dose, as in radiation sterilization, waste control, or food preservation, accuracy and precision of the measurement of the effective dose are vital. Since physical dose measurements are usually simpler, more reliable and reproducible than biological testing of the product, there is a trend toward using standardized dosimetry for quality control of some processes. In many industrial products, however, such as vulcanized rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable, the effective dose can be controlled satisfactorily by controlling process variables or by product testing itself. In the measurement of radiation dose profiles by dosimetry, it is necessary to have suitable dose meter calibrations, to account for sources of error and imprecision, and to use correct statistical procedures in specifying dwell times or conveyor speeds and source and product parameters to achieve minimum and maximum doses within specifications. (author)

  5. Temperature radiation measuring equipment. Temperaturstrahlungsmessgeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzer, W

    1981-01-22

    The invention is concerned with a temperature radiation measuring equipment for non-contact temperature measurement by the light intensity variation method, with a photoelectric resistance as the measuring element. By having a circuit with a transistor, the 'dark resistance' occurring in the course of time is compensated for and thus gives a genuine reading (ie. the voltage drop across the photoelectric resistance remains constant).

  6. Quality assurance in radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    The achievement of traceability to recognize measurement standards for ionizing radiation posses special requirements. Methods of transferring reference standard to the working situation are devised through calibration and appropriate traceability, which optimize the accuracy attainable with the method of dose determination in routine use. Appropriate procedures are developed by the SSDL-MINT to establish accurate dose measurement in wide range of radiation fields such as in medicine, agriculture and industrial application. The status of work including effort towards ISO 9000 certification of SSDL dosimetry services will be summarized. (Author)

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal of the Department is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. However, cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks are not understood at the levels needed for reliable climate prediction. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the DOE goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. Understanding cloud properties and how to predict them is critical because cloud properties may very well change as climate changes. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. GCM modelers will then be able to better identify the best approaches to improved parameterizations of radiative transfer effects. This is expected to greatly improve the accuracy of long-term, GCM predictions and the efficacy of those predictions at the important regional scale, as the research community and DOE attempt to understand the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth's climate. 153 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Development of the new data transmission and processing equipment for radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shintaro; Takahashi, Kouichi; Suganami, Jun; Kawai, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    In the Mito Atomic Energy Office, which belongs to Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, as part of an environmental safety measures of the nuclear institutions in Ibaraki area, the regular surveillance of the environmental monitoring data measured in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) which are main facilities in Oarai and Tokai area is performed. For the purpose of strengthening environmental radiation surveillance in the fiscal year 2003, the data transmission and processing equipment for radiation surveillance is updated, and the new equipment is actually operated from March, 2004. In this paper, the features and functions of the new data transmission and processing equipment are introduced. (author)

  9. Precise measurement and calculation of 238U neutron transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Silver, E.G.; Perez, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    The total neutron cross section of 238 U has been measured above 0.5 eV in precise transmission experiments and results are compared with ENDF/B-IV. Emphasis has been on measuring transmissions through thick samples in order to obtain accurate total cross sections in the potential-resonance interference regions between resonances. 4 figures, 1 table

  10. USA's gift aids radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    On 8 December 1969, the anniversary of President Eisenhower's speech which led to the foundation of the Agency, the United States of America handed over a $25 000 gift which will assist considerably the promotion of world-wide standardization in the measurement of radiation. (author)

  11. Alpha radiation gauge for the measurement of gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lech, M.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha gauge for the measurement of gas density with thick alfa source, has been developed. The gauge is based on radiation transmission through a space filled with gas and total-count principle. Air density can be measured in the range 1,2 - 1,27 kg m -3 with a maximum standard deviation of 2 x 10 -3 kg m -3 . (author)

  12. Method of measuring blood flow by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildenberg, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of measuring relative blood flow through at least a part of the body using penetrating radiation comprises transmitting a plurality of rays at an initial angle or initial mean angle through a planar slice of the body to define a first set of rays, transmitting a plurality of further sets of rays at angles or mean angles different from each other and from the initial angle or initial mean angle through the same planar slice of the body to define by the intersection of all such rays a two-dimensional matrix of elements of the body in the slice, measuring for each ray emerging from the body a number of over the period of time at least equal to a pulse interval representing the momentary sum of the transmissions or absorptions of the element of the body intersected by the ray, determining from the momentary signals momentary signals a difference signal representing the maximum difference between the momentary signals for each ray over the period of time, deriving sets of discrete difference signals corresponding to the sets of rays, the difference signals being indicative of the transmission or absorption of blood flowing through each element of the body in the matrix, and calculating from the difference signals resultant signals representing the transmissions or absorptions due to blood flow in the elements of the matrix. These resultant signals may be visually depicted on a cathode ray tube display, as a digital print-out, or as a photograph. 30 claims, 8 figures

  13. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  14. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  15. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  16. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  17. Transmission efficiency measurement at the FNAL 4-rod RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Garcia, F. G. [Fermilab; Ostiguy, J. F. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Mustapha, B. [Argonne; Ostroumov, P. [Argonne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents measurements of the beam transmission performed on the 4-rod RFQ currently under operation at Fermilab. The beam current has been measured at the RFQ exit as a function of the magnetic field strength in the two LEBT solenoids. This measurement is compared with scans performed on the FermiGrid with the beam dynamics code TRACK. A particular attention is given to the impact, on the RFQ beam transmission, of the space-charge neutralization in the LEBT.

  18. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  19. Radiation-damage measurements on PVT-based plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, S.; Schoenbacher, H.; Tavlet, M.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of PVT-based plastic scintillators produced by Nuclear Enterprise Technology Ltd. (NET) were irradiated up to 9 kGy, both with a gamma source and within a typical accelerator radiation field (CERN PS ACOL Irradiation Facility). The consequent reduction of scintillating efficiency and light transmission were measured, as well as subsequent recovery, over a period of several months. The main results show that irradiation affects more the light transmission than the light emission. The radiation type does not affect either the amount of transmission reduction or the recovery. Observations were also made by means of polarized light. Non-uniformities and internal stresses were observed in scintillator bulks which were polymerized too quickly. These defects influence the light transmission. (orig.)

  20. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  1. Transmission of the environmental radiation data files on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kyoh, Bunkei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, any text or data file has come to be transportable through the Internet with a personal computer. It is, however, restricted by selection of monitoring point to lay the cable because the personal circuit is generally used in case of continuous type environmental monitors. This is the reason why we have developed an environmental monitoring system that can transmit radiation data files on the Internet. Both 3''φ x 3'' NaI(Tl) detector and Thermo-Hydrometer are installed in the monitoring post of this system, and the data files of those detectors are transmitted from a personal computer at the monitoring point to Radioisotope Research Center of Osaka University. Environmental monitoring data from remote places have easily been obtained due to the data transmission through the Internet. Moreover, the system brings a higher precision of the environmental monitoring data because it includes the energy information of γ-rays. If it is possible to maintain the monitors at remote places, this system could execute the continuous environmental monitoring over the wide area. (author)

  2. Transmission of the environmental radiation data files on the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kyoh, Bunkei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, any text or data file has come to be transportable through the Internet with a personal computer. It is, however, restricted by selection of monitoring point to lay the cable because the personal circuit is generally used in case of continuous type environmental monitors. This is the reason why we have developed an environmental monitoring system that can transmit radiation data files on the Internet. Both 3``{phi} x 3`` NaI(Tl) detector and Thermo-Hydrometer are installed in the monitoring post of this system, and the data files of those detectors are transmitted from a personal computer at the monitoring point to Radioisotope Research Center of Osaka University. Environmental monitoring data from remote places have easily been obtained due to the data transmission through the Internet. Moreover, the system brings a higher precision of the environmental monitoring data because it includes the energy information of {gamma}-rays. If it is possible to maintain the monitors at remote places, this system could execute the continuous environmental monitoring over the wide area. (author)

  3. Bulk sample self-attenuation correction by transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.; Reilly, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Various methods used in either finding or avoiding the attenuation correction in the passive γ-ray assay of bulk samples are reviewed. Detailed consideration is given to the transmission method, which involves experimental determination of the sample linear attenuation coefficient by measuring the transmission through the sample of a beam of gamma rays from an external source. The method was applied to box- and cylindrically-shaped samples

  4. Design and implementation on wireless transmission platform of area radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Ren Yong; Liu Huijun; Wang Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    To solve data transmission problems of radiation area monitoring system, Wireless transmission platform is built based on ZigBee module, thus wireless transmission between the radiation area central node and the monitoring points is achieved. It introduces the framework of ZigBee protocol, APL applications between FFD and RFD module, FFD, module and central node host, and RFD module and monitoring equipment, are developed using simplified protocol stack. Wireless network is set up using a FFD module and two RFD modules, the results show that RSSI are above 50, and the data communication is normal for the transmission distance of 60 m. (authors)

  5. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  6. Multilevel resonance analysis of sup 59 Co neutron transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saussure, G.; Larson, N.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Large discrepancies exist between the recent high-resolution neutron transmission data of {sup 59}Co measured at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) and transmissions computed from the resolved resonance parameters of the nuclear data collection ENDF/B-VI. In order to provide new resonance parameters consistent with these data, the transmission measurements have been analyzed with the computer code SAMMY in the energy range 200 eV to 100 keV. The resonance parameters reported in this paper provide an accurate total cross section from 10{sup -5} eV to 100 keV and correctly reproduce the thermal capture cross section. Thermal cross-section values and related quantities are also reviewed here. (author).

  7. Status of radiation-based measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Lee, J. W.; Chung, C. E.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Park, W. M.; Kim, J. Y.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the status of measurement equipment using radiation source and new technologies in this field. This report includes the development status in Korea together with a brief description of the technology development and application status in ten countries including France, America, and Japan. Also this report describes technical factors related to radiation-based measurement and trends of new technologies. Measurement principles are also described for the equipment that is widely used among radiation-based measurement, such as level measurement, density measurement, basis weight measurement, moisture measurement, and thickness measurement. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  8. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  9. Measurement and detection of radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2011-01-01

    .... With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines...

  10. All-optical switching of the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through subwavelength apertures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke, C.; Gómez Rivas, J.; Haring Bolivar, P.; Kurz, H.

    2005-01-01

    Unprecedented optical control of the surface plasmon polariton assisted transmission of terahertz radiation through subwavelength apertures is rendered possible by carrier-induced changes to the dielectric properties of a semiconductor grating. Although the study presented is static, the extension

  11. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  12. Nonreciprocal light transmission based on the thermal radiative effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    Nonreciprocal light transmission is critical in building optical isolations and circulations in optical communication systems. Achieving high optical isolation and broad bandwidth with CMOS-compatibility are still difficult in silicon nano-photonics. Here we first experimentally demonstrate that ...

  13. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.; Meldes, C.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  14. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  15. Pressing problems of measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.I.; Yudin, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current system for ensuring the unity of measurements in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union ensures a high quality of dosimetric, radiometric, and spectrometric measurements in accordance with the recommendations of the Consulative Committee on Standards for Measurements of Ionizing Radiations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM), International Organization on Radiological Units (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Organization on Legislative Metrology (IOLM), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), etc. Frequent collation of the national primary and secondary standards of Russia with those of IBWM and the leading national laboratories of the world facilitate mutual verification of the measurements of ionizing radiations. The scope of scientific and scientific-technical problems that can be solved by using ionizing radiations has expanded significantly in recent years. In this paper the authors consider some pressing problems of the metrology of ionizing radiations which have arisen as a result of this expansion. These include the need for unity and reliability of measurements involved in radiation protection, the measurement of low doses involving low dose rates, ensuring the unity of measurements when monitoring the radiological security of the population, the need for more uniformity on an international scale regarding the basic physical quantities and their units for characterizing radiation fields, determination of the accuracy of measurement of the radiation dose absorbed by an irradiated tissue or organ, and the development of complex standards for ionizing radiations. 5 refs., 1 tab

  16. Ultrasound transmission measurements for tensile strength evaluation of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Takala, T Aleksi; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2011-05-16

    Ultrasound transmission measurements were performed to evaluate the tensile strength of tablets. Tablets consisting of one ingredient were compressed from dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, two grades of microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of lactose monohydrate powders. From each powder, tablets with five different tensile strengths were directly compressed. Ultrasound transmission measurements were conducted on every tablet at frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz and the speed of sound was calculated from the acquired waveforms. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using a diametrical mechanical testing machine and compared to the calculated speed of sound values. It was found that the speed of sound increased with the tensile strength for the tested excipients. There was a good correlation between the speed of sound and tensile strength. Moreover, based on the statistical tests, the groups with different tensile strengths can be differentiated from each other by measuring the speed of sound. Thus, the ultrasound transmission measurement technique is a potentially useful method for non-destructive and fast evaluation of the tensile strength of tablets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  18. Measurements of Accelerator-Produced Leakage Neutron and Photon Transmission through Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Optimum shielding of the radiation from particle accelerators requires knowledge of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material. The most common material for shielding this radiation is concrete, which can be made using various materials of different densities as aggregates. These different concrete mixes can have very different attenuation characteristics. Information about the attenuation of leakage photons and neutrons in ordinary and heavy concrete is, however, very limited. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the radiation attenuation in concrete of various compositions, we have performed measurements of the transmission of leakage radiation, photons and neutrons, from a Varian Clinac 2100C medical linear accelerator operating at maximum electron energies of 6 and 18 MeV. We have also calculated, using Monte Carlo techniques, the leakage neutron spectra and its transmission through concrete. The results of these measurements and calculations extend the information currently available for designing shielding for medical electron accelerators. Photon transmission characteristics depend more on the manufacturer of the concrete than on the atomic composition. A possible cause for this effect is a non-uniform distribution of the high-density aggregate, typically iron, in the concrete matrix. Errors in estimated transmission of photons can exceed a factor of three, depending on barrier thickness, if attenuation in high-density concrete is simply scaled from that of normal density concrete. We found that neutron transmission through the high-density concretes can be estimated most reasonably and conservatively by using the linear tenth-value layer of normal concrete if specific values of the tenth-value layer of the high-density concrete are not known. The reason for this is that the neutron transmission depends primarily on the hydrogen content of the concrete, which does not significantly depend on concrete density. Errors of factors of two

  19. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  20. Porosity measurement of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettker, Walmir Eno

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a 241 Am source (59,53 keV), a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ, micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)

  1. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 x 2 . Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  2. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  3. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  4. Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements of zinc and lead single crystals have been carried out in a neutron wavelength band from 0.03 to 0.55 nm at different orientations of the crystal with regard to the beam direction. The measurements were performed using both time-of-flight and fixed-angle scattering spectrometers installed in front of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. It was found that the position of the observed dips in the neutron transmission measurements corresponded to the reflections from the (h k l) planes of the hexagonal zinc single crystal which was cut along the (0 0 2) plane, while in the case of lead, the single crystal was cut perpendicular to the (3 1 1) plane. The reflectivity from the (0 0 2) plane of zinc was determined using both transmission and reflection methods. The maximum reflectivity was found to be 55% when the zinc crystal was orientated at 45 0 to the beam direction. The wavelength spread of the observed reflectivity curve was found to be in agreement with the calculated one, taking into consideration the spectrometer's resolution and the crystal mosaic spread. (author)

  5. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  6. Measurement of suprathermal electron confinement by cyclotron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, R.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Porkolab, M.; Squire, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The confinement time of suprathermal electrons is determined experimentally from the distribution function determined via wave transmission measurements. Measurements of the lowest moment of the distribution perpendicular to the B field as a function of the parallel electron momentum as well as the global input power allow the suprathermal electron confinement time (τ se ) to be calculated during lower-hybrid and inductive current drive. Finite particle confinement is found to be the dominant energy loss term for the suprathermals and improves with plasma current and density

  7. Fabrication and electric measurements of nanostructures inside transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2011-06-01

    Using manipulation holders specially designed for transmission electron microscope (TEM), nanostructures can be characterized, measured, modified and even fabricated in-situ. In-situ TEM techniques not only enable real-time study of structure-property relationships of materials at atomic scale, but also provide the ability to control and manipulate materials and structures at nanoscale. This review highlights in-situ electric measurements and in-situ fabrication and structure modification using manipulation holder inside TEM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microwave transmission measurements through a magnetic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mohamed Zein; Dewar, Graeme

    We have measured the 12 - 18 GHz microwave transmission through, and the reflection from, a nickel zinc ferrite penetrated by a wire lattice. The metamaterial efficiently transmitted microwaves under conditions for which the index of refraction was negative. The wires, 0.29 mm in diameter, were threaded through Teflon tubes and centered in holes 1.7 mm in diameter drilled through the ferrite. The holes formed a square array with a lattice constant of 3.0 mm. A ferrite sample containing the wire array filled a length of 3.0 cm inside standard WR-62 waveguide and a static magnetic field between 0.042 and 13.0 kOe was applied parallel to the wires. We measured the transmission relative to an open waveguide and the reflection relative to a reflective metal plate across the waveguide face. We observed transmission modes at combinations of magnetic field and microwave frequency for which both the permeability of the ferrite and permittivity of the wire array were negative.

  9. Quality assurance in field radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    In most cases, an ion chamber radiation measuring instrument is calibrated in a uniform gamma radiation field. This results in a uniform ionization field throughout the ion chamber. Measurement conditions encountered in the field often produce non-uniform ionization fields within the ion chamber, making determination of true dose rates to personnel difficult and prone to error. Extensive studies performed at Hanford have provided appropriate correction factors for use with one type of ion chamber instrument, the CP. Suitable corrections are available for the following distinct measurement circumstances: (1) contact measurements on large beta and gamma sources, (2) contact measurements on small beta and gamma sources, (3) contact measurements on small-diameter cylinders, (4) measurements in small gamma beams, and (5) measurements at a distance from large beta sources. Recommendations are made for the implementation of these correction factors, in the interest of improved quality assurance in field radiation measurements. 12 references, 10 figures

  10. Mean cross sections of fast neutrons radiative capture, transmission and mean resonance parameters for the tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhov, V.M.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Kazakov, L.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Poletaev, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Results of measurements of neutron radiative capture cross sections in the energy range of 20-450 keV and of neutron transmission in the energy range of 20-1400 keV for 112,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,122 ,124S n isotopes and natural mixture of tin are presented. Analysis of the experimental data in the framework of nuclear reactions statistical theory is carried out, as a result of which data on neutron and radiation strength functions, potential scattering radii for S- and P-neutrons, as well as nuclear levels density parameters, are obtained

  11. Radiation protection measuring device SSM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Product information from the producer on a universal measuring instrument for alpha, beta and gamma radiation designed for stationary and field use by military, police and fire brigades. 4 figs. (qui)

  12. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  13. Neutron transmission measurements of poly and pyrolytic graphite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M.; Abbas, Y.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Kilany, M.; Kenawy, M. A.

    The total neutron cross-section measurements of polycrystalline graphite have been carried out in a neutron wavelength from 0.04 to 0.78 nm. This work also presents the neutron transmission measurements of pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystal in a neutron wavelength band from 0.03 to 0.50 nm, at different orientations of the PG crystal with regard to the beam direction. The measurements were performed using three time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers installed in front of three of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The average value of the coherent scattering amplitude for polycrystalline graphite was calculated and found to be bcoh = (6.61 ± 0.07) fm. The behaviour of neutron transmission through the PG crystal, while oriented at different angles with regard to the beam direction, shows dips at neutron wavelengths corresponding to the reflections from (hkl) planes of hexagonal graphite structure. The positions of the observed dips are found to be in good agreement with the calculated ones. It was also found that a 40 mm thick PG crystal is quite enough to reduce the second-order contamination of the neutron beam from 2.81 to 0.04, assuming that the incident neutrons have a Maxwell distribution with neutron gas temperature 330 K.

  14. Neutron transmission measurements of poly and pyrolytic graphite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Kilany, M.

    1989-01-01

    The total neutron cross-section measurements of polycrystalline graphite have been carried out in a neutron wavelength from 0.04 to 0.78 nm. This work also presents the neutron transmission measurements of pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystal in a neutron wavelength band from 0.03 to 0.50 nm, at different orientations of the PG crystal with regard to the beam direction. The measurements were performed using three time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers installed in front of three of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The average value of the coherent scattering amplitude for polycrystalline graphite was calculated and found to be b coh = (6.61 ± 0.07) fm. The behaviour of neutron transmission through the PG crystal, while orientated at different angles with regard to the beam direction, shows dips at neutron wavelengths corresponding to the reflections from (hk1) planes of hexagonal graphite structure. The positions of the observed dips are found to be in good agreement with the calculated ones. It was also found that a 40 mm thick PG crystal is quite enough to reduce the second-order contamination of the neutron beam from 2.81 to 0.04, assuming that the incident neutrons have a Maxwell distribution with neutron gas temperature 330 K. (author)

  15. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  16. Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material

  17. Fabrication and electric measurements of nanostructures inside transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qing; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2011-01-01

    Using manipulation holders specially designed for transmission electron microscope (TEM), nanostructures can be characterized, measured, modified and even fabricated in-situ. In-situ TEM techniques not only enable real-time study of structure-property relationships of materials at atomic scale, but also provide the ability to control and manipulate materials and structures at nanoscale. This review highlights in-situ electric measurements and in-situ fabrication and structure modification using manipulation holder inside TEM. -- Research highlights: → We review in-situ works using manipulation holder in TEM. → In-situ electric measurements, fabrication and structure modification are focused. → We discuss important issues that should be considered for reliable results. → In-situ TEM is becoming a very powerful tool for many research fields.

  18. Dosimetric radiation measurements in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    In reviewing radiation exposures recorded during spaceflights of the United States and the Soviet Union, this paper examines absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as inclination, altitude, spacecraft type and shielding. Complete shielding from galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. Preliminary data on neutron and HZE-particle components and LET spectra are available. Most of the data in this paper are from manned missions; for low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence on inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System (STS) No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. (author)

  19. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C. [Center for Quantum Technologies, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore); Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H., E-mail: pengkian@physics.org, E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  20. Radiation loss of planar surface plasmon polaritons transmission lines at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixia; Li, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoxing; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Leilei

    2017-07-21

    Radiation loss of a typical spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) is investigated in this paper. A 325 mm-long SSPPs TL is designed and fabricated. Simulated results show that radiation loss contributes more to transmission loss than dielectric loss and conductor loss from 2 GHz to 10 GHz. Radiation loss of the SSPPs TL could be divided into two parts, one is caused by the input mode converter, and the other is caused by the corrugated metallic strip. This paper explains mechanisms of radiation loss from different parts, designs a loaded SSPPs TL with a series of resistors to absorb electromagnetic energy on corrugated metallic strip, and then discriminates radiation loss from the input mode converter, proposes the concept of average radiation length (ARL) to evaluate radiation loss from SSPPs of finite length, and concludes that radiation loss is mainly caused by corrugated structure of finite length at low frequency band and by the input mode converter at high frequency band. To suppress radiation loss, a mixed slow wave TL based on the combination of coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and SSPPs is presented. The designed structure, sample fabrication and experimental verification are discussed.

  1. Quality control of gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed

  2. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  3. Rectenna array measurement results. [Satellite power transmission and reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining are demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array are demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  4. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  5. Correction for dynamic bias error in transmission measurements of void fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Svärd, S. Jacobsson; Sjöstrand, H.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic bias errors occur in transmission measurements, such as X-ray, gamma, or neutron radiography or tomography. This is observed when the properties of the object are not stationary in time and its average properties are assessed. The nonlinear measurement response to changes in transmission within the time scale of the measurement implies a bias, which can be difficult to correct for. A typical example is the tomographic or radiographic mapping of void content in dynamic two-phase flow systems. In this work, the dynamic bias error is described and a method to make a first-order correction is derived. A prerequisite for this method is variance estimates of the system dynamics, which can be obtained using high-speed, time-resolved data acquisition. However, in the absence of such acquisition, a priori knowledge might be used to substitute the time resolved data. Using synthetic data, a void fraction measurement case study has been simulated to demonstrate the performance of the suggested method. The transmission length of the radiation in the object under study and the type of fluctuation of the void fraction have been varied. Significant decreases in the dynamic bias error were achieved to the expense of marginal decreases in precision.

  6. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  7. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  8. Radiation transmission data for radionuclides and materials relevant to brachytherapy facility shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Baltas, D; Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Gimeno, J; Ballester, F; Venselaar, J L M

    2008-11-01

    To address the limited availability of radiation shielding data for brachytherapy as well as some disparity in existing data, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate radiation transmission data for 60Co, 137CS, 198Au, 192Ir 169Yb, 170Tm, 131Cs, 125I, and 103pd photons through concrete, stainless steel, lead, as well as lead glass and baryte concrete. Results accounting for the oblique incidence of radiation to the barrier, spectral variation with barrier thickness, and broad beam conditions in a realistic geometry are compared to corresponding data in the literature in terms of the half value layer (HVL) and tenth value layer (TVL) indices. It is also shown that radiation shielding calculations using HVL or TVL values could overestimate or underestimate the barrier thickness required to achieve a certain reduction in radiation transmission. This questions the use of HVL or TVL indices instead of the actual transmission data. Therefore, a three-parameter model is fitted to results of this work to facilitate accurate and simple radiation shielding calculations.

  9. Differential Detector for Measuring Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Marcus, E.; Brandys, I.; Schwartz, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Levinson, S.; Seif, R.; Sattinger, D.; Kadmon, Y.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to determine the source of radioactive contamination in order to analyze the risk to the environment and to the population. The radiation source may be a radioactive plume on the air or an area on the ground contaminated with radionuclides. Most commercial radiation detectors measure only the radiation field intensity but are unable to differentiate between the radiation sources. Consequently, this limitation causes a real problem in analyzing the potential risk to the near-by environment, since there is no data concerning the contamination ratios in the air and on the ground and this prevents us from taking the required steps to deal with the radiation event. This work presents a GM-tube-based Differential Detector, which enables to determine the source of contamination

  10. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    1975-10-01

    'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

  11. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  12. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 μm to 110 μm. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 μm to 160 μm were done. (orig.)

  13. Detection and measurement of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    All detection or measurement of radiation rests in the possibility of recognizing the interactions of radiation with matter. When radiation passes through any kind of material medium, all or a portion of its energy is transferred to this medium. This transferred energy produces an effect in the medium. In principle, the detection of radiation is based on the appearance and the observation of this effect. In theory, all of the effects produced by radiation may be used in detecting it: in practice, the effects most commonly employed are: (1) ionization of gases (gas detectors), or of some chemical substance which is transformed by radiation (photographic or chemical dosimeters); (2) excitations in scintillators or semiconductors (scintillation counters, semiconductor counters); (3) creation of structural defects through the passage of radiation (transparent thermoluminescent and radioluminescent detectors); and (4) raising of the temperature (calorimeters). This study evaluates in detail, instruments based on the ionization of gases and the production of luminescence. In addition, the authors summarize instruments which depend on other forms of interaction, used in radiation medicine and hygiene (radiology, nuclear medicine)

  14. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  15. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  16. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  17. Overview of Zika infection, epidemiology, transmission and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rabaan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current Zika virus outbreak in the Americas and the proposed link to increases in microcephaly and neurological disorders have prompted the World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. The virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and potentially by transfusion, perinatal and sexual transmission. The potential for spread into countries where Aedes mosquitoes are endemic is high. Previously, cases tended to be sporadic and associated with mild, non-specific symptoms. Prior outbreaks occurred in Yap Island in Micronesia in 2007, the first time Zika arose outside of Africa and Asia, and in French Polynesia in 2013. A birth data review has confirmed that the latter outbreak was followed by an increase in microcephaly cases. A coordinated international response is needed to address mosquito control; expedite development of diagnostic tests, vaccines and specific treatments for Zika; and address the proposed link to microcephaly and neurological diseases. Keywords: ZIKV, Zika infection, Epidemiology, Transmission, Control measures, Diagnostic test

  18. New Physical and Mathematical Model of Radiation Heat Transmission Inside Circular Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of solving problems concerning heat transmission by radiation are considered in the paper. The paper shows disadvantages of the existing techniques. A physical and mathematical model of a conjugate heat exchange has been developed to eliminate the above disadvantages.

  19. Measurement tolerance analysis of solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimo, J.; Maderkova, L.; Horak, J.; Igaz, D.; Pasztorova, S. [Department of Biomereorlogy and Hydrology, Slovak Agriculture University, Nitra (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01

    Solar radiant energy is bane and almost the only one source of heat for Earth 's surface and for atmosphere, and almost the only one source of energy for physical processes. Solar energy is one of the most available and the most ecological energy source. Currently the firm Kipp and Zonen belongs to prominent producer of sensors for measuring of global radiation. These sensors are the most used in our country and also in network of meteorological measurements of WMO. Therefore the two types of measuring sensors for global radiation (pyranometer PMP6, CMP 11) in comparison with calculation method Savin-Angstrom are analysed. (author)

  20. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.; Lakey, J.R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  1. A radiation measurement study on cellular phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Khairol Nizam Mohamed; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari; Ahmad Fadzli Ahmad Sanusi

    2007-01-01

    This paper will explain the radiation level produced by various selected cellular phone from various models and brands available in the market. The result obtained from this study will also recommend whether a cellular phone is safe for public usage or it might cause any effect on public health. Finally, a database of radiation measurement level produced by selected various cellular phone will also be developed and exhibited in this paper. (Author)

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Direct Radiation Transmission in Particle-Laden Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Andrew; Villafane, Laura; Kim, Ji Hoon; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Eaton, John K.

    2017-11-01

    Direct radiation transmission in turbulent flows laden with heavy particles plays a fundamental role in systems such as clouds, spray combustors, and particle-solar-receivers. Owing to their inertia, the particles preferentially concentrate and the resulting voids and clusters lead to deviations in mean transmission from the classical Beer-Lambert law for exponential extinction. Additionally, the transmission fluctuations can exceed those of Poissonian media by an order of magnitude, which implies a gross misprediction in transmission statistics if the correlations in particle positions are neglected. On the other hand, tracking millions of particles in a turbulence simulation can be prohibitively expensive. This work presents stochastic processes as computationally cheap reduced order models for the instantaneous particle number density field and radiation transmission therein. Results from the stochastic processes are compared to Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) simulations using the particle positions obtained from the point-particle DNS of isotropic turbulence at a Taylor Reynolds number of 150. Accurate transmission statistics are predicted with respect to MCRT by matching the mean, variance, and correlation length of DNS number density fields. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-NA0002373-1 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-114747.

  3. Fluororeflectometer for measuring the emission, excitation, reflection and transmission of materials doped with active ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Duverger, Aldo S., E-mail: aldo@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico); García-Llamas, Raúl, E-mail: ragal@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico); Aceves, R., E-mail: raceves@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    The design and construction of a new hybrid instrument, which is named a fluororeflectometer, for measuring the radiation from materials doped with rare earth atoms is presented. This instrument operates in two modes. In the XL-λ mode, the instrument measures the luminescence and excitation spectra of the samples. In the RT-λ mode, the instrument measures the specular reflection and transmission spectra of thick or thin films. A photomultiplier (UV-enhanced photodiode) is used when the XL-λ (RT-λ) mode is in operation. The angle of incidence on the sample and the angle of the detected emission can be changed in both modes; the first one is changed manually and the last one is changed automatically. The reflection and transmission spectra from slabs of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} were measured to test the RT-λ mode. These data were fitted using Lorentz-type dispersion for the material, and the densities for each Eu absorption bands were obtained. In the XL-λ mode, the luminescence and excitation spectra from a slab and thin film of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} were obtained. The sensitivity of the instrument enables the luminescence from thin films with thicknesses as low as 3 μm to be measured; in this case, the signal barely exceeded the noise. The emission spectra from a slab of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} for several angles of incidence were measured in the direction parallel to the interfaces of the slab. -- Highlights: ► Develops an instrument for measuring optical properties of phosphors materials. ► Emission, excitation, transmission and reflectance are measured in KCl:Eu{sup 2+} slabs. ► The angular distribution for the emission, measured in situ, is also characterized. ► Its performance was compared with other instruments and good agreement is found. ► Capabilities are found superior to those offered by commercial fluorometers.

  4. Fluororeflectometer for measuring the emission, excitation, reflection and transmission of materials doped with active ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Duverger, Aldo S.; García-Llamas, Raúl; Aceves, R.

    2013-01-01

    The design and construction of a new hybrid instrument, which is named a fluororeflectometer, for measuring the radiation from materials doped with rare earth atoms is presented. This instrument operates in two modes. In the XL-λ mode, the instrument measures the luminescence and excitation spectra of the samples. In the RT-λ mode, the instrument measures the specular reflection and transmission spectra of thick or thin films. A photomultiplier (UV-enhanced photodiode) is used when the XL-λ (RT-λ) mode is in operation. The angle of incidence on the sample and the angle of the detected emission can be changed in both modes; the first one is changed manually and the last one is changed automatically. The reflection and transmission spectra from slabs of KCl:Eu 2+ were measured to test the RT-λ mode. These data were fitted using Lorentz-type dispersion for the material, and the densities for each Eu absorption bands were obtained. In the XL-λ mode, the luminescence and excitation spectra from a slab and thin film of KCl:Eu 2+ were obtained. The sensitivity of the instrument enables the luminescence from thin films with thicknesses as low as 3 μm to be measured; in this case, the signal barely exceeded the noise. The emission spectra from a slab of KCl:Eu 2+ for several angles of incidence were measured in the direction parallel to the interfaces of the slab. -- Highlights: ► Develops an instrument for measuring optical properties of phosphors materials. ► Emission, excitation, transmission and reflectance are measured in KCl:Eu 2+ slabs. ► The angular distribution for the emission, measured in situ, is also characterized. ► Its performance was compared with other instruments and good agreement is found. ► Capabilities are found superior to those offered by commercial fluorometers

  5. Comparison between thermoluminiscence dosimetry and transmission ionization chamber measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, I.; Torres, R.

    2001-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation is an effective option to treat life-threatening arrhythmias. Among the risks of this type of procedure are the high radiation doses to patients. The major concern for monitoring of doses has been related to skin damage. Skin dose can be measured directly with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or can be determined from the dose-area product (DAP). In this work these two different methods are discussed. The radiation doses have been estimated in more than 20 patients with the two types of monitoring. In order to find the location of the maximum dose from the procedure with TLDs, dosimeter arrays can be placed on the patient. Unfortunately TLDs do not allow immediate feedback to the fluoroscopist. They require a fair amount of handling, calibrating, processing and annealing. On the other hand, the DAP provides immediate feedback of the cumulative dose. To obtain the skin dose from DAP the area of the radiation field on the skin must be determined, and it is necessary to correct the result by a factor that includes the variation of geometry during the procedure. Nevertheless, these and other factors can lead to significant errors in dose estimation. (author)

  6. Bystander effects: intercellular transmission of radiation damage signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.; Azzam, E.I.; Toledo, S.M. de; Nagasawa, H

    2002-07-01

    Biological effects were examined in confluent cultures of fibroblasts and epithelial cells exposed to very low mean doses of alpha radiation, doses by which only 1-2% of the cells were actually traversed by an alpha particle. Enhanced frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and HPRT mutations occurred in the non-irradiation, 'bystander' cells associated with a similar increase in the frequency of micronuclei, indicating the induction of DNA damage in these cells. In order to gain information concerning molecular pathways, changes in gene expression were examined in bystander cells by western analysis and in situ immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of p53, p21 and MDM2 were significantly modulated in bystander cells: the damage signals leading to these changes were transmitted from irradiated to bystander cells by gap junction mediated intracellular communication. The bystander response was suppressed by incubation with superoxide dismutase as well as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, suggesting the effect may be mediated by oxidative stress. To examine other signalling pathways responsive to oxidative stress, the activation of stress-related kinases and their downstream transcription factors were analysed in bystander cells by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays: a 2-4 fold increase in the phosphorylation levels of JNK, EPK1/2, p90RSK, Elk-1 and ATF2 was observed. These changes were detected by 15 min after irradiation and persisted for at least 1 h. These findings indicate the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways in bystander cells, involving signals arising from the plasma membrane as well as from DNA damage. (author)

  7. Natural radiation measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the population indoor exposure in dwellings and workers exposure in some mines of the country, a radon and gamma monitoring programme is presently being carried out by the C.CH.E.N. Dosimetry Laboratory. In 1988-89 an indoor radon survey was started, using passive track detectors and long periods of integration time, and in the past two years some measurements of radon in mines, drinking water and high background zones have been added. The radon gas concentrations in 119 single family dwellings in Santiago in the winter season led to an estimated effective annual dose from inhalation of 500 μSv. Other radon gas concentrations in water and mines are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Measurement uncertainty in broadband radiofrequency radiation level measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in the measurement of broadband radio frequency radiation, in this paper we propose a new approach based on the experience of the authors of the paper with measurements of radiofrequency electric field levels conducted in residential areas of Belgrade and over 35 municipalities in Serbia. The main objective of the paper is to present practical solutions in the evaluation of broadband measurement uncertainty for the in-situ RF radiation levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  9. Miniaturized module for the wireless transmission of measurements with Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, H; Schwaibold, M; Moor, C; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    The wiring of patients for obtaining medical measurements has many disadvantages. In order to limit these, a miniaturized module was developed which digitalizes analog signals and sends the signal wirelessly to the receiver using Bluetooth. Bluetooth is especially suitable for this application because distances of up to 10 m are possible with low power consumption and robust transmission with encryption. The module consists of a Bluetooth chip, which is initialized in such a way by a microcontroller that connections from other bluetooth receivers can be accepted. The signals are then transmitted to the distant end. The maximum bit rate of the 23 mm x 30 mm module is 73.5 kBit/s. At 4.7 kBit/s, the current consumption is 12 mA.

  10. Radiation transmission of heavyweight and normal-weight concretes containing colemanite for 6 MV and 18 MV X-rays using linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, F.; Budak, G.; Sahin, R.; Karabulut, A.; Oltulu, M.; Serifoglu, K.; Un, A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measurements have been made to determine radiation transmission of concretes produced with barite, colemanite and normal aggregate by using beam transmission method for 6 and 18 MV X-rays with a linear accelerator (LINAC). Linear attenuation coefficients of thirteen heavy- and four normal-weight concretes were calculated. It was determined that linear attenuation coefficient (μ, cm -1 ) decreased with colemanite concentration and increased with barite concentration in both types of the concretes.

  11. Invited Review Terahertz Transmission, Scattering, Reflection, and Absorption—the Interaction of THz Radiation with Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    Terahertz radiation has been proposed as a useful tool in the study of soils and related materials from such diverse perspectives as detection of non-metallic landmines to improving soil fertility by agricultural charcoals produced by pyrolysis of organic material. The main barrier to such applications is that soils are rather opaque at terahertz frequencies. In this article, the main findings to date on the interaction of terahertz radiation with soils are reviewed, organized around the four phenomena of terahertz: transmission, scattering, reflection, and absorption. Terahertz transmission through soils is generally low and decreases with frequency. Terahertz scattering is evident in many THz-soil interactions, as the wavelength of the radiation is of the order of the particle size. Terahertz reflection is important to communications as these develop from the GHz into the THz band. Terahertz absorption on diluted soil samples has been demonstrated to be effective in identifying soil constituents, such as aromatic compounds, and soil contaminants, such as pesticides.

  12. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  13. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, J.

    2013-10-01

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  14. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yanmin; Hu Liqun; Mao Songtao; Xu Ping; Chen Kaiyun; Lin Shiyao; Zhong Guoqiang; Zhang Jizong; Zhang Ling; Wang Liang

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (<0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  15. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  17. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  18. Radiation measurement of civil air flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to aquire knowledge of the radiation exposure of civil aircrew members in common flight altitudes, it was necessary to develop a practicable measurement system. Radiation exposure was hereby estimated by using the ACREM-System, which is patented by the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf (OEFZS). Total Equivalent Dose could be estimated in a simple way by combining a measured component of the radiation field in flight altitudes and the results of simulation with LUIN 94 particle transport code (Keran O'Brian). To verify the results of the measurement system, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) was used. Because of the difficult measurement conditions in cargo airplanes, special attention had to be taken to make the measurement equipment easy to use and transport. Special software has been developed to automate the measurement and the evaluation of the large amount of collected data. Measurements in standard calibration photon fields for the characterization of the equipment could be performed at the Primary Dosimetry Laboratory for Austria at the Austrian Research Centre (OEFZS) in Seibersdorf. Additional measurements were performed at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB, Germany) and Paul Scherer Institute (PSI, Switzerland) to determine the reponse of the instruments to high energy photon and standard neutron fields. (author)

  19. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Schneider, W.; Hoefert, M.; Kuehn, H.; Jahr, R.; Wagner, S.; Piesch, E.

    1979-09-01

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Correlating Atom Probe Crystallographic Measurements with Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Andrew J; Babinsky, Katharina; Day, Alec C; Eder, K; Oakman, Connor J; Trimby, Patrick W; Primig, Sophie; Cairney, Julie M; Ringer, Simon P

    2017-04-01

    Correlative microscopy approaches offer synergistic solutions to many research problems. One such combination, that has been studied in limited detail, is the use of atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) on the same tip specimen. By combining these two powerful microscopy techniques, the microstructure of important engineering alloys can be studied in greater detail. For the first time, the accuracy of crystallographic measurements made using APT will be independently verified using TKD. Experimental data from two atom probe tips, one a nanocrystalline Al-0.5Ag alloy specimen collected on a straight flight-path atom probe and the other a high purity Mo specimen collected on a reflectron-fitted instrument, will be compared. We find that the average minimum misorientation angle, calculated from calibrated atom probe reconstructions with two different pole combinations, deviate 0.7° and 1.4°, respectively, from the TKD results. The type of atom probe and experimental conditions appear to have some impact on this accuracy and the reconstruction and measurement procedures are likely to contribute further to degradation in angular resolution. The challenges and implications of this correlative approach will also be discussed.

  1. Construction tolerances for low loss, dielectric coated, metallic waveguide for transmission optical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    1984-08-01

    The transmission of radiation, in a specific mode of interest for the IFELA, past a symmetric step in dielectric coating thickness has been calculated. The result shows that the transmission loss depends on the quantity (s/D) 2 and vanishes to first order in the ratio of the step s to the guide aperture D. With the reasonable assumption that this feature holds for all forms of surface imperfections, the attenuation length due to imperfections has been estimated. It is found that rms surface roughness of approx. 0.1 μ m leads to attenuation lengths of 25 km or greater

  2. Radiating nonuniform transmission-line systems and the partial element equivalent circuit method

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsch, Juergen; Wollenberg, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    High frequencies of densely packed modern electronic equipment turn even the smallest piece of wire into a transmission line with signal retardation, dispersion, attenuation, and distortion. In electromagnetic environments with high-power microwave or ultra-wideband sources, transmission lines pick up noise currents generated by external electromagnetic fields. These are superimposed on essential signals, the lines acting not only as receiving antennas but radiating parts of the signal energy into the environment. This book is outstanding in its originality. While many textbooks rephrase

  3. New approach in subjective and objective speech transmission quality measurement in TCP/IP networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souček, Pavel; Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with problems of speech transmission quality measurement in modern telecommunication networks. It focuses on problems caused by specific types of distortions and errors caused present in transmissions using TCP/IP networks

  4. On the determination of the overall heat transmission coefficient and soil heat flux for a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse: Analysis of radiation and convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m -2 , the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m -2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m -2 . The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m -2 C -1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m -2 C -1 and 6.0 W m -2 C -1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse

  5. Automatic radiation measuring system connected with GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    The most serious nuclear disaster in Japan has broken out at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to Great East Japan Earthquake. Prompt and exact mapping of the contamination is of great importance for radiation protection and for the environment restoration. We have developed radiation survey systems KURAMA and KURAMA-2 for rapid and exact measurement of radiation dose distribution. The system is composed of a mobile radiation monitor and the computer in office which is for the storage and visualization of the data. They are connected with internet and are operated for continuous radiation measurement while the monitor is moving. The mobile part consists of a survey meter, an interface to transform the output of the survey meter for the computer, a global positioning system, a computer to process the data for connecting to the network, and a mobile router. Thus they are effective for rapid mapping of the surface contamination. The operation and the performance of the equipment at the site are presented. (J.P.N.)

  6. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  7. Acquisition of reproducible transmission near-infrared (NIR) spectra of solid samples with inconsistent shapes by irradiation with isotropically diffused radiation using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinah; Duy, Pham Khac; Yoon, Jihye; Chung, Hoeil

    2014-06-21

    A bead-incorporated transmission scheme (BITS) has been demonstrated for collecting reproducible transmission near-infrared (NIR) spectra of samples with inconsistent shapes. Isotropically diffused NIR radiation was applied around a sample and the surrounding radiation was allowed to interact homogeneously with the sample for transmission measurement. Samples were packed in 1.40 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads, ideal diffusers without NIR absorption, and then transmission spectra were collected by illuminating the sample-containing beads using NIR radiation. When collimated radiation was directly applied, a small portion of the non-fully diffused radiation (NFDR) propagated through the void space of the packing and eventually degraded the reproducibility. Pre-diffused radiation was introduced by placing an additional PTFE disk in front of the packing to diminish NFDR, which produced more reproducible spectral features. The proposed scheme was evaluated by analyzing two different solid samples: density determination for individual polyethylene (PE) pellets and identification of mining locality for tourmalines. Because spectral collection was reproducible, the use of the spectrum acquired from one PE pellet was sufficient to accurately determine the density of nine other pellets with different shapes. The differentiation of tourmalines, which are even more dissimilar in appearance, according to their mining locality was also feasible with the help of the scheme.

  8. Transmission of terahertz radiation by anisotropic MWCNT/polystyrene composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okotrub, A.V.; Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kubarev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 11 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kanygin, M.A.; Sedelnikova, O.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Anisotropic composite materials have been prepared by repeated forge rolling of polystyrene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with length of {proportional_to}65 {mu}m. Transmission spectra of the composites were recorded for two different polarizations of the electric field. Obtained data indicated that the forge rolling resulted in a predominant orientation of CNTs in polymer matrix. Anisotropic response of the composites was measured at 130 {mu}m wavelength on the Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser and angular dependence of the transmitted light was determined. Absorption spectrum showed no strong resonance features and it was interpreted by CNTs breaking and agglomeration of CNT fragments during the composite fabrication procedure. Based on classical theory of scattering, considered the scatters as electromagnetic antennas, the size distribution of CNTs in composites was found. Anisotropy of terahertz radiation transmitted from MWCNT/polystyrene composite film on the Novosibirsk free electron laser at 130 {mu}m wavelength. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Determination of transmission factors for beta radiation at different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1988-06-01

    During the transmission factors determination of beta radiation in air, using an ionization chamber with variable volume (extrapolation chamber), connected to a digital electrometer, and the secondary standard system constituted by the 90 Sr + 90 Y, 204 Tl and 147 Pm sources, the positioning of absorber materials equivalent to tissue, in relation to the detector and to the radiation sources is fundamental. In this work the absorbers were positioned in front of the sources, as well in front of the chamber, in different experiments, and the data were compared. (author) [pt

  10. Radiation Dose Measurement Using Chemical Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Han, Bum Soo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation dose can be estimated in various ways. Dose estimates can be obtained by either experiment or theoretical analysis. In experiments, radiation impact is assessed by measuring any change caused by energy deposition to the exposed matter, in terms of energy state (physical change), chemical production (chemical change) or biological abnormality (biological change). The chemical dosimetry is based on the implication that the energy deposited to the matter can be inferred from the consequential change in chemical production. The chemical dosimetry usually works on the sample that is an aqueous solution, a biological matter, or an organic substance. In this study, we estimated absorbed doses by quantitating chemical changes in matter caused by radiation exposure. Two different chemical dosimeters, Fricke and ECB (Ethanol-Chlorobenzene) dosimeter, were compared in several features including efficacy as dose indicator and effective dose range

  11. Measurement of structured purple soil porosity by using gamma ray transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Elizabeth Cristina S. da; Rocha, Wilson Roberto Dejato da; Oliveira, Ricardo M. de; Silva, Luzeli Moreira da; Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Portezan, Otaio Portezan; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Coimbra, Melayne Martins

    2002-01-01

    The soil structure defines the particle arrangement which in turn largely determines the pore size distribution. In this work, we present the measurements of total, macro and microporosity for TRe soil with clayey texture. Soil samples were collected from a trench located at University of Londrina. The deformed and undeformed soil samples were collected from soil surface down to the depth of 0,50 m in 0,10 m intervals and separated into six aggregate size classes: 0.053; 0.125; 0.30; 0.71; 2 e 4 mm. We also prepared samples mixing different size classes, like as: (4+0.125), (2+0.125), (4+2+0.71), (4+2+0.30) e (4+0.30+0.125)mm. Measurements of particle density and aggregate bulk density using conventional method were performed to all depths. The linear soil attenuation coefficients and aggregate soil attenuation coefficients were measured with gamma-ray transmission system using an 241 Am (59,53 keV and 100 mCi) radiation source, a (2 x 2) in NaI scintillation detector, cylindric collimators (2 mm diameter to the source and 5 mm diameter to the detector) and gamma spectrometry standard electronics, connected to a multichannel. The obtained results for total, macro and microporosity are in a good agreement with the ones using the convention method, showing the applicability of the gamma-ray transmission method. (author)

  12. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation measurement for diathermy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaimah Abdul Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Mohd Amirul Nizam; Ahmad Fadzli; Mohd Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Full-text: Diathermy machine is one of medical device that use widely in hospital and clinic. During the diathermy treatment, high radiofrequency (RF) currents (shortwave and microwave) are used to heat deep muscular tissues through electromagnetic energy to body tissues. The heat increases blood flow, relieve pain and speeding up recovery. The stray RF radiation from the machine can exposes to unintended tissue of the patient, to the operator (physical therapist) and also can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) effect to medical devices around the machine. The main objective of this study is to establish a database of the RF radiation exposure levels experienced by the operator and patient during the treatments. RF radiation (electric and magnetic field) produced by the diathermy machines were measured using special RF survey meters. The finding of this study confirms that radiation levels on the surface and near the applicator of the diathermy machine much more elevated due to the much closer distance to the source and they exceeding the occupational and general public exposure limit. The results also shows the field strengths drop very significantly when the distance of measurement increase. (author)

  13. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed. Attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist

  14. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  15. Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...

  16. Statistics for Radiation Measurement. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lötter, M. G. [Department of Medical Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    Measurement errors are of three general types: (i) blunders, (ii) systematic errors or accuracy of measurements, and (iii) random errors or precision of measurements. Blunders produce grossly inaccurate results and experienced observers easily detect their occurrence. Examples in radiation counting or measurements include the incorrect setting of the energy window, counting heavily contaminated samples, using contaminated detectors for imaging or counting, obtaining measurements of high activities, resulting in count rates that lead to excessive dead time effects, and selecting the wrong patient orientation during imaging. Although some blunders can be detected as outliers or by duplicate samples and measurements, blunders should be avoided by careful, meticulous and dedicated work. This is especially important where results will determine the diagnosis or treatment of patients.

  17. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  18. The Karlsruhe Neutron Transmission Experiment (KANT): Spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellendorff, U. von; Fischer, U.; Giese, H.; Kappler, F.; Tayama, R.; Wiegner, E.; Klein, H.; Alevra, A.

    1996-01-01

    This is a set of viewgraphs (no additional text) of a presentation on spherical shell transmission measurements with 14 MeV neutrons on beryllium; the cross for 9 Be(n,2n)2α for the energy range between threshold (1.85 MeV) and 20 MeV neutron energy is measured and the measurement is compared with the literature. Also, neutron leakage multiplication in spherical Be shells with various thicknesses are presented. Figs, tabs

  19. An evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the on-line measurement of coal ash content by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhong, Liu; Li, Kong; Tan, Qu; Jingjing, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a significant effect producing systematic errors in the on-line measurement using gamma-ray transmission is revealed. Ash content fluctuations or thickness changes lead to a permanent negative systematic error in the results of the measurements. To study uncertainties in the measurements applicable to time-independent ash content indicators and to investigate the characteristics of the radiation attenuation process, the behavior of the quantity in question is modeled with a stationary Gaussian distribution. A systematic error-producing effect has been found, and a quantitative correction is given to compensate for it. For some other quantities in question that vary in time, a linear model is used to discuss the systematic errors in the case of automated coal gangue separator. Results of experiments that demonstrate different systematic errors for different sampling intervals are presented. The reason for these errors is the nonlinearity of the relationship between the radiation intensity, on the one hand, and the sample thickness and mass attention, on the other

  20. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250x10 4 Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 μGy day -1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0±0.5 deg. W, and 1.6±0.5 deg. N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources

  1. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Faj, D.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21 o to 58 o ; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H n =5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H f =1.4 μSv/h.

  2. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Faj, D. [Clinical Hospital Osijek (Croatia); Stanic, D. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J., E-mail: planinic@ffos.h [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21{sup o} to 58{sup o}; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H{sub n}=5.9 {mu}Sv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H{sub f}=1.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  3. Generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a step-by-step presentation of a generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure. Normally, a radiation problem requires a full wave analysis which may be time consuming. The beauty of the generalized transmission line method is that it transforms the radiation problem for a specific type of structure, say the multilayer structure excited by an antenna, into a circuit problem that can be efficiently analyzed. Using the Reciprocity Theorem and far-field approximation, the method computes the far-zone radiation due to

  4. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  5. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  6. A sensor element for direct radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajons, P.; Wernhart, U.; Zeiler, H. [University of Vienna (Austria). Institut of Material Physics

    1998-08-01

    A combination of a photodiode with a nonimaging light concentrator is developed to perform measurements of the direct solar radiation component. A prototype composed of low price elements is taken as a starting point to discuss the problems which must be faced when calibrating such sensors. By this the influence of the angle of incidence and spectral distribution (caused by different air mass or varying degree of clearness) of the incident radiation on the behavior of the system is studied. The readings are compared to the calculated (global minus diffuse) readings obtained from two standard star pyranometers. Finally the possibilities for increasing the accuracy of the sensor element and for applying the device are discussed. (author)

  7. Method and apparatus for determining accuracy of radiation measurements made in the presence of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactivity measuring instrument, and a method related to its use, for determining the radioactivity of a sample measured in the presence of significant background radiation, and for determining an error value relating to a specific probability of accuracy of the result are presented. Error values relating to the measurement of background radiation alone, and to the measurement of sample radiation and background radiation together, are combined to produce a true error value relating to the sample radiation alone

  8. In situ Electrical measurements in Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudneva, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis the combination of real-time electricalmeasurements on nano-sampleswith simultaneous examination by transmission electron microscope (TEM) is discussed. Application of an electrical current may lead to changes in the samples thus the possibility to correlate such changes with

  9. Measuring element for the detection and determination of radiation doses of gamma radiation and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, W.; Piesch, E.

    1975-01-01

    A measuring element detects and proves both gamma and neutron radiation. The element includes a photoluminescent material which stores gamma radiation and particles of arsenic and phosphorus embedded in the photoluminescent material for detecting neutron radiation. (U.S.)

  10. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  11. Optimal width of quasicrystalline slabs of dielectric cylinders to microwave radiation transmission contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andueza, Ángel; Sevilla, Joaquín [Dpto. Ing. Eléctrica y Electrónica Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Smart Cities Institute, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Wang, Kang [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Pérez-Conde, Jesús [Dpto. de Física Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2016-08-28

    Light confinement induced by resonant states in aperiodic photonic structures is interesting for many applications. A particular case of these resonances can be found in 2D quasicrystalline arrangements of dielectric cylinders. These systems present a rather isotropic band gap as well as isolated in-gap photonic states (as a result of spatially localized resonances). These states are built by high symmetry polygonal clusters that can be regarded as photonic molecules. In this paper, we study the transmission properties of a slab of glass cylinders arranged in approximants of the decagonal quasicrystalline structure. In particular, we investigate the influence of the slab width in the transmission contrast between the states and the gap. The study is both experimental and numerical in the microwave regime. We find that the best transmission contrast is found for a width of around three times the radiation wavelength. The transmission in the band gap region is mediated by the resonances of the photonic molecules. If the samples are thin enough, they become transparent except around a resonance of the photonic molecule which reflects the incoming light.

  12. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  13. Development of Spectrometer Software for Electromagnetic Radiation Measurement and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Noor Ezati Shuib; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet Spectrometer system. StellarNet Spectrometer was supplied with SpectraWiz operating software that can measure spectral data for real-time spectroscopy. This LabVIEW software was used to access real-time data from SpectraWiz dynamic link library as hardware interfacing. This software will acquire amplitude of every electromagnetic wavelength at periodic time. In addition to hardware interfacing, the user interface capabilities of software include plotting of spectral data in various mode including scope, absorbance, transmission and irradiance mode. This software surely can be used for research and development in application, utilization and safety of electromagnetic radiation, especially solar, laser and ultra violet. Of-line capabilities of this software are almost unlimited due to availability of mathematical and signal processing function in the LabVIEW add on library. (author)

  14. A simple approach to measure transmissibility and forecast incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Cori, Anne; Garske, Tini; Blake, Isobel M; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Hinsley, Wes; Jombart, Thibaut; Mills, Harriet L; Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Fraser, Christophe; Donnelly, Christl A; Ferguson, Neil M; Riley, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Outbreaks of novel pathogens such as SARS, pandemic influenza and Ebola require substantial investments in reactive interventions, with consequent implementation plans sometimes revised on a weekly basis. Therefore, short-term forecasts of incidence are often of high priority. In light of the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa, a forecasting exercise was convened by a network of infectious disease modellers. The challenge was to forecast unseen "future" simulated data for four different scenarios at five different time points. In a similar method to that used during the recent Ebola epidemic, we estimated current levels of transmissibility, over variable time-windows chosen in an ad hoc way. Current estimated transmissibility was then used to forecast near-future incidence. We performed well within the challenge and often produced accurate forecasts. A retrospective analysis showed that our subjective method for deciding on the window of time with which to estimate transmissibility often resulted in the optimal choice. However, when near-future trends deviated substantially from exponential patterns, the accuracy of our forecasts was reduced. This exercise highlights the urgent need for infectious disease modellers to develop more robust descriptions of processes - other than the widespread depletion of susceptible individuals - that produce non-exponential patterns of incidence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the water equivalence of solid phantoms using gamma ray transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.F.; Brown, S.; Baldock, C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray transmission measurements have been used to evaluate the water equivalence of solid phantoms. Technetium-99m was used in narrow beam geometry and the transmission of photons measured, using a gamma camera, through varying thickness of the solid phantom material and water. Measured transmission values were compared with Monte Carlo calculated transmission data using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to score fluence in a geometry similar to that of the measurements. The results indicate that the RMI457 Solid Water, CMNC Plastic Water and PTW RW3 solid phantoms had similar transmission values as compared to water to within ±1.5%. However, Perspex had a greater deviation in the transmission values up to ±4%. The agreement between the measured and EGSnrc calculated transmission values agreed to within ±1% over the range of phantom thickness studied. The linear attenuation coefficients at the gamma ray energy of 140.5 keV were determined from the measured and EGSnrc calculated transmission data and compared with predicted values derived from data provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) using the XCOM program. The coefficients derived from the measured data were up to 6% lower than those predicted by the XCOM program, while the coefficients determined from the Monte Carlo calculations were between measured and XCOM values. The results indicate that a similar process can be followed to determine the water equivalency of other solid phantoms and at other photon energies

  16. Enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodically modulated slab of layered superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadygrob, D V; Slipchenko, T M; Yampol'skii, V A; Makarov, N M; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2013-01-01

    We predict the enhanced transparency of a modulated slab of layered superconductor for terahertz radiation due to the diffraction of an incident wave and the resonance excitation of eigenmodes. The electromagnetic field is transferred from the irradiated side of the slab to the other by excited waveguide modes (WGMs) which do not decay in layered superconductors, in contrast to metals, where the enhanced light transmission is caused by the excitation of evanescent surface waves. We show that a series of resonance peaks can be observed in the dependence of transmittance on the incidence angle when the dispersion curve of the diffracted wave crosses successive dispersion curves for the WGMs. (paper)

  17. Radiation damage measurements in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, L.A.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Brunett, B.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Trombka, J.I.

    1998-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 10 p/cm 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 12 p/cm 2 . CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5 x 10 9 p/cm 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 10 n/cm 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particle at fluences up to 1.5 x 10 10 α/cm 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5 x 10 9 α/cm 2 . CT detectors show resolution losses after fluences of 3 x 10 9 p/cm 2 at 33 MeV for chlorine-doped detectors. Indium doped material may be more resistant. Neutron exposures (8 MeV) caused resolution losses after fluences of 2 x 10 10 n/cm 2 . Mercuric iodide has been studied with intermediate energy protons (10 to 33 MeV) at fluences up to 10 12 p/cm 2 and with 1.5 GeV protons at fluences up to 1.2 x 10 8 p/cm 2 . Neutron exposures at 8 MeV have been reported at fluences up to 10 15 n/cm 2 . No radiation damage was reported under these irradiation conditions

  18. New approach to radiation monitoring: citizen based radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, P.; Helebrant, J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the Fukushima Dai-chi NPP accident in Japan in 2011 and the Chernobyl NPP accident in USSR in 1986 similarly to the first one have shown a necessity to find a way how to improve confidence of the public to official authorities. It is important especially in such a case of severe accidents with significant consequences in large inhabited areas around the damaged NPP. A lack of public confidence to officials was caused mostly by rather poor communication between official authorities and the public, as well by restricted access to the information for the public. It may have extremely negative impacts on the public understanding of actual situation and its possible risks, on public acceptance of necessary protective measures and participation of the public in remediation of the affected areas. One of possible ways to improve the situation can be implementation of citizen radiation monitoring on voluntary basis. Making sure, the official results are compatible with public self-measured ones, the public probably has more confidence in them. In the Czech Republic the implementation of such an approach is tested in the framework of security research founded by the Czech Ministry of the Interior - the research project RAMESIS solved by SURO. (authors)

  19. Radiation-hard ASICS for sLHC optical data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed data transmission in a high radiation environment poses an immense challenge in the detector design. We investigate the feasibility of using optical links for the silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment for the planned upgrade of the LHC. The planned upgrade with ten times higher collision rate will produce a similar increase in the radiation. One possibility for the optical transmission is to use VCSEL arrays operating at 850 nm to transmit optical signals while using PIN arrays to convert the optical signals into electrical signals. We have designed a prototype chip containing building blocks for future SLHC optical links using a 130 nm CMOS 8RF process. The chip contains four main blocks; a VCSEL driver optimized for operation at 640 Mb/s, a VCSEL driver optimized for 3.2 Gb/s, a PIN receiver with a clock/data recovery circuit for operation at 40, 160, and 320 Mb/s, and two clock multipliers designed to operate at 640 Mb/s. The clock multiplier is designed to produce the high speed clock to serialize the data for transmission. All circuitry was designed following test results and guidelines from CERN on radiation tolerant design for the process. We have irradiated the chips with 24 GeV protons at CERN. For the VDC, the duty cycle of the output signal and the current consumption of the LVDS receiver remained constant during the irradiation. However, we observed significant decreases in the current consumption of the VCSEL driver circuit and the output drive current. This indicated that the think oxide layout used in the VCSEL driver portion of the chip might not be as radiation-hard and the circuit had been redesigned to minimize this sensitivity. For the PIN receiver, we found that the radiation produced no significant degradation, including the single event upset rate. The upset rate decreased with larger PIN current and was higher for a chip coupled to a PIN diode as expected. For the clock multipliers, we observed that the clocks of some chips

  20. An environmental sample chamber for reliable scanning transmission x-ray microscopy measurements under water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Nigge, Pascal; Prakash, Shruti; Gilles, Mary K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Bingbing [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements. The reactor mounts directly to the existing sample holder used in the majority of STXM instruments around the world and installs with minimal instrument reconfiguration. The reactor accommodates many gas atmospheres, but was designed specifically to address the needs of measurements under water vapor. An on-board sensor measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the reactor, minimizing uncertainties associated with measuring these quantities outside the instrument. The reactor reduces x-ray absorption from the process gas by over 85% compared to analogous experiments with the entire STXM instrument filled with process gas. Reduced absorption by the process gas allows data collection at full instrumental resolution, minimizes radiation dose to the sample, and results in much more stable imaging conditions. The reactor is in use at the STXM instruments at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source.

  1. Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branden, D B; Juhasz, T; Mahlokozera, T; Vesa, C; Wilson, R O; Zheng, M; Tate, D A; Kortyna, A

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 ≤ n ≤ 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving (∼100 μK) 85 Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target nl Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition to a higher energy 'monitor state', n'l'. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the nl target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experimental results obtained using a method which is more prone to systematic error, and are also in excellent agreement with theory.

  2. Soft x-ray transmission measurements on thin films used for XMM CCD-filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.-H.; Reppin, C.; Maier, H. J.; Frischke, D.; Fuchs, D.; Müller, P.

    1997-02-01

    We have been developing optical filters for ESA's X-ray astronomy project XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror Mission). Specific CCDs will be used as detectors in the focal plane on board the observatory (1). Since these detectors are sensitive from the X-ray to the near infrared spectral range, X-ray observations require optical filters, which combine a high transparency for photon energies in the soft X-ray region and a high opacity for ultraviolet and visible radiation as well. With respect to the mission goal in orbit three types of flight model filters are designed having different spectral transmittance functions. We report on one of these types, a so-called "thick" filter, which has been realized within the EQM (Electrical Qualification Model)-phase of the project. The filter features a cut-off in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range and suppresses radiation below ˜10 eV photon energy by more than 8 orders of magnitude. It has an effective aperture of 73 mm without any support structure. A 0.35 μm thick polypropylene carrier foil is coated with metallic films of Al and Sn. We describe transmission measurements in the soft X-ray photon energy range to determine the thickness of the individual layers and present the optical performance data of the filter.

  3. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2002-01-01

    The indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54±0.26 mGy.y -1 . The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d = 160 + 65 cos p/6 (m -1 ), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy.h -1 ) and m the month, was observed. This might be due to seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv respectively based on the indoor gamma exposure. (author)

  4. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54±0.26 mGy y -1 . The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d=160+65 cos π/6 (m-1), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy h -1 ) and m the month. This might be due to the seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv, respectively, based on the indoor gamma exposure

  5. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M.I. E-mail: idrish_physics@yahoo.com

    2004-06-01

    Indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54{+-}0.26 mGy y{sup -1}. The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d=160+65 cos {pi}/6 (m-1), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy h{sup -1}) and m the month. This might be due to the seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv, respectively, based on the indoor gamma exposure.

  6. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  7. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  8. A new simple iterative reconstruction algorithm for SPECT transmission measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.S.; Zeng, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new iterative reconstruction algorithm for transmission tomography and compares this algorithm with several other methods. The new algorithm is simple and resembles the emission ML-EM algorithm in form. Due to its simplicity, it is easy to implement and fast to compute a new update at each iteration. The algorithm also always guarantees non-negative solutions. Evaluations are performed using simulation studies and real phantom data. Comparisons with other algorithms such as convex, gradient, and logMLEM show that the proposed algorithm is as good as others and performs better in some cases

  9. Methodology and measurement of radiation interception by quantum sensor of the oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari Endan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Interception of light by a canopy is a fundamental requirement for crop growth and is important for biomass production and plant growth modeling. Solar radiation is an important parameter for photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. These two phenomena are dependent not only on the intensity of radiation but also on the distribution of intercepted radiation within the canopy. In this study, two operational methods for estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR intercepted by a canopy of the oil palm are presented. LICOR radiation sensors, model LI-190SA and model LI-191SA were used for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR measurement above and below the canopy. We developed two methods, namely "Triangular" method and "Circular" method for PAR measurement. Results show that both methods were suitable for oil palm PAR measurement. The triangular method is recommended for PAR measurements with respect to the whole plantation and the circular method is recommended for specific purposes, such as growth analysis or growth modeling of the oil palm. However, practical considerations such as equipment availability, purpose of the measurement, age of the palm, and the number of measuring points to be sampled should be taken into account in the selection of a suitable method for a particular study. The results indicate that the interception of radiation was affected by spatial variation, and the radiation transmission decreased towards the frond tips.

  10. Rényi entropy measure of noise-aided information transmission in a binary channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Delahaies, Agnès

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyzes a binary channel by means of information measures based on the Rényi entropy. The analysis extends, and contains as a special case, the classic reference model of binary information transmission based on the Shannon entropy measure. The extended model is used to investigate further possibilities and properties of stochastic resonance or noise-aided information transmission. The results demonstrate that stochastic resonance occurs in the information channel and is registered by the Rényi entropy measures at any finite order, including the Shannon order. Furthermore, in definite conditions, when seeking the Rényi information measures that best exploit stochastic resonance, then nontrivial orders differing from the Shannon case usually emerge. In this way, through binary information transmission, stochastic resonance identifies optimal Rényi measures of information differing from the classic Shannon measure. A confrontation of the quantitative information measures with visual perception is also proposed in an experiment of noise-aided binary image transmission.

  11. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  12. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  13. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, M

    1999-07-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 ({+-}0.4) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 ({+-}0.5) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 {mu}Sv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 {mu}Sv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 {mu}Sv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshaw, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 (±0.4) μSv.h -1 . Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 (±0.5) μSv.h -1 and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 μSv.h -1 for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 μSv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 μSv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 μSv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 μSv.h -1 , against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 μSv.h -1 . (author)

  15. The great advances in radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    The title of this banquet talk was selected to entertain conferees with recollections of major advances in dosimetry that have stimulated appetites for scientific progress. Recalling over fifty years of use of dosimetric instruments and concepts in the 1950-2000 era leads to an appreciation of many advances in solid state dosimetry, which others here know well and pursue vigorously. This author has been mainly a user, admirer, and interpreter of the fundamental methods of dose measurement. These advances have allowed ease of application in radiation protection and medical physics, for determining current routine and accidental exposures to workers, and for precise radiotherapeutic dose delivery. In more recent years, advances in identifying means of locating selective depositions of energy in various materials are providing ways of retrospectively assessing doses to tissue that were deposited many years ago. These methods also will allow development of quantitative theories of radiation damage once the lesions of interest are identified through further advances in molecular genetics. Yet, reflections on the past fifty years lead to increasing appreciation of the enormous achievements of our predecessors in the 1900-1950 period. Therefore, this presentation emphasises methods used by the author and some of his data interpretations during his 52-year career, with some examination of the earlier origin of some of these methods. (author)

  16. Measurements of computed tomography radiation scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Every, B.; Petty, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of scattered radiation from a computed tomography (CT) scanner in a clinical situation and compares the results with those obtained from a CT performance phantom and with data obtained from CT manufacturers. The results are presented as iso-dose contours. There are significant differences between the data obtained and that supplied by manufacturers, both in the shape of the iso-dose contours and in the nominal values. The observed scatter in a clinical situation (for an abdominal scan) varied between 3% and 430% of the manufacturers' stated values, with a marked reduction in scatter noted a the head and feet of the patient. These differences appear to be due to the fact that manufacturers use CT phantoms to obtain scatter data and these phantoms do not provide the same scatter absorption geometry as patients. CT scatter was observed to increase as scan field size and slice thickness increased, whilst there was little change in scatter with changes in gantry tilt and table slew. Using the iso-dose contours, the orientation of the CT scanner can be optimised with regard to the location and shielding requirements of doors and windows. Additionally, the positioning of staff who must remain in the room during scanning can be optimised to minimise their exposure. It is estimated that the data presented allows for realistic radiation protection assessments to be made. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Radiation dose measurement in gastrointestinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Barium studies investigations (barium swallow, barium meal and barium enema) are the basic routine radiological examination, where barium sulphate suspension is introduced to enhance image contrast of gastrointestinal tracts. The aim of this study was to quantify the patients' radiation doses during barium studies and to estimate the organ equivalent dose and effective dose with those procedures. A total of 33 investigations of barium studies were measured by using thermoluminescence dosemeters. The result showed that the patient entrance surface doses were 12.6±10, 44.5±49 and 35.7±50 mGy for barium swallow, barium meal, follow through and enema, respectively. Effective doses were 0.2, 0.35 and 1.4 mSv per procedure for barium swallow, meal and enema respectively. Radiation doses were comparable with the previous studies. A written protocol for each procedure will reduce the inter-operator variations and will help to reduce unnecessary exposure. (authors)

  18. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  19. measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the. Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of the. University of Jos and their immediate neighbourhood were carried out. These science laboratories also harbour a number of active radiation sources. The radiation levels were measured ...

  20. The design of laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on virtual instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan; Xu, Jiawen

    2010-10-01

    The laser atmosphere transmission characteristic affects the use of laser in engineering greatly. This paper designed a laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on LabVIEW software, a product of NI. The system acquires laser spacial distribution by means of controlling NI image acquisition card and CCD through PCI, controls oscillograph to acquire laser time domain distribution through Ethernet and controls power meter to acquire energy of laser through RS-232. It processes the data acquired and analyses the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic using Matlab, which is powerful in data processing, through software interface. It provided a new way to study the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic.

  1. Measurements of Voltage Harmonics in 400 kV Transmission Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Pawełek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of voltage harmonics measurements performed in the 400 kV transmission network. The voltage was measured by means of three transducers: resistive voltage divider, inductive measuring transformer and capacitive voltage measuring transformer. Instrument errors were estimated for measuring transformers with reference to the harmonic values obtained from the voltage divider.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  3. Measuring the competitiveness benefits of a transmission investment policy: The case of the Alberta electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission expansions can increase the extent of competition faced by wholesale electricity suppliers with the ability to exercise unilateral market power. This can cause them to submit offer curves closer to their marginal cost curves, which sets market-clearing prices closer to competitive benchmark price levels. These lower wholesale market-clearing prices are the competitiveness benefit consumers realize from the transmission expansion. This paper quantifies empirically the competitiveness benefits of a transmission expansion policy that causes strategic suppliers to expect no transmission congestion. Using hourly generation-unit level offer, output, market-clearing price and congestion data from the Alberta wholesale electricity market from January 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013, an upper and lower bound on the hourly consumer competitiveness benefits of this transmission policy is computed. Both of these competitiveness benefits measures are economically significant, which argues for including them in transmission planning processes for wholesale electricity markets to ensure that all transmission expansions with positive net benefits to electricity consumers are undertaken. -- Highlights: •Define competitiveness benefits to consumers from transmission expansions in wholesale market. •Compute upper and lower bounds on competitiveness benefits for Alberta market. •Compare no-perceived congestion prices to actual prices to measure competitiveness benefits. •Economically substantial competitiveness benefits found for sample period studied. •To ensure adequate transmission, planning processes should account for these benefits

  4. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)

  5. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NJ Drindak; JA Burke; G Leinweber; JA Helm; JG Hoole; RC Block; Y Danon; RE Slovacek; BE Moretti; CJ Werner; ME Overberg; SA Kolda; MJ Trbovich; DP Barry

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed using the time-of-flight method at the RPI linac using metallic Nb samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-meter flight station with a 16-section sodium iodide multiplicity detector and the transmission measurements at the 25-meter flight station with a Li-6 glass scintillation detector. Resonance parameters were determined for all resonances up to 500eV with a combined analysis of capture and transmission data using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The present results are compared to those presented in ENDF/B-VI, updated through Release 3

  6. Application of Terahertz Radiation to Soil Measurements: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. PMID:22163737

  7. Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Meningitis Transmission Dynamics with Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kiddy K. Asamoah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium E0, when the effective reproduction number RVT≤1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium E1, when RVT>1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at RVT=1. Carriers have been shown (by Tornado plot to have a higher chance of spreading the infection than those with clinical symptoms who will sometimes be bound to bed during the acute phase of the infection. In order to find the best strategy for minimizing the number of carriers and ill individuals and the cost of control implementation, an optimal control problem is set up by defining a Lagrangian function L to be minimized subject to the proposed model. Numerical simulation of the optimal problem demonstrates that the best strategy to control bacterial meningitis is to combine vaccination with other interventions (such as treatment and public health education. Additionally, this research suggests that stakeholders should press hard for the production of existing/new vaccines and antibiotics and their disbursement to areas that are most affected by bacterial meningitis, especially Sub-Saharan Africa; furthermore, individuals who live in communities where the environment is relatively warm (hot/moisture are advised to go for vaccination against bacterial meningitis.

  8. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2019-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  9. Determining the Resistivity of Resistive Sheets Using Transmission Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyde, IV, Milo W

    2006-01-01

    In September 2005, radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made of resistive sheets, or R-cards, wrapped around a polystyrene foam cylinder to compare with a newly developed theoretical RCS prediction technique...

  10. Fast Wave Transmission Measurements on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.

    1997-11-01

    Data are presented from an array of single-turn loop probes newly installed on the inner wall of C-Mod, directly opposite one of the two fast-wave antennas. The 8-loop array extends 32^circ in the toroidal direction at the midplane and can distinguish electromagnetic from electrostatic modes. Data are acquired by 1GHz digitizer, spectrum analyzer, and RF detector circuit. Phase measurements during different heating scenarios show evidence of both standing and travelling waves. The measurement of toroidal mode number N_tor (conserved under the assumption of axisymmetry) is used to guide the toroidal full-wave code TORIC(Brambilla, M., IPP Report 5/66, February 1996). Amplitude measurements show modulation both by Type III ELMs and sawteeth; the observed sawtooth modulation may be interpreted as due to changes in central absorption. The amplitude of tildeB_tor measured at the inner wall is compared to the prediction of TORIC.

  11. W-Band Transmission MeasurementS and X-Band Dielectric Properties Measurements for a Radome Material Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Robin L.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes measurements which were performed on a sample of radome material in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurements Laboratory (EPML). The purpose of the measurements described in this paper was to determine the one-way transmission loss through the flat panel of radome material for a frequency range of 84 to 94 GHz, for varying incidence angles. The panel, which was manufactured by Norton Performance Plastics Corporation, was provided to the EPML by TRW. The size of the panel is 40 in x 36 in x 0.422 in and consists of a foam material with one side coated with a smooth white coating (this side will be referred to as the front side). The dielectric properties of the foam material from the inside of the panel were also determined at X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The W-band free space measurements are presented first, followed by the X-band dielectric properties measurements.

  12. Characteristics and correlation of various radiation measuring methods in spatial radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kazuhiro; Tonouchi, Shigemasa

    1992-01-01

    When the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution was carried out, for the purpose of examining the useful measuring method, the comparison of the γ-ray dose rate calculated from survey meter method, in-situ measuring method and the measuring method by sampling soil was carried out. Between the in-situ measuring method and the survey meter method, the correlation Y=0.986X+5.73, r=0.903, n=18, P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation having the inclination of nearly 1 was shown. Between the survey meter method and the measuring method by sampling soil, the correlation Y=1.297X-10.30, r=0.966, n=20 P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation was shown, but as for the dose rate contribution, the disparities of 36% in U series, 6% in Th series and 20% in K-40 were observed. For the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution, the method of using in combination the survey meter method and the in-situ measuring method or the measuring method by sampling soil is suitable. (author)

  13. Ultrastructural alterations in ciliary cells exposed to ionizing radiation. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldetorp, L; Mecklenburg, C v; Haakansson, C H [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Hospital; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology)

    1977-01-01

    Early effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in an experimental in vitro system using the ciliary cells of the tracheal mucous membrane of the rabbit, irradiated at 30/sup 0/C and at more than 90% humidity. The changes in physiological activities of the ciliary cells caused by irradation were continously registered during the irradation. The specimens were examined immediately after irradiation electron microscopically. The morphological changes in irradiated material after 10-70 Gy are compared with normal material. After 40-70 Gy, scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of vesicles on cilia, and club-like protrusions and adhesion of their tips. After 30-70 Gy, a swelling of mitochondrial membranes and cristae was apparent transmission electron microscopically. The membrane alterations caused by irradiation are assumed to disturb the permeability and flow of ATP from the mitochondria, which in turn leads to the recorded changes in the activity of the ciliated cells.

  14. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  15. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  16. Saturation and porosity measurements of different soil samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil samples. In this study, the soil samples were collected from various regions of Turkey and a Nal (TI) detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam (from Cs-137) through soil samples. The water saturation and porosity were therefore calculated from the transmission measurements for each soil sample. (authors)

  17. Event-based motion correction for PET transmission measurements with a rotating point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Victor W; Kyme, Andre Z; Meikle, Steven R; Fulton, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is important for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) studies. When performing transmission measurements using an external rotating radioactive source, object motion during the transmission scan can distort the attenuation correction factors computed as the ratio of the blank to transmission counts, and cause errors and artefacts in reconstructed PET images. In this paper we report a compensation method for rigid body motion during PET transmission measurements, in which list mode transmission data are motion corrected event-by-event, based on known motion, to ensure that all events which traverse the same path through the object are recorded on a common line of response (LOR). As a result, the motion-corrected transmission LOR may record a combination of events originally detected on different LORs. To ensure that the corresponding blank LOR records events from the same combination of contributing LORs, the list mode blank data are spatially transformed event-by-event based on the same motion information. The number of counts recorded on the resulting blank LOR is then equivalent to the number of counts that would have been recorded on the corresponding motion-corrected transmission LOR in the absence of any attenuating object. The proposed method has been verified in phantom studies with both stepwise movements and continuous motion. We found that attenuation maps derived from motion-corrected transmission and blank data agree well with those of the stationary phantom and are significantly better than uncorrected attenuation data.

  18. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  19. Delayed manifestation and transmission bias of de novo chromosome mutations. Their relevance for radiation health effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2006-01-01

    The origin and transmission of de novo chromosome mutations were reviewed on the basis of our chromosome studies in retinoblastoma patients and male infertility. In a series of 264 sporadic retinoblastoma families, gross chromosome rearrangements involving the RB1 locus were identified in 23 cases (8.7%), of which 16 were non-mosaic and 7 were mosaic mutations. The newly formed chromosome mutations, whether they were non-mosaic or mosaic, had a strong bias towards paternally derived chromosome, indicating that they shared a common mechanism where a pre-mutational event or instability is carried over to zygote by sperm and manifested as gross chromosome mutation at the early stages of development. The de novo chromosome mutations are preferentially transmitted through female carriers. This transmission bias is consistent with the finding of higher frequencies of translocation carriers in infertile men (7.69% versus 0.27% in general populations) in whom meiotic progression is severely suppressed, possibly through activation of meiotic checkpoints. Such a meiotic surveillance mechanism may minimize the spreading of newly-arisen chromosome mutations in populations. A quantitative model of meiotic surveillance mechanism is proposed and successfully applied to the published data on ''humped'' dose-response curves for radiation-induced spermatogonial reciprocal translocations in several mammalian species. (author)

  20. Transvision: A light transmission measurement system for greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: For determining the optical performance of greenhouse covering materials other than standard float glass the current Dutch NEN 2675 norm is no longer appropriate. The emergence of a new generation of materials (diffuse, layered) resulted in a new measuring protocol developed by TNO and

  1. Measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain types of building materials are known to be radioactive. Exposure to indoor ionizing radiation like exposure to any other type of ionizing radiation results in critical health challenges. Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of ...

  2. Portable apparatus for measurement of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus described is stated to be particularly applicable to the measurement of tritium contamination of a surface, although it may have other applications to the determination of radioactivity on surfaces. The mean range of a tritium β particle in air at normal atmospheric pressure is only 1.5 mm. and when monitoring such radiation with the apparatus it is necessary to exclude light. The apparatus comprises a plastic scintillator sheet located in the base of a housing, with a sealing ring mounted in the base so as to make a hermetic and light-tight seal between a support surface and the base of the housing. Photomultiplier means are optically coupled to the scintillator sheet to detect and amplify the scintillations, and a pump device is provided to reduce the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet to below atmospheric pressure. The scintillator sheet and the photomultiplier means are movable as one unit within the housing, the unit being arranged to be acted upon by atmospheric pressure so as to move the unit into an operative position against a spring when the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. A shutter is provided to prevent exposure of the scintillator sheet to light when the apparatus is not in use. (U.K.)

  3. Review of measures to control radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1980-03-01

    Methods used in Canada and the U.S.A. to overcome problems in the control of radiation, to prescribe standards and to ensure that compliance with the standards is achieved are reviewed. The relevant Acts and Regulations are outlined. Options which could be applied in Australia for effecting better control of radiation are suggested

  4. Tunable photonic crystal for THz radiation in layered superconductors: Strong magnetic-field dependence of the transmission coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  6. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  7. Automatization of the radiation control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Akio; Ogata, Harumi; Horikoshi, Yoshinori; Shirai, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) was constructed to fabricate the MOX fuels for 'MONJU' and 'JOYO' reactors and to develop the practical fuel fabricating technology. For the fuel fabrication process in this facility, centralized controlling system is being adopted for the mass production of the fuel and reduction of the radiation exposure dose. Also, the radiation control systems are suitable for the large-scale facility and the automatic-remote process of the fuel fabrication. One of the typical radiation control systems is the self moving survey system which has been developed by PNC and adopted for the automatic routine monitoring. (author)

  8. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  9. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  10. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part E. Evaluation of fast neutron 63Ni transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 63 Ni measurements for fast neutrons in copper samples are compared to the calculated free-in-air 63 Ni neutron activation given in Chapter 3 by use of transmission factors. Transmission factors were calculated to account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the untilted free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. Examples of the application of TF's will be provided in this section. (author)

  11. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  12. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  13. A Monte Carlo study of the energy spectra and transmission characteristics of scattered radiation from x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platten, David John

    2014-06-01

    Existing data used to calculate the barrier transmission of scattered radiation from computed tomography (CT) are based on primary beam CT energy spectra. This study uses the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system and Epp user code to determine the energy spectra of CT scatter from four different primary CT beams passing through an ICRP 110 male reference phantom. Each scatter spectrum was used as a broad-beam x-ray source in transmission simulations through seventeen thicknesses of lead (0.00-3.50 mm). A fit of transmission data to lead thickness was performed to obtain α, β and γ parameters for each spectrum. The mean energy of the scatter spectra were up to 12.3 keV lower than that of the primary spectrum. For 120 kVp scatter beams the transmission through lead was at least 50% less than predicted by existing data for thicknesses of 1.5 mm and greater; at least 30% less transmission was seen for 140 kVp scatter beams. This work has shown that the mean energy and half-value layer of CT scatter spectra are lower than those of the corresponding primary beam. The transmission of CT scatter radiation through lead is lower than that calculated with currently available data. Using the data from this work will result in less lead shielding being required for CT scanner installations.

  14. Measurement of radiation damage on an optical reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, K.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Huang, H.C.; Ueno, K.; Chang, Y.H.; Wang, C.H.; Hou, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation damage on an optical white fluorocarbon reflector called Goretex, which is to be used for aerogel threshold counters and crystal calorimeters of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Reflectance of the Goretex surface was monitored to see any effect of the radiation damage. Maximum equivalent dose was 8.6 Mrad. No radiation damage is observed within measurement errors. (orig.)

  15. Measurement and modelling of the photosynthetically active radiation transmitted in a canopy of maritime pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassika, P.; Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Modelling the photosynthesis of a forest requires the evaluation of the quantity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the crowns and the understorey. In this article a semi-empirical model, based on Beer's law is used to study PAR absorption and its seasonal variation. Our purpose was to confirm that the PAR and the solar radiation follow the same interception laws for both the direct and diffuse part, using correct values of needle transmission and reflection coefficients. The model developed took into account the direct and the diffuse radiation. The radiation rescattered by the crowns was neglected following an estimation using the Kubelka-Munk equations, which indicated that the term was small. The model was calibrated and tested from the measurements taken in a maritime pine forest during the summer and autumn of 1995. The comparison between the results of the model and the measurements was satisfactory for the direct radiation as well as for the diffuse radiation. In conclusion, although the measurement wavebands are different, the penetration of the PAR can be estimated using the same simple semi-empirical model already established for solar radiation. (author) [fr

  16. Survey by measurement of urban environmental radiation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Kitahara, Akiharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sugiura, Shiroharu; Shindo, Kotaro

    1984-01-01

    In the evaluation of the effect of radiation on the population of Tokyo Metropolis, it is necessary to know the external exposure due to natural radiation. Radiation dose rate has been measured on the ground (parks, etc.), paved roads (sidewalks), buildings, and transportation facilities (subways). The average values of cosmic ray and ground radiation were 8.8 x 10 -10 C/kg.h and 6.5 x 10 -10 C/kg.h, respectively. The radiation dose rate on roads differed largely with the structural materials, thickness, etc. The radiation in wooden buildings was almost similar to surrounding natural radiation. In high-rise buildings, there was not much difference from floor to floor. The natural radiation in subways depends largely on the depth. (Mori, K.)

  17. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  18. Application of a universal optic data link for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, T.; Takada, E.

    2002-01-01

    Optic Data Link (ODL) is a device to convert electric and optic signals to each other, which is used for the field of optical communications. We examined the possibility to apply ODLs to radiation measurements. The effect of ODLs on energy and timing resolution has been investigated. From the results, fundamental applicability of ODLs to radiation measurements has been demonstrated. (author)

  19. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

    1979-11-01

    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  20. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  1. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  2. Measuring the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing through the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipona, Rolf; Kräuchi, Andreas; Brocard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming shortwave solar radiation and outgoing longwave terrestrial radiation at the Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere - information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of the Earth's atmosphere. Using weather balloons and specific radiometer equipped radiosondes, we continuously measured shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes from the surface of the Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Comparing radiation profiles from night measurements with different amounts of water vapor, we show evidence of large greenhouse forcing. We show, that under cloud free conditions, water vapor increases with Clausius-Clapeyron ( 7% / K), and longwave downward radiation at the surface increases by 8 Watts per square meter per Kelvin. The longwave net radiation however, shows a positive increase (downward) of 2.4 Watts per square meter and Kelvin at the surface, which decreases with height and shows a similar but negative increase (upward) at the tropopause. Hence, increased tropospheric water vapor increases longwave net radiation towards the ground and towards space, and produces a heating of 0.42 Kelvin per Watt per square meter at the surface. References: Philipona et al., 2012: Solar and thermal radiation profiles and radiative forcing measured through the atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13806, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052087.

  3. Calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Long, Zhen; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Weibin

    2012-01-01

    Correlations for calculating diffuse solar radiation can be classified into models with global solar radiation (H-based method) and without it (Non-H method). The objective of the present study is to compare the performance of H-based and Non-H methods for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. The comparison is carried out at eight meteorological stations in China focusing on the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation. Based on statistical error tests, the results show that the Non-H method that includes other readily available meteorological elements gives better estimates. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Non-H method is more appropriate than the H-based one for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. -- Highlights: ► Methods for calculating diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements are investigated. ► Diffuse solar radiation models can be classified into two groups according to global solar radiation. ► Two approaches are compared at the eight meteorological stations in China. ► The method without global solar radiation is recommended.

  4. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  5. Control measures in industrial and medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment; additionally the use of human made radiation is widespread. Sources of radiation are essential to modern health care, disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease, radiology is a vital diagnostic tool and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Nuclear techniques are in growing use in industry, agriculture, medicine and many fields of research, benefiting hundreds of millions of people and giving employment to millions of people in the related occupations, Irradiation is used around the world to preserve and reduce wastage and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds and detect cracks and help prevent the failure of engineered structures. It is also known that exposure to ionizing radiation can result to injuries that manifest themselves in the individual and his descendants. It is therefore imperative that the use of radiation sources be accompanied with the methods necessary for the prevention of the harmful effects of the radiation. These methods are referred to as control measures. Control measures that have been applied in establishments can be classified into physical control measures and administrative control measures. Physical control measures involve the technical aspects while administrative control measures augment physical measures. The guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials are provided through legislative and regulatory controls

  6. Mathematical simulation of gamma-radiation angle distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Batij, E.V.; Egorov, V.V.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Kochnev, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed mathematical model of the facility for gamma-radiation angle distribution measurement and calculated response functions for gamma-radiation intensities. We developed special software for experimental data processing, the 'Shelter' object radiation spectra unfolding and Sphere detector (ShD) angle resolution estimation. Neuronet method using for detection of the radiation directions is given. We developed software based on the neuronet algorithm, that allows obtaining reliable distribution of gamma-sources that make impact on the facility detectors at the measurement point. 10 refs.; 15 figs.; 4 tab

  7. Radiation Measured for Chinese Satellite SJ-10 Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Shenyi; Sun, Yueqiang; Liang, Jinbao; Zhu, Guangwu; Jing, Tao; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Space biological effects are mainly a result of space radiation particles with high linear energy transfer (LET); therefore, accurate measurement of high LET space radiation is vital. The radiation in low Earth orbits is composed mainly of high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles, particles of radiation belts, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the albedo neutrons and protons scattered from the Earth's atmosphere. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors sensitive to high LET are the best passive detectors to measure space radiation. The LET method that employs CR-39 can measure all the radiation LET spectra and quantities. CR-39 detectors can also record the incident directions and coordinates of GCR heavy ions that pass through both CR-39 and biosamples, and the impact parameter, the distance between the particle's incident point and the seed's spore, can then be determined. The radiation characteristics and impact parameter of GCR heavy ions are especially beneficial for in-depth research regarding space radiation biological effects. The payload returnable satellite SJ-10 provided an excellent opportunity to investigate space radiation biological effects with CR-39 detectors. The space bio-effects experiment was successfully conducted on board the SJ-10 satellite. This paper introduces space radiation in low Earth orbits and the LET method in radiation-related research and presents the results of nuclear tracks and biosamples hitting distributions of GCR heavy ions, the radiation LET spectra, and the quantities measured for the SJ-10 space mission. The SJ-10 bio-experiment indicated that radiation may produce significant bio-effects.

  8. Measuring stations for gamma radiation - measured results 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma radiation is recorded continuously at 25 stations in Sweden. The evaluation of the data from five of the stations is made in a most accurate way, and the results are presented in this report. (G.B.)

  9. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  10. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2006-01-01

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality

  11. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: vfrid@bgu.ac.il; Rabinovitch, A. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2006-07-31

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality.

  12. Thickness measurement for the different metals by using Cs-137 gamma source with gamma transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueyuek, B.; Tugrul, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an experimental analysis of thickness measurement for various metals with the gamma transmission technique using Cs-137 as the radioisotope source. Lead, steel, brass, and aluminum, which are frequently used metals in industry, were chosen for the experiments. As the radioisotope source Cs-137 was preferred for the study since it has long half-life, it is mono energetic, and it penetrates the metals that were studied. Experiments were observed in the constant experimental geometry. Calibration curves for the four metal samples were plotted using the obtained results. To test the plotted calibration curves, counts for determining thickness measurement were collected for each sample and the obtained relative count values were used in conjunction with the plotted calibration curves for each sample to determine its thickness. The thicknesses of the samples have been measured with a micrometer and the results were comparatively analyzed with the measurement results obtained by the gamma transmission technique. The results of the analyses revealed that the thickness measurement values obtained with the gamma transmission technique and the thickness measurement values obtained with the conventional technique significantly converge to each other and the difference between the two values is at an acceptable level. Therefore the reliability of thickness measurements with the gamma transmission technique and the resulting calibration curves have been demonstrated.

  13. Ground-based spectral measurements of solar radiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Keizo; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Goto, Ryozo; Yamauchi, Toyotaro

    1979-01-01

    A newly designed spectro-pyranometer was used for the measurement of the global (direct + diffuse) and the diffuse sky radiation reaching the ground. By the subtraction of the diffuse component from the global radiation, we got the direct radiation component which leads to the spectral distribution of the optical thickness (extinction coefficient) of the turbid atmosphere. The measurement of the diffuse sky radiation reveals the scattering effect of aerosols and that of the global radiation allows the estimation of total attenuation caused by scattering and absorption of aerosols. The effects of the aerosols are represented by the deviation of the real atmosphere measured from the Rayleigh atmosphere. By the combination of the measured values with those obtained by theoretical calculation for the model atmosphere, we estimated the amount of absorption by the aerosols. Very strong absorption in the ultraviolet region was recognized. (author)

  14. Calorimeter with capacitance transducer for measurement of SHF radiation power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter of simple design for measuring total energy of microwave radiation is described. It operates in the energy range of 0.5 J to 6 kJ; water is used as the absorbing material. A capacitive probe is applied to measure changes in the water volume. The energy absorption factor of electromagnetic radiation in the range of 3-60 GHz is at least 0.9. The calorimeter is insensitive to radiation field nonuniformity over the absorber volume. The calorimeter is intended for measuring the radiation energy of beam plasma generators and generators with dielectric structure. Its design makes it possible to simultaneously measure the radiation energy and monitor the beam current [ru

  15. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.

  16. Radiation and impurity measurements in FRX-C/T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Translation of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) in the FRX-C/T device has provided better diagnostic access for radiation measurements. It is observed that radiated power accounts for 7 +- 2% of the total power losses, indicating that thermal conduction accounts for about half of the losses. It was determined through impurity seeding experiments that the oxygen fraction is 0.6 +- 0.2% and that oxygen can account for most of the radiated power

  17. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  18. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  19. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  20. Radiation protection measures for hot cell sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.; Burck, W.; Dilger, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cell 5 of the Hot Cell Facility of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK) was to be restored and reequipped after 12 years of operation. The decontamination work was first done remotely controlled and afterwards by 38 persons entering the cell, which took about 2 months. The radiation protection methods and personal dosimetry systems are described. At the beginning of the work the γ-dose rate amounted up to 900 mSv/h. After completion of the remotely controlled decontamination work the γ-dose rate decreased to 1.5 mSv/h. At that time the (α+β-contamination was 10 5 Bq/cm 2 . Till the end of the work the removable activity dropped to 10 2 - 10 3 Bq/cm 2 for β-radiation, to 0.3 - 30 Bq/cm 2 for α-radiation and the local dose rate to about 0.03 mSv/h. During the work the accumulated collective doses were listed for breast, hand, head, gonads and foot. In the figure the development with the time of the doses for breast and hand is shown. During restoration work of the cell the accumulated collective whole-body dose amounted to 30 mSv. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiation dose measurements in intravenous pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeblad, M.; Gottlieb, E.

    1975-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) and micturition cystourethrography (MCU) are the standard procedures in the radiological examination of children with urinary tract infections and in the control of these children. Gonad protection against radiation is not possible in MCU, but concerning the girls partly possible in IVP. It is of major importance to know the radiation dose in these procedures, especially since the examination is often repeated in the same patients. All IVP were done by means of the usual technique including possible gonad protection. The thermoluminescence dosimeter was placed rectally in the girls and fixed on the scrota in the boys. A total of 50 children was studied. Gonad dose ranged from 140 to 200mR in the girls and from 20 to 70mR in the boys (mean values). The radiation dose in IVP is very low compared to that of MCU, and from this point of view IVP is a dose saving examination in the control of children with urinary tract infections [fr

  2. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L E; Badawy, M K

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care. (paper)

  3. Environmental radiation measurements and remedial actions (Hantepe/Ezine/Canakkale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are some regions in the world that are known as high background radiation areas. Intensive scientific investigations in the field of radiation dose and health effects, risk estimates, radiation protection, environmental transportation routes and ecological effects related with natural radiation have been carried out in these regions. Also natural radiation dosimetry, in vitro and in vivo biological studies which take into account the measurements in the field of low level radiation, radon, thoron and cosmic rays have been carried out, again in these regions. The well-known high natural background radiation areas in the world are Guarapari in Brazil, Ramsar in Iran, Kerala in India and Yangjiang in China. In addition to above mentioned areas, other relatively lower high background radiation areas are exist. Since 1960s, radiological, geological, epidemiological and ecological studies have been carried out in order to determine the risks and possible health effects of long-term low level natural radiation exposure. In the framework of surveying the background radiation of Turkey, the background radiation measurements were carried out in 56 different points around the area of Canakkale city. The radiation levels at Hantepe beach of Geyikli which is located in Ezine town of Canakkale was found higher than the mean background radiation level of the region. The radiation dose rates were measured in between 0.20 and 10.88 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.27 and 3.11 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level where the thorium-containing sand is dense. After the rehabilitation studies, the radiation dose rate were measured in between 0.15 and 8.09 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.17 and 2.88 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level. It was observed that the radiation dose rates were decreased seriously after the rehabilitation studies when the arithmetic mean value of the dose rates was taken into account. The effective dose calculations were performed by taking into account the

  4. Device for the integral measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheron, Francois.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to devices for the integral determination of ionizing radiations, particularly to the construction of a portable dosemeter. Portable measuring instruments have been suggested in the past, particularly dosemeters in which the discharge of a capacitor under the action of ionizing radiations is measured. Since the charge of a capacitor is not stable owing to dielectric imperfections, these measuring instruments have to be recalibrated at frequent intervals. To overcome this drawback, the invention suggests using the discharge of an electret, electrically charged to a pre-set initial value, under the action of ionizing radiations, as the transducer means of a dosemeter used in conjunction with display or warning systems [fr

  5. ARPANSA preliminary measurements of radiofrequency transmissions from a Mesh Radio Smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayasinghe, Don; Karipidis, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Smart meters have been deployed in buildings initially in Victoria and increasingly across other areas of Australia. They utilise radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic energy (EME) at levels very much below the levels permitted in the RF Standard. Despite the low levels of RF EME, there is some public concern about exposures from smart meters and whether the RF transmissions may cause a variety of health effects. ARPANSA has undertaken some preliminary RF measurements of an installed mesh network smart meter at the home of a staff member in a suburb of Melbourne. It must be emphasised that these measurements by ARPANSA cannot be considered representative of all smart meters. A typical RF pulse from the smart meter had an average intensity of 7 mW/m 2 measured at a distance of half a metre from the smart meter with the door to the meter box open. This is 0.00015% of the instantaneous exposure limit in the Australian RF standard for the general public. The measured level with the meter box door closed, or on the other side of the wall on which the meter was mounted was about 20 times lower. The RF transmissions that were measured were not continuous and occurred less than 0.08% of the time that the measurements took place. The RF electromagnetic energy transmitted in a single pulse from the smart meter is similar to that from a car remote unlocking fob and much less than a single GSM SMS transmission. The measurements do not provide any indication of why smart meter transmissions would provoke symptoms in people otherwise unaffected by other wireless technologies such as mobile phone handsets. Indeed the low levels and short transmission times make any effects highly unlikely.

  6. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  7. Radiation tagging measures wear at speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jon.

    1994-01-01

    A new non-invasive technique for performing accelerated wear and corrosion analysis is particularly relevant to power transmission systems. Wear tests that would normally take days or weeks to complete can now be performed in hours. A tiny patch of the wearing component is made mildly radioactive and the drop in activity as material is worn away is monitored. Known as Thin Layer Activation (TLA), the technology was originally developed and pioneered in-house by the Atomic Energy Authority. Since then, the dominant partner has been the automotive sector where TLA has been used extensively for engine wear and lubrication performance analysis. However, TLA could be used in any wear or corrosion environment. Applications include wear analysis of machine tool cutting surfaces, pump impellers and brake linings to the corrosion monitoring of process plant and pipelines. (author)

  8. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis

  9. Spectroscopic and bolometric measurements of radiation loss in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiho, Makoto; Odajima, Kazuo; Sugie, Tatsuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Kasai, Satoshi

    1977-11-01

    Radiation loss due to low- and high-z impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a) was measured by means of a calibrated 3m grazing incidence vacuum monochromater and a calibrated pyroelectric detector. The following results were obtained: 1) Radiation loss power due to low-z impurities becomes insignificant by using clean surfaces for the vacuum wall. 2) Radiation loss power due to pseudo continuum from high-z impurities has influence on the energy balance of the confined plasma. 3) The divertor reduces the radiation loss by a factor of about 3. (auth.)

  10. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  11. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  12. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  13. Data transmission optical link for LLRF TESLA project part II: application for BER measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krzysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof

    2006-02-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming a very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals.

  14. Measurements of transmission in the visible and the IR in the Baltic coastal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dion, D.; Gardenal, L.; Jong, A.N. de; Forand, L.; Vogel, H.; Hurtaud, Y.; Stein, K.

    2007-01-01

    multinational campaign was organized by the NATO SET56 Group to assess transmission in coastal environments: the VAlidation Measurements of Propagation in IR and RAdar (VAMPIRA) experiment. VAMPIRA was conducted in the Baltic Sea, near Surendorf, Germany, from 27 March to 4 April 2004. During

  15. A Dependence between Average Call Duration and Voice Transmission Quality: Measurement and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holub, J.; Beerends, J.G.; Smid, R.

    2004-01-01

    This contribution deals with the estimation of the relation between speech transmission quality and average call duration for a given network and portfolio of customers. It uses non-intrusive speech quality measurements on live speech calls. The basic idea behind this analysis is an expectation that

  16. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  17. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bronner, J.; Hartet, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, Freiburg (Germany); Franz, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO{sub 2} will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  18. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuz, M.; Bronner, J.; Hartet, J.; Franz, S.

    2009-01-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO 2 will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10 9 n/cm 2 for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10 12 n/cm 2 for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  19. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  20. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  1. Estimation of diffuse from measured global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A data set of quality controlled radiation observations from stations scattered throughout Australia was formed and further screened to remove residual doubtful observations. It was then divided into groups by solar elevation, and used to find average relationships for each elevation group between relative global radiation (clearness index - the measured global radiation expressed as a proportion of the radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere) and relative diffuse radiation. Clear-cut relationships were found, which were then fitted by polynomial expressions giving the relative diffuse radiation as a function of relative global radiation and solar elevation. When these expressions were used to estimate the diffuse radiation from the global, the results had a slightly smaller spread of errors than those from an earlier technique given by Spencer. It was found that the errors were related to cloud amount, and further relationships were developed giving the errors as functions of global radiation, solar elevation, and the fraction of sky obscured by high cloud and by opaque (low and middle level) cloud. When these relationships were used to adjust the first estimates of diffuse radiation, there was a considerable reduction in the number of large errors

  2. Sound transmission analysis of plate structures using the finite element method and elementary radiator approach with radiator error index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jaesoon; Kook, Junghwan; Goo, Seongyeol

    2017-01-01

    combines the FEM and Elementary Radiator Approach (ERA) is proposed. The FE-ERA method analyzes the vibrational response of the plate structure excited by incident sound using FEM and then computes the transmitted acoustic pressure from the vibrating plate using ERA. In order to improve the accuracy...... and efficiency of the FE-ERA method, a novel criterion for the optimal number of elementary radiators is proposed. The criterion is based on the radiator error index that is derived to estimate the accuracy of the computation with used number of radiators. Using the proposed criterion a radiator selection method...... is presented for determining the optimum number of radiators. The presented radiator selection method and the FE-ERA method are combined to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency. Several numerical examples that have been rarely addressed in previous studies, are presented with the proposed method...

  3. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three ... Soil contains small quantities of radioactive elements along with their progeny. .... assessment for soil samples from Kestanbol.

  4. Radiated power measurement with AXUV photodiodes in EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yanmin; Hu Liqun; Du Wei; Mao Songtao; Chen Kaiyun; Zhang Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    The fast bolometer diagnostic system for absolute radiated power measurement on EAST tokamak is introduced, which is based on the absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiodes. The relative calibration of AXUV detectors is carried out using X-ray tube and standard luminance source in order to evaluate the sensitivity degradation caused by cumulative radiation damage during experiments. The calibration result shows a 23% sensitivity decrease in the X-ray range for the detector suffering ∼27000 discharges, but the sensitivity for the visible light changes little. The radiated power measured by AXUV photodiodes is compared with that measured by resistive bolometer. The total radiated power in main plasma deduced from AXUV detector is lower a factor of 1∼4 than that deduced from resistive bolometer. Some typical measurement results are also shown in this article. (author)

  5. Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... gations of radiative lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level at ... introduced by an electronic delay generator between the two ... cascade repopulation and depopulation, Zeeman and hyperfine quantum beats [6]. The.

  6. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  7. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LOSSES IN THE SUPPLY SYSTEM OF ELECTRIFIED TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Bartłomiejczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of electric energy saving in public transport is currently becoming a key area of interest, a fact connected with both an increase in society’s environmental awareness and a rise in the prices of fuel and electricity. Electricity can be saved by reducing transmission losses in the supply system. The article presents a method of measurement and analysis of transmission losses in the supply system of electrified public transport on the example of trolleybus transport in Gdynia and Lublin in Poland.

  8. Absolutely calibrated, time-resolved measurements of soft x rays using transmission grating spectrometers at the Nike Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Seely, J.F.; Holland, G.; Serlin, V.; Klapisch, M.; Columbant, D.; Mostovych, A.

    2001-01-01

    Accurate simulation of pellet implosions for direct drive inertial confinement fusion requires benchmarking the codes with experimental data. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has begun to measure the absolute intensity of radiation from laser irradiated targets to provide critical information for the radiatively preheated pellet designs developed by the Nike laser group. Two main diagnostics for this effort are two spectrometers incorporating three detection systems. While both spectrometers use 2500 lines/mm transmission gratings, one instrument is coupled to a soft x-ray streak camera and the other is coupled to both an absolutely calibrated Si photodiode array and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Absolute calibration of spectrometer components has been undertaken at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratories. Currently, the system has been used to measure the spatially integrated soft x-ray flux as a function of target material, laser power, and laser spot size. A comparison between measured and calculated flux for Au and CH targets shows reasonable agreement to one-dimensional modeling for two laser power densities

  9. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  10. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated

  11. Studies on the transmission and processing of pulse-shaped signals from nuclear radiation detectors using methods of systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillekothen, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Using methods of the systems theory of electronic communications and theoretical electrical science, this study describes the transmission of pulse-shaped signals from nuclear radiation detectors from the detector over ''electrically long lines'' (cables) to the output of the first pulse amplifier. The example of pulses from BF 3 -proportional counters shows, using the Fourier transformation, that pulses from radiation detectors contain a frequency spectrum ranging well above 10 8 Hz. If these pulses are transmitted to the first amplifier over a line length of several meters, the laws of the theory of transmission lines must be taken into account to avoid false signals caused by reflections. In the example, line equations are applied and the influence of the line and the terminating impedance is demonstrated. The influence of the frequency response ν(ω) and the phase response δ(ω) of the amplifier is also considered in the sample calculation. The methods presented make it possible to analyze and optimize the transmission and amplification of signals from radiation detectors. Close agreement emerges between empirically observed and calculated pulse shapes. (orig.)

  12. Winter radiation extinction and reflection in a boreal pine canopy: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.W.; Dion, K.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting the rate of snow melt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50°, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at

  13. Moisture disturbance when measuring boron content in wet glass fibre materials with thermal neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiping; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical calculation and experimental study on the moisture disturbance in the boron content measurement of wet glass fibre materials using the thermal neutron transmission method were reported. The relevant formula of the moisture disturbance was derived. For samples with a mass of 16 g, it was found that a moisture variation of 1% (mass percent) would result in a deviation of 0.28% (mass percent) in the measurement of boron contents

  14. Simultaneous transmission of neutrons and gamma rays (NEUGAT) to measure fat in meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method has been established for the measurement of fat in boneless meat based on the simultaneous transmission through the mixture of neutrons and γ-rays (NEUGAT Technique). The method is insensitive to the manner in which the fat is distributed in the meat, and to the thickness of the mixture. The method has been applied in a meat packing plant to fat measurement in boxes of boneless meat for export. (author)

  15. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  16. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  17. Measurement of the radiation in the accelerator-therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutz, Hayo

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the scattering radiation in the accelerator-therapy room of the PTB is described. The accelerators are commercial linear accelerators of the firm Elektra of the type ''Precise''. The measurements were performed by means of secondary-normal ionization chambers and a special measurement technique developed in the PTB both with and without the used beam. (HSI)

  18. Radiation risk estimation based on measurement error models

    CERN Document Server

    Masiuk, Sergii; Shklyar, Sergiy; Chepurny, Mykola; Likhtarov, Illya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph discusses statistics and risk estimates applied to radiation damage under the presence of measurement errors. The first part covers nonlinear measurement error models, with a particular emphasis on efficiency of regression parameter estimators. In the second part, risk estimation in models with measurement errors is considered. Efficiency of the methods presented is verified using data from radio-epidemiological studies.

  19. Uncertainty evaluation by gamma transmission measurements and CFD model comparison in a FCC cold pilot unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas C.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid flow in air-catalyst in circulating fluidized bed was simulated with CFD model to obtain axial and radial distribution. Therefore, project parameters were confirmed and steady state operation condition was improved. Solid holds up axial end radial profiles simulation and comparison with gamma transmission measurements are in a good agreement. The transmission signal from an 241Am radioactive source was evaluated in NaI(Tl detector coupled to multichannel analyzer. This non intrusive measuring set up is installed at riser of a cold pilot unit to determine parameters of FCC catalyst flow at several concentrations. Mass flow rate calculated by combining solid hold up and solid phase velocity measurements was compared with catalyst inlet measured at down-comer. Evaluation in each measured parameter shows that a relative combined uncertainty of 6% in a 95% interval was estimated. Uncertainty analysis took into account a significant correlation in scan riser transmission measurements. An Eulerian approach of CFD model incorporating the kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to describe the gas–solid two-phase flows in a multizone circulating reactor. Instantaneous and local gas-particle velocity, void fraction and turbulent parameters were obtained and results are shown in 2 D and 3D graphics.

  20. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  2. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  3. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities

  4. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  5. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Lin, J. W.; Sheu, R. J.; Lin, U. T.; Jiang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated 3He detector, high pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h -1 . (authors)

  6. Mobile equipment for measurement of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    NRPA has several systems to perform mobile measurements. One of the systems consists of detectors mounted on the roof of a car. Mobile systems can be used to map the radioactive contamination of large areas in a short time, to the reference measurements and to search for sources astray. The systems can be mounted on the vehicle or used in a helicopter or airplane. (AG)

  7. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Carlsson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs. (authors)

  8. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets...... values obtained for different orientations of the handsets in the environments. For practical measurements it is important to minimize the measurement time. The paper includes a study of the variation in MEG when the number of samples in the spherical radiation pattern is reduced. Furthermore...

  9. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as 'Key Component' for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  10. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as `Key Component` for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  11. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  12. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  13. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Development of measurement system for radiation effect on static random access memory based field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Luo Yinhong; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Keying

    2009-01-01

    Based on the detailed investigation in field programmable gate array(FPGA) radiation effects theory, a measurement system for radiation effects on static random access memory(SRAM)-based FPGA was developed. The testing principle of internal memory, function and power current was introduced. The hardware and software implement means of system were presented. Some important parameters for radiation effects on SRAM-based FPGA, such as configuration RAM upset section, block RAM upset section, function fault section and single event latchup section can be gained with this system. The transmission distance of the system can be over 50 m and the maximum number of tested gates can reach one million. (authors)

  15. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  16. Measurement of man's exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    After outlining briefly the rationale for personnel radiation monitoring with integrating detectors, a review is presented of some developments which have taken place in personnel and environmental dosimetry during the past 3.5 years. The results of a pilot field experiment concerning the stability of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in four Latin-American countries are summarized. It shows that film dosimeters should be used only with caution, and in locations with a moderate climate. A survey is being conducted on the current status and trends in personnel monitoring, involving detailed questioning of over 150 laboratories in about forty countries to obtain information on the type of service and detectors, evaluation and recordkeeping, additional applications, problem and development areas, intercomparisons, practical experiences with different systems, administrative and legal aspects, etc. According to the preliminary results, the trend is away from photographic film and towards mostly automatic TLD systems, not only in the industrialized countries but also in several of the larger and more advanced developing countries. The need for higher quality standards and frequent performance tests under realistic conditions is emphasized. Differences in the requirements for personnel and []stationary environmental dosimeters are outlined. As evidenced by the results of a recent international intercomparison of such dosimeters under laboratory and field conditions, involving 56 dosimeter sets from eleven countries, reasonably accurate results can be obtained with several TLD systems including LiF, CaSO 4 :Dy, and CaF 2 :Mn; however CaF 2 :Dy is less reliable than the others and film is not adequate at all. Transit doses were found to be erratic and frequently high. Limitations in the assessment of population doses from stationary detector readings are discussed. (auth)

  17. Radiation entropy influx as a measure of planetary dissipative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Dissipative processes including high flows of matter and energy occur at the planets. Radiation negentropy influx, resulting from difference of entropy fluxes of incoming solar and outgoing thermal radiation of the planet, is a measure of all these processes. Large share of radiation negentropy influx is spent in the vertical thermal fluxes which keep the planet temperature conditions. Next share of radiation negentropy consumption at the Earth is water evaporation. It's rest part is used for the dynamics, which is explained by the efficiency insignificant amount of heat engine, which generates movements in the atmosphere and ocean. Essentially higher share of radiation negentropy influx, than at the Earth, is spent at the Venus, where there are practically no water

  18. Development of Software for Measurement and Analysis of Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Abul Adli Anuar; Noor Ezati Shuib

    2015-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet spectrometers system with USB communication to computer. LabVIEW have capabilities in hardware interfacing, graphical user interfacing and mathematical calculation including array manipulation and processing. This software read data from StellarNet spectrometer in real-time and then processed for analysis. Several measurement of solar radiation and analysis have been done. Solar radiation involved mainly infra-red, visible light and ultra-violet. With solar radiation spectrum data, information of weather and suitability of plant can be gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, optimization of utilization and safety precaution of solar radiation can be planned. Using this software, more research and development in utilization and safety of solar radiation can be explored. (author)

  19. Implementation of organizational measures in radiation protection in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freerk Boersma, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Regulation Administrative and Organizational Measures in Radiation Protection is an important part of new legislation concerning radiation protection in the Netherlands. In this contribution we pay attention to the implementation of two obligations resulting from this regulation, being the creation of a radiation protection organization, and the realization of a system of internal permits. These obligations apply to holders of comprehensive licenses. Relevant aspects of the regulation will be explained in some detail. The first draft of a guideline, initiated by the Dutch Radiation Protection Society and meant to facilitate putting up a system for internal permits, is discussed. We also describe the radiation protection organization and the system of internal permits at Groningen University, and focus on the major successes and flaws of both. (Author) 7 refs

  20. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  1. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  2. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  3. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  4. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  5. Reaching the Quantum Cramér-Rao Bound for Transmission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Timothy; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Marino, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The quantum Cramér-Rao bound (QCRB) is commonly used to quantify the lower bound for the uncertainty in the estimation of a given parameter. Here, we calculate the QCRB for transmission measurements of an optical system probed by a beam of light. Estimating the transmission of an optical element is important as it is required for the calibration of optimal states for interferometers, characterization of high efficiency photodetectors, or as part of other measurements, such as those in plasmonic sensors or in ellipsometry. We use a beam splitter model for the losses introduced by the optical system to calculate the QCRB for different input states. We compare the bound for a coherent state, a two-mode squeezed-state (TMSS), a single-mode squeezed-state (SMSS), and a Fock state and show that it is possible to obtain an ultimate lower bound, regardless of the state used to probe the system. We prove that the Fock state gives the lowest possible uncertainty in estimating the transmission for any state and demonstrate that the TMSS and SMSS approach this ultimate bound for large levels of squeezing. Finally, we show that a simple measurement strategy for the TMSS, namely an intensity difference measurement, is able to saturate the QCRB. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Monitoring catalyst flow rate in a FCC cold pilot unity by gamma ray transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio F.P.; Netto, Wilson F.S.; Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Junior, Isacc A.S.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Melo, Silvio B.; Lima, Emerson A.O.

    2013-01-01

    A model for monitoring catalyst mass flow in riser of Fluid Catalytic Cracking - FCC, pilot unity as a function of air flow and solid injection is proposed. The fluidized FCC- catalyst bed system is investigated in an experimental setup the Cold Pilot Unity - CPU by means of gamma ray transmission measurements. Riser in CPU simulates the reactor in FCC process. By automation control air flow is instrumentally measured in riser and the solid injection is manually controlled by valve adjusting. Keeping a constant solid injection, catalyst level at the return column was measured by gamma transmission for several air flow values in riser. The operational condition reached a steady state regime before given to setup a new air flow value. A calibration of catalyst level as a function of air flow in riser is calculated, therefore, a model for solid feed rate is derived. Recent published work evaluates solid concentration in riser of the CPU by means of gamma ray transmission, and a correlation with air velocity is obtained. In this work, the model for solid feed rate was further investigated by carrying out experiments to measure catalyst concentration at the same air flow values. These experiments lead to a model for monitoring catalyst flow in riser as function of solid feed rate and air flow. Simulation with random numbers produced with Matlab software allows to define validation criteria for the model parameters. (author)

  7. Soft x-ray continuum radiation transmitted through metallic filters: An analytical approach to fast electron temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Bitter, M.; Tritz, K.; Kramer, T.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of analytic formulas describes the transmission of soft x-ray continuum radiation through a metallic foil for its application to fast electron temperature measurements in fusion plasmas. This novel approach shows good agreement with numerical calculations over a wide range of plasma temperatures in contrast with the solutions obtained when using a transmission approximated by a single-Heaviside function [S. von Goeler et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 599 (1999)]. The new analytic formulas can improve the interpretation of the experimental results and thus contribute in obtaining fast temperature measurements in between intermittent Thomson scattering data.

  8. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  9. Long-distance transmission of light in a scintillator-based radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.; Talbott, Dale V.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2017-07-11

    Scintillator-based radiation detectors capable of transmitting light indicating the presence of radiation for long distances are disclosed herein. A radiation detector can include a scintillator layer and a light-guide layer. The scintillator layer is configured to produce light upon receiving incident radiation. The light-guide layer is configured to receive light produced by the scintillator layer and either propagate the received light through the radiation detector or absorb the received light and emit light, through fluorescence, that is propagated through the radiation detector. A radiation detector can also include an outer layer partially surrounding the scintillator layer and light-guide layer. The index of refraction of the light-guide layer can be greater than the index of refraction of adjacent layers.

  10. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  12. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and 60 Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  13. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  14. Recent developments and trends in radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring instruments used in radiation protection have undergone dramatic changes over the past decade. But also the attitude of users vis-a-vis this equipment is changing. This is reflected in changes in equipment concepts, the trend being towards 'considerate equipment' which does not absorb the user's attention, but reserves it for the real proposes of radiation protection. Just measuring is no longer enough. Measured data acquisition and evaluation must be integrated more closely, and more specifically, into an overall process of optimized in-plant radiation protection. A key role in this scheme is played by the application-oriented user interface, while measurement and testing routines become more and more automated. The technology now available for storing programs and data, interconnecting and displaying them in many ways, offers almost unlimited possibilities

  15. Measurement of the porosity of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottker, Walmir Eno; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a 241 Am source (59,53 keV ), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)

  16. Radiation protection measures in case of 125I incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    Thyroid measurements were performed on members of the scientific staff in the whole body counter of the Giessen Radiation Center with an aluminium encapsulated 3'' x 3'' dia. NaI(T1) detector; the personnel under investigation comprised those persons who either handled major quantities of 125 I or worked in the controlled area. The measuring setup, phantom calibration and the limits of measurement that can be attained are discussed. In a few cases of incorporation the effective halflife was determined. The radiation exposure was calculated by the absorbed fractions concept. A hazard is encountered almost exclusively in the iodization of the test substances. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Radiation protection measures for the handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-03-01

    The radiation protective medical measures are described which are required after contamination by radioactive materials or their incorporation. In the case of skin contamination, penetration by diffusion is explained and the maximum permissible value with regard to the various types of radiation is given. A detailed description of the decontamination measures including the necessary equipment follows. Indications for the treatment of injuries are given. In addition, incorporation due to inhalation, ingestion with intake through the skin are described, direct and indirect incorporation detection are explained, and the therapeutical possibilities and measures are gone into. (ORU/LH) [de

  18. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Radiation (UV-IR) measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Scaling law is presented that the ratio P sub(R)/P sub(I) (P sub(R): radiation loss, P sub(I): input power) is proportional to the parameter a sup(3/2)/R (a: minor radius, R: major radius). The discussion is presented about the design of the apparatus for measuring the radiation (ultraviolet to infrared) from the TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma.

  20. Effectiveness estimation of camouflage measures with solar radiation and longwave radiation considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.S. [LG Electronics Corporation (Korea); Kauh, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Yoo, H.S. [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    Camouflage measures in military purpose utilizes the apparent temperature difference between the target and background, so it is essential to develop thermal analysis program for apparent temperature predictions and to apply some camouflage measures to real military targets for camouflage purpose. In this study, a thermal analysis program including conduction, convection and radiation is developed and the validity of radiation heat transfer terms is examined. The results show that longwave radiation along with solar radiation should be included in order to predict apparent temperature as well as physical temperature exactly. Longwave emissivity variation as an effective camouflage measures is applied to a real M2 tank. From the simulation results, it is found that an effective surface treatment, such as painting of a less emissive material or camouflage, clothing, may provide a temperature similarity or a spatial similarity, resulting in an effective camouflage. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  2. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  3. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FCC Procedure for Testing Class A, B and S Emergency... 243 MHz. Step (9) Compute the peak effective radiated power for the maximum level of each measured emission using the following formula: EC03JN91.001 where: dBmmeas is the measured receiver reading in dBm...

  4. Beam transmission in MP equipment. New measurements. Main effects and application to VIVITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.; Muller, C.; Nadji, A.; Rebmeister, R.

    1989-01-01

    The MP equipment is presented and the vacuum values at different measuring points are indicated. The low energy transmission stage (foil and gas strippers) high energy stage (5, 10, and 15 micro-g/cm 2 foils and gas stripper) are described, as well as the global system. For the Vivitron, in order to reach equilibrium thickness, pression in the stripping channel should be higher than that in the MP channel, and pump power should be planned accordingly [fr

  5. Porosity measurement of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose; Andreo Filho, Newton; Vinicius Chaud, Marco; Angiolucci, Tatiana; Aranha, Norberto; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is the determination of porosity in tablets by using the gamma-ray transmission technique. Tablet dissolution depends on some inherent characteristics of the manufacturing process, such as compression force, tablet volume, density and porosity, nature of excipients, preparation methods and its physical-chemical properties. Porosity is a measure of empty spaces in a material and can be determined by various techniques. In this paper, we propose the use of a gamma-ray transmission technique to obtain the porosity of experimental formulation of tablets. The results of porosity were compared with those obtained by using conventional methodology (density and mercury intrusion). The experimental setup for gamma-ray transmission consists of a gamma-ray source of 241 Am (photons of 59.6 keV and an activity of 3.7x10 9 Bq), an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators and a standard gamma-ray spectrometry electronics. Our results suggest that the gamma-ray transmission technique is a powerful tool for non-destructive porosity quantification of solid pharmaceutical forms and presents smaller errors than those obtained with conventional methodologies.

  6. The problem of the detection threshold in radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.; Wueneke, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In all cases encountered in practical radiation measurement, the basic problem is to differentiate between the lowest measured value and the zero value (background, natural background radiation, etc.). For this purpose, on the mathematical side, tests based on hypotheses are to be applied. These will show the probability of differentiation between two values having the same random spread. By means of these tests and the corresponding error theory, a uniform treatment of the subject, applicable to all problems relating to measuring technique alike, can be found. Two basic concepts are found in this process, which have to be defined in terms of semantics and nomenclature: Decision threshold and detection threshold, or 'minimum detectable mean value'. At the decision threshold, one has to decide (with a given statistical error probability) whether a measured value is to be attributed to the background radiation, accepting the zero hypothesis, or whether this value differs significantly from the background radiation (error of 1rst kind). The minimum detectable mean value is the value which, with a given decision threshold, can be determined with sufficient significance to be a measured value and thus cannot be mistaken as background radiation (alternative hypothesis, error of 2nd kind). Normally, the two error types are of equal importance. It may happen, however, that one type of error gains more importance, depending on the approach. (orig.) [de

  7. An Experiment in Radiation Measurement Using the Depron Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghin, Victor V.; Nechaev, Oleg Y.; Zolotarev, Ivan A.; Amelyushkin, Alexander M.; Petrov, Vasiliy L.; Panasyuk, Milhail I.; Yashin, Ivan V.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the radiation measurements have been made onboard spacecraft flying along orbits with an inclination of up to 51.6 degrees. Due to the prospect of manned missions at orbits with larger inclinations, it is advisable to conduct preliminary detailed dosimetry measurements at a high-inclination orbit; due to its polar orbit, the Lomonosov satellite provides good opportunities for such study. We chose a method of cosmic radiation dosimetry based on semiconductor detectors. This method is widely used onboard spacecraft, including full-time radiation monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It should be noted that not only did the charged particles contribute significantly in the dose equivalent, but also did the neutrons. Semiconductor detectors have low sensitivity to neutron radiation and are not sufficient for detecting the expected flux of neutrons. We add a thermal neutron counter to the proposed device in order to provide an opportunity for estimation of neutron flux variations along the satellite trajectory. Thus, the design of the instrument DEPRON (Dosimeter of Electrons, PROtons and Neutrons) was determined. DEPRON is intended for registration of the absorbed doses and linear energy transfer spectra for high-energy electrons, protons and nuclei of space radiation, as well as registration of thermal neutrons. The present paper provides a brief description of the DEPRON instrument. Its calibration results and the first mission results of background radiation measurements are also presented.

  8. Development of a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an open-path optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, S.; Manap, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes about a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an optical method. VLT rate plays an important role in order to determine the visibility of a medium. Current instrument to measure visibility has a gigantic set up, costly and mostly fails to function at low light condition environment. This research focuses on the development of a VLT measurement system using a simple experimental set-up and at a low cost. An open path optical technique is used to measure a few series of known-VLT thin film that act as sample of different visibilities. This measurement system is able to measure the light intensity of these thin films within the visible light region (535-540 nm) and the response time is less than 1s.

  9. Measurement and control systems using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive Assay is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: interface of input/output (I/O) (hardware) and graphical interface (software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (set point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: to reject or to accept the analyzed material. The I/O interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical interface (software) is written in visual C++ language. (author)

  10. [Relevance of safety measures to avoid HTLV transmission by transfusion in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, S; Pillonel, J

    2014-11-01

    In high-income countries, the safety of blood transfusion related to viruses has reached a very high level, especially thanks to the implementation of multiple measures aimed at reducing the transfusion risk. The cost-effectiveness of these preventive measures is frequently discussed due to global financial resources, which are more and more limited. Hence, the revision of safety strategies is a key issue, especially when these strategies are redundant, as those implemented to avoid Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) transmission, which are based on both antibodies screening and leucoreduction of blood products. The residual risk of the transmission of HTLV by transfusion has been recently estimated at 1 in 20 million donations (2010-2012) in France (excluding overseas territories). This estimation did not take into account the leucoreduction, which appears to be a very efficient preventive measure as the virus is strictly intra-cellular. To help decision-making, we have evaluated some parameters related to HTLV blood transmission. Firstly, the probability that an incident occurring during the leucoreduction process affects a HTLV-positive blood donation has been estimated at 1 in 178 million. Estimation of clinical consequences of HTLV-positive transfusions would affect 1 to 2 transfused-patients without leucoreduction, and one recipient every 192 years in case of 10% failures of the filtration method. Obviously, despite a risk, which appears to be controlled, HTLV screening will be disputed as soon as the efficiency of leucoreduction to totally prevent virus blood transmission will be proven and when pathogen inactivation methods are generalized to all blood cellular products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural characterization of annatto seeds (Bixa orellana) by transmission and scanning electron microscopy submitted to gamma radiation for dormancy break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Arthur, Valter; Rossi, Monica L.; Rodriguez, Adriana P.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mnharder@cena.usp.br; nogueira@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; mnicalr@cena.usp.br; riana@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The annatto (Bixa orellana) is the only species of the Bixaceae family. From the seeds an important food colorant is obtained, bixin, for the industry and domestic use. More recently studies have focused more extensively in medicinal purpose of the species. Due to structural and physiologic characteristics, the seeds have low germination rate, around 30 %. The irradiation of seeds with gamma radiation can promote the increase and/or acceleration of germination, better plant development and productivity, among other aspects. The radiation doses used for this purpose should not cause genetic modifications in the organism, hence experimentation is needed to define the appropriate doses. Absence of research done annatto related to the use of the irradiation aiming at the increase of germination rates lead to the structural characterization of the annatto seeds submitted to gamma radiation through transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The objective of this study was to verify the effect of radiation on the seeds structures during the process of dormancy break. Dry seeds and seeds immersed in distilled water for 24 hours were submitted to gamma radiation from source of Co{sup 60} type Gammacell-220 at CENA/USP, at doses 100 Gy. After irradiation the seeds were processed for TEM and SEM. Preliminary results, showed structural modifications in the seeds. (author)

  12. Development of a mobile robot for remote radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ushnish; Saini, Surendra Singh; Swaroop, Tumapala Teja; Sreejith, P.; Kumar, Ravinder; Ray, Debasish Datta

    2016-01-01

    Remote measurement of radiation using mobile robots is recommended in nuclear installations. For this purpose various robots have been developed that carry a radiation sensor. However since the robot has to go very near to the source of radiation, the life of the robot's components is compromised due to high level of absorbed dose. It was earlier managed to increase the life expectancy of remote radiation measurement robots by allowing the sensor to be placed on an extendable telescopic assembly; analogous to a health physicist taking measurements using a Teletector. The first prototype developed had stair climbing capabilities but it was found to be over dimensioned for various potential applications. A significant use of such robots is in taking measurements at nuclear reprocessing facilities having narrow cluttered pathways. This required development of a new version of the robot capable of negotiating the narrow pathways of such facilities. This paper describes the different aspects of the development of the mobile robot system with flexible radiation sensing capabilities

  13. Highlights in radiation measuring technique's - Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandler, M.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 offers an ''intelligent stand alone'' electronics for the radiation measuring technique's. First it is designed of being connected to a serial interface RS232 of a PC. With a RS485 serial interface on a PC, a network structure can be generated. It has all functional modules which are necessary for the measurement of detector signals. Hence it is possible to directly connect any detector for radiation measurement to a PC, laptop, or notebook. All variations can be operated without PC support too. It has a modular structure and consists of two blocks, the functional modules and the basic modules. The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 may be directly coupled to a detector, which therefore makes the realisation of an ''intelligent radiation detector'' with serial link RS232 or RS485. (orig.)

  14. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  15. Measurement of microwave radiation from electron beam in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, I.S.; Akimune, H. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inome, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Matthews, J.N. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 4112-0830 (United States); Ogio, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, H. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sako, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tokonatu@konan-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-02-21

    We report the use of an electron light source (ELS) located at the Telescope Array Observatory in Utah, USA, to measure the isotropic microwave radiation from air showers. To simulate extensive air showers, the ELS emits an electron beam into the atmosphere and a parabola antenna system for the satellite communication is used to measure the microwave radiation from the electron beam. Based on this measurement, an upper limit on the intensity of a 12.5 GHz microwave radiation at 0.5 m from a 10{sup 18} eV air shower was estimated to be 3.96×10{sup −16} W m{sup −2} Hz{sup −1} with a 95% confidence level.

  16. Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft X-ray photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, D.; Feder, R.; Spiller, E.; Kirz, J.; Kim, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    The minimum radiation dosage in a specimen consistent with transmission microscopy at resolution d and specimen thickness t is calculated for model specimens resembling biological materials in their natural state. The calculations cover 10 4 -10 7 eV electrons and 1.3-90 A photons in a number of microscopy modes. The results indicate that over a considerable part of the (t,d)-plane transmission microscopy on such specimens can be carried out at lower dosage with photons than with electrons. Estimates of the maximum resolutions obtainable with electrons and photons, consistent with structural survival of the specimen, are obtained, as are data on optimal operating conditions for microscopy with the two particles

  17. Fire and earthquake counter measures in radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    'Fire countermeasures in radiation handling facilities' published in 1961 is still widely utilized as a valuable guideline for those handling radiation through the revision in 1972. However, science and technology rapidly advanced, and the relevant laws were revised after the publication, and many points which do not conform to the present state have become to be found. Therefore, it was decided to rewrite this book, and the new book has been completed. The title was changed to 'Fire and earthquake countermeasures in radiation handling facilities', and the countermeasures to earthquakes were added. Moreover, consideration was given so that the book is sufficiently useful also for those concerned with fire fighting, not only for those handling radiation. In this book, the way of thinking about the countermeasures against fires and earthquakes, the countermeasures in normal state and when a fire or an earthquake occurred, the countermeasures when the warning declaration has been announced, and the data on fires, earthquakes, the risk of radioisotopes, fire fighting equipment, the earthquake counter measures for equipment, protectors and radiation measuring instruments, first aid, the example of emergency system in radiation handling facilities, the activities of fire fighters, the example of accidents and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  19. Direct measurement of the quantum state of the electromagnetic field in a superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F. de; Aolita, L.; Davidovich, L.; Toscano, F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an experimental procedure to directly measure the state of an electromagnetic field inside a resonator, corresponding to a superconducting transmission line, coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB). The measurement protocol is based on the use of a dispersive interaction between the field and the CPB, and the coupling to an external classical field that is tuned to resonance with either the field or the CPB. We present a numerical simulation that demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, which is within reach of present technology

  20. Electron Source Brightness and Illumination Semi-Angle Distribution Measurement in a Transmission Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börrnert, Felix; Renner, Julian; Kaiser, Ute

    2018-05-21

    The electron source brightness is an important parameter in an electron microscope. Reliable and easy brightness measurement routes are not easily found. A determination method for the illumination semi-angle distribution in transmission electron microscopy is even less well documented. Herein, we report a simple measurement route for both entities and demonstrate it on a state-of-the-art instrument. The reduced axial brightness of the FEI X-FEG with a monochromator was determined to be larger than 108 A/(m2 sr V).

  1. Preliminary research on measuring grease in petroleum pipeline using fast neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingwei; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping; Ding Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    The principle, experiment and conclusion on the grease stain measurement using fast neutron are reported. The experiment equipment consist of 241 Am-Be fast neutron source, ZnS detector and BH1224 multichannel spectrometer. Paraffin is used instead of real grease stain. Steel plates are used instead of pipeline. The results of the experiment indicate that there is a good linearship between the logarithm of the reciprocal of the neutron transmissivity and the paraffin thickness. The measuring accuracy of the paraffin thickness is 0.6 mm in this experiment. (authors)

  2. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...... of the dosimetric parameters of an irradiation facility. 5. 5. Measurement of absorbed dose distribution in irradiated products. The paper describes these services and the procedures necessary for their execution....

  3. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...... pattern is reduced. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the mean effective gain is investigated, and a method is proposed for reducing the required number of measurements on different frequencies....

  4. Environmental radiation measurements using TLD in and around AERE, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Husain, S.R.; Rahman, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The external background radiation level in and around the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) in Dhaka has been measured. The measurements were performed using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) at 32 locations, all one metre above the ground. The annual average dose rate measured in the AERE environs was 1.74+-0.23 mGy.y -1 in air, based on analysis of thermoluminescence dosemeter data collected from 1982 to 1984. (author)

  5. Measurement of global solar radiation over Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Ak Abd Malik Abd Raub Pg Ghani

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface were carried out for a period of 11 months starting from June 2001 to April 2002. The pyrano meter (Kipp and Zonen) was placed at the top of the library building of University of Brunei Darussalam, which affords optimum exposure to the instrument sensor without appreciable obstacle for incoming global radiation. The maximum and minimum monthly-averaged global irradiations of 553 W/m 2 and 433 W/m 2 were recorded for the months of March and October respectively. The variation of global solar radiation can be divided into two distinct groups - the low radiation values being associated with cloud and turbidity while the high values are associated with less turbid and cloudy periods

  6. Spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, P.K.; Bhatnagar, V.M.; Raghunath, V.M.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through multi-legged rectangular concrete ducts for cesium-137 and cobald-60 sources. Effect of lead lining the inner surface of the duct on the streaming radiation spectrum and optimization of liner thickness for minimum streaming radiation dose have been studied. For three-legged ducts, a comparative analysis of lead lining the entire duct as against lining any one or both the corners of the duct is reported. It is seen that lead lining any one of the corners would reduce the streaming radiation dose by a factor of 5 to 12. Lining both the corners which is nearly as effective as lining the entire duct reduces the dose by a factor of 16 to 60 depending on the soruce energy and duct dimensions. (orig.)

  7. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  8. Methods for measuring of fuel can deformation under radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenchuk, A.V.; Fetisov, B.V.; Lakin, Yu.G.; Tonkov, V.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for measuring fuel can deformation under radiation conditions by means of the acoustic method and tensoresistors is considered. The construction and operation of the in-pile facility for measuring creep of the fuel can specimen loaded by the internal pressure is described. The data on neutron radiation effect on changes in creep rate for zirconium fuel can are presented. The results obtained with tensoresistors are in a good agreement with those obtained by the acoustic method, which enables to recommend the use of both methods for the irradiation creep investigation of the fuel element cans

  9. An intercomparison of detectors for measurement of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1981-04-01

    Measurements of the background radiation were made in 1978 at 14 locations with a high-pressure ionization chamber, thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD's), two NaI(Tl) detectors, and a Ge(Li) spectrometer system. Simultaneous measurements with the ionization chamber and the spectrometer system provide reliable estimates of the total background exposure rate, of the individual contributors to the terrestrial exposure rate, and of the exposure rate from the secondary cosmic radiation. The TLD results agree with those of the ionization chamber. The NaI(Tl) detector results show that accurate estimates of the terrestrial exposure rate can be obtained if empirical corrections are applied. (author)

  10. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  11. Measurement and resonance analysis of neutron transmissions through four samples of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.; Ingle, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate total and partial cross sections for 238 U are important for nuclear reactor design. In the resolved resonance region, energies below 4.0 keV, these cross sections are described in terms of individual resonance parameters of which the neutron widths in the 1.5 to 4.0 keV region from various workers appear discrepant. In order to determine these widths, (0.880 to 100.0 keV) neutron transmissions through 0.076, 0.254, 1.080, and 3.620 cm thick enriched 238 U samples were measured, and (0.880 to 100.0 keV) range transmissions were analyzed

  12. Neutron widths for 236U from high resolution transmission measurements at a 100M flightpath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, G.; Brusegan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A series of neutron transmission measurements has been performed on 236 U aiming at a determination of the resonance parameters and their statistical properties. The analysis range covered neutron energies from 40eV to 4.1 keV. The experiments were carried out at about 100 m flightpath of the 80 MeV electron linear accelerator of CBNM using a 10 B slab-NaI detector and 2 236 U-oxyde samples on loan from the USAEC. A table displays the details of 6 experimental runs, 3 of which were arranged in such a way that the effect of the 235 U and 238 U impurities in the sample on the transmission was automatically compensated

  13. A unique experiment. Measurement of radiation doses at Vinca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    For the first time in the history of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, an experiment was conducted to determine the exact levels of radiation exposure resulting from a reactor incident. The experiment was made at Vinca, Yugoslavia, wherein October 1958 six persons had been subjected to high doses of neutron and gamma radiation during a brief uncontrolled run of a zero-power reactor. One of them died but the other five were successfully treated at the Curie Hospital in Paris. In the case of four of them, the treatment involved the grafting of healthy bone marrow to counteract the effects of radiation on blood-forming tissues. It was recognized that if the effects produced on the irradiated persons could be related to the exact doses of radiation they had received, it would be possible to gain immensely valuable knowledge about the biological consequences of acute and high level radiation exposure on a quantitative basis. It was suggested to the Yugoslav authorities that a dosimetry experiment be conducted at Vinca. The most accurate modern techniques of dosimetry developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were employed during the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the neutron and gamma doses were made at points where the people had been located. At these points the effects of the radiation on the salt solution in the phantoms were studied. In particular, the energy distribution of the radiation was investigated.It was the ratio between the various components of the radiation that was of special interest in these measurements because this ratio itself would help in determining the exact doses. The dose of one of the components, viz. slow neutrons, had already been determined during the treatment of the patients. If the ratio of the components could be ascertained, the doses of the fast neutrons and gamma rays could also be established because the ratio would not be affected by the power level at which the reactor was operated

  14. Non-destructive Determination of Disintegration Time and Dissolution in Immediate Release Tablets by Terahertz Transmission Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Sauerwein, Johanna; Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of terahertz (THz) transmission measurements to accurately measure and predict the critical quality attributes of disintegration time and the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) dissolved after 15, 20 and 25 min for commercial tablets processed at production scale. Samples of 18 batches of biconvex tablets from a production-scale design of experiments study into exploring the design space of a commercial tablet manufacturing process were used. The tablet production involved the process steps of high-shear wet granulation, fluid-bed drying and subsequent compaction. The 18 batches were produced using a 4 factor split plot design to study the effects of process changes on the disintegration time. Non-destructive and contactless terahertz transmission measurements of the whole tablets without prior sample preparation were performed to measure the effective refractive index and absorption coefficient of 6 tablets per batch. The disintegration time (R 2  = 0.86) and API dissolved after 15 min (R 2  = 0.96) linearly correlates with the effective refractive index, n eff , measured at terahertz frequencies. In contrast, no such correlation could be established from conventional hardness measurements. The magnitude of n eff represents the optical density of the sample and thus it reflects both changes in tablet porosity as well as granule density. For the absorption coefficient, α eff , we observed a better correlation with dissolution after 20 min (R 2  = 0.96) and a weaker correlation with disintegration (R 2  = 0.83) compared to n eff . The measurements of n eff and α eff provide promising predictors for the disintegration and dissolution time of tablets. The high penetration power of terahertz radiation makes it possible to sample a significant volume proportion of a tablet without any prior sample preparation. Together with the short measurement time (seconds), the potential to

  15. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) performance as well as dose and image quality is directly affected by the x-ray spectrum. However, the current assessment approaches of the CT x-ray spectrum require costly measurement equipment and complicated operational procedures, and are often limited to the spectrum corresponding to the center of rotation. In order to address these limitations, the authors propose an angle-dependent estimation technique, where the incident spectra across a wide range of angular trajectories can be estimated accurately with only a single phantom and a single axial scan in the absence of the knowledge of the bowtie filter. Methods: The proposed technique uses a uniform cylindrical phantom, made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and positioned in an off-centered geometry. The projection data acquired with an axial scan have a twofold purpose. First, they serve as a reflection of the transmission measurements across different angular trajectories. Second, they are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the phantom, which is then utilized to compute the intersection length of each transmission measurement. With each CT detector element recording a range of transmission measurements for a single angular trajectory, the spectrum is estimated for that trajectory. A data conditioning procedure is used to combine information from hundreds of collected transmission measurements to accelerate the estimation speed, to reduce noise, and to improve estimation stability. The proposed spectral estimation technique was validated experimentally using a clinical scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with spectra provided by the manufacturer serving as the comparison standard. Results obtained with the proposed technique were compared against those obtained from a second conventional transmission measurement technique with two materials (i.e., Cu and Al). After validation, the proposed technique was applied to measure

  16. Studying and measuring the gamma radiation doses in Homs city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofaan, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The gamma radiation dose was measured in Homs city by using many portable dosimeters (electronic dosimeter and Geiger-Muller). The measurements were carried out in the indoor and outdoor buildings, for different time period, through one year (1999-2000). High purity germanium detector with low back ground radiation (HpGe) was used to determine radiation element contained in some building and the surrounding soil. The statistical analysis laws were applied to make sure that the measured dose distribution around average value is normal distribution. The measurement indicates that the gamma indoor dose varies from 312μSv/y to 511μSv/y, with the average annual dose of 385μSv/y. However the gamma outdoor dose rate varies from 307μSv/y to 366μSv/y with an average annual dose 385μSv/y. The annual outdoor gamma radiation dose is about %16 lower than the outdoor dose in Homs City. These measurements have indicated that environmental gamma doses in Homs City are relatively low. This is because that most of the soils and rocks in the area are limestone. (author)

  17. Ultraviolet light and infrared radiation. Measurement and hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Salsi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet, light and infrared radiation exists in many work places and can be dangerous in many ways, especially for the eyes. The INRS has developed a method and an apparatus for measuring on site or in a laboratory the spectral energy distribution of such radiation and the luminance of the source. With current knowledge of the effects of radiation on the eyes and by comparing readings taken and recommended limit values, it is possible to determine the risk levels at work places in the different wave ranges. Two examples of readings taken at a pot furnace in a crystal glass factory and at an MAG welding station are given and the appropriate protective measures described [fr

  18. Design and testing of an innovative solar radiation measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Omar; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; El-Tous, Yousif; Abdala, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    After review of studies conducted on the solar radiation measuring systems, a new innovative instrument that would help in measuring the accurate solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been designed and tested. An advanced instrument with ease of use and high precision that would enable the user to take the readings in terms of solar intensity (W/m 2 ) has been tested. Also, the innovative instrument can record instantaneous readings of the solar intensities as well as the averages value of the solar radiation flux during certain periods of time. The instrument based in its design on being programmed by programmable interfacing controller (PIC). Furthermore, the power supply circuit is fed by the solar energy cells and does not need an external power source.

  19. Current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Ho; Kim, Wang Geum; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2009-12-01

    This book deals with current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument. The contents of this book are basic of technology on radiation measuring instrument with basic principle of various measuring instrument, current situation of technology and prospect of radiation measuring instrument, effect of spreading and application field of radiation measuring instrument, facility for making and research and development of radiation measuring instrument, prospect of market about radiation measuring instrument, strategy for market entry with the latest radiation measuring instrument and general prospect for the future.

  20. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttilä, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g (r ) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section d/σ d Ω from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. We describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  1. new model for solar radiation estimation from measured air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    RMSE) and correlation ... countries due to the unavailability of measured data in place [3-5]. ... models were used to predict solar radiation in Nigeria by. [12-15]. However ..... "Comparison of Gene Expression Programming with neuro-fuzzy and ...

  2. Non-ionizing radiation exposure: electric field strength measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the measured values are compared with the international standard recommended by ICNIRP then were also compared with previous study from several locations around Malaysia. The result shows an increase in the values of electromagnetic field radiation. The result of this study could be used for health ...

  3. Organisational measures and medical care after indicents involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, W.

    1980-01-01

    West Germany has emergency plans for all kinds of catastrophes, from conventional causes to nuclear accidents. Emergency provisions refer to organisational measures, technical equipment, and medical equipment for the treatment of radiation injuries. These provisions require constant training of responsible persons. Emergency plans and provisions in the Federal Republic of Germany have not been optimized yet. (DG) [de

  4. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imeh james

    Nuclear Technology Centre, Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission, ... An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld ... the people living and working within the area are safe and are not exposed to high doses of radiation as a result .... battery works, panel beating e.t.c..

  5. Listing of solar radiation measuring equipment and glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E. A.; Greenbaum, S. A.; Patel, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to list and provide all available information about solar radiation measuring equipment which are being manufactured and are available on the market. The list is in tabular form and includes sensor type, response time, cost data and comments for each model. A cost code is included which shows ranges only.

  6. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, J.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  8. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, G.; Burke, J.A.; Knox, H.D.; Drindak, N.J.; Mesh, D.W.; Haines, W.T.; Ballad, R.V.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Werner, C.J.; Trbovich, M.J.; Barry, D.P.; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is 149 Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a 235 U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D 2 O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in 149 Sm, present measurements agree within estimated uncertainties with En

  9. Density measurement using gamma radiation - theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    There are still widespread uncertainties about the use and safety of gamma radiation in industries. This paper describes, by the example of radiometric density measurement, the theory of gamma radiation. The differences and advantages of both types of detectors, the ionization chamber and the scintillation counter, are discussed. The degree of accuracy which can be expected from the radiometric density meter will be defined, and the inter-relationship: source strength - measuring range - measuring length(normally the pipe diameter) in relation to the measuring accuracy required will be explained in detail. The use of radioactive material requires the permission of the Atomic Energy Board. The formalities involved to receive a user's licence and the implementations of safety standards set by the local authorities are discussed in depth [af

  10. Transmission characteristic of graphene/TiO2 paper measured at Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusu, La; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Ahmad, La Ode; Herdianto, Fujii, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Yuya; Furuya, Takahashi; Ramadhan, La Ode Ahmad Nur

    2017-01-01

    The commercial telecommunication system in future would explore the electromagnetic spectrum with higher frequency than used now, because it requires higher speed of transmission data. Using the millimeter waves (mmW) with frequency ranging from 30 to 300 GHz, such requirement could be fulfilled. The upcoming 5G cellular technology is expected to use frequency 30 GHz or higher. Then materials with a specific characteristic at the mmW range are interesting to be explored and investigated. Here, we report the synthesis process of graphene/TiO2 deposited on paper and their transmission characteristics to the electromagnetic energy at frequency 27-40 GHz (Ka-Band). The reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized by a modified Hummers method with introduction of microwave irradiation in the process. rGO and TiO2 were mixed in ethanol solution and deposited on the paper by a spraying technique. Transmission coefficient of electromagnetic wave energy at Ka-Band was measured by using the millimeter vector network analyzer. Conductivity of rGO is 1.89 Scm-1 and for the graphene/TiO2 with TiO2 content is up to 50%, conductivity is down to Scm-1 Graphene/TiO2 layer with thickness of 60).lm and TiO2 loading up to 25% can has the transmission coefficient of -4 dB at the middle frequency of 31 GHz and bandwidth of 2.2 GHz. This can be useful as the electromagnetic interference shielding material at Ka-band.

  11. Observation of the m = 1 mode by microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Segui, J.L.; Pecquet, A.L.; Gil, C.

    1991-06-01

    Microwave transmission measurements in the Tore Supra tokamak exhibit low-frequency oscillations of the transmitted power, associated to the presence of a saturated m = 1, n = 1 mode, as observed by soft X-ray diagnostics. It is shown that these oscillations are related to refraction effects, and specifically to modulations of the electron density profile due to a rotating magnetic island. An analytical solution of the ray equations in the presence of a rotating density perturbation is found, explaining the frequency spectrum of the oscillations

  12. A universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1988-01-01

    Genitron Instruments, Frankfurt/Main, committed themselves to revise the 'conventional' concept of counting tube metrology. The goal was to develop a modular system that would allow large-area measuring tasks. The contribution in hand explains this development, which consists of a highly integrated measuring head that can be combined with various detector types, and complemented by various system components, to form a universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation. This modular design concept is capable of fulfilling a multitude of tasks, ranging from single, specific applications to non-stop monitoring tasks within a large-area measuring network. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Portable radiation instrumentation traceability of standards and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiserman, A.; Walke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Portable radiation measuring instruments are used to estimate and control doses for workers. Calibration of these instruments must be sufficiently accurate to ensure that administrative and legal dose limits are not likely to be exceeded due to measurement uncertainties. An instrument calibration and management program is established which permits measurements made with an instrument to be traced to a national standard. This paper describes the establishment and maintenance of calibration standards for gamma survey instruments and an instrument management program which achieves traceability of measurement for uniquely identified field instruments. (author)

  14. Remote control and data processing for measurement of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu; Luo Yisheng; Guo Yong; Ji Gang; Wang Xinggong; Zhang Hong; Zhang Wenzhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To protect the workers from the reactor radiation and to improve the accuracy and efficiency of neutron dose measurement. Methods: With the application of remote control technology, a remote control and automatic measurement system for radiation dose measurement(especially for neutron dose) was set up. A Model 6517A electrometer was operated all automatically over RS-232 serial interface using SCPI commands with a computer. Results: The workers could stay far from the reactor and be able to control the portable computer in site though internet or LAN and then to control the 6517A electrometer to implement the dose measurement. After the measurement, the data were transferred to the remote computer near the workers and shared by many experts at the first time through the net. Conclusion: This is the first time that the remote control technology is applied in radiation dose measurement, which has so far been considered can only be performed at a near place. This new system can meet the need of neutron radiobiology researches as well as of the safety and health of the workers. (author)

  15. Environmental radiation measurements using lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; McKinlay, A.F.; Richards, D.J. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is involved in a large scale environmental survey of radiation levels in homes throughout the United Kingdom. Passive radon and gamma ray dosemeters are posted to a representative sample of households. Lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters are used to assess natural gamma radiation and are left in the measurement location for a period of six months before being returned to the Board for processing. As a preliminary to the national survey, the Board has been engaged on several limited surveys in regions of igneous and sedimentary geology. Experience gained in these limited surveys and from standardisation studies using environmental dosemeters are reported.

  16. Measuring Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation from Varying Signal Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bette; Gaul, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the process of measuring radiofrequency and microwave radiation from various signal strengths. The topics include: 1) Limits and Guidelines; 2) Typical Variable Standard (IEEE) Frequency Dependent; 3) FCC Standard 47 CFR 1.1310; 4) Compliance Follows Unity Rule; 5) Multiple Sources Contribute; 6) Types of RF Signals; 7) Interfering Radiations; 8) Different Frequencies Different Powers; 9) Power Summing - Peak Power; 10) Contribution from Various Single Sources; 11) Total Power from Multiple Sources; 12) Are You Out of Compliance?; and 13) In Compliance.

  17. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  18. Development of Radiation-Resistant In-Water Wireless Transmission System Using Light Emitting Diodes and Photo Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Shibata, H.; Otsuka, N.; Uehara, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Shibagaki, T.; Komanome, H.

    2016-10-01

    Several kinds of commercially available light emitting diodes (LED) and photo diodes (PD) were irradiated with 60Co gamma ray up to 1 MGy for development of a radiation-resistant in-water wireless transmission system using visible light. The lens parts of the LEDs turned brown by the irradiation and their colors became dark with the absorbed dose. The total luminous fluxes decreased with the absorbed dose and the LED with shorter emission wavelength had the higher decrease rate. Meanwhile, the current-voltage characteristics hardly changed. These results indicate that the decreases of the total luminous flux of the LEDs were mainly caused not by the degradation of the semiconductor parts but by the coloring of the lens parts by the irradiation. On the other hand, the light sensitivities of the PDs decreased with the absorbed dose. The PDs with the window part which turned a darker color had the higher decrease rate. These results indicate that the decreases of light sensitivities of the PDs were also mainly caused by the coloring of the resin parts by the irradiation. If the wireless transmission is performed using the candidate LED and PD between 5 meters in water, using a few LEDs and PDs, the PD's output current generated by the emission light of the LED is estimated to be detectable even considering the effects of the absorption of the light in water and the increased dark current by the irradiation. Therefore, a radiation resistant in-water transmission system can be constructed using commercially available LEDs and PDs in principle.

  19. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  20. Measurement of TFTR D-T radiation shielding efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ascione G.; Elwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    High power D-T fusion reactor designs presently exhibit complex geometric and material density configurations. Simulations of the radiation shielding required for safe operation and full compliance with all regulatory requirements must include sufficient margin to accommodate uncertainties in material properties and distributions, uncertainties in the final configurations, and uncertainties in approximations employing the homogenization of complex geometries. Measurements of radiation shielding efficiency performed in a realistic D-T tokamak environment can provide empirical guidance for simulating safe, efficient, and cost effective shielding systems for future high power fusion reactors. In this work, the authors present the results of initial measurements of the TFTR radiation shielding efficiency during high power D-T operations with record neutron yields. The TFTR design objective is to limit the total dose-equivalent at the nearest PPPL property lines from all radiation pathways to 10 mrem per calendar year. Compliance with this design objective over a calendar year requires measurements in the presence of typical site backgrounds of about 80 mrem per year

  1. Calculation and interpretation of In-Situ measurements of initial radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    Cobalt activation calculations will be reviewed, and similar comparisons of sulfur activation interior to electrical insulators on power transmission lines will be discussed. The relationship between neutron tissue kermas one to two kilometers from hypocenter and the particular activations of cobalt and sulfur are reviewed. At present, measured and calculated quantities agree within associated uncertainties, which are substantial. Additional work to shrink these uncertainties will be discussed. Particular cobalt activation topics will include: the sensitivity to thermal neutrons outside the pillar; calculated values using actual Nagasaki concrete composition; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration. Particular sulfur activation topics will include: absolute comparisons of measured and calculated ratios of dpm/gm of 32 P at all measured ranges, based on approximate experimental values for insulator attentuation and source radiations; the relationship between sulfur activation within a kilometer of hypocenter and kermas at two kilometers; and calculational advances to improve modelling of the actual configuration

  2. The measurement of alpha, beta and gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Detection methods for nuclear radiations are based on the processes of excitation and ionization of atoms in the detection medium by the passage of a charged particle. Detectors are usually of two types, those which produce a charge pulse following ionization of the medium and those which produce a burst of light photons which are then detected by a photomultiplier tube. By processing the electronic signals produced in suitable ways either the count rate of the source, the activity, or the dose equivalent to a person may be determined. In order to make these determinations it is necessary to understand the type of nuclear transformation of the radionuclide in question, the type and energy of the radiation being emitted and the processes involved when these radiations pass through the medium of the detector. Suitable choice of detectors and extrapolation from measured data to the quantity which is to be determined can then be made

  3. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, H.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Osaka City Univ.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Tokyo Univ.; Mikuni, A.; Tokyo Univ., Tanashi

    1983-01-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy #betta#, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation THETA in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula lambdasub(n)=lambda 0 /2n#betta# 2 (1+K 2 /2+#betta# 2 THETA 2 ), and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed. (orig.)

  4. Measurements of diversity gain and radiation efficiency of the eleven antenna by using different measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jian; Pivnenko, Sergey; Laitinen, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measurement results of diversity gain and radiation efficiency by using three different measurement techniques: reverberation chamber, spherical near-field anechoic chamber, and multi-probe anechoic chamber. The results are measured over a large 2–8 GHz bandwidth which...

  5. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  6. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  7. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  8. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Assay of Pu-239 and Pu-240 by Neutron Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E

    1971-04-15

    A method for quantitative assay of 239Pu and 240Pu has been tested at the reactor R1 in Stockholm. The method makes use of a fast chopper to measure the neutron transmission through a sample around the main resonances of these two isotopes - at 0.296 eV in 239Pu and at 1.056 eV in 240Pu. The transmission data measured are then combined with the known resonance cross sections to give the content of the isotopes. The method is nondestructive, i.e., one can use fuel pins as samples, even highly irradiated ones. A time-of-flight spectrometer of moderate capacity, like our fast chopper, is sufficient as the resonances are located at low energy. Altogether five samples have been used in the tests of the method. The results have been compared with mass spectrometer values. This comparison came out quite well for 239Pu whereas the chopper results for 240Pu were more than 10 per cent higher than the mass spectrometer results. This large deviation might be due to errors in the resonance cross section for 240Pu used in the analysis of the transmission data from the chopper. The best possible accuracy for a 15-hour run with our equipment is +- 1 per cent for 239Pu and +- 2 per cent for 240Pu, obtained for thick samples - about 3 x 1020 atoms per cm2 for each isotope. The accuracy corresponds to 68 per cent confidence level and does not include any contribution from the uncertainty in the resonance cross section

  10. Measuring thyroid uptake with hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1987-04-01

    With the use of Iodine 123, 125 and 131 and some compounds of Technetium-99 m, a fraction of the isotopes can be trapped in the thyroid of the technicians. We used the hand-held radiation contamination or survey meters of the nine (9) Nuclear medicine departments we visited to see if they were adequate for the evaluation of thyroid uptake of the users. Measurements on a neck-phanton helped us to determine a minimum detectable activity for each isotope. We were then able to check if the measurements of investigations and action levels were possible. None of the hand-held radiation monitors are completely satisfactory for the measure of thyroid uptake of the user. We discuss a class of equipment capable of measuring radiation emissions at the investigation level. Measurement at the action level is possible with meters having scintillation or proportional probes but none of them permits the discrimination in energy required for a quantitative evaluation of the radioisotopes used

  11. Measures against radiation disaster/terrorism and radiation emergency medical assistance team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of radiological terrorism and disaster in Japan is not low. For this reason, preparations for coping with the occurrence of radiological terrorism should be an urgent issue. This paper describes the radiation medical system and the threat of radiological terrorism and disaster in Japan, and introduces the Radiation Emergency Medical Assistance Team (REMAT), one of the radiation accident/disaster response organizations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Radiation exposure medical systems in Japan are constructed only in the location of nuclear facilities and adjacent prefectures. These medical systems have been developed only for the purpose of medical correspondence at the time of nuclear disaster, but preparations are not made by assuming measures against radiological terrorism. REMAT of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences is obligated to dispatch persons to the requesting prefecture to support radiation medical care in case of nuclear disaster or radiation accident. The designation of nuclear disaster orientated hospitals in each region, and the training of nuclear disaster medical staffing team were also started, but preparations are not enough. In addition to enhancing and strengthening experts, specialized agencies, and special forces dealing with radiological terrorism, it is essential to improve regional disaster management capacity and terrorism handling capacity. (A.O.)

  12. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation at Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lindfors

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  13. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    To study the operating characteristics about PV cells, attention must be given to the dynamic behavior of the solar radiation. The dynamic behaviors of annual, monthly, daily and hourly averages of solar radiation have been studied in detail. But faster dynamic behaviors of solar radiation need more researches. The solar radiation random fluctuations in minute-long or second-long range, which lead to alternating radiation and cool down/warm up PV cell frequently, decrease conversion efficiency. Fast dynamic processes of solar radiation are mainly relevant to stochastic moving of clouds. Even in clear sky condition, the solar irradiations show a certain degree of fast variation. To evaluate operating characteristics of PV cells under fast dynamic irradiation, a solar radiation measuring array (SRMA) based on large active area photodiode, LoRa spread spectrum communication and nanoWatt MCU is proposed. This cross photodiodes structure tracks fast stochastic moving of clouds. To compensate response time of pyranometer and reduce system cost, the terminal nodes with low-cost fast-responded large active area photodiode are placed besides positions of tested PV cells. A central node, consists with pyranometer, large active area photodiode, wind detector and host computer, is placed in the center of the central topologies coordinate to scale temporal envelope of solar irradiation and get calibration information between pyranometer and large active area photodiodes. In our SRMA system, the terminal nodes are designed based on Microchip's nanoWatt XLP PIC16F1947. FDS-100 is adopted for large active area photodiode in terminal nodes and host computer. The output current and voltage of each PV cell are monitored by I/V measurement. AS62-T27/SX1278 LoRa communication modules are used for communicating between terminal nodes and host computer. Because the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specification provides seamless interoperability among Smart Things without the

  14. Effect of Radiation on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Silicon Modulator for HL-LHC data Transmission Applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Nasr-Storey, Sarah Seif; Baudot, Charles; Detraz, Stephane; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Olantera, Lauri; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Sigaud, Christophe; Soos, Csaba; Troska, Jan; Vasey, Francois; Vivien, Laurent; Zeiler, Marcel; Ziebell, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    High-speed Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulators were irradiated with neutrons and X-rays in two separate radiation tests. The devices were exposed to a total fluence of 1.2 x 10$^{15}$ neutrons/cm$^2$ and a total ionizing dose of 1.3 MGy; levels comparable to the worst radiation levels for a tracking detector after 10 years of operation at the High- Luminosity LHC. Our measurements indicate that the devices performance does not significantly degrade after exposure to nonionizing radiation and begins to be affected by ionizing radiation after a dose of a few hundred kGy; the phase-shift for an applied reverse bias of 1 V is 10% of its pre-irradiated value after 600 kGy of received ionizing dose.

  15. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Si Young; Seo, Kyeong Won; Yoon, Seok Cheol; Lee, Tae Yeong; Kim, Bong Hwan; Chung, Deok Yeon; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Kim, Jang Ryeol; Lee, Sang Yoon

    1994-07-01

    Reference radiation fields which can meet the national and international standard and criteria such as the ANSI N13.11 have been designed, produced and evaluated to maintain the national traceability and reliability of the radiation measurement and to provide precise calibration of the various radiation measuring instruments as well as standard irradiation of the personal dosimeters for the performance evaluation. Existing dose calculation algorithm has been improved to correctly evaluate the shallow dose from the β(Ti-204) + γ(Cs-137) mixed radiation exposure by applying the TLD response correction function newly derived in this study. A mathematical algorithm to calculate the internal dose from inhalation of the uranium isotopes has been developed on the basis of the ICRP-30 respiratory tract model. Detailed performance analysis of the KAERI lung counter has been carried out to participate in the intercomparison of lung dosimetry. A preliminary and basic study on the quantitative method of optimal dose reduction based on the ALARA concept has been performed to technically support and strengthen the national radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

  16. A new system for the measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation from space mainly consists of charged heavy particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact, the effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. Current measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both of the quantities simultaneously. A combined device for measurement of the mentioned values consists of an on-board thermoluminescence dosimeter reader and a three-axis silicon detector linear energy transfer spectrometer. This paper deals with the main characteristic of the new system. This system can be, applied for dosimetry of air crew as well. (authors)

  17. A new system for measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2001-01-01

    The space radiation mainly consists of heavy charged particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact its effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. The recently used measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both quantities simultaneously. The combined device for measurement of mentioned values consists of an on board thermoluminescent dosimeter reader and a three axis silicon telescope as a linear energy transfer spectrometer. The paper deals with the main characteristics of the new system. This system can be applied for dosimetry of air-crew as well. (authors)

  18. Health physics measurements of laser radiation: Experience and competence wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the parameters required for an analysis of hazards involved is a complex task in terms of measuring techniques and calibration, and a costly procedure at that. Although part of the evaluation work can be done with the support of computers, evaluation and interpretation of measured information requires the experience and competence of the human expert. It is to be hoped that the computer industry will soon have developed turn-key solutions of universal applicability for analytical tasks of this kind, so that in the near future determination of the source terms, especially for LED or IRED radiation, will be an easy task. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Radioactivity concentration measuring device for radiation waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can precisely and accurately measure a radioactive concentration of radioactive wastes irrespective of the radioactivity concentration distribution. Namely, a Ge detector having a collimator and a plurality of radiation detectors are placed at the outside of the radioactive waste containing vessel in such a way that it can rotate and move vertically relative to the vessel. The plurality of radiation detectors detect radiation coefficient signals at an assumed segment unit of a predetermined length in vertical direction and for every predetermined angle unit in the rotational direction. A weight measuring device determines the weight of the vessel. A computer calculates an average density of radioactivity for the region filled with radioactivity based on the determined net weight and radiation coefficient signals assuming that the volume of the radioactivity is constant. In addition, the computer calculates the amount of radioactivity in the assumed segment by conducting γ -ray absorption compensation calculation for the material in the vessel. Each of the amount of radioactivity is integrated to determine the amount of radioactivity in the vessel. (I.S.)

  20. Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    When biological specimens are irradiated by the electron beam in the electron microscope, the specimen structure is damaged as a result of molecular excitation, ionization, and subsequent chemical reactions. The radiation damage that occurs in the normal process of electron microscopy is known to present severe limitations for imaging high resolution detail in biological specimens. The question of radiation damage at low temperatures has therefore been investigated with the view in mind of reducing somewhat the rate at which damage occurs. The radiation damage protection found for small molecule (anhydrous) organic compounds is generally rather limited or even non-existent. However, large molecule, hydrated materials show as much as a 10-fold reduction at low temperature in the rate at which radiation damage occurs, relative to the damage rate at room temperature. In the case of hydrated specimens, therefore, low temperature electron microscopy offers an important advantage as part of the overall effort required in obtaining high resolution images of complex biological structures. (author)

  1. Transmissividade a radiação solar do polietileno de baixa densidade utilizado em estufas Solar radiation transmissivity through low density polyethylene used in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a transmissividade à radiação solar do polietileno de baixa densidade utilizado em estufas. O experimento foi conduzido em uma estufa tipo Capela com dimensões de 10m x 25m, coberta com polietileno transparente de baixa densidade, com espessura de 100µm e aditivado com anti-UV, instalada no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS - Brasil. A radiação solar global diária incidente no interior e exterior da estufa foi medida no período de julho de 1991 a janeiro de 1992 e também a fração difusa da radiação solar em dias com diferentes condições atmosféricas e de condensação no filme plástico durante o período de maio a julho de 1993. A transmissividade média da radiação solar global foi de 56,2% nas primeiras horas do dia e de 81,3% nas horas próximas ao meio-dia. A fração difusa da radiação solar global foi mais elevada no interior da estufa do que no exterior, evidenciando o efeito dispersante do plástico e da condensação do vapor d'água na superfície interna do filme.The transmissivity of the solar radiation by polyethylene cover used in plastic greenhouses was evaluated in the Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study was carried out inside a 10m x 25m greenhouse covered with low density transparent polyethylene with 100µm thickness, located at Federal University of Santa Maria. Incoming global solar radiation inside and outside was measured daily dunng July, 1991 to January, 1992. The effect of polyethylene cover on diffuse solar radiation was determined dunng 1993 year. The average transmissivity of global solar radiation was 56.2% early in the moming and 81.3% at near noonday. Diffuse solar radiation proportion was higher inside than outside the greenhouse and enhanced when water condenses on the inner surface of the film.

  2. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  3. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  4. "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Ivey, M.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.; Dexheimer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science, Aerosol Science and UAS's for The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs At The Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site designed to collect data and help determine the impact that clouds and aerosols have on solar radiation. AMF3 provides a scientific infrastructure to support instruments and collect arctic data for the international arctic research community. The infrastructure at AMF3/Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF3's present base line instruments include: scanning precipitation Radars, cloud Radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) Along with all the standard metrological measurements. In addition AMF3 provides aerosol measurements with a Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Ground support for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and tethered balloon flights. Data from these instruments and systems are placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments and systems are at the ARM Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska.

  5. Development of wireless communication system in real-time internal radiation dose measurement system using magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fumihiro; Shinohe, Kohta; Takura, Tetsuya; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Yamada, Syogo; Sato, Tadakuni

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy, excessive radiation occurs because the actual delivered dose to the tumor is unknown. To overcome this problem, we need a system in which the delivered dose is measured inside the body, and the dose data are transmitted from the inside to the outside of the body. In this study, a wireless communication system, using magnetic fields was studied, and an internal circuit for obtaining radiation dose data from an x-ray detector was examined. As a result, a communication distance of 200 mm was obtained. An internal circuit was developed, and a signal transmission experiment was performed using the wireless communication system. As a result, the radiation dose data from an x-ray detector was transmitted over a communication distance of 200 mm, and the delivered dose was determined from the received signal

  6. Measurements of a crenelated iron pole tip for the VLHC transmission line magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Di Marco, J; Kashikhin, V V; Makarov, A A; Schlabach, P; MacKay, W W

    1999-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) is under conceptual design in Fermilab. One option under development is a 2-Tesla warm iron 2-in-1 single turn superferric magnet built around an 80 kA superconducting transmission line. A normal-conducting test stand was built to optimize the iron lamination shape for this magnet. It uses a water- cooled copper winding to provide the 100 kA-turns needed to generate 2 Tesla fields in both 20 mm air gaps of the magnet. A magnetic measurement facility has been set up for magnetic field mapping, which includes a flat measurement coil, precision stage for coil motion and integrator. Results from a first test of the "crenelation" technique to mitigate the saturation sextupole in iron magnets are described and future plans are discussed. (5 refs).

  7. User's guide for ALEX: uncertainty propagation from raw data to final results for ORELA transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes a computer code (ALEX) developed to assist in AnaLysis of EXperimental data at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Reduction of data from raw numbers (counts per channel) to physically meaningful quantities (such as cross sections) is in itself a complicated procedure; propagation of experimental uncertainties through that reduction procedure has in the past been viewed as even more difficult - if not impossible. The purpose of the code ALEX is to correctly propagate all experimental uncertainties through the entire reduction procedure, yielding the complete covariance matrix for the reduced data, while requiring little additional input from the eperimentalist beyond that which is required for the data reduction itself. This report describes ALEX in detail, with special attention given to the case of transmission measurements (the code itself is applicable, with few changes, to any type of data). Application to the natural iron measurements of D.C. Larson et al. is described in some detail

  8. Measurements of millimeter wave radar transmission and backscatter during dusty infrared test 2, dirt 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, F. C.; Wentworth, E. W.

    1980-05-01

    Recently there has been much interest expressed to determine the ability of millimeter wave radar to perform target acquisition during degraded visibility conditions. In this regard, one of the primary issues of concern has been the potential of high-explosive artillery barrages to obscure the battlefield from millimeter wave radar systems. To address this issue 95 GHz millimeter wave radar measurements were conducted during the Dusty Infrared Test 2 (DIRT 2). This test was held at White Sands Missile Range, NM, 18-28 July 1979. Millimeter wave transmission and backscatter measurements were performed during singular live firings and static detonations of 155 mm and 105 mm high-explosive artillery rounds in addition to static detonations of C-4 explosives. A brief description of the millimeter wave portion of the test and instrumentation is given. The data along with some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  9. Measurement of borders in power transmission lines; Medicao de fronteira em linhas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Celso [Bandeirante Energia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The creation of Bandeirantes Energia S/A, which is a energy distributor company and at the same time one of the four originated companies from the division of ELETROPAULO Eletricidade S/A, generated the need of consumed energy measurements. Different from a previous situation, which had been accomplished in the 230, 345 and 440 Kv transformer stations. With the aggravating of having been created two distribution companies by this division, which later possessed transmission lines in common finishing a border scenery of 88/138 kv in connection with CTEEP, EPTE, Furnas in station terminals and ELETROPAULO Metropolitana in transmission lines. In order to measure the consumed energy it has been necessary to install meters in all energy entrance subsystems, but there were certain cases for which part of the energy had been absorbed by other distribution company, some times before the connection with Bandeirantes some times after this connection to have been done. For these cases, it has been necessary to install meters at de middle of the line, it means installed meters at the border between the two companies. In February of 1999, they were initiate the studies of viability for these measurements implantation in all of the interface points among Bandeirantes and the other concessionaires, based on the premise that from 01/01/2000 on all the consumed energy by the company should be measured. In the end of May of 1999, with the design final definitions the studies were finished, after that, it has been started the equipment purchases and the actions to hire companies to execute these activities. Finally, in the last week of August of 1999 the construction activities were initiated and the circuits were energized in December of that year.

  10. The performance of transmission lines and cables subjected to electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion (NEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguet, M.; Ianovici, M.; Lin, C.C.; Fornerod, F.

    1980-01-01

    The use of armoured cables for telecommunication and data transmission systems is practically essential to avoid electromagnetic interference. The authors have made a mathematical study of the probable effect of a high altitude nuclear explosion. Using a simplified model, the voltages and currents induced into single and multiple-sheathed, overhead and buried cables subjected to an intense magnetic pulse (50kV/m) from high altitude, are determined by computer. It is found that, contrary to expectations the current intensity in the second case is seven times greater than for the overhead conductor. (F.N.S.)

  11. SU-E-I-56: Diagnostic Lead Apron Radiation Exposure Comparison Between Manufacture-Stated and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J; Patel, B; Syh, J; Song, X; Freund, D; Ding, X; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several vendors of diagnostic lead apron used routinely in radiology/fluoroscopy claim to manufacture 0.5 mm lead equivalent shielding. The purpose of this investigation was to address the concern of the weight of lead aprons versus the radiation protection they provide. Methods: Seven diagnostic lead aprons were measured and compared for their radiation transmission and attenuation characteristics. The measurements were performed on a Philips Integris. Two settings were used, normal (76 kVp, 14.3 mA) and high (110 kVp, 12.3 mA) to represent typical patient and large patient thickness. Plastic water was placed on the table to represent patient scatter. A Capintec PM-500 ion chamber was placed at approximate chest height where hospital personnel would stand. An uncovered, i.e. lead-unhindered, ion chamber reading was taken to establish the baseline reading of an unprotected personnel. The ion chamber was then wrapped with 0.5mm 99.9% pure Pb material to establish the measurement reading when a diagnostic lead apron attenuates as adequately as 0.5mm Pb. The lead aprons were measured one at a time with the ion chamber fully covered and enclosed within the aprons. Results: On Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm pure Pb showed a transmission of 0.4%. No aprons showed a transmission value as low as 0.5mm Pb. The lowest transmission value measured from the aprons was 2.0%, having a 1.5% higher transmission than pure lead. On High fluoroscopy setting, the lowest apron transmission measurement was at 2.8%, which was comparable to the 0.5mm pure Pb which gave a transmission of 3.0%. Conclusion: At Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm Pb provided an attenuation that could not be matched by any apron measured. At High fluoroscopy setting, only one apron exhibited comparable transmission values as 0.5mm pure Pb.

  12. SU-E-I-56: Diagnostic Lead Apron Radiation Exposure Comparison Between Manufacture-Stated and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J; Patel, B; Syh, J; Song, X; Freund, D; Ding, X; Wu, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several vendors of diagnostic lead apron used routinely in radiology/fluoroscopy claim to manufacture 0.5 mm lead equivalent shielding. The purpose of this investigation was to address the concern of the weight of lead aprons versus the radiation protection they provide. Methods: Seven diagnostic lead aprons were measured and compared for their radiation transmission and attenuation characteristics. The measurements were performed on a Philips Integris. Two settings were used, normal (76 kVp, 14.3 mA) and high (110 kVp, 12.3 mA) to represent typical patient and large patient thickness. Plastic water was placed on the table to represent patient scatter. A Capintec PM-500 ion chamber was placed at approximate chest height where hospital personnel would stand. An uncovered, i.e. lead-unhindered, ion chamber reading was taken to establish the baseline reading of an unprotected personnel. The ion chamber was then wrapped with 0.5mm 99.9% pure Pb material to establish the measurement reading when a diagnostic lead apron attenuates as adequately as 0.5mm Pb. The lead aprons were measured one at a time with the ion chamber fully covered and enclosed within the aprons. Results: On Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm pure Pb showed a transmission of 0.4%. No aprons showed a transmission value as low as 0.5mm Pb. The lowest transmission value measured from the aprons was 2.0%, having a 1.5% higher transmission than pure lead. On High fluoroscopy setting, the lowest apron transmission measurement was at 2.8%, which was comparable to the 0.5mm pure Pb which gave a transmission of 3.0%. Conclusion: At Normal fluoroscopy setting, the 0.5mm Pb provided an attenuation that could not be matched by any apron measured. At High fluoroscopy setting, only one apron exhibited comparable transmission values as 0.5mm pure Pb

  13. How far are transmission measurements of pre-equilibrium stopping influenced by impact parameter selection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrad, D.; Bergsmann, M.; Bauer, P.; Diez-Muino, R.; Arnau, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A slow ion that impinges on a target will need to travel a certain distance within the target - called pre-equilibrium length - in order to reach charge equilibrium. In this transient region, projectiles may suffer energy loss different from the mean value. For gas targets, most of the relevant cross-sections and energy transfers can be determined separately by experiment. This allows one to relate these data to the stopping cross-section and to simulate the passage of ions through gas by Monte-Carlo techniques. For solid targets matter is worse, but a universal formalism how pre-equilibrium processes may be determined from transmission data is well documented by Sigmund [14-15]. In transmission experiments usually only these projectiles are analyzed that have missed the central region of the target atoms. It is, however, a matter of fact that projectiles passing closer to the nucleus are more likely to lose energy. In the case of thin targets these projectiles are deflected out of the detector acceptance leading to a reduction of the measured average energy loss. Hence, stopping data may be influenced by so-called impact parameter selection (IPS) according to the layout of the experiment. This IPS clearly acts also in the regime of pre-equilibrium stopping. Using Monte-Carlo simulation we studied to which extent in a typical transmission experiment energy loss is influenced by pre-equilibrium stopping and by IPS, respectively. For feasibility, instead of a solid target, we follow the trajectories through a dense gas target. We find that in an actual experiment with small detector opening angle the formalism to describe pre-equilibrium stopping has to include IPS

  14. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  15. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  16. Application of real time spectrum measurement to radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, K.; Watanabe, M.; Sakamaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer (MCA) and two realtime spectrum monitoring methods have been developed for use in radiation monitors. The new MCA was designed to be installed at a local site as a component of a radiation monitor. The MCA repeats spectrum measurement at short intervals (Δt) and, after each measurement, transmits a spectrum datum to the operation console. The authors applied two methods to process Δt spectrum counts for each channel for longer time interval. One method of processing counts is the 'running average (RA) method'. The other method is the 'exponential smoothing (ES) method', which simulates RC rate meters by subtracting a fraction corresponding to the accumulated counts. Relative standard deviations for each channel can be made the same by selecting an appropriate value. The response with the 'ES' method is initially faster than that with the 'RA' method, but the 'RA' method allows a full response to be reached at a predictable time. (author)

  17. Measurements of nonionizing radiation emitted from microwave oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnour, Yassir Elnour Osman

    2014-05-01

    There is an increase in the usage of microwave oven which is used electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which believed to be harmful to human health. The measurements were taken at distance of range(0-100) cm from the microwave oven. The study concluded that the risk possibility of the radiation increases at high mode. We measured the power density, magnetic field and signal strength of microwave oven using the SPECTRAN high frequency (HF-6080) detector. The experimental results of power density were found to be (3.78-208000) nW/m 2 and magnetic field is (0.001-0.744) mA/m. These values are less than the exposure limits recommended. (author)

  18. Radiation protection in the age of accountability - measuring our effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effectiveness and accountability were catch-words of the 1980s for public and private enterprises. This mood has persisted into the current decade and radiation protection authorities have not escaped the organisational microscope. But whereas simple models and measures of effectiveness can be applied to most private companies and government agencies, organisations in the regulatory and preventative health areas cannot be assessed by the same criteria. These organisations are fundamentally different because their primary objective is one of minimisation. This paper looks at options for measuring and reporting the effectiveness of radiation protection organisations. Some performance indicators are proposed and evaluated. The intention is not, however, to present a 'solution' to this apparently vexing problem. Indeed, the answer may be that there is none. 11 refs., 4 figs

  19. A 0.18μm CMOS low-power radiation sensor for UWB wireless transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepaldi, M; Demarchi, D; Gabrielli, A; Khan, A; Pikhay, E; Roizin, Y; Villani, G; Zhang, Z

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a floating gate MOS sensor embedded in a readout CMOS element, used as a radiation monitor. A maximum sensitivity of 1 mV/rad is estimated within an absorbed dose range from 1 to 10 krad. The paper shows in particular the design of a microelectronic circuit that includes the floating gate sensor, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an integrated antenna. A prototype of the circuit has recently been simulated, fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, 4 metal CMOS technology. Some simulation results are presented along with a measurement of the readout circuit response to an input voltage swing. Given the small estimated area of the complete chip prototype, that is less than 1 mm 2 , the chip fits a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to punctual measurements or radiation level in High-Energy Physics experiments.

  20. Effect of neutron radiation on the dielectric, mechanical and thermal properties of ceramics for RF transmission windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, C.; Rice, J.; Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of electrically insulating ceramics was investigated before and after exposure to neutron radiation. Mechanical, thermal and dielectric specimens were studied after exposure to a fast neutron dose of 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Four materials were compared to alumina: polycrystalline spinel, aluminum nitride, sialon and silicon nitride. Mechanical bend tests were performed before and after irradiation. Thermal diffusivity was measured using a room temperature laser flash technique. Dielectric loss factor was measured at 105 MHz with a special high resolution resonance cavity. The materials exhibited a significant degradation of thermal diffusivity and an increase in dielectric loss tangent. The flexural strength and physical dimensions were not significantly affected by the 0.1 dpa level of neutron radiation. The aluminum nitride and S silicon nitride showed superior RF window performance over the sialon and the alumina. The results are compared to radiation studies on similar materials

  1. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  2. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  3. Deuterium Lamb shift via quenching-radiation anisotropy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Wijngaarden, A.; Drake, G.W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Lamb shift of a hydrogenic ion can be deduced from the anisotropy in the angular distribution of the 2s/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ electric field quenching radiation. The accuracy of our previous anisotropy measurement for deuterium is improved to about +- 150 ppm. The derived Lamb shift is (1059.36 +- 0.16) MHz. The sources of error are carefully analyzed and the prospects for further improvements in the accuracy are discussed

  4. Coherent radiation spectrum measurements at KEK LUCX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelev, M., E-mail: mishe@post.kek.jp [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Aryshev, A., E-mail: alar@post.kek.jp [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Araki, S.; Fukuda, M. [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Karataev, P. [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J. [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-01-21

    This paper demonstrates the detailed design concept, alignment, and initial testing of a Michelson interferometer for the THz spectral range. We present the first results on the measurement of a coherent transition radiation spectrum and describe the performance of a pair of ultra-fast broadband room temperature Schottky barrier diode detectors. We discuss the main criteria of interferometer beam splitter optimization, the alignment technique, the high-precision calibration and linearity check of the motion system.

  5. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Poje, M.; Planinic, J.

    2008-01-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10 B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 μSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 μSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data

  6. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Lisjak, I. [Croatia Airlines, Zagreb (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Poje, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2008-02-15

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or {sup 10}B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 {mu}Sv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 {mu}Sv or the average dose rate of 2.7 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 {mu}Sv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  7. Nanoscale examination of microdamage in sheep cortical bone using synchrotron radiation transmission x-ray microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry R Brock

    Full Text Available Microdamage occurs in bone through repeated and excessive loading. Accumulation of microdamage weakens bone, leading to a loss of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the tissue. Imaging techniques used to examine microdamage have typically been limited to the microscale. In the current study microdamage was examined at the nanoscale using transmission x-ray microscopy with an x-ray negative stain, lead-uranyl acetate. Microdamage was generated in notched and unnotched beams of sheep cortical bone (2×2×20 mm, with monotonic and fatigue loading. Bulk sections were removed from beams and stained with lead-uranyl acetate to identify microdamage. Samples were sectioned to 50 microns and imaged using transmission x-ray microscopy producing projection images of microdamage with nanoscale resolution. Staining indicated microdamage occurred in both the tensile and compressive regions. A comparison between monotonic and fatigue loading indicated a statistically significant greater amount of stain present in fatigue loaded sections. Microdamage occurred in three forms: staining to existing bone structures, cross hatch damage and a single crack extending from the notch tip. Comparison to microcomputed tomography demonstrated differences in damage morphology and total damage between the microscale and nanoscale. This method has future applications for understanding the underlying mechanisms for microdamage formation as well as three-dimensional nanoscale examination of microdamage.

  8. Possibilities and limitations of optical fibers for the transmission of excimer laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.F.; Hillrichs, G.; Karlitschek, P.; Mann, K.

    1997-01-01

    For fiber-delivery systems with UV-lasers the candidates are mainly optical fibers with an undoped high-OH silica core and a F-doped silica cladding. However, there are three important limits to UV-applications: surface damage, two-photon-absorption and defect-generation during operation. In the last two years, UV-improved fibers with significantly reduced defects have been developed. This improvement is most pronounced at 248 and 193 nm, because at these critical wavelengths the induced losses are strongly influenced by the main broadband UV-defects with absorption maxima at 165 nm and 215 nm. We will summarize the results including the influence of the main parameters. In addition, the transmission capacity for the 308 nm wavelength is of interest due to medical and industrial applications. At this wavelength the influence of the nonlinearities is much lower; however, the induced losses in standard fibers are still an important factor. To show the advantages of the UV-improved fibers, the transmission characteristics at 308 nm wavelength will be described in more detail, for the first time

  9. Neutron transmission and capture measurements and analysis of 60Ni from 1 to 450 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perey, C.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Macklin, R.L.; Winters, R.R.; Perey, F.G.

    1982-11-01

    High-resolution transmission and capture measurements of 60 Ni-enriched targets have been made at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) from a few eV to 1800 keV in transmission and from 2.5 keV to 5 MeV in capture . The transmission data from 1 to 450 keV were analyzed with a multi-level R-matrix code which uses the Bayes' theorem for the fitting process. This code provides the energies and neutron widths of the resonances inside the 1- to 450-keV region as well as a possible parameterization for outside resonances to describe the smooth cross section in this region. The capture data were analyzed with a least-squares fitting code using the Breit-Wigner formula. From 2.5 to 450 keV, 166 resonances were seen in both sets of data. Correspondence between the energy scales shows a discontinuity around 300 keV which makes the matching of resonances at higher energies difficult. Eighty-nine resonances were seen in the capture data only. Average parameters for the 30 observed s-wave resonances were deduced. The average level spacing D 0 was found to be equal to 15.2 +- 1.5 keV, the strength function, S 0 , equal to (2.2 +- 0.6) x 10 -4 and the average radiation width, GAMMA/sub γ/, equal to 1.30 +- 0.07 eV. The staircase plot of the reduced level widths and the plot of the Lorentz-weighted strength function averaged over various energy intervals show possible evidence for doorway states. The level densities calculated with the Fermi-gas model for l = 0 and for l > 0 resonances were compared with the cumulative number of observed resonances, but the analysis is not conclusive. The average capture cross section as a function of the neutron incident energy is compared to the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance prediction

  10. Characterization of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda M, L. de; Federico, C. A.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    Air crews, as pilots and flight attendants, are subjected to cosmic ray doses which can be higher than the average doses on workers from the nuclear industry. The diversity of particles of high energies present in the radiation field on board of air crafts turns the determination of the incident dose difficult, and requires special care regarding dosimetric systems to be used in this kind of radiation field. The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA) in conjunction with the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP) are working on this subject since 2008. A prototype of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements was previously built and tested in flight and laboratory conditions. The detector is able of measuring a quantity known as absorbed dose (using passive dosimeters), which will subsequently be correlated to the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose received by air crews. In this context, a theoretical approach through Monte Carlo simulations with the computational codes MCNP5 and MCNPX was used to model and characterize the detector response at such experimental conditions. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between the absorbed doses measured and simulated, and its relationship with the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose for this detector. (author)

  11. Characterization of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda M, L. de; Federico, C. A.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Air crews, as pilots and flight attendants, are subjected to cosmic ray doses which can be higher than the average doses on workers from the nuclear industry. The diversity of particles of high energies present in the radiation field on board of air crafts turns the determination of the incident dose difficult, and requires special care regarding dosimetric systems to be used in this kind of radiation field. The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA) in conjunction with the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP) are working on this subject since 2008. A prototype of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements was previously built and tested in flight and laboratory conditions. The detector is able of measuring a quantity known as absorbed dose (using passive dosimeters), which will subsequently be correlated to the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose received by air crews. In this context, a theoretical approach through Monte Carlo simulations with the computational codes MCNP5 and MCNPX was used to model and characterize the detector response at such experimental conditions. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between the absorbed doses measured and simulated, and its relationship with the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose for this detector. (author)

  12. Errors in measuring absorbed radiation and computing crop radiation use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, K.P.; Daughtry, C.S.T.; Wiegand, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation use efficiency (RUE) is often a crucial component of crop growth models that relate dry matter production to energy received by the crop. RUE is a ratio that has units g J -1 , if defined as phytomass per unit of energy received, and units J J -1 , if defined as the energy content of phytomass per unit of energy received. Both the numerator and denominator in computation of RUE can vary with experimental assumptions and methodologies. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect that different methods of measuring the numerator and denominator have on the RUE of corn (Zea mays L.) and to illustrate this variation with experimental data. Computational methods examined included (i) direct measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (f A ), (ii) estimates of f A derived from leaf area index (LAI), and (iii) estimates of f A derived from spectral vegetation indices. Direct measurements of absorbed PAR from planting to physiological maturity of corn were consistently greater than the indirect estimates based on green LAI or the spectral vegetation indices. Consequently, the RUE calculated using directly measured absorbed PAR was lower than the RUE calculated using the indirect measures of absorbed PAR. For crops that contain senesced vegetation, green LAI and the spectral vegetation indices provide appropriate estimates of the fraction of PAR absorbed by a crop canopy and, thus, accurate estimates of crop radiation use efficiency

  13. Measuring element for detection and dose measurement of gamma radiation and neutrons and manufacturing method for the measuring element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; John, W.

    1979-01-01

    The measuring element consists of a bubble-free glass composed on the basis of metaphosphate material. The detection of the γ-radiation takes place through the photoluminescence of the element, and detection of the neutrons by means of resulting β particles producing Cerenkov radiation in the radioluminescence material, that can be measured. For this purpose in addition to Ag the glass contains As as a second excitable element. (DG) [de

  14. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  15. Total electron content measurements at Gauhati using 140 MHz ATS-6 transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.; Singh, L.; Minakshi Devi; Barbara, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of 140 MHz transmissions from geostationary satellite ATS-6 (0 0 N, 35 0 E) have been recorded at Gauhati (26.16 0 N; 91.75 0 E) for the period Nov. 1975 to Aug. 1976. The calibration technique for geostationary satellite Faraday rotation measurements suggested by Checcacci and Giorgeo has been improved and generalized. It is then utilized to remove the n ambiguity in Faraday rotation values and also to estimate the correct value of diurnal minimum Faraday rotation angle so that the recorded Faraday rotation values can be converted into electron content values. Typical diurnal variation curves have been obtained for all the months except for equinoxes when the satellite transmission was off very often due to ecliptic conditions and hence no complete diurnal curves could be obtained for these months. It has been found that though December and January behave like typical winter months, the month of November is more like an equinoctial month. Similarly, though June and July behave like typical summer months, the month of May is more or less similar to equinoxes. The characteristic features of the diurnal and seasonal behaviour of the electron content have been discussed. (author)

  16. Simulations of the electron cloud buildup and its influence on the microwave transmission measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Oliver Sebastian, E-mail: o.haas@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrov, Fedor [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-21

    An electron cloud density in an accelerator can be measured using the Microwave Transmission (MWT) method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of a realistic, nonuniform electron cloud on the MWT. We conduct electron cloud buildup simulations for beam pipe geometries and bunch parameters resembling roughly the conditions in the CERN SPS. For different microwave waveguide modes the phase shift induced by a known electron cloud density is obtained from three different approaches: 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of the electron response, a 2D eigenvalue solver for waveguide modes assuming a dielectric response function for cold electrons, a perturbative method assuming a sufficiently smooth density profile. While several electron cloud parameters, such as temperature, result in minor errors in the determined density, the transversely inhomogeneous density can introduce a large error in the measured electron density. We show that the perturbative approach is sufficient to describe the phase shift under realistic electron cloud conditions. Depending on the geometry of the beam pipe, the external magnetic field configuration and the used waveguide mode, the electron cloud density can be concentrated at the beam pipe or near the beam pipe center, leading to a severe over- or underestimation of the electron density. -- Author-Highlights: •Electron cloud distributions are very inhomogeneous, especially in dipoles. •These inhomogeneities affect the microwave transmission measurement results. •Electron density might be over- or underestimated, depending on setup. •This can be quantified with several models, e.g. a perturbative approach.

  17. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m -2 UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m -2 (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. (note)

  18. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  19. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite-Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains[SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and

  20. Therapy palliative with 223Ra without special radiation protection measures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, Guenther; Petzold, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    For nearly 2 years now as a therapy of the castration resistant prostata carcinoma a nuclide therapy with 223 Ra-Dichloride (trade-mark Xofigo) is applied. Xofigo is applied by a medical specialist for nuclear medicine altogether 6 times in a monthly distance. The activity used in each case is according to the body weight (50 kBq/kg BW). This therapy is licensed by the supervisory authorities of the German federal countries as an ambulant therapy. Special radiation protection measures are only required when exceeding a given number of 17 patients per year as incorparation measurements.

  1. Electron bunch length measurement with a wakefield radiation decelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure the electron bunch length with a dielectric wakefield radiation (DWR decelerator which is composed of two dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs and an electron spectrometer. When an electron beam passes through a DLW, the DWR is excited which leads to an energy loss of the electron beam. The energy loss is found to be largely dependent on the electron bunch length and can be easily measured by an electron spectrometer which is essential for a normal accelerator facility. Our study shows that this method has a high resolution and a great simplicity.

  2. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN

  3. Hohlraum Radiation Drive Measurements on the Omega Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, C.; Turner, R.E.; Landen, O.L.; Suter, L.J.; Amendt, P.; Kornblum, H.N.; Hammel, B.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Wallace, J.; Delamater, N.D.; Gobby, P.; Hauer, A.A.; Magelssen, G.R.; Oertel, J.A.; Knauer, J.; Marshall, F.J.; Bradley, D.; Seka, W.; Soures, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved drive measurements with thin-walled hohlraum targets on Omega [J.M.Soures et al., Phys.Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] are presented and compared with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. For the first time, radiation fluxes are measured through the laser entrance hole instead of through a diagnostic side hole. We find improved agreement between time dependent experiments and simulations using this new technique. In addition, the drive history obtained in this manner correlates well with the drive onto the capsule at target center. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Treatment and reporting of uncertainties for environmental radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendations for a practical and uniform method for treating and reporting uncertainties in environmental radiation measurements data are presented. The method requires that each reported measurement result include the value, a total propagated random uncertainty expressed as the standard deviation, and a combined overall uncertainty. The uncertainty assessment should be based on as nearly a complete assessment as possible and should include every conceivable or likely source of inaccuracy in the result. Guidelines are given for estimating random and systematic uncertainty components, and for propagating and combining them to form an overall uncertainty

  5. Analysis of radiation measurement data of the BUSS cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) is a Type-B packaging developed for shipping nonfissile, special-form radioactive materials to facilities such as sewage, food, and medical-product irradiators. The primary purpose of the BUSS cask is to provide shielding and confinement, as well as impact, puncture, and thermal protection for its certified special-form contents under both normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. A BUSS cask that contained 16 CsCl capsules (2.723 x 10 4 TBq total activity) was recently subjected to radiation survey measurements at a Westinghouse Hanford facility, which provided data that could be used to validate computer codes. Two shielding analysis codes, MICROSHIELD (User's Manual 1988) and SAS4 (Tan 1993), that are used at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the safety of packaging of radioactive materials during transportation, have been selected for analysis of radiation data obtained from the BUSS cask. MICROSHIELD, which performs only gamma radiation shielding calculation, is based on a point-kernel model with idealized geometry, whereas SAS4 is a control module in the SCALE code system (1995) that can perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding calculation for photons and neutrons, with built-in procedures for cross-section data processing and automated variance reduction. The two codes differ in how they model the details of the physics of gamma photon attenuation in materials, and this difference is reflected in the associated engineering cost of the analysis. One purpose of the analysis presented in this paper, therefore, is to examine the effects of the major modeling assumptions in the two codes on calculated dose rates, and to use the measured dose rates for comparison. The focus in this paper is on analysis of radiation dose rates measured on the general body of the cask and away from penetrations

  6. Light scattering and transmission measurement using digital imaging for online analysis of constituents in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pranay; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2015-05-01

    Milk is an emulsion of fat globules and casein micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium with dissolved lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Quantification of constituents in milk is important in various stages of the dairy supply chain for proper process control and quality assurance. In field-level applications, spectrophotometric analysis is an economical option due to the low-cost of silicon photodetectors, sensitive to UV/Vis radiation with wavelengths between 300 - 1100 nm. Both absorption and scattering are witnessed as incident UV/Vis radiation interacts with dissolved and dispersed constituents in milk. These effects can in turn be used to characterize the chemical and physical composition of a milk sample. However, in order to simplify analysis, most existing instrument require dilution of samples to avoid effects of multiple scattering. The sample preparation steps are usually expensive, prone to human errors and unsuitable for field-level and online analysis. This paper introduces a novel digital imaging based method of online spectrophotometric measurements on raw milk without any sample preparation. Multiple LEDs of different emission spectra are used as discrete light sources and a digital CMOS camera is used as an image sensor. The extinction characteristic of samples is derived from captured images. The dependence of multiple scattering on power of incident radiation is exploited to quantify scattering. The method has been validated with experiments for response with varying fat concentrations and fat globule sizes. Despite of the presence of multiple scattering, the method is able to unequivocally quantify extinction of incident radiation and relate it to the fat concentrations and globule sizes of samples.

  7. The use of gamma radiation in fluid flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjugum, S.A.; Johansen, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation in densitometry measurements is a well known principle. These measurements are often used in the oil industry where there is a need for finding the gas fraction of an oil/water/gas flow. The traditional gamma densitometer has a simple construction, where the measured parameter is the attenuation of a single gamma beam. High reliability, robustness and the clamp-on possibility are advantages that this type of instruments offer. More information can be found by studying how radiation is scattered and absorbed by matter. This information is needed in new multiphase flow meters. Problems to be solved in these instruments are how to find volume fractions of more than two components, how to handle different flow regimes in non-homogeneous flow, and how to do measurements independent of the salinity of the water. The new technology involves multi-energy, multi-mode and multi-sensor systems. At the University of Bergen the focus has been on how to do flow regime and salinity independent measurements by using multi-sensor and multi-mode systems. This paper gives an overview of the different techniques, and presents the latest results within this field of research at the University of Bergen. (author)

  8. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  9. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  10. The remote transmission test of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shigeo; Takahashi, Saburo; Nemoto, Tadayuki; Sato, Takashi; Kuniyasu, Kazufusa; Hiruta, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    JAEA has developed and demonstrated the Remote Monitoring (RM) technology on the safeguards equipment at the storage area in PFPF to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity. JAEA is considering the expansion of the RM technology to the safeguards equipment in the process area to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity under the integrated safeguards. JAEA considers that the cabling cost and work in the facility will be reduced to apply the wireless LAN to the RM technology. JAEA performed the confirmatory testing of the performance of the Glove box Unattended Assay and Monitoring system (GUAM) and the remote transmission of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN in cooperation with Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. In this test, JAEA confirmed it's possible to establish the wireless LAN networking in the process area. This paper reports the applicability of the wireless LAN to the RM technology based on the results of the confirmatory testing. (author)

  11. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  12. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and microdiffraction for radiation damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution TEM techniques have developed to quite a sophisticated level over the past few years. In addition TEM instruments with a scanning capability have become available commercially which permit in particular the formation of a small electron probe at the specimen. Thus direct resolution and microdiffraction investigations of thin specimens are now possible, neither of which have been employed to any great extent in the analysis of radiation damage. Some recent advances which are thought to be relevant to this specific area of research are highlighted

  13. Radiation Load of Children by Chest Radiodiagnostic Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Vladar, M.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Horvathova, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic examinations of children present particular importance from the radiation hygiene point of view. The estimation of the radiation load of pediatric patient is not easy, because of the lack of information about organ weighting factors for various ages of patients, as well as due to the differences in applied X-ray examination parameters. In the district of Slovak Republic, in which also the working Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice is included, efforts were done to estimate the radiation load of children to 15 years by chest radiodiagnostic examinations. The data of entrance surface doses were collected using measurements with TLD for 100 patients divided in 5 age categories at six radiodiagnostic departments. The calculations of the total absorbed dose were performed using the measured ESD values (entrance surface dose in mGy) integrated over the X-ray beam area, the conversion factors between the imparted energy and the dose-area product and the known irradiation parameters (kV, HVL, mass, etc.). The analysis of the obtained absorbed doses (E a ) as a function of age for chest PA radiodiagnostic examinations has shown, that the investigated Slovak radiodiagnostic centres use rather lower voltage techniques and the entrance surface doses are much higher than the proposed value of European Communities. (author)

  14. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. In vivo measurement of GABA transmission in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y; Prasad, Konasale M; Mason, N Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A; Narendran, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. The binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [(11)C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). [(11)C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [(11)C]flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition.

  16. Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory of radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez T, J. R.; Morales S, J. B.

    2009-10-01

    The work involves the implementation of a virtual laboratory, this project is conducted in the Faculty of Engineering of National Autonomous University of Mexico with the name of LANUVI. It is intended that the laboratory can be used by students who have interest in the nuclear radiation knowledge as well as in its detection and attenuation, in addition serve as and introduction to nuclear systems. In the first part of project will conduct a source that can simulate the particle radiation of Alfa, beta, neutrons and gamma rays. The project will take sources used in class laboratories and elements that are dangerous but are used in different practical applications. After taking the source analyzing the particles behaviour in different media like air, animal tissue, aluminium, lead, etc. The analysis is done in different ways in order to know with which material can stop or mitigate the different types of radiation. Finally shall be measure radioactivity with different types of detectors. At this point, has the behaviour of ionization chamber but in the future is expected to make the simulation of some other radiation detectors. The mathematical models we represent the behaviour of these cases were implemented in free software. The program will be used to implement the virtual laboratory with radiation sources, detectors and different types of shields will be Blender which is a free software that is used by many users for the embodiment of games but try to use as a tool to help visualize the different equipment that is widely used in a radioactive materials laboratory. (Author)

  17. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program

  18. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  20. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)