Sample records for radiation streptomycin kanamycin

  1. Antibiotic radioprotection of mice exposed to supralethal whole-body irradiation independent of antibacterial activity. [Gamma radiation, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, gentamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, A.; Wilson, R.


    Oral administration of streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, or gentamicin to specific pathogen-free C57 x Af mice in their drinking water (4 mg/ml) for 2 weeks before supralethal whole-body irradiation very significantly prolonged their mean survival times (8.2 to 8.9 days vs 6.9 for controls) to values which exceed those reported for germ-free mice (7.3 days). The total fecal concentrations of aerobes and anaerobes were reduced by kanamycin, neomycin, and gentamicin. Streptomycin reduced the anaerobes significantly, but not the aerobes. Unlike germ-free mice, these antibiotic-treated mice did excrete free bile acids, products of bacterial action. Oral antibiotic treatment was ineffective in altering the transit time of the intestinal mucosal cells. Previously reported studies had indicated a correlation between decreased transit time and increased survival after irradiation. No significant correlation between mean survival time after irradiation and mucosal transit time was observed. The data demonstrate that certain antibiotics alter the character of the intestinal bacterial flora and increase protection against supralethal doses of whole-body irradiation. It is concluded that the mechanisms of radioresistance in antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice are different and that in both groups radioresistance is the result of more than elimination of postirradiation infection.

  2. Inactivation of kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin by enzymes obtained in cells of Pseudomonas aeruginoa. (United States)

    Doi, O; Ogura, M; Tanaka, N; Umezawa, H


    Ten strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were disrupted and centrifuged. The supernatant fluids from centrifugation at 105,000 x g contained enzymes inactivating kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin in the presence of adenosine triphosphate. Kanamycin-inactivating enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 66% of saturated concentration, and the inactivated kanamycin was shown to be kanamycin-3'-phosphate in which the C-3 hydroxyl group of 6-amino-6-deoxy-d-glucose moiety was phosphorylated. This is identical with kanamycin inactivated by Escherichia coli carrying R factor. Streptomycin-inactivating enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 33% of saturated concentration.

  3. Impairment of membrane phosphoinositide metabolism by aminoglycoside antibiotics: streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, dibekacin, gentamicin and neomycin. (United States)

    Marche, P; Koutouzov, S; Girard, A


    Like many amphiphilic cationic drugs, aminoglycosides are able to produce phospholipidosis, mainly by inhibiting enzymes involved in phospholipid metabolism. Phosphoinositides have been suggested to function as receptors for aminoglycosides. Therefore, we investigated the influence of these drugs upon phosphoinositide metabolism by measuring the 32P-incorporation into the polyphosphoinositides, using the rat erythrocyte membrane as a model. Depending upon the experimental conditions, neomycin induced a decrease and/or an increase in the 32P-labeling of triphosphoinositides (TPI) and of diphosphoinositides (DPI), respectively. These variations were rapid and depended upon the drug concentration. At 0.3 mM, neomycin reversed the distribution of radioactivities associated with DPI and TPI without modifying the total radioactivity incorporated. This drug concentration altered neither the Mg++-activated TPI-specific phosphomonoesterase activity nor the Ca++-activated polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase activity. It appears likely that the drug inhibits the DPI-kinase activity, by interacting with DPI and thereby lowering the substrate availability. Over the range of concentrations studied (up to 1-2 mM), gentamicin, kanamycin and dibekacin behave as neomycin. However, their effects could be observed only at drug concentrations higher than those of neomycin. By contrast, streptomycin and amikacin did not alter the 32P-labeling of TPI and of DPI. The order of potency of aminoglycosides for the impairment of the phosphoinositide interconversion was neomycin, gentamicin, dibekacin, kanamycin. A possible relationship between the toxicity of aminoglycosides and their capacity to impair the phosphoinositide metabolism is discussed.

  4. Resistance mechanisms of kanamycin-, neomycin-, and streptomycin-producing streptomycetes to aminoglycoside antibiotics. (United States)

    Hotta, K; Yamamoto, H; Okami, Y; Umezawa, H


    Streptomyces kanamyceticus ISP5500, S. fradiae ISP5063 and S. griseus ISP5236, which produce kanamycin, neomycin or streptomycin respectively, were highly resistant to the antibiotics they produced. Polyphenylalanine synthesis in cell free systems was also resistant to the action of the antibiotics. Reciprocal exchange between ribosomes and S150 fractions from the three strains revealed that the S150 fraction of each strain had an enzyme activity that inactivated the appropriate antibiotic whereas the ribosomes were susceptible to the antibiotics. It was concluded that the resistance of the in vitro polyphenylalanine synthesizing systems of these antibiotics was due to the presence of inactivating enzymes. Furthermore, S. fradiae and S. kanamyceticus were highly resistant to aminocyclitol-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics other than those produced by the two strains. In these cases, the inactivating enzymes were found to have a major role in the resistance mechanism. However, the resistance of S. kanamyceticus ISP5500 to streptomycin seems to be due to resistance at the ribosomal level.

  5. Streptomycin interference in Jaffe reaction - Possible false positive creatinine estimation in excessive dose exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syal, Kirtimaan; Srinivasan, Anand; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti


    Objectives: To study the potential of commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotics to form non-creatinine chromogen with alkaline picrate reagent. Design and methods: We studied the non-creatinine chromogen formation of various concentrations of streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, netilmicin, gentamicin...

  6. Host-dependent transposon Tn5-mediated streptomycin resistance.



    Transposon Tn5 encodes streptomycin resistance in addition to kanamycin-neomycin resistance. This resistance was not detectable in Escherichia coli but was efficiently expressed in Rhizobium meliloti and certain other strains. By analysis of cloned Tn5 restriction endonuclease fragments, the streptomycin resistance (str) gene was located in the right-hand side of the central region as the transposon is conventionally drawn. Transcription of str appeared to originate at pL, the promoter for th...

  7. Extremely sensitive sandwich assay of kanamycin using surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole labeled gold@silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zengin, Adem; Tamer, Ugur; Caykara, Tuncer


    Herein, we report the development of extremely sensitive sandwich assay of kanamycin using a combination of anti-kanamycin functionalized hybrid magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole labeled Au-core@Ag-shell nanoparticles as the recognition and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, respectively. The hybrid MNPs were first prepared via surface-mediated RAFT polymerization of N-acryloyl-L-glutamic acid in the presence of 2-(butylsulfanylcarbonylthiolsulfanyl) propionic acid-modified MNPs as a RAFT agent and then biofunctionalized with anti-kanamycin, which are both specific for kanamycin and can be collected via a simple magnet. After separating kanamycin from the sample matrix, they were sandwiched with the SERS substrate. According to our experimental results, the limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 2pg mL(-1), this value being about 3-7 times more than sensitive than the LOD of previously reported results, which can be explained by the higher SERS activity of silver coated gold nanoparticles. The analysis time took less than 10min, including washing and optical detection steps. Furthermore, the sandwich assay was evaluated for investigating the kanamycin specificity on neomycin, gentamycin and streptomycin and detecting kanamycin in artificially contaminated milk.

  8. A mutation in the 530 loop of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA causes resistance to streptomycin. (United States)

    Melançon, P; Lemieux, C; Brakier-Gingras, L


    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce an A to C transversion at position 523 in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of Escherichia coli rrnB operon cloned in plasmid pKK3535. E. coli cells transformed with the mutated plasmid were resistant to streptomycin. The mutated ribosomes isolated from these cells were not stimulated by streptomycin to misread the message in a poly(U)-directed assay. They were also restrictive to the stimulation of misreading by other error-promoting related aminoglycoside antibiotics such as neomycin, kanamycin or gentamicin, which do not compete for the streptomycin binding site. The 530 loop where the mutation in the 16S rRNA is located has been mapped at the external surface of the 30S subunit, and is therefore distal from the streptomycin binding site at the subunit interface. Our results support the conclusion that the mutation at position 523 in the 16S rRNA does not interfere with the binding of streptomycin, but prevents the drug from inducing conformational changes in the 530 loop which account for its miscoding effect. Since this effect primarily results from a perturbation of the translational proofreading control, our results also provide evidence that the 530 loop of the 16S rRNA is involved in this accuracy control.

  9. HPLC-ELSD determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; He, Hui-Min; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Li, Chao; Wang, Bing-Wu; Qiao, Ren-Zhong


    A novel method for the direct determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed. An Agilent Technologies C18 column was utilized, evaporation temperature of 40°C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5 bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (65:35, v/v), containing 11.6 mm heptafluorobutyric acid (isocratic elution with flow rate of 0.5 mL/min) with the gain 11. Kanamycin B was eluted at 5.6 min with an asymmetry factor of 1.827. The method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.05 to 0.80 mg/mL for the kanamycin B (r(2) = 0.9987). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation obtained from kanamycin B were less than 4.3%. Mean recovery of kanamycin B from spiked fermentation broth was 95%. The developed method was applied to the determination of kanamycin B without any interference from other constituents in the fermentation broth. This method offers simple, rapid and quantitative detection of kanamycin B. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Kinetic mechanism of streptomycin adenylyltransferase from a recombinant Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Jana, Snehasis; Deb, J K


    Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is manifested primarily by enzymic modification of these drugs. One important mechanism of streptomycin modification is through ATP-dependent O-adenylation, catalyzed by streptomycin adenylyltransferase. Initial velocity patterns deduced from steady state kinetics indicate a sequential mechanism. Dead-end inhibition by tobramycin and neomycin is non-competitive versus streptomycin and uncompetitive versus ATP, indicative of ordered substrate binding where ATP binds first and then streptomycin. These results surmise that streptomycin adenylyltransferase follows an ordered, sequential kinetic mechanism in which one substrate (ATP) binds prior to the antibiotic and pyrophosphate is released prior to formation of AMP-streptomycin.

  11. Cardiovascular depressant effects of the neomycin-streptomycin group of antibiotics. (United States)

    Adams, H R


    Cardiovascular depressant effects of the neomycin-streptomycin group of antibiotics (aminoglycoside antibiotics) were examined during pentobarbital anesthesia in cats, dogs, and 4 species of nonhuman primates: owl (Aotus trivirgatus), squirrel (Saimiri sciureus), and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys, and dog-faced baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Intravenous administration of kanamycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, or neomycin produced various degrees of hypotension and relative bradycardia in all species examined. In surgically prepared (open-chest) baboons, neomycin consistently induced a dose-related depression of myocardial contractile force, maximum dF/dt of myocardial contraction, cardiac output, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Maximum depression of hemodynamic values usually occurred within 2 to 5 minutes after administration of neomycin; cardiovascular function then gradually returned to control or near control levels within 30 to 60 minutes. Intravenous administration of calcium chloride rapidly reversed the neomycin-mediated alterations of cardiovascular function. Present findings indicated that aminoglycoside antibiotics altered cardiovascular dynamics in anesthetized animals, and indicated that this deleterious action(s) may be related to modification of calcium ion function.

  12. Self-cloning in Streptomyces griseus of an str gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis and streptomycin resistance.


    Ohnuki, T; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S


    An str gene cluster containing at least four genes (strR, strA, strB, and strC) involved in streptomycin biosynthesis or streptomycin resistance or both was self-cloned in Streptomyces griseus by using plasmid pOA154. The strA gene was verified to encode streptomycin 6-phosphotransferase, a streptomycin resistance factor in S. griseus, by examining the gene product expressed in Escherichia coli. The other three genes were determined by complementation tests with streptomycin-nonproducing muta...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b Section 524.1200b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an...

  14. Immunoassay analysis of Kanamycin in serum using the Tobramycin kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J A; Voerman, A J; Greijdanus, B; Touw, D J; Alffenaar, J W C


    Kanamycin is one of the aminoglycosides used in the treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Blood concentrations of kanamycin are predictive for the treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects and dose adjustments can be needed to optimize therapy. However, an immunoassay method for

  15. Immunoassay Analysis of Kanamycin in Serum Using the Tobramycin Kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.A.; Voerman, A. J.; Greijdanus, B.; Touw, D. J.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.


    Kanamycin is one of the aminoglycosides used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Blood concentrations of kanamycin are predictive for the treatment efficacy and the occurrence of side effects, and dose adjustments can be needed to optimize therapy. However, an immunoassay method fo

  16. Development of Auxotrophy by Streptomycin-Resistant Mutation (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S. L.; Maitra, P. K.


    Several streptomycin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli have been isolated which require exogenous isoleucine for growth. The majority of these strains were of streptomycin-dependent phenotype. If grown in the absence of streptomycin, these streptomycin-dependent auxotrophs (Smd-aux) strains were unable to produce β-galactosidase and aldolase activities and also failed to exhibit donor properties in conjugation. Genetic analysis indicated that the isoleucine requirement of these strains could be caused by a mutation at the strA locus. PMID:4597998

  17. Induction of streptomycin resistance in the wild tomato Lycopersicon peruvianum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.E.; Snel, E.A.M.; Akerboom, M.J.E.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Hille, J.


    A protoplast mutagenesis and cell selection system was used for the isolation of streptomycin resistant Lycopersicon peruvianum colonies. Protoplasts were treated with the mutagen N-nitroso-methylurea and could be regenerated into fertile plants, carrying the streptomycin resistant character. Severa

  18. Screening Method for Transgenic Maize with Kanamycin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Meng-yu; DONG Fu-shuang; ZHANG Jun-min; WANG Hai-bo


    [Objective] The paper was to establish simple and effective method to screen marker gene in maize with kanamycin resistance.[Method] Using inbred line "Chang 7-2" and hybrid "Zhengdan 958" of maize as test materials,their seeds were soaked with different concentrations and volumes of kanamycin for 3 and 4 d,respectively,the rate of albino seedlings and average seedling height after sowing for 10 d were investigated.[Result] The rate of albino seedlings not only was related to kanamycin concentration,but also had relationship with solution volume during soaking process.The difference between inbred line and hybrid was no significant.When 100 ml of kanamycin solution with concentration of 200 mg/L was used to soak seeds for 3 d,the rate of albino seedlings basically could reach 100%.When 100 ml of kanamycin solution with concentration of 100 mg/L was used to soak 20 seeds for 3 d to carry out resistance screening,the accuracy was up to 84.8% after verifying the screening test of T1 transgenic maize plants.[Conclusion] The method was feasible,which could be used as a simple method for screening transgenic gene maize with kanamycin resistance.

  19. Neomycin is more efficient than streptomycin in suppressing frameshift mutations. (United States)

    Phoenix, P; Gravel, M; Herrington, M B; Brakier-Gingras, L


    The effects of streptomycin and neomycin on the phenotypic suppression of frameshift mutations in the lacZ gene of Escherichia coli and on the efficiency of suppression of amber mutations in T4 phage by the informational supE tRNA nonsense suppressor were compared. Neomycin stimulated much more efficiently than streptomycin the phenotypic suppression of frameshift mutations. Because neomycin favors mismatches of the central codon base whereas streptomycin favors mismatches of the first codon base, this result suggests that mismatching of the central codon base pair and shifting of the reading frame are two correlated phenomena. In contrast, both streptomycin and neomycin stimulated about equally the efficiency of the tRNA nonsense suppressor, an effect probably related to their interference with the proofreading control in tRNA selection.

  20. Attenuation of streptomycin ototoxicity by tetramethylpyrazine in guinea pig cochlea. (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Liu, Dajun; Qin, Xin


    Tetramethylpyrazine has been suggested to have a therapeutic effect on impaired hearing that is induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, its effectiveness on streptomycin ototoxicity and its cellular mechanisms are relatively unknown. Here we investigate the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine on streptomycin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pig cochlea. Prospective randomized laboratory study. Hearing Research Laboratory of China Medical University. Adult guinea pigs were randomized to 4 groups. Hearing sensitivity of guinea pigs was tested by auditory brainstem response measurements before streptomycin exposure and again 10 days later. The cochlear tissues were prepared for electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). The effect of tetramethylpyrazine on streptomycin-induced activation of caspase-3 was evaluated by Western blotting. Co-therapy with tetramethylpyrazine reduced a profound streptomycin-induced auditory threshold shift compared with streptomycin treatment alone (P = .0002 or P = .00008). Tetramethylpyrazine also attenuated the structural disruption in streptomycin-treated outer hair cells and marginal cells of vascular stria by transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy, respectively. Moreover, tetramethylpyrazine decreased the streptomycin-stimulated expressions of HSP70 and caspase-3. The correlation analysis demonstrated that HSP70 expression had a positive correlation with auditory brainstem response thresholds (|R| = 0.6-0.9, P = .0073 or P = .0169). Our data suggest that the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine on hearing function is associated with the reduction of stress response and inhibition of apoptosis. Tetramethylpyrazine may have therapeutic potential for patients with ototoxicity diseases. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Against Streptomycin Ototoxicity

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    Salih Bakir


    Full Text Available Aim: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO is an important adjuvant therapy and being increasingly used in the treatment of various disorders because of having an important antioxidant activity. This experimental study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of HBO therapy on streptomycin-induced ototoxicity. Material and Method: Twenty-eight adult Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Streptomycin (n=7, saline (n=7, HBO (n=7, and streptomycin plus HBO (n=7. The HBO administered rats were placed into a large pressure chamber and received 100% oxygene at 2.5 atmosphere absolute for 60 minutes per day in a period of seven days. Rats were tested with DPOAE (Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in the beginning and the end of study. The animals in all groups were sacrificed under general anesthesia on the seventh day. Biopsy specimens from inner ear were stored for histopathologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E under light microscopy. Results: Outer hair cells shown by light microscopic images were mostly preserved in control and HBO group. DPOAE measurements revealed no significant differences between the beginning and the end (p>0.05. Streptomycin and streptomycin plus HBO treated rats showed loss of hair cells and auditory functions significantly (p<0.05. Between the groups of streptomycin and streptomycin plus HBO; there was no statistically significance according to the analysis of the histopathological scores and DPgram results (p>0.05. Discussion: HBO has probably no harmful effect on hair cells. But it seems to be not beneficial in a streptomycin-induced cochlear damage rat model.

  2. Rapid Isolation and Molecular Detection of Streptomycin-Producing Streptomycetes

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    M Motovali-bashi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Streptomyces species are mycelial, aerobic gram-positive bacteria that are isolated from soil and produce a diverse range of antibiotics. Streptomyces griseus produces the antibiotic, streptomycin and forms spores even in a liquid culture. The gene cluster for the production of Streptomycin antibiotic contains strR gene that encodes StrR, a pathway-specific regulator. Then, this pathway-specific regulator induces transcription of other streptomycin production genes in the gene cluster. The overall aim of this work was rapid isolation and molecular detection of streptomycin-producing Streptomycetes, especially S. griseus, from Iranian soils in order to manipulate them for increased production of streptomycin. Methods: This research used new initiative half-specific medium for isolation of Streptomycetes from natural environments, called FZmsn. The fifty colonies of Streptomyces strains grown on the surface of FZmsn medium isolated from environmental samples were defined on the basis of their morphological characteristics and light microscope studies. A set of primers was designed to detect strR by OLIGO software. Results: In colony-PCR reactions followed by gel electrophoresis, 6 colonies from Streptomyces strains colonies were detected as S. griseus colonies. Conclusion: These native Streptomyces strains will be used for genetic manipulation of S. griseus in order to increase production levels of streptomycin.

  3. Kanamycin resistance during in vitro development of pollen from transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bino, R.J.; Hille, J.; Franken, J.


    Effects of kanamycin on pollen germination and tube growth of pollen from non-transformed plants and from transgenic tomato plants containing a chimaeric kanamycin resistance gene were determined. Germination of pollen was not affected by the addition of kanamycin to the medium in both genotypes. Ka

  4. Effect of streptomycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in melanocytes. (United States)

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Buszman, Ewa


    Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with an antituberculosis activity commonly used in clinical practice due to its good antimicrobial characteristics. A well-known undesirable side effect of this drug is ototoxicity, which may be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of melanocytes in the inner ear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of streptomycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMa-LP). Streptomycin induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be ~5.0 mM. It has been shown that streptomycin causes inhibition of tyrosinase activity and reduces melanin content in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant changes in the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also stated. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential role of melanocytes and melanin in the causative mechanisms of aminoglycosides ototoxic effects in vivo.

  5. Colonization of streptomycin-treated mice by Aeromonas species. (United States)

    Sanderson, K; Ghazali, F M; Kirov, S M


    Streptomycin-treated adult mice were investigated as a possible model for studying the enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas species. C57BL mice pre-treated with streptomycin (5.0 g/L drinking water, 48 hours) received a single intragastric dose (10(10) bacteria /10.5 mL) of one of six well-characterized, toxin-producing, human diarrhoeal isolates of A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 3) or A. hydrophila (n = 3). Their faeces were examined for Aeromonas for 10 days post-challenge. All strains colonized the antibiotic-treated mice. Colonization did not occur in mice which did not receive streptomycin. Strains of A. hydrophila were recovered in greater numbers than strains of A. veronii biovar sobria, and colonized ( > or = 10(3) cfu/g of faeces) a greater proportion of mice at day 10. Strains of the latter species, however, were more adherent in cell line assays used as models of intestinal adhesion. A. hydrophila strains localized in the large intestine and appeared not to be cell associated. This study, therefore, points to species-related differences in intestinal colonization mechanisms. The streptomycin-treated adult mouse model may prove useful for further investigation of some of these mechanisms. Diarrhoeal symptoms were, however, not produced in this model.

  6. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions (United States)


    .... Antibiotic resistance risk. EPA estimated the potential for development of antibiotic resistance in... tuberculosis and used for several other bacterial diseases. However, based upon the limitations of the use... million (ppm) and dried grapefruit pulp at 0.40 ppm. Streptomycin is an antibiotic of the aminoglycoside...

  7. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

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    O.O. Oladele


    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  8. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities


    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E


    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S...

  9. Transposon Tn5 specifies streptomycin resistance in Rhizobium spp.



    Transposon Tn5 conferred streptomycin resistance on different strains of Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Rhizobium trifolii but not on Escherichia coli. A gene (str) specifying this phenotype has been identified and localized on the physical and genetic map of Tn5. It is transcribed from the promoter of neo, the gene that encodes neomycin phosphotransferase. The str gene is downstream from neo in a single transcriptional unit, as revealed by molecular cloning of different seg...

  10. Comparison of the misreading induced by streptomycin and neomycin. (United States)

    Grisé-Miron, L; Noreau, J; Melançon, P; Brakier-Gingras, L


    In a poly(U)-programmed translation system, neomycin stimulates the misincorporation of tyrosine and of serine which, according to Thompson and Stone (Thompson, R.C. and Stone, P.J. (1977) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 74, 198-202), are normally rejected at an initial discrimination step during the binding of charged tRNAs to the ribosome. In contrast, streptomycin favors the misincorporation of isoleucine which is normally rejected at a subsequent GTP-dependent discrimination step, the so-called proofreading step. The labeling of the ribosome with N-ethylmaleimide mimics the effect of streptomycin in that it stimulates the misincorporation of isoleucine but not of tyrosine or serine. This effect is correlated with the labeling of protein S18 but not with that of protein S1. These observations indicate that the sulfhydryl group of protein S18 is located within a ribosomal domain involved in the proofreading control of tRNA selection. Taking into account our previous results that streptomycin and neomycin perturb ribosomal areas around the sulfhydryl groups of proteins S18 and S1, respectively, we suggest that these antibiotics induce misreading by different mechanisms which are linked to such perturbations.

  11. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide. (United States)

    Żak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko


    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells should be preserved forming an environment for the regenerated hair cells. In this study, we investigated how ototoxic treatment with kanamycin and furosemide changes the structure of cochlear sensory epithelium in mice. The study also compared different tissue preparation protocols for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cochleae were collected from deafened and nondeafened mice and further processed for plastic mid modiolar sections and SEM. For comparing SEM protocols, cochleae from nondeafened mice were processed using three protocols: osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium (OTO), tannic acid-arginine-osmium, and the conventional method with gold-coating. The OTO method demonstrated optimal cochlear tissue preservation. Histological investigation of cochleae of deafened mice revealed that the supporting cells enlarged and ultimately replaced the lost hair cells forming types 1 and 2 phalangeal scars in a base towards apex gradient. The type 3 epithelial scar, flattened epithelium, has not been seen in analysed cochleae. The study concluded that mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide formed scars containing supporting cells, which renders this mouse model suitable for testing various hair cell regeneration approaches. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:766-772, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of the Kanamycin in Raw Milk Using the Suspension Array

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    Yanfei Wang


    Full Text Available With the monoclonal antibody against kanamycin being prepared successfully, a bead-based indirect competitive fluorescent immunoassay was developed to detect kanamycin in milk. The fact that there was no significant cross-reaction with other aminoglycoside antibiotics implied that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for kanamycin. The limit of detection (LOD and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 in raw milk were 3.2 ng/mL and 52.5 ng/mL, respectively. Using the method developed in this study, the kanamycin concentrations were monitored in raw milk after the intramuscular administration of kanamycin in sick cows. Compared to the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the method using the suspension array system was more sensitive. The results obtained in the present study showed a good correlation with that of the ELISA.

  13. Surveillance of Kanamycin Resistance to Escherichia coli from Swine by Digoxigenin-labled Plasmid Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Han-chun; ZHAO Jing; LIU Jin-hua; ZHA Zhen-lin; CHEN Yan-hong


    A 4.34kb EcoR I fragment of kanamycin resistance plasmid from pET - 9a was purified by a DNA purification kit. The fragment was labeled with digoxigenin-dUTP with a commercial kit. A dot-blot hybridization and a colony hybridization test with the probe were successfully developed for the surveillance of Kanamycin resistance to E. coli from swine. It was shown that the methods obtained 100% concordance in a positive tate. It was indicated that the method was available for the surveillance of kanamycin resistance to E.coli from swine.

  14. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment (United States)

    Asadi, Asadollah


    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  15. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eWalsh


    Full Text Available Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and two weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control. High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  16. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities. (United States)

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E


    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems.

  17. Overexpression of the Chromosomally Encoded Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase eis Confers Kanamycin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Analise Zaunbrecher; R. David Sikes; Beverly Metchock; Thomas M. Shinnick; James E. Posey


    .... The aminoglycosides kanamycin and amikacin are important bactericidal drugs used to treat MDR TB, and resistance to one or both of these drugs is a defining characteristic of extensively drug-resistant TB...

  18. Impact of kanamycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in melanocytes--an in vitro study. (United States)

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Buszman, Ewa


    Aminoglycosides, broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotics, are used in various infections therapy due to their good antimicrobial characteristics. However, their adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity and auditory ototoxicity, as well as some toxic effects directed to pigmented tissues, complicate the use of these agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotic-kanamycin on viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in cultured human normal melanocytes (HEMa-LP). It has been demonstrated that kanamycin induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was found to be ~6.0 mM. Kanamycin suppressed melanin biosynthesis: antibiotic was shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in the cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT and GPx were stated in melanocytes exposed to kanamycin. Moreover, it was observed that kanamycin caused depletion of antioxidant defense sytem. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of kanamycin on melanogenesis and not sufficient antioxidant defense mechanism in melanocytes in vitro may explain the potential mechanisms of undesirable side effects of this drug directed to pigmented tissues in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-hyaluronic acid (HA) nanofibers with kanamycin inhibits the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. (United States)

    Ahire, J J; Robertson, D D; van Reenen, A J; Dicks, L M T


    Listeria monocytogenes is well known to cause prosthetic joint infections in immunocompromised patients. In this study, polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers, containing kanamycin and hyaluronic acid (HA), were prepared by electrospinning at a constant electric field of 10kV. PEO nanofibers spun with 0.2% (w/v) HA and 1% (w/v) kanamycin had a smooth, bead-free structure at 30-35% relative humidity. The average diameter of the nanofibers was 83±20nm. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that kanamycin was successfully incorporated into PEO/HA matrix. The presence of kanamycin affects the thermal properties of PEO/HA nanofibers, as shown by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The kanamycin-PEO-HA nanofibers (1mg; 47±3μg kanamycin) inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes EDGe by 62%, as compared with PEO-HA nanofibers, suggesting that it may be used to coat prosthetic implants to prevent secondary infections.

  20. Ultra-sensitive detection of kanamycin for food safety using a reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescent aptasensor (United States)

    Ha, Na-Reum; Jung, In-Pil; La, Im-Joung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Yoon, Moon-Young


    Overuse of antibiotics has caused serious problems, such as appearance of super bacteria, whose accumulation in the human body through the food chain is a concern. Kanamycin is a common antibiotic used to treat diverse infections; however, residual kanamycin can cause many side effects in humans. Thus, development of an ultra-sensitive, precise, and simple detection system for residual kanamycin in food products is urgently needed for food safety. In this study, we identified kanamycin-binding aptamers via a new screening method, and truncated variants were analyzed for optimization of the minimal sequence required for target binding. We found various aptamers with high binding affinity from 34.7 to 669 nanomolar Kdapp values with good specificity against kanamycin. Furthermore, we developed a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based fluorescent aptasensor for kanamycin detection. In this system, kanamycin was detected at a concentration as low as 1 pM (582.6 fg/mL). In addition, this method could detect kanamycin accurately in kanamycin-spiked blood serum and milk samples. Consequently, this simple, rapid, and sensitive kanamycin detection system with newly structural and functional analysis aptamer exhibits outstanding detection compared to previous methods and provides a new possibility for point of care testing and food safety.

  1. Degradation of streptomycin in aquatic environment: kinetics, pathway, and antibacterial activity analysis. (United States)

    Shen, Yanru; Zhao, Wenyan; Zhang, Chunling; Shan, Yujie; Shi, Junxian


    Streptomycin used in human and veterinary medicine is released into the environment mainly through excretions. As such, its elimination in water should be investigated to control pollution. In this study, the degradation of streptomycin in water was studied, and the influence of variables, including light exposure, solution pH, temperature, ionic strength, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and coexisting surfactants, on degradation was investigated. Streptomycin degradation was consistent with the first-order model in aquatic environments. Its degradation rate under light exposure was 2.6-fold faster than that in the dark. Streptomycin was stable under neutral conditions, but it was easily decomposed in acidic and basic environments. Streptomycin degradation was enhanced by high temperature, and its half-life decreased from 103.4 days at 15 °C to 30.9 days at 40 °C. This process was also accelerated by the presence of Ca(2+) and slightly improved by the addition of HA. Streptomycin degradation was suppressed by high levels of the cationic surfactant cetyltri- methylammonium bromide (CTAB), but was promoted by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The main degradation intermediates/products were identified through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the possible degradation pathway was proposed. The antibacterial activity of streptomycin solution was also determined during degradation. Results showed that STR degradation generated intermediates/products with weaker antibacterial activity than the parent compound.

  2. Streptomycin binds to the decoding center of 16 S ribosomal RNA. (United States)

    Spickler, C; Brunelle, M N; Brakier-Gingras, L


    Streptomycin, an error-inducing aminoglycoside antibiotic, binds to a single site on the small ribosomal subunit of bacteria, but this site has not yet been defined precisely. Here, we demonstrate that streptomycin binds to E. coli 16 S rRNA in the absence of ribosomal proteins, and protects a set of bases in the decoding region against dimethyl sulfate attack. The binding studies were performed in a high ionic strength buffer containing 20 mM Mg2+. The pattern of protection in the decoding region was similar to that observed when streptomycin binds to the 30 S subunit. However, streptomycin also protects the 915 region of 16 S rRNA within the 30 S subunit, whereas it did not protect the 915 region of the naked 16 S rRNA. The interaction of streptomycin with 16 S rRNA was further defined by using two fragments that correspond to the 3' minor domain of 16 S rRNA and to the decoding analog, a portion of this domain encompassing the decoding center. In the presence of streptomycin, the pattern of protection against dimethyl sulfate attack for the two fragments was similar to that seen with the full-length 16 S rRNA. This indicates that the 3' minor domain as well as the decoding analog contain the recognition signals for the binding of streptomycin. However, streptomycin could not bind to the decoding analog in the absence of Mg2+. This contrasts with neomycin, another error-inducing aminoglycoside antibiotic, that binds to the decoding analog in the absence of Mg2+, but not at 20 mM Mg2+. Our results suggest that both neomycin and streptomycin interact with the decoding center, but recognize alternative conformations of this region.

  3. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel


    The aminoglycoside kanamycin is a commonly used antibiotic, but unfortunately it is oto- and nephrotoxic in large doses. The negative effects are thought to be due to the formation of free radicals which is why strong antioxidants and iron chelators like 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) are of great...... interest. This study estimates cellular quantitative changes in the utricular macula of mice following systemic treatment with kanamycin alone or in combination with DHB. The animals were injected with either saline, kanamycin or kanamycin+DHB for 15 days and perfusion fixed three weeks after last...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  4. Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Abdullah


    Full Text Available From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50% were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06 µg kg-1, while 14 bovine meat samples (60.86% were positive to residual streptomycin with a mean value 59.56 µg kg-1. From the results, it is clear that all tested meat samples (ovine and bovine were safe enough for human consumption.

  5. Spectroscopic study of the competitive interaction between streptomycin and Evans blue to bovine serum albumin (United States)

    Huang, Jü-qin; Lv, Qing-luan; Wang, Huai You


    The mechanism of the competitive interaction of streptomycin and Evans blue (EB) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by using both fluorimetry and spectrophtometry. Effects of pH, streptomycin and concentration of EB on the competitive interaction of streptomycin and EB were examined. A static fluorescence quenching process was confirmed in the light of Stern-Volmer plot. The test result showed that there were strong and weak binding sites on BSA molecule and the binding constant of EB-BSA complex and the number of binding site n were obtained. These facts revealed that the competitive interaction was occurred between EB and streptomycin, which can possibly provide useful message in investigation of the interaction of antibiotic with BSA.

  6. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay (United States)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang


    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  7. Effect of streptomycin treatment on bacterial community structure in the apple phyllosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Yashiro

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of many years of streptomycin use in apple orchards on the proportion of phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin and bacterial community structure. Leaf samples were collected during early July through early September from four orchards that had been sprayed with streptomycin during spring of most years for at least 10 years and four orchards that had not been sprayed. The percentage of cultured phyllosphere bacteria resistant to streptomycin at non-sprayed orchards (mean of 65% was greater than at sprayed orchards (mean of 50% (P = 0.0271. For each orchard, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed from leaf samples. Proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities at all orchards, accounting for 71 of 104 OTUs (determined at 97% sequence similarity and 93% of all sequences. The genera Massilia, Methylobacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were shared across all sites. Shannon and Simpson's diversity indices and Pielou's evenness index were similar among orchards regardless of streptomycin use. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM indicated that long-term streptomycin treatment did not account for the observed variability in community structure among orchards (R = -0.104, P = 0.655. Other variables, including time of summer, temperature and time at sampling, and relative distance of the orchards from each other, also had no significant effect on bacterial community structure. We conclude that factors other than streptomycin exposure drive both the proportion of streptomycin-resistant bacteria and phylogenetic makeup of bacterial communities in the apple phyllosphere in middle to late summer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Kullačová


    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae family includes parasitic plants that attack many important food crops. Genus Phelipanche, belonging to this family is considered to cause high negative impact on food production. Developing Phelipanche plant must establish connection with the root of host plant, from which it receives all resources needed for further development. Nowadays big effort is directed to finding a reliable strategy to control parasitic plants. In vitro cultures of P. ramosa can be genetically manipulated and used for study of genes involved in host-parasite interactions. We established in vitro cultures of parasitic species Phelipanche ramosa on solid and liquid media in parallel. The obtained results point out that development of P. ramosa calli was origin specific. We tested the effect of antibiotic kanamycin on in vitro cultures of Phelipanche ramosa with aim to develop system for its genetic manipulation and selection of transgenic tissue using kanamycin- resistance approach. The selection pressure of kanamycin was stronger in liquid grown cultures. However, concentrations of kanamycin tested (up to 250 mg.l-1 did not ensured elimination of kanamycine non-resistant tissue. Tests of other candidate selection markers are currently in progress.

  9. Streptomycin action to the mammalian inner ear vestibular organs: comparison between pigmented guinea pigs and rats. (United States)

    Meza, Graciela; Aguilar-Maldonado, Beatriz


    Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice to treat tuberculosis and other infectious diseases but it causes vestibular malfunction and hipoacusia. Rodents are usually employed as models of drug action to the inner ear and results are extrapolated to what happens in humans. In rats, streptomycin destroys macular sensory cells and does not affect cochlear ones, whereas in guinea pigs the contrary is true. Action on the vestibular cristae cells involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex integrity is less clear. Thus, we compared this response in both pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) after parallel streptomycin chronic treatment. In guinea pigs, the reflex was obliterated along treatment time; in rats this behavior was not observed, suggesting that the end organ target was diverse. In recent studies, streptidine, a streptomycin derivative found in the blood of humans and rats treated with streptomycin, was the actual ototoxic agent. The putative streptomycin vestibular organ target observed in humans corresponds with the guinea pig observations. Results observed in rats are controversial: streptidine did not cause any damage either to vestibular cristae nor auditory cells. We hypothesize differential drug metabolism and distribution and conclude that results in laboratory animals may not always be applicable in the human situation.

  10. Comparison of the action of streptomycin and neomycin on the structure of the bacterial ribosome. (United States)

    Noreau, J; Grisé-Miron, L; Brakier-Gingras, L


    The influence of streptomycin and neomycin upon the conformation of the ribosome has been investigated using spin-labeled and fluorescent analogs of the sulfhydryl reagent, N-ethylmaleimide. Changes in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra or in the polarization of fluorescence of labeled ribosomes reveal that streptomycin alters the mobility of labels bound to the sulfhydryl group of protein S18 while neomycin affects the mobility of labels bound to the sulfhydryl groups of proteins S1, S21 and/or L10. It is also observed that both streptomycin and neomycin interfere with changes in the mobility of labels induced by storage under inactivating conditions. From these results, it is concluded that: 1. streptomycin and neomycin distort the conformation of the ribosome at different sites, streptomycin disturbing preferentially the area around the sulfhydryl group of protein S18 while neomycin affects the environment of the sulfhydryl groups of proteins S1, S21 and/or L10; 2. streptomycin and neomycin interefere with the ability of the ribosome to undergo conformational changes.

  11. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes. (United States)

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona


    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances.

  12. Quantification of amikacin and kanamycin in serum using a simple and validated LC-MS/MS method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob A.; Sturkenboom, Marieke G. G.; van Hateren, Kai; Koster, Remco A.; Greijdanus, Ben; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.


    Background: Amikacin and kanamycin are frequently used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. The current commercially available immunoassay is unable to analyze kanamycin and trough levels of amikacin. The objective was therefore to develop a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of amikacin

  13. Ototoxicity screening of patients treated with streptomycin using distortion product otoacoustic emissions. (United States)

    Md Daud, M K; Mohamadl, H; Haron, A; Rahman, N A


    Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is currently widely used to monitor ototoxicity, but this method is time-consuming. Here we validate distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) as an instrument for early detection of ototoxicity. A cohort study was performed on newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients who were treated with streptomycin. The patients underwent hearing assessment using conventional PTA and high-frequency DPOAE (8, 9 and 10 kHz) on days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 of streptomycin treatment. Detection of ototoxicity according to the duration of streptomycin treatment was compared between DPOAE and PTA. Of 96 newly diagnosed patients treated with streptomycin, 50 completed the study. During the treatment period, 62.5% of the patients had vertigo, while 37.5% complained of tinnitus. DPOAE detected ototoxicity in 47.7% of the cases at day 7, 66.0% at day 14, 70.0% at day 28 and 77.1% at day 56 of streptomycin treatment. The higher frequencies were affected more by ototoxicity, with significant differences at 8 vs. 9 kHz on all testing days and at 9 vs. 10 kHz except on days 7 and 56 (p ototoxicity. Use of DPOAE rather than PTA to screen for ototoxicity could reduce screening time and would allow clinical monitoring of more patients.

  14. Streptomycin ototoxicity and hair cell regeneration in the adult pigeon utricle (United States)

    Frank, T. C.; Dye, B. J.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to investigate the regeneration of utricular hair cells in the adult pigeon (Columba livia) following complete hair cell loss through administration of streptomycin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. METHODS: Animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 10 to 15 days of systemic streptomycin injections. Animals in Groups 2 and 3 received a single direct placement of a 1-, 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose into the perilymphatic space. Animals in Groups 1 and 2 were analyzed within 1 week from injection to investigate hair cell destruction, whereas Group 3 was investigated at later dates to study hair cell recovery. Group 4 animals received a control injection of saline into the perilymphatic space. Damage and recovery were quantified by counting hair cells in isolated utricles using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Although systemic injections failed to reliably achieve complete utricular hair cell destruction, a single direct placement of a 2-, 4-, or 8-mg streptomycin dose caused complete destruction within the first week. Incomplete hair cell loss was observed with the 1-mg dose. Over the long term, regeneration of the hair cells was seen with the 2-mg dose but not the 8-mg dose. Control injections of saline into the perilymphatic space caused no measurable hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS: Direct placement of streptomycin into the perilymph is an effective, reliable method for complete destruction of utricular hair cells while preserving the regenerative potential of the neuroepithelium.

  15. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD (United States)

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095 bp.) harboring tet(O) was identified in...

  16. Screening of Transgenic Soybean Transformed by Means of Pollen-tube Using Kanamycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuzhen; XU Pengfei; ZHANG Dayong; LIN Shifeng; LI Wenbin; HAN Yingpeng; YANG Chuanping


    Kanamycin was used to screen T0 seeds of the variety Dongnong 46 transformed by means of and 2 positive plants were gotten combined with Gus dyeing and PCR detection. It is proved that this method is economic and effective in preliminary screening the transgenic plants.

  17. Doxycycline plus streptomycin versus ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin in spinal brucellosis [ISRCTN31053647

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumerkan Bulent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen and duration of the therapy is still controversial in spinal brucellosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, adverse drug reactions, complications and cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin versus doxycycline plus streptomycin in the treatment of spinal brucellosis. Methods The patients diagnosed as spinal brucellosis between January 2002 to December 2004 were enrolled into the study. Patients were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups (doxycycline plus streptomycin vs. ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin consecutively. For the cost analysis of the two regimens, only the cost of antibiotic therapy was analysed for each patient. Results During the study period, 31 patients with spinal brucellosis were enrolled into the two antimicrobial therapy groups. Fifteen patients were included in doxycycline plus streptomycin group and 16 patients were included in ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group. Forty-two levels of spinal column were involved in 31 patients. The most common affected site was lumbar spine (n = 32, 76% and involvement level was not different in two groups. Despite the disadvantages (older age, more prevalent operation and abscess formation before the therapy of the patients in the ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin group, the duration of the therapy (median 12 weeks in both groups and clinical response were not different from the doxycycline plus streptomycin. The cost of ciprofloxacin plus rifampicin therapy was 1.2 fold higher than the cost of doxycycline plus streptomycin therapy. Conclusion Classical regimen (doxycycline plus streptomycin, with the appropriate duration (at least 12 weeks, is still the first line antibiotics and alternative therapies should be considered when adverse drug reactions were observed.

  18. [Features of Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 and its streptomycin-resistant strain]. (United States)

    Roĭ, A A; Iatsenko, I P; Gordienko, A S; Kurdish, I K


    Features of phosphate-mobilizing bacteria Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 and its streptomycin-resistant strain were investigated. While cultivated in medium with glucose and glycerophosphate, the growth rate of the antibiotic-marked strain was approximately similar to this parameter for Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 but cell sizes were 1.3-fold less. Both strains significantly stimulated the germinating of plant seeds, attached to their roots, and insignificantly differed in antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens and quantitative content of cell fatty acids and phosphatase activity. Streptomycin-resistant strain may be used for monitoring of Bacillus subtilis introduced to agroecosystem.

  19. Long Term Streptomycin Toxicity in the Treatment of Buruli Ulcer : Follow-up of Participants in the BURULICO Drug Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, Sandor; Stienstra, Ymkje; Phillips, Richard O.; Abass, Kabiru Mohammed; Tuah, Wilson; van der Werf, Tjip S.


    Background: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a tropical infectious skin disease that is currently treated with 8 weeks of intramuscular streptomycin and oral rifampicin. As prolonged streptomycin administration can cause both oto- and nephrotoxicity, we evaluated its long term toxicity by following-up former BU

  20. Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; Granier, S.A.; Perrin-Guyomard, A.; Gicquel-Bruneau, M.; Franco, A.; Englund, S.; Teale, C.; Heiska, H.; Clemente, L.; Boerlin, P.; Moreno, M.A.; Daignault, D.; Mevius, D.J.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Aarestrup, F.M.


    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32¿mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates we

  1. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming


    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  2. Acute and subchronic neuromuscular blocking characteristics of streptomycin: a comparison with neomycin. (United States)

    Lee, C; deSilva, A J


    The characteristics of the neuromuscular block produced by streptomycin in vivo were studied on the sciatic-tibialis anterior nerve-muscle preparation of eight anaesthetized cats. The lungs of the animals were ventilated mechanically and normocarbia was maintained. During acute exposure to streptomycin (within 2 h), ED50 for blockade of the twitch was 56 (SEM +/- 5) mg kg-1 of the base. The characteristics of block were similar to those of neomycin-induced block in some aspects. There was absence of train-of-four fade and tetanic fade, partial sparing of the responses elicited at 10 Hz and 20 Hz, and total sparing of the 50 Hz tetanus, as well as the post-tetanic twitch. In contrast to neomycin-induced neuromuscular block, however, post-tetanic exhaustion was not observed and prolonged exposure to streptomycin (22-28 h) did not change the characteristics of the block. We conclude that, despite their chemical similarities, streptomycin and neomycin block neuromuscular transmission differently.

  3. Effects of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin and neomycin, on neuromuscular transmission. II. Postsynaptic considerations. (United States)

    Fiekers, J F


    The postsynaptic effects of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin and neomycin, were studied on miniature end-plate currents (mepcs) and acetylcholine-induced end-plate current fluctuations in voltage-clamped costocutaneous muscles of the garter snake (species Thamnophis). Neomycin decreased the amplitude of mepcs and accelerated the time constants of mepc decay in a concentration-dependent manner without altering the single exponential nature of mepc decay. Neomycin also produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent nonlinearity in the current/voltage relationship. The relationship between the time constants of mepc decay and membrane potential was progressively reduced with increasing concentrations of neomycin. A concentration-dependent reduction in single channel conductance and channel lifetime was also obtained with neomycin. In contrast, streptomycin, in concentrations up to 5 X 10(-5) M, did not significantly alter either mepc amplitude, the time constant of mepc decay, the relationship between the mepc decay time constant and membrane potential or the lifetime and conductance of single end-plate channels. In very high concentrations (greater than 1 mM) streptomycin decreased mepc amplitude and prolonged mepc decay at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. The results suggest that neomycin interacts with the ionic channels of the acetylcholine receptor in their open configuration, whereas streptomycin acts primarily by blocking the receptor. The significant differences in the molecular actions of these two antibiotics may provide an explanation for the observed differences in the character and reversal of the neuromuscular block produced by these antibiotics.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of phenolics and glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their synergy with streptomycin against pathogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Saavedra, Maria J; Borges, Anabela; Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo S; Simões, Manuel


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed that all of the isothiocyanates had significant antimicrobial activities, while the phenolics were much less efficient. No antimicrobial activity was observed with phloridzin. In general P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism and L. monocytogenes the most resistant. The application of dual combinations demonstrated synergy between streptomycin and gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, allylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate against the Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, phytochemical products and more specifically the isothiocyanates were effective inhibitors of the in vitro growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, they can act synergistically with less efficient antibiotics to control bacterial growth.

  5. Report concerning the colaborative study for establish of reference standard eficacity of Kanamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sturzu


    Full Text Available The Microbiology Laboratory from the Institute for the Control of Veterinary Biological Products and Medicines participated to a collaborative study in order to determine the potency of kanamycin CRS, batch 3, according to the protocol sent by the EDQM (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines - coordinating of the study. The purpose of the study was to establish the potency of the batch 3 for in the characterization of the substance as reference standard. Potency was determined by microbiological method, based on comparison of the inhibition zones of growth of micro-organisms sensitive to those of a reference standard, as specified in European Pharmacopoeia, Chapter 2.7.2. - Microbiological testing of antibiotics. After analysis of received data from participants and their statistical processing by the EDQM, the potency of the batch 3, kanamycin - reference materials, was established in 790 UI/mg.

  6. MAPLE fabrication of thin films based on kanamycin functionalized magnetite nanoparticles with anti-pathogenic properties (United States)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Stănculescu, Anca; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen


    In this study we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of kanamycin functionalized 5 nm-magnetite (Fe3O4@KAN) nanoparticles thin films deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. A laser deposition regime was established in order to stoichiometrically transfer Fe3O4@KAN thin films on silicone and glass substrates. Morphological and physico-chemical properties of powders and coatings were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM and IR microscopy (IRM). Our nanostructured thin films have proved efficiency in the prevention of microbial adhesion and mature biofilms development as a result of antibiotic release in its active form. Furthermore, kanamycin functionalized nanostructures exhibit a good biocompatibility, both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating their potential for implants application. This is the first study reporting the assessment of the in vivo biocompatibility of a magnetite-antimicrobial thin films produced by MAPLE technique.

  7. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia confirmed by supplementation of kanamycin; a case report. (United States)

    Ahn, Hae Lyun; Jo, Young Il; Choi, Young Suk; Lee, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hae Woon; Kim, Seong Ryul; Sim, Joon; Lee, Weon; Jin, Chun Jo


    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to EDTA-induced aggregation of platelets. Since the failure to recognize EDTA-dependent PTCP may result in incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment, the recognition of this phenomenon is very important. We report an insidious case of EDTA-dependent PTCP confirmed by supplementation of kanamycin to anticoagulant in a 53-year-old women. Although sodium citrate and heparin usually prevented the aggregation of platelets in EDTA-dependent PTCP patients, these anticoagulants failed in preventing PTCP in our case. EDTA-dependent PTCP was confirmed by the findings that the clumping of platelets on microscopic evaluation was found in EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, whereas thrombocytopenia and platelet aggregation were not revealed in the sample supplemented with kanamycin.

  8. Evaluation of genetic mutations associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georghiou, Sophia B; Magana, Marisa; Garfein, Richard S; Catanzaro, Donald G; Catanzaro, Antonino; Rodwell, Timothy C


    ...%. While this relationship is well established and reliable for first-line anti-TB drugs, rifampin and isoniazid, it is less well-studied and understood for second-line, injectable drugs, amikacin (AMK), kanamycin (KAN) and capreomycin (CAP...

  9. Management of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum with single-dose kanamycin and ocular irrigation with saline. (United States)

    Latif, A; Mason, P; Marowa, E; Paraiwa, E; Dhamu, F; Tambo, J; Gwanzura, L; Mapeta, D; Jongeling, G


    Two hundred nineteen neonates with gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, including 40 infected with penicillinase-producing strains, were treated as outpatients with a single intramuscular injection of 100 mg of kanamycin and hourly ocular irrigation with saline. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from three (1.4%) of the 212 babies attending for follow-up, and post-gonococcal conjunctivitis developed in 22 (10.4%) of those who returned for follow-up.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/ in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/ Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  11. Microcalorimetric Evaluation of the Effect of Kanamycin: An Analysis Based on the Median-Effect Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Li-Heng; FAN,Dai-Di; SHANG,Long-An; SHI,Hui-Juan; MA,Xiao-Xuan; MI,Yu; GU,Li-Feng; XU,Kang-Zhen


    A study of the effect of drug, kanamycin, on the growth metabolism of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 was carried out by microcalorimeter monitoring of the metabolic activity of treated cells. Power-time curves of growing recombinant Escherichia coli cell suspensions, treated with different kanamycin doses, were recorded. The extent of the effect was evaluated by changes in the slopes of the microcalorimetric curves and the kinetics of the drug action was interpreted from the time at which these changes reached their maximum values and maintained their maximum values. Experimental dose-effect relationships conform to the median-effect principle of the mass-action law:fa/(1-fa)=(D/D50)m. A plot of y=lg[(fa)1- 1]-1 versus x=lg D gives the slope m, D50 and R∞. The experimental results revealed that high concentration of kanamycin had an inhibitory effect on the growth of recombinant Escherichia coli B1 in the lg phase, and had a promoting effect in the stationary period. Moreover, it was demonstrated that microcalorimetry was a reliable method for the detection of modulatory effects in biology.

  12. An Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter that confers kanamycin resistance in transgenic plants does not endow resistance to Escherichia coli


    Burris, Kellie; Mentewab, Ayalew; Ripp, Steven; Stewart, C. Neal


    Summary Concerns have been raised about potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance markers (ARMs) from transgenic plants to bacteria of medical and environmental importance. All ARMs used in transgenic plants have been bacterial in origin, but it has been recently shown that an Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter, Atwbc19, confers kanamycin resistance when overexpressed in transgenic plants. Atwbc19 was evaluated for its ability to transfer kanamycin resistance to Esch...

  13. Effects of streptomycin and neomycin on the adrenal medulla of dogs. (United States)

    Corrado, A P; Guimarães, A F; Prado, W A


    The blocking effects of streptomycin and neomycin upon adrenal neurotransmission were studied in dogs. The pressor responses to splanchnic nerve stimulation (SNS) or 50 micrograms/kg nicotine were both blocked by 100 mg/kg but not by 50 mg/kg of the antibiotics injected systemically through the femoral vein. The effect was reversed by intravenous infusion of calcium chloride. The pressor response to SNS, but not that to nicotine, was blocked by the antibiotics injected into the adrenal gland through the adrenolumbar vein at doses up to 10 mg/kg. This effect was reversed by 50 micrograms/kg calcium chloride. Higher doses of antibiotics blocked the response to both stimuli, with only the response to nicotine being reversed by calcium chloride. These data indicate that streptomycin and neomycin block adrenal neurotransmission by interfering with calcium ions at pre- or pre-plus postsynaptic levels depending on the dose and route of administration.

  14. Effects of the antibiotics penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline on the karyology of Oedogonium gunnii Wittr. (Chlorophyceae). (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Sarma, Y S


    Effects of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline were seen on the karyology of a filamentous green alga, Oedogonium gunnii Wittr. Various nuclear and chromosomal aberrations such as, fragmentation of the chromosomes, extreme clumping and unequal groupings of the chromosomes, vacuolization of nuclei and nucleoli, and irregular anaphase chromatid breaks, were observed in the materials treated with 500 and 750 micrograms/ml streptomycin, and 250 and 500 micrograms/ml tetracycline, and which, however, were not seen with any of the concentrations of penicillin employed. With lower concentrations of the three antibiotics given continuously for longer duration, several aberrations were observed. The frequency of the aberrations did not seem to follow a regular pattern and varied with each antibiotic and the duration of treatment.

  15. Study of streptomycin-induced ototoxicity: protocol for a longitudinal study


    Adeyemo, Adebolajo A.; Oluwatosin, Odunayo; Olayemi O Omotade


    Hearing impairment is due to various causes including ototoxicity from aminoglycosides. The susceptibility to aminoglycosides increases in the presence of certain mitochondria gene mutations. There is unrestrained use of aminoglycosides in many developing nations which may worsen the burden of hearing impairment in these countries but there is lack of data to drive required policy changes. Streptomycin (an aminoglycoside) is part of the drug regimen in re-treatment of tuberculosis. Exploring ...

  16. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li


    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  17. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne


    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...... were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n = 23), strA (n = 9), and strB (n = 11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4 mg/L harbored resistance genes....... Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16 mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32 mg/L would have misclassified 13...

  18. Using whole-genome sequencing to determine appropriate streptomycin epidemiological cutoffs for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Li, Cong; Ayers, Sherry; McDermott, Patrick F; Zhao, Shaohua


    For Enterobacteriaceae such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, no unified interpretive resistance criteria exist for streptomycin, an epidemiologically important antibiotic. As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, we had previously used a minimum inhibitory concentration of ≥ 64 μg mL(-1) as an epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) to define non-wild-type isolates. To identify whether this ECV correlated with genetic determinants of resistance, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 463 Salmonella and E. coli isolates to identify streptomycin resistance genotypes. From this analysis, we found that using a streptomycin resistance breakpoint of ≥ 64 μg mL(-1) classified over 20% of strains possessing aadA or strA/strB resistance genes as wild-type. Therefore, to improve the concordance between genotypic and phenotypic data, we propose reducing the phenotypic cutoff values to ≥ 32 μg mL(-1) for both Salmonella and E. coli, to be used widely as ECVs to categorize non-wild-type isolates.

  19. Culture-independent detection of "TM7" bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process (United States)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.


    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L-1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  20. Characterization of Streptomycin Resistance in Isolates of Erwinia amylovora in California. (United States)

    Förster, Helga; McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W; Adaskaveg, James E


    In surveys from 2006 to 2014, streptomycin resistance in Erwinia amylovora from pear-growing areas in California declined from very high incidence in 2006 and 2007 to very low incidence in 2013 and 2014. The majority of resistant strains were designated as moderately resistant-low (MR-L), and were almost exclusively found in Sacramento County, whereas highly resistant (HR) strains were only recovered in Sutter-Yuba and San Joaquin counties. Resistance of HR strains was associated with a mutation in codon 43 of the chromosomal rpsL gene that results in a change from lysine to arginine, the same mutation that was originally reported for resistant strains from California in the mid-1970s. MR-L strains were found to harbor the strA-strB streptomycin resistance genes on transposon Tn5393a. This transposon lacks insertion sequence IS1133 that provides a promoter for efficient expression of strA-strB, resulting in lower minimum inhibitory concentrations of MR-L strains compared with those from other locations that harbor strA-strB on Tn5393::IS1133. In contrast to previously described plasmid-mediated resistance where Tn5393 is inserted in pEa34, or pEA29, Tn5393a in MR-L strains was located on plasmid pEU30. This plasmid was first described in E. amylovora from the western United States but was not associated with streptomycin resistance determinants previously. We hypothesize that Tn5393a was introduced into an E. amylovora strain carrying pEU30 and transposed into that plasmid. This hypothesis was supported by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequence analysis that showed that two MR-L strains share the same CRISPR1 pattern as a streptomycin-sensitive strain. With current low resistance levels in California growing regions, streptomycin could be successfully used again, but applications per season should be limited and the antibiotic should be mixed and rotated with different modes of action.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ciuca


    Full Text Available Ascomicin is an antibacterial unguent for treatment of local infections of skin, eyes, outer ear, in cattle, sheep, pig, dog and cat. The product contains two active substances: benzylpenicillin potassium (Penicillin G potassium and streptomycin sulphate. The main characteristic of commercial product is benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate potency. The potency is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Ascomicin product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50 per cent and not more than 200 per cent of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95 per cent and not more than 105 per cent of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 19400 international units/g benzylpenicillin potassium and 13960 international units/g streptomycin sulphate. The validation

  2. Organogenesis and plant selection by kanamycin of strawberry in vitro aiming at genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Reis


    Full Text Available The success of genetic transformation of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is strongly influenced by the cultivar and depends on efficient regeneration and plant-transformed selection. In plant regeneration, efficient organogenesis depends on the concentrations of plant growth regulators that are present in the culture medium, and the response varies according to the explant type and cultivar. Similarly, in the selection of transformed plants, the sensitivity to selective agents induced by marker genes depends on the concentration of the selective substance in the regeneration medium and must be adjusted according to the chosen cultivar. The aim of this work was to test different combinations and concentrations of TDZ (Thidiazuron and IBA (indolebutyric-acid added to the base medium MS (MURASHIGE; SKOOG, 1962 for shoot regeneration of Camiño Real and Festival cultivars from leaf and petiole explants. In the case of ‘Camiño Real’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L-1 of IBA were tested. In the case of ‘Festival’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1 of IBA were evaluated. Another aim was to define the lowest concentration of the selective agent Kanamycin (marker gene npt II able to inhibit regeneration of the untransformed shoots. For this purpose, Kanamycin doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1 were added to the pre-established regeneration medium. In the petiole explant test, normal shoot regeneration did not occur; thus, only shoot regeneration and the sensitivity to Kanamycin from leaf explants were analyzed. For ‘Camiño Real’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. On the other hand, for ‘Festival’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.5 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. As far as Kanamycin sensitivity is concerned, total inhibition of the shoots was observed with 10 mg

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of streptomycin using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) biosensor. (United States)

    Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Bhand, Sunil


    This work presents the development of an ultrasensitive biosensor for detection of streptomycin residues in milk samples using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) technique. Monoclonal antibody specific to streptomycin was immobilized on to the thiol modified gold quartz crystal surface. A broad dynamic range (0.3-300 ng/mL) was obtained for streptomycin with a good linearity in the range 0.3-10 ng/mL for PBS and 0.3-50 ng/mL for milk. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) of the biosensor was found to be 0.994 and 0.997 for PBS and milk respectively. Excellent recoveries were obtained from the streptomycin spiked milk samples in the range 98-99.33%, which shows the applicability of the developed biosensor in milk. The reproducibility of the developed biosensor was found satisfactory with % RSD (n=5) 0.351. A good co-relation was observed between the streptomycin recoveries measured through the developed biosensor and the commercial ELISA kit. The analytical figures of merit of the developed biosensor confirm that the developed FIA-EQCN biosensor could be very effective for low-level detection of streptomycin in milk samples.

  4. Prevalence of transposons encoding kanamycin, ampicillin and trimethoprim resistance in isolates from urinary tract infections detected using DNA probes. (United States)

    Chang, S F; Chang, L L; Chow, T Y; Wu, W J; Chang, J C


    Drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections were collected. Kanamycin, ampicillin or trimethoprim-resistant strains were analyzed separately for the presence of Tn5, Tn3, or Tn7 by colony hybridization. Of these isolates, kanamycin-resistant transposons were present in 38.2% of 60 kanamycin-resistant isolates. A 3.3 kb fragment containing SacI-BamHI transposase of Tn3 and 42.6% showed a positive reaction in 129 ampicillin-resistant clinical isolates. Among the 75 trimethoprim-resistant isolates studied, 52% were shown to contain Tn7 when probed with a 1 kb BamHI fragment of Tn7. Results from Southern hybridizations demonstrated that these antibiotic resistant genes had been born on plasmids in some clinical isolates.

  5. Exogenous alanine and/or glucose plus kanamycin kills antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Su, Yu-Bin; Li, Hui; Han, Yi; Guo, Chang; Tian, Yao-Mei; Peng, Xuan-Xian


    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to human and animal health. However, novel drugs that can manage infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria have proved elusive. Here we show that glucose and alanine abundances are greatly suppressed in kanamycin-resistant Edwardsiella tarda by GC-MS-based metabolomics. Exogenous alanine or glucose restores susceptibility of multidrug-resistant E. tarda to killing by kanamycin, demonstrating an approach to killing multidrug-resistant bacteria. The mechanism underlying this approach is that exogenous glucose or alanine promotes the TCA cycle by substrate activation, which in turn increases production of NADH and proton motive force and stimulates uptake of antibiotic. Similar results are obtained with other Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), and the results are also reproduced in a mouse model for urinary tract infection. This study establishes a functional metabolomics-based strategy to manage infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Maritime Pine Based on Kanamycin Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Alvarez


    Full Text Available An efficient transformation protocol based on kanamycin selection was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine embryonal masses. The binary vector pBINUbiGUSint, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII as a selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (uidA as a reporter gene, was used for transformation studies. Different factors, such as embryogenic line, bacterial strain, bacterial concentration, and coculture duration, were examined and optimized. For selection of transformants, 15 mgL−1 kanamycin was used. The highest transformation efficiency (11.4 events per gram of fresh mass was achieved when a vigorously growing embryonal mass (embryogenic line L01 was cocultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 at the optical density (OD600 nm of 0.3 for 72 h. Evidence of the stable transgene integration was obtained by polymerase chain reaction for the nptII and uidA genes and expression of the uidA gene. Maturation capacity of the transgenic lines was negatively affected by the transformation process. Induction of axillary shoots by preculturing the embryos with benzyladenine allowed overcoming the low maturation rates of some transformed lines. The transgenic embryos were germinated and the axillar shoots were rooted. Transgenic plants were transferred to potting substrate showing normal growth.

  7. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine based on kanamycin selection. (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Ordás, Ricardo J


    An efficient transformation protocol based on kanamycin selection was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maritime pine embryonal masses. The binary vector pBINUbiGUSint, which contained neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) as a selectable marker gene and β -glucuronidase (uidA) as a reporter gene, was used for transformation studies. Different factors, such as embryogenic line, bacterial strain, bacterial concentration, and coculture duration, were examined and optimized. For selection of transformants, 15 mgL(-1) kanamycin was used. The highest transformation efficiency (11.4 events per gram of fresh mass) was achieved when a vigorously growing embryonal mass (embryogenic line L01) was cocultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 at the optical density (OD(600 nm)) of 0.3 for 72 h. Evidence of the stable transgene integration was obtained by polymerase chain reaction for the nptII and uidA genes and expression of the uidA gene. Maturation capacity of the transgenic lines was negatively affected by the transformation process. Induction of axillary shoots by preculturing the embryos with benzyladenine allowed overcoming the low maturation rates of some transformed lines. The transgenic embryos were germinated and the axillar shoots were rooted. Transgenic plants were transferred to potting substrate showing normal growth.

  8. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel


    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  9. Effects of the aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin and neomycin, on neuromuscular transmission. I. Presynaptic considerations. (United States)

    Fiekers, J F


    The effects of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin and neomycin, were studied in voltage-clamped transected twitch fibers of the costocutaneous muscles of garter snakes (species Thamnophis). The concentration-dependent effects of each antibiotic were quantitated by measuring miniature end-plate currents (mepcs) and evoked end-plate currents (epcs) in a single fiber before and in the presence of a wide range of concentrations of each antibiotic. The amplitude and the kinetics of these currents were studied and estimates of the quantal content of evoked transmitter release determined by the direct method of mean ratios, epc/mepc. A distinct separation was obtained between the concentrations of each antibiotic which demonstrated either pre- or postsynaptic actions. Both streptomycin and neomycin produced a concentration-dependent reduction in epc amplitude at concentrations which did not reduce mepc amplitude. Thus, the primary site of action for these antibiotics was considered of presynaptic origin. Streptomycin was approximately one-tenth as active as neomycin in reducing quantal release of acetylcholine. The marked depression in epc amplitude and quantal content produced by high concentrations of each antibiotic were reversed by elevating the external calcium concentration. Double logarithmic plots of the relationship between external calcium concentration and epc amplitude yielded a slope of approximately 3.8 in control physiological solution. In the presence of blocking concentrations of each antibiotic, increasing the external calcium concentration caused a parallel shift to the right of this relationship. These results suggest that the major mechanism for the neuromuscular depression produced by these aminoglycoside antibiotics is a competitive antagonism with calcium for a common presynaptic site required for evoked transmitter release.

  10. Study of streptomycin-induced ototoxicity: protocol for a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Adeyemo, Adebolajo A; Oluwatosin, Odunayo; Omotade, Olayemi O


    Hearing impairment is due to various causes including ototoxicity from aminoglycosides. The susceptibility to aminoglycosides increases in the presence of certain mitochondria gene mutations. There is unrestrained use of aminoglycosides in many developing nations which may worsen the burden of hearing impairment in these countries but there is lack of data to drive required policy changes. Streptomycin (an aminoglycoside) is part of the drug regimen in re-treatment of tuberculosis. Exploring the impact of streptomycin ototoxicity in tuberculosis patients provides a unique opportunity to study aminoglycoside ototoxicity within the population thus providing data that can inform policy. Also, since streptomycin ototoxicity could adversely affect treatment adherence in tuberculosis patients this study could enable better pre-treatment counseling with subsequent better treatment adherence. Patients on tuberculosis re-treatment will be recruited longitudinally from Direct Observation Therapy-Short course centers. A baseline full audiologic assessment will be done before commencement of treatment and after completion of treatment. Early detection of ototoxicity will be determined using the American Speech and Hearing Association criteria and genetic analysis to determine relevant mitochondria gene mutations will be done. The incidence of ototoxicity in the cohort will be analyzed. Both Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards tests will be utilized to determine factors associated with development of ototoxicity and to examine association between genotype status and ototoxicity. This study will provide data on the burden and associated predictors of developing aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity. This will inform public health strategies to regulate aminoglycoside usage and optimization of treatment adherence and the management of drug-induced ototoxicity among TB patients. Furthermore the study will describe mitochondrial gene mutations associated with

  11. Streptomycin treatment alters the intestinal microbiome, pulmonary T cell profile and airway hyperresponsiveness in a cystic fibrosis mouse model. (United States)

    Bazett, Mark; Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Haston, Christina K


    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient mouse models develop phenotypes of relevance to clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway hyperresponsiveness, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and an altered intestinal microbiome. As dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been recognized as an important contributor to many systemic diseases, herein we investigated whether altering the intestinal microbiome of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and wild-type littermates, through treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin, affects the CF lung, intestinal and bone disease. We demonstrate that streptomycin treatment reduced the intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and altered the intestinal microbiome similarly in Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice, principally by affecting Lactobacillus levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness of Cftr(tm1UNC) mice was ameliorated with streptomycin, and correlated with Lactobacillus abundance in the intestine. Additionally, streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice displayed an increased percentage of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph node Th17, CD8 + IL-17+ and CD8 + IFNγ+ lymphocytes, while the CF-specific increase in respiratory IL-17 producing γδ T cells was decreased in streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. Bone disease and intestinal phenotypes were not affected by streptomycin treatment. The airway hyperresponsiveness and lymphocyte profile of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice were affected by streptomycin treatment, revealing a potential intestinal microbiome influence on lung response in BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice.

  12. Phenotypic Suppression of Streptomycin Resistance by Mutations in Multiple Components of the Translation Apparatus (United States)

    Carr, Jennifer F.; Lee, Hannah J.; Jaspers, Joshua B.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald


    ABSTRACT The bacterial ribosome and its associated translation factors are frequent targets of antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance mutations have been found in a number of these components. Such mutations can potentially interact with one another in unpredictable ways, including the phenotypic suppression of one mutation by another. These phenotypic interactions can provide evidence of long-range functional interactions throughout the ribosome and its functional complexes and potentially give insights into antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this study, we used genetics and experimental evolution of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus to examine the ability of mutations in various components of the protein synthesis apparatus to suppress the streptomycin resistance phenotypes of mutations in ribosomal protein S12, specifically those located distant from the streptomycin binding site. With genetic selections and strain constructions, we identified suppressor mutations in EF-Tu or in ribosomal protein L11. Using experimental evolution, we identified amino acid substitutions in EF-Tu or in ribosomal proteins S4, S5, L14, or L19, some of which were found to also relieve streptomycin resistance. The wide dispersal of these mutations is consistent with long-range functional interactions among components of the translational machinery and indicates that streptomycin resistance can result from the modulation of long-range conformational signals. IMPORTANCE The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus has become a model system for high-resolution structural studies of macromolecular complexes, such as the ribosome, while its natural competence for transformation facilitates genetic approaches. Genetic studies of T. thermophilus ribosomes can take advantage of existing high-resolution crystallographic information to allow a structural interpretation of phenotypic interactions among mutations. Using a combination of genetic selections, strain constructions

  13. Influence of calcium preconditioning and streptomycin on ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the mechanism of ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias by dilating isolated rat hearts. Methods Isolated rat hearts were perfused by Langerdorff method. After equilibration, 80 hearts were randomly divided into four groups as follows: (1) control group (n=20), (2) Ca2+ preconditioning (CPC) group (n=20), (3) streptomycin group (n=20), and (4) CPC + streptomycin group (n=20). A latex balloon which can be filled with fluid was anchored in the left ventricle through the left atrium and mitral valve. Epicardial ECG of the left ventricle, left ventricular pressure, coronary flow and heart rate were recorded before and during ventricular dilation by injecting fluid into the latex balloon. The rate and duration of ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias were recorded. Results Under the same increase in ventricular end-diastolic pressure made by inflation of the balloon, the rate of arrhythmias was 100% and duration of arrhythmias was 2.56±0.46 s in the control group. Both the rates of premature ventricular beat (90 %) and ventricular tachycardia 70 % ) were high. Compared with the control group, the total rate (60 % ) of arrhythmias was lower, and duration (1.67±0.61 s ) of arrhythmias was shorter in the CPC group. Both the rates of premature ventricular beat (60%) and ventricular tachycardia (40%) were low comparatively. The rate of arrhythmias (45 %) was lower and duration ( 1.64±0.42 s)of arrhythmias was shorter, and the rates of premature ventricular beat (30 % ) or ventricular tachycardia (35 %) were lower in the streptomycin group than in the control one. The least ventricular dilation-induced arrhythmias occurred in the CPC + streptomycin group. The rate of arrhythmias (10%) was the lowest and duration (1.01±0.37s) of arrhythmias was the shortest; both the rates of premature ventricular beat (5%) and ventricular tachycardia (10%) were the lowest. Conclusions Ventricular dilation may induce arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts. Stretch

  14. Degradation of Oxytetracycline, Streptomycin, Sulphathiazole and Chloramphenicol Residues in Different Types of Honey

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    Milica Gačić


    Full Text Available Some of the most frequently used antibiotics in apiculture for the treatment of bacterial brood diseases are oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulphathiazole and streptomycin. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the degradation kinetics of the residua these antibiotics leave behind in diff erent types of honey stored in dark at 25 °C. The examined honey samples (N=74 originating from the Croatian market had satisfactory physicochemical properties and pollen characteristics. Quantitative analyses of antibiotic residues were done using HPLC and ELISA methods. No antibiotic residues were found in any of the tested acacia, chestnut, floral, meadow and honeydew honey samples (N=74. In the next step, each of the tested honey samples was supplemented with one of the following antibiotics (in mg/kg: oxytetracycline 10, chloramphenicol 200, sulphathiazole 200 or streptomycin 0.5. Relatively high mass fractions of antibiotics have been added to the honey because the stability of each antibiotic is highly dependent on the spiked antibiotic mass fraction and also on its chemical structure. During a 6-month storage in the dark at 25 °C, the dynamics of degradation of the studied antibiotics was proven to differ dependent on the type of honey into which the antibiotic was added. The half-life of oxytetracycline in the acacia, fl oral, meadow and honeydew honey stored in the dark at 25 °C was 15, 16, 17 and 19 days, respectively, while in the chestnut honey the decomposition failed to be seen even after 60 days of storage. In all examined honey samples, the half-life of chloramphenicol and sulphathiazole was proven to be longer than 6 months. The fastest decomposition was seen of oxytetracycline added into the acacia honey, followed by streptomycin and sulphathiazole added into the same, while the longest decomposition delay was seen when chloramphenicol was added into the fl oral honey. According to the results obtained using a linear model

  15. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Pradhan, Jonu [Department of Nanobio Medical Science, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Myung-Whan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeung Ju, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Cheol, E-mail: [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)


    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  16. Susceptibility Profiles of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Streptomycin and Rifampicin in Two Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana

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    Enid Owusu


    Full Text Available Background. Drug resistance is a major challenge in antibiotic chemotherapy. Assessing resistance profiles of pathogens constitutes an essential surveillance tool in the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases, including Buruli ulcer (BU disease. With the successful definitive management of BU using rifampicin and streptomycin, little attention had been paid to monitoring emergence of resistant Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans isolates in endemic communities. This study investigated the susceptibility profiles of M. ulcerans isolates from two BU endemic areas in Ghana to streptomycin and rifampicin. Methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of seventy (70 M. ulcerans isolates to rifampicin and streptomycin was determined simultaneously at critical concentrations of 40 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively, by the Canetti proportion method. Results. Resistance to rifampicin was observed for 12 (17.1% M. ulcerans isolates tested, whilst 2 (2.9% showed resistance to streptomycin. None of the isolates tested showed dual resistance to both rifampicin and streptomycin. Conclusion. Outcomes from this study may not be reflective of all BU endemic communities; it, however, provides information on the resistance status of the isolates, which is useful for monitoring of M. ulcerans, as well as BU disease surveillance and control.

  17. Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin

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    Sthéfane G. Araújo


    Full Text Available Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity.

  18. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples (United States)

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival


    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  19. Ultrastructural Study on the Antibacterial Activity of Artonin E versus Streptomycin against Staphylococcus aureus Strains. (United States)

    Zajmi, Asdren; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Ramli, Faiqah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; El-Seedi, Hesham R


    Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes, perfectly spherical un-encapsulated cocci, with a diameter not exceeding 1 micrometer in diameter. Staphylococcus aureus are generally harmless and remain confined to the skin unless they burrow deep into the body, causing life-threatening infections in bones, joints, bloodstream, heart valves and lungs. Among the 20 medically important staphylococci species, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the emerging human pathogens. Streptomycin had its highest potency against Staphylococcus infections despite the likelihood of getting a resistant type of staphylococcus strains. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the persister type of Staphylococcus aureus and was evolved after decades of antibiotic misuse. Inadequate penetration of the antibiotic is one of the principal factors related to success/failure of the therapy. The active drug needs to reach the bacteria at concentrations necessary to kill or suppress the pathogen's growth. In turn the effectiveness of the treatment relied on the physical properties of Staphylococcus aureus. Thus understanding the cell integrity, shape and roughness is crucial to the overall influence of the therapeutic agent on S. aureus of different origins. Hence our experiments were designed to clarify ultrastructural changes of S. aureus treated with streptomycin (synthetic compound) in comparison to artonin E (natural compound). In addition to the standard in vitro microbial techniques, we used transmission electron microscopy to study the disrupted cell architecture under antibacterial regimen and we correlate this with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to compare results of both techniques.

  20. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia


    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GidB mutation as a phylogenetic marker for Q1 cluster Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and intermediate-level streptomycin resistance determinant in Lisbon, Portugal. (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Macedo, R; Machado, D; Silva, C; Jordão, L; Couto, I; Viveiros, M; Portugal, I


    Development of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is usually associated with mutations in rpsL and rrs genes, although up to 50% of clinical streptomycin-resistant isolates may present no mutation in either of these genes. In the present report we investigate the role of gidB gene mutations in streptomycin resistance. We have analyzed 52 streptomycin-resistant and 30 streptomycin-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates by sequencing and endonuclease analysis of the gidB and rpsL genes. All clinical isolates were genotyped by 12-loci MIRU-VNTR. The gidB gene of 18 streptomycin-resistant isolates was sequenced and four missense mutations were found: F12L (1/18), L16R (18/18), A80P (4/18) and S100F (18/18). The remaining isolates were screened by endonuclease analysis for mutations A80P in the gidB gene and K43R in the rpsL gene. Overall, mutation A80P in the gidB gene was found in eight streptomycin-resistant isolates and 11 streptomycin-susceptible multidrug-resistant isolates. Also noteworthy, is the fact that gidB mutations were only present in isolates without rpsL and rrs mutations, all from genetic cluster Q1. Streptomycin quantitative drug susceptibility testing showed that isolates carrying the gidB A80P mutation were streptomycin intermediate-level resistant and that standard drug susceptibility testing yielded inconsistent results, probably due to borderline resistance. We conclude that gidB mutations may explain the high number of streptomycin-resistant strains with no mutation in rpsL or rrs. These mutations might occasionally confer low-level streptomycin resistance that will go undetected in standard susceptibility testing.

  2. Neamin as an immunogen for the development of a generic ELISA detecting gentamicin, kanamycin and neomycin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Wiltenburg, van J.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.


    A broad-specific ELISA using one antibody preparation for the detection of gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin in milk is reported for the first time. For the immunization of rabbits, neamin was used as the generic hapten on the basis of the facts that it is a two-ring fragment of neomycin and, in s

  3. Limited sampling strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring of amikacin and kanamycin in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.A.; van Altena, R.; Akkerman, O. W.; de Lange, W. C. M.; Proost, J. H.; van der Werf, T. S.; Kosterink, J. G. W.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.


    Amikacin and kanamycin are considered important and effective drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Unfortunately, the incidence of toxicity is high and is related to elevated drug exposure. In order to achieve a balance between efficacy and toxicity, a population phar

  4. Neamin as an immunogen for the development of a generic ELISA detecting gentamicin, kanamycin and neomycin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Wiltenburg, van J.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.


    A broad-specific ELISA using one antibody preparation for the detection of gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin in milk is reported for the first time. For the immunization of rabbits, neamin was used as the generic hapten on the basis of the facts that it is a two-ring fragment of neomycin and, in s

  5. Mobilization properties of small ColE1-like plasmids carrying kanamycin resistance gene isolated from Salmonella enterica serotypes (United States)

    Background: Previously we isolated and characterized various groups of small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica isolates. These plasmids all carried the aph(3)-I gene encoding the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase responsible for the kanam...

  6. Pseudothrombocytopenia observed with ethylene diamine tetra acetate and citrate anticoagulants, resolved using 37°C incubation and Kanamycin

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    Vandana Kamath


    Full Text Available Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTP is defined by falsely low platelet counts on automated analyzers caused by in vitro phenomena including large platelet aggregates in blood samples. Diagnosis and resolution of PTP is crucial as it can lead to unwarranted interventions. We discuss a case of PTP in a pre-surgical setting, which was resolved using 37°C incubation and Kanamycin.

  7. Pseudothrombocytopenia observed with ethylene diamine tetra acetate and citrate anticoagulants, resolved using 37°C incubation and Kanamycin. (United States)

    Kamath, Vandana; Sarda, Parimal; Chacko, Mary Purna; Sitaram, Usha


    Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTP) is defined by falsely low platelet counts on automated analyzers caused by in vitro phenomena including large platelet aggregates in blood samples. Diagnosis and resolution of PTP is crucial as it can lead to unwarranted interventions. We discuss a case of PTP in a pre-surgical setting, which was resolved using 37°C incubation and Kanamycin.

  8. Long term streptomycin toxicity in the treatment of Buruli Ulcer: follow-up of participants in the BURULICO drug trial.

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    Sandor Klis


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli Ulcer (BU is a tropical infectious skin disease that is currently treated with 8 weeks of intramuscular streptomycin and oral rifampicin. As prolonged streptomycin administration can cause both oto- and nephrotoxicity, we evaluated its long term toxicity by following-up former BU patients that had received either 4 or 8 weeks of streptomycin in addition to other drugs between 2006 and 2008, in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Former patients were retrieved in 2012, and oto- and nephrotoxicity were determined by audiometry and serum creatinine levels. Data were compared with baseline and week 8 measurements during the drug trial. RESULTS: Of the total of 151 former patients, 127 (84% were retrieved. Ototoxicity was present in 29% of adults and 25% of children. Adults in the 8 week streptomycin group had significantly higher hearing thresholds in all frequencies at long term follow-up, and these differences were most prominent in the high frequencies. In children, no differences between the two treatment arms were found. Nephrotoxicity that had been detected in 14% of adults and in 13% of children during treatment, was present in only 2.4% of patients at long term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged streptomycin administration in the adult study subjects caused significant persistent hearing loss, especially in the high frequency range. Nephrotoxicity was also present in both adults and children but appeared to be transient. Streptomycin should be given with caution especially in patients aged 16 or older, and in individuals with concurrent risks for renal dysfunction or hearing loss.

  9. A mutation in the 530 loop of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA causes resistance to streptomycin.



    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce an A to C transversion at position 523 in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of Escherichia coli rrnB operon cloned in plasmid pKK3535. E. coli cells transformed with the mutated plasmid were resistant to streptomycin. The mutated ribosomes isolated from these cells were not stimulated by streptomycin to misread the message in a poly(U)-directed assay. They were also restrictive to the stimulation of misreading by other error-promoting relate...

  10. Development and characterization of a transdermal patch and an emulgel containing kanamycin intended to be used in the treatment of mycetoma caused by Actinomadura madurae. (United States)

    López-Cervantes, Miriam; Escobar-Chávez, José Juan; Casas-Alancaster, Norma; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Ganem-Quintanar, Adriana


    Mycetoma is a chronic, degenerative, and incapacitating infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This study focuses on developing a kanamycin-based auxiliary system intended to be used in the treatment of mycetoma caused by Actinomadura madurae. Transdermal patches (with two different formulations: one with free kanamycin [K] and the other one with kanamycin adsorbed in silica [K-SG]) and an emulgel were developed. Both patches were prepared by the casting-evaporation technique. To characterize them, differential scanning calorimetry, bioadhesion, post-moisture detachment, strength and rupture distance, gas exchange, water uptake, and dissolution studies were carried out. The emulgel (containing 0.57% of kanamycin) was prepared from an oil-in-water emulsion, which was then incorporated to a gel. the patches with the best characteristics contained 22.9% of silica and 14.6% of kanamycin. Dissolution studies indicated that 8.8% of kanamycin released from K and 3.2% from K-SG at 24h. The emulgel containing 0.57% of kanamycin showed good technological characteristics for its application to the skin (viscosity, 44.9 +/- 1.4 poises; pH, 6.9 +/- 0.4; and penetrability, 52.7 +/- 5.1). The optimal patches were those containing 15.9% of freely dispersed kanamycin (K) and 14.6% of kanamycin adsorbed in silica (K-SG), which corresponds to the batch 2-0.8. The assessments performed to both pharmaceutical forms (patches and emulgel) show that they have the adequate technological characteristics for being used as an auxiliary in the treatment of actinomycetoma caused by A. madurae.

  11. From penicillin-streptomycin to amikacin-vancomycin: antibiotic decontamination of cardiovascular homografts in Singapore.

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    Wee Ling Heng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In February 2012, the National Cardiovascular Homograft Bank (NCHB became the first tissue bank outside of North America to receive accreditation from the American Association of Tissue Banks. From 2008 to 2009, NCHB had been decontaminating its cardiovascular homografts with penicillin and streptomycin. The antibiotic decontamination protocol was changed in January 2010 as amikacin and vancomycin were recommended, in order to cover bacteria isolated from post-recovery and post- antibiotic incubation tissue cultures. AIM: The objective of this study is to determine the optimal incubation conditions for decontamination of homografts by evaluating the potencies of amikacin and vancomycin in different incubation conditions. Retrospective reviews of microbiological results were also performed for homografts recovered from 2008 to 2012, to compare the effectiveness of penicillin-streptomycin versus the amikacin-vancomycin regimens. METHODS: Based on microbiological assays stated in United States Pharmacopeia 31, potency of amikacin was evaluated by turbidimetric assay using Staphylococcus aureus, while vancomycin was by diffusion assay using Bacillus subtilis sporulate. Experiments were performed to investigate the potencies of individual antibiotic 6-hours post incubation at 4°C and 37°C and 4°C for 24 hours, after the results suggested that amikacin was more potent at lower temperature. FINDINGS: Tissue incubation at 4°C for 24 hours is optimal for both antibiotics, especially for amikacin, as its potency falls drastically at 37°C. CONCLUSION: The decontamination regimen of amikacin-vancomycin at 4°C for 24 hours is effective. Nevertheless, it is imperative to monitor microbiological trends closely and evaluate the efficacy of current antibiotics regimen against emerging strains of micro-organisms.

  12. Selective strategies for antibiotic fermentation, Part II: Effect of aeration on streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19. (United States)

    Maladkar, N K


    The effect of higher aerated fermentation medium which enhanced streptomycin production by Streptomyces griseus JB-19 was found mainly related to the changes in dextrose consumption, inorganic phosphate utilisation and ammonia nitrogen accumulation under optimal and suboptimal supply of soluble vegetative protein.

  13. Comparative study of the effects of gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin and ofloxacin antibiotics on sperm parameters and testis apoptosis in rats. (United States)

    Khaki, Arash; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Nouri, Mohammad; Sanati, Ehsan; Nikmanesh, Mahdad


    The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 40) groups. The experimental groups subdivided into four groups often. Each received 5 mg kg(-1) (IP) gentamicin, 50 mg kg(-1) (IP) neomycin, 40 mg kg(-1) (IP) streptomycin and 72 mg kg(-1) (IP) ofloxacin daily for 14 days, respectively; however, the control group just received vehicle (IP). In the fourteenth day, rats were killed and sperm analyzed for sperm parameters. Testis tissues were also prepared for TUNEL assay for detection of apoptosis. There was a significant decrease in sperm count, viability and motility in all of experimental groups when compared with control group. Although in streptomycin group these parameters were less decreased than in the other experimental groups. The apoptotic cells were significantly increased in all experimental groups when compared with those seen in the controlled group. Gentamicin, neomycin and streptomycin and ofloxacin have negative effects on sperm parameters and testis apoptosis in rats. However, these side effects are less seen in the streptomycin group. Therefore, it is recommended that usage of this drug have fewer side effects on male fertility.

  14. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in the turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD. (United States)

    Crespo, M D; Altermann, E; Olson, J; Miller, W G; Chandrashekhar, K; Kathariou, S


    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antimicrobials kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095nt) harboring tet(O) was identified in C. jejuni strain 11601MD, which was isolated from the jejunum of a turkey produced conventionally in North Carolina. Analysis of the p11601MD sequence revealed the presence of a high-GC content cassette with four genes that included tet(O) and a putative aminoglycoside transferase gene (aphA-3) highly similar to kanamycin resistance determinants. Several genes putatively involved in conjugative transfer were also identified on the plasmid. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of potentially self-mobilizing plasmids harboring antibiotic resistance determinants in Campylobacter spp. from turkeys and other sources.

  15. Effect of antibiotic cefotaxime and kanamycin on callus formation and plantlet regeneration from leaves and callus of mangosteen

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    Rugpheug, R.


    Full Text Available In order to get rid of contamination from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the bacterium employed in gene transformation, various kinds and concentrations of antibiotics were added singly or in combinations. In this investigation, concentrations of cefotaxime and kanamycin were examined for callus formation and regenerability from leaves and callus. The results showed that cefotaxime at the concentration of up to 300 mg/l gave a non-significant difference in callus formation. In the case of direct shoot bud formation, concentration over 100 mg/l drastically reduced percentage of leaf-forming shoot buds. The calli which were cultured continuously in 300 mg/l cefotaxime-containing medium for 6 passages gave callus forming shoot buds of 35%. Higher concentration of cefotaxime drastically decreased bud formation. In the case of kanamycin, callus could be induced and maintained in the medium supplemented with a lower concentration than cefotaxime. However, the callus could not be maintained after 3 subculturings.

  16. Controversy Associated With the Common Component of Most Transgenic Plants – Kanamycin Resistance Marker Gene

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    Srećko Jelenić


    Full Text Available Plant genetic engineering is a powerful tool for producing crops resistant to pests, diseases and abiotic stress or crops with improved nutritional value or better quality products. Currently over 70 genetically modified (GM crops have been approved for use in different countries. These cover a wide range of plant species with significant number of different modified traits. However, beside the technology used for their improvement, the common component of most GM crops is the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII, which confers resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. The nptII gene is present in GM crops as a marker gene to select transformed plant cells during the first steps of the transformation process. The use of antibiotic-resistance genes is subject to controversy and intense debate, because of the likelihood that clinical therapy could be compromised due to inactivation of the oral dose of the antibiotic from consumption of food derived from the transgenic plant, and because of the risk of gene transfer from plants to gut and soil microorganisms or to consumer’s cells. The present article discusses these possibilities in the light of current scientific knowledge.

  17. Preparation and Microbiological Evaluation of Amphiphilic Kanamycin-Lipoamino Acid Ion-Pairs

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    Rosario Pignatello


    Full Text Available Amphiphilic ion-pairs of kanamycin (KAN were prepared by evaporation of a water-ethanol co-solution of KAN base and a lipoamino acid bearing a 12-carbon atoms alkyl side chain (LAA12, at different molar ratios. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structure of ion-pairs, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD studies supported the formation of new saline species with a different crystalline structure than the starting components. The solubility pattern shown in a range of both aqueous and organic solvents confirmed that the ion-pairs possess an amphiphilic character. The LAA12 counter-ion showed not to improve the antibacterial activity of KAN, suggesting that such chemical strategy is not able to favor the penetration of this drug inside the bacteria cells. Nevertheless, a slight improving, i.e., a one-fold dilution, was observed in E. coli. The present study can also serve as the basis for a further evaluation of LAA ion-pairing of antibiotics, as a means to improve the loading of hydrophilic drugs into lipid-based nanocarriers.

  18. Subinhibitory concentration of kanamycin induces the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion system.

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    Cerith Jones

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium found in natural environments including plants, soils and warm moist surfaces. This organism is also in the top ten of nosocomial pathogens, and prevalent in cystic fibrosis (CF lung infections. The ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize a wide variety of environments in a lasting manner is associated with the formation of a resistant biofilm and the capacity to efficiently outcompete other microorganisms. Here we demonstrate that sub-inhibitory concentration of kanamycin not only induces biofilm formation but also induces expression of the type VI secretion genes in the H1-T6SS cluster. The H1-T6SS is known for its role in toxin production and bacterial competition. We show that the antibiotic induction of the H1-T6SS only occurs when a functional Gac/Rsm pathway is present. These observations may contribute to understand how P. aeruginosa responds to antibiotic producing competitors. It also suggests that improper antibiotic therapy may enhance P. aeruginosa colonization, including in the airways of CF patients.

  19. The Effect of Kanamycin and Tetracycline on Growth and Photosynthetic Activity of Two Chlorophyte Algae

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    Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir


    Full Text Available Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL−1 on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition. Our results showed a significant effect of kan and tet on the tested microalgae species except tet, which showed a minor effect on M. pusillum. Both antibiotics are believed to interact with the protein synthesis machinery; hence, the inhibitory effect of the tested antibiotics was further confirmed by isolation and quantification of the whole cell protein. A significant reduction in protein quantity was observed at concentrations more than 5 mg L−1, except M. pusillum, which showed only a slight reduction in protein quantity even at the maximum tested concentration of tet (30 mg L−1. This study can further aid in aquaculture industry, for the maintenance of the microalgae stock cultures and it can also help the microalgae genetic engineers in the construction of molecular markers.

  20. Increased transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains associated with resistance to streptomycin: a population-based study.

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    Tran N Buu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is an emerging pathogen that is frequently associated with drug resistance. This suggests that drug resistant Beijing strains have a relatively high transmission fitness compared to other drug-resistant strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the relative transmission fitness of the Beijing genotype in relation to anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a population-based study of smear-positive tuberculosis patients prospectively recruited and studied over a 4-year period in rural Vietnam. Transmission fitness was analyzed by clustering of cases on basis of three DNA typing methods. Of 2531 included patients, 2207 (87% were eligible for analysis of whom 936 (42% were in a DNA fingerprint cluster. The clustering rate varied by genotype with 292/786 (37% for the Beijing genotype, 527/802 (67% for the East-African Indian (EAI genotype, and 117/619 (19% for other genotypes. Clustering was associated with the EAI compared to the Beijing genotype (adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj 3.4: 95% CI 2.8-4.4. Patients infected with streptomycin-resistant strains were less frequently clustered than patients infected with streptomycin-susceptible strains when these were of the EAI genotype (OR(adj 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, while this pattern was reversed for strains of the Beijing genotype (OR(adj 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8, p for difference 0.002. The strong association between Beijing and MDR-TB (OR(adj 7.2; 95% CI 4.2-12.3 existed only if streptomycin resistance was present. CONCLUSIONS: Beijing genotype strains showed less overall transmissibility than EAI strains, but when comparisons were made within genotypes, Beijing strains showed increased transmission fitness when streptomycin-resistant, while the reverse was observed for EAI strains. The association between MDR-TB and Beijing genotype in this population was strongly dependent on resistance to streptomycin. Streptomycin resistance may

  1. Streptomycin resistance-aided genome shuffling to improve doramectin productivity of Streptomyces avermitilis NEAU1069. (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiangjing; Diao, Jinna; He, Hairong; Zhang, Yuejing; Xiang, Wensheng


    Genome shuffling is an efficient approach for the rapid engineering of microbial strains with desirable industrial phenotypes. In this study, a strategy of incorporating streptomycin resistance screening into genome shuffling (GS-SR) was applied for rapid improvement of doramectin production by Streptomyces avermitilis NEAU1069. The starting mutant population was generated through treatment of the spores with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, respectively, and five mutants with higher productivity of doramectin were selected as starting strains for GS-SR. Finally, a genetically stable strain F4-137 was obtained and characterized to be able to yield 992 ± 4.4 mg/l doramectin in a shake flask, which was 7.3-fold and 11.2-fold higher than that of the starting strain UV-45 and initial strain NEAU1069, respectively. The doramectin yield by F4-137 in a 50-l fermentor reached 930.3 ± 3.8 mg/l. Furthermore, the factors associated with the improved doramectin yield were investigated and the results suggested that mutations in ribosomal protein S12 and the enhanced production of cyclohexanecarboxylic coenzyme A may contribute to the improved performance of the shuffled strains. The random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed a genetic diversity among the shuffled strains, which confirmed the occurrence of genome shuffling. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GS-SR is a powerful method for enhancing the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.

  2. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 王树青; 谢磊


    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA, especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  3. Apoferritin nanocage as streptomycin drug reservoir: Technological optimization of a new drug delivery system. (United States)

    Ruozi, B; Veratti, P; Vandelli, M A; Tombesi, A; Tonelli, M; Forni, F; Pederzoli, F; Belletti, D; Tosi, G


    The aim of this study is to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded apoferritin nanoparticles (ApoStrep NPs) for their potential therapeutic use in bacterial resistant infections (i.e. tuberculosis). ApoStrep NPs were prepared by disassembly/reassembly process via pH method and changing apoferritin/drug molar ratio, purified by dialyses process also associated with gel filtration chromatography and characterized in their chemico-physical and technological parameters as yield, size distribution, polidispersivity, morphology, internal structure, zeta potential and loading efficacy. The results showed that spherical reproducible NPs could be obtained by using apoferritin/drug molar ratio lower than 1:25 and purification based on the combination of dialysis and gel filtration chromatography. Photon correlation spectroscopy, Uv-visible detection and electron microscopy showed the maintenance of the native apoferritin chemico-physical properties and structure. When formulated with apoferritin/drug 1:10 and 1:25 molar ratio, ApoStrep NPs showed remarkable encapsulation efficacy (35% and 28%, respectively) along with kinetic profile of drug delivery, approximately 15% at 37 °C in 72h, as evidenced by "in vitro" release experiments.

  4. Identification of mutations conferring streptomycin resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis of China. (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Hai-Can; Sun, Qing; Xiao, Tong-Yang; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Gui-Lian; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Wan, Kang-Lin


    We investigated the spectrum and frequency of mutations in rpsL, rrs, and gidB among 140 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) clinical isolates from China. The association between mutations and different genotypes was also analyzed. Our data revealed that 65.7% of MDR-TB were resistant to streptomycin (STR), and 90.2% of STR-resistant isolates were Beijing strains. STR resistance was correlated with Beijing family (P=0.00). Compared with phenotypic data, detection of mutations for the combination of these 3 genes exhibited 94.6% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity, and 93.6% accuracy. The most common mutations in STR-resistant isolates were rpsL128, 262, and rrs514, of which rpsL128 showed association with Beijing lineage (P=0.00). A combination of these 3 mutations can serve as the reliable predictors for STR resistance, showing the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.9%, 97.9%, and 90.0%, respectively. Furthermore, gidBA276C, not A615G, was Beijing lineage specific. These findings are useful to develop rapid molecular diagnostic methods for STR resistance in China.

  5. Characterization of plasmids that encode streptomycin-resistance in bacterial epiphytes of apple. (United States)

    Huang, T C; Burr, T J


    Streptomycin resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, Pantoea agglomerans and a yellow-pigmented, non-fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. (Py), isolated from apple orchards in New York and Washington states, is predominantly associated with strA-strB genes carried on conjugal plasmids (R plasmids). None of 128 resistant Erwinia amylovora strains from the eastern and western USA hybridized with a strA-strB probe, SMP3. Resistant Py strains transfered R plasmids to Ps. syringae pv. papulans and to Py in vitro at frequencies of 10(-1)-10(-2) per recipient cell whereas Ps. syringae pv. papulans transferred its plasmids at frequencies of 10(-2) to below detectable levels. Transfer of R plasmids to P. agglomerans was not detected and resistant P. agglomerans did not transfer their R plasmids to any recipients. R plasmids were found to be highly diverse as measured by DNA fingerprint analysis. Transfer-deficient transposon mutants of R plasmid pCPP519 were generated, and 3.9 kb EcoRI and 3.0 kb SmaI fragments that hybridized with a Tn5 probe were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of the 3.9 kb fragment were similar to proteins involved in replication, nicking at oriT, and piliation in other bacteria.

  6. Ototoxic destruction by co-administration of kanamycin and ethacrynic acid in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Da-lian DING; Hai-yan JIANG; Xue-wen WU; Richard SALVI; Hong SUN


    It is well known that ethacrynic acid (EA) can potentiate the ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AmAn) such as kanamycin (KM),if they were applied at the same time.Currently,to create the model of EA-KM-induced cochlear lesion in rats,adult rats received a single injection of EA (75 mg/kg,intravenous injection),or followed immediately by KM (500 mg/kg,intramuscular injection).The hearing function was assessed by auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurement in response to click and/or tone bursts at 4,8,12,16,20,24,and 32 kHz.The static microcirculation status in the stria vascularis after a single EA injection was evaluated with eosin staining.The pathological changes in cochlear and vestibular hair cells were also quantified after co-administration of EA and KM.After a single EA injection,blood flow in vessels supplying the stria vascularis rapidly diminished.However,the blood supply to the cochlear lateral wall partially recovered 5 h after EA treatment.Threshold changes in ABR were basically parallel to the microcirculation changes in stria vascularis after single EA treatment.Importantly,disposable co-administration of EA and KM resulted in a permanent hearing loss and severe damage to the cochlear hair cells,but spared the vestibular hair cells.Since the cochlear lateral wall is the important part of the blood-cochlea barrier,EA-induced anoxic damage to the epithelium of stria vascularis may enhance the entry of KM to the cochlea.Thus,experimental animal model of selective cochlear damage with normal vestibular systems can be reliably created through co-administration of EA and KM.

  7. The aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin damages DNA bases in Escherichia coli: caffeine potentiates the DNA-damaging effects of kanamycin while suppressing cell killing by ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis. (United States)

    Kang, Tina Manzhu; Yuan, Jessica; Nguyen, Angelyn; Becket, Elinne; Yang, Hanjing; Miller, Jeffrey H


    The distribution of mutants in the Keio collection of Escherichia coli gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to the aminoglycosides kanamycin and neomycin indicates that damaged bases resulting from antibiotic action can lead to cell death. Strains lacking one of a number of glycosylases (e.g., AlkA, YzaB, Ogt, KsgA) or other specific repair proteins (AlkB, PhrB, SmbC) are more sensitive to these antibiotics. Mutants lacking AlkB display the strongest sensitivity among the glycosylase- or direct lesion removal-deficient strains. This perhaps suggests the involvement of ethenoadenine adducts, resulting from reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, since AlkB removes this lesion. Other sensitivities displayed by mutants lacking UvrA, polymerase V (Pol V), or components of double-strand break repair indicate that kanamycin results in damaged base pairs that need to be removed or replicated past in order to avoid double-strand breaks that saturate the cellular repair capacity. Caffeine enhances the sensitivities of these repair-deficient strains to kanamycin and neomycin. The gene knockout mutants that display increased sensitivity to caffeine (dnaQ, holC, holD, and priA knockout mutants) indicate that caffeine blocks DNA replication, ultimately leading to double-strand breaks that require recombinational repair by functions encoded by recA, recB, and recC, among others. Additionally, caffeine partially protects cells of both Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis from killing by the widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.

  8. Diagnosis of Drug Resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Amikacin, Capreomycin, Kanamycin and Ethambutol with Genotype MTBDRsl Assay: a Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Mao, Xiaolu; Ke, Zunqiong; Shi, Xiaoyan; Liu, Shuiyi; Tang, Beibei; Wang, Jin; Huang, Hao


    The Genotype MTBDRsl is a new-generation PCR-based line-probe assay for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of Genotype MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library and calculated the sensitivity, the specificity, the positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves (AUC), and tested heterogeneity in accuracy estimates with the Spearman correlation coefficient and Chi-square. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI), specificity (95% CI), and AUC (standard error) were 0.869 (0.847-0.890), 0.973 (0.965-0.979) and 0.9690 (0.0188) for fluoroquinolones, 0.868 (0.829-0.900), 0.998 (0.994-0.999) and 0.9944 (0.0050) for amikacin, 0.879 (0.838-0.914), 0.970 (0.958-0.978) and 0.9791 (0.0120) for capreomycin, 0.501 (0.461-0.541), 0.991 (0.983-0.996) and 0.9814 (0.0114) for kanamycin and 0.686 (0.663-0.709), 0.871 (0.852-0.888) and 0.7349 (0.0639) for ethambutol, respectively. The genotype MTBDRsl demonstrate excellent accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, and capreomycin, but it may not be an appropriate choice for detection of kanamycin and ethambutol. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Improved methods in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of almond using positive (mannose/pmi) or negative (kanamycin resistance) selection-based protocols. (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kaiser, Brent N; Franks, Tricia; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret


    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with either kanamycin or mannose selection was developed for leaf explants of the cultivar Prunus dulcis cv. Ne Plus Ultra. Regenerating shoots were selected on medium containing 15 muM kanamycin (negative selection), while in the positive selection strategy, shoots were selected on 2.5 g/l mannose supplemented with 15 g/l sucrose. Transformation efficiencies based on PCR analysis of individual putative transformed shoots from independent lines relative to the initial numbers of leaf explants tested were 5.6% for kanamycin/nptII and 6.8% for mannose/pmi selection, respectively. Southern blot analysis on six randomly chosen PCR-positive shoots confirmed the presence of the nptII transgene in each, and five randomly chosen lines identified to contain the pmi transgene by PCR showed positive hybridisation to a pmi DNA probe. The positive (mannose/pmi) and the negative (kanamycin) selection protocols used in this study have greatly improved transformation efficiency in almond, which were confirmed with PCR and Southern blot. This study also demonstrates that in almond the mannose/pmi selection protocol is appropriate and can result in higher transformation efficiencies over that of kanamycin/nptII selection protocols.

  10. [Historical and Hygienic Aspects on Roles of Quality Requirements for Antibiotic Products in Japan: Part 2--Achievements of Domestic Production of Penicillin and Streptomycin]. (United States)

    Yagisawa, Morimasa; Foster, Patrick J; Kurokawa, Tatsuo


    Domestic production of penicillin was initiated in 1946 and that of streptomycin in 1950. In the early days, however, the quality of products was considerably lower and the capacity of production small. Surprisingly, there was a sufficient amount of penicillin preparations, with a purity of 85% or more, satisfying domestic demand within three years (1949). In the case of streptomycin, within three years (1953), preparations with a purity two-fold higher than initially available were produced in amounts sufficient to meet both domestic demand and create a surplus availability for exporting purposes. Such increases in quality and production were considered to be made possible by strict quality control of penicillin and streptomycin preparations, based on "Minimum Requirements for Penicillin" established in May 1947 and "Minimum Requirements for Streptomycin" established in December 1949. These requirements were also amended over time in order to provide even higher quality standards in response to the evolving improvements in production processes. Life-threatening diseases such as septicemia and pneumonia were controlled by the sufficient supply of high-quality penicillin preparations and the mortality rate of tuberculosis, regarded as a national disease at the time, markedly decreased by that of streptomycin preparations. Achievements of domestic production of penicillin and streptomycin were considered important factors that contributed greatly to the maintenance of public health in Japan.

  11. Validation of two ELISA kits for the screening of tylosin and streptomycin in honey according to the European decision 2002/657/EC. (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Verdon, Eric


    Antibiotics are mixed with the food of bees to fight against diseases. No maximum residue limits have been set for honey. Recommended concentrations (RCs) have been published by European Union Reference Laboratories for tylosin and streptomycin. The objective of this project was to select and validate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for the screening of tylosin and streptomycin/dihydrostreptomycin residues to be implemented in the French honey control plan. Four ELISA kits for tylosin and five ELISA kits for streptomycin were evaluated. At the end, one kit each was selected and validated for tylosin (TECNA AB620) and streptomycin (Europroxima). Both ELISA kits for tylosin and streptomycin are specific, robust, fast and easy-to-use tests. The detection capability CC β of tylosin A was less than or equal to 10 µg kg(-1) (half the RC). The CC β of desmycosin (the hydrolysed product of tylosin A in acidic conditions) is approximately 200 µg kg(-1), which is five times the RC for tylosin (20 µg kg(-1)). Thus, this kit is fit for the screening of tylosin A but is unsuitable to detect desmycosin. The detection capability CC β of streptomycin was less than or equal to 10 µg kg(-1) (one fourth the RC). The cross-reactivity with dihydrostreptomycin was equal to 136%. Both ELISA kits were applicable to a wide variety of honey (single flower and multiflower, different floral origins, different geographic origins, different consistencies [liquid or solid] and different colours).

  12. A novel electrochemical aptasensor based on arch-shape structure of aptamer-complimentary strand conjugate and exonuclease I for sensitive detection of streptomycin. (United States)

    Mohammad Danesh, Noor; Ramezani, Mohammad; Sarreshtehdar Emrani, Ahmad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad


    Detection and quantitation of antibiotic residues in blood serum and animal foodstuffs are of great significance. In this study, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed for sensitive and selective detection of streptomycin, based on exonuclease I (Exo I), complimentary strand of aptamer (CS), Arch-shape structure of aptamer (Apt)-CS conjugate and gold electrode. The designed aptasensor inherits characteristics of gold including large surface area and high electrochemical conductivity, as well as high sensitivity and selectivity of aptamer toward its target, property of Arch-shape structure of Apt-CS conjugate to act as a gate and barrier for the access of redox probe to the surface of electrode and the function of Exo I as an enzyme which selectively digests the 3'-end of single stranded DNA (ssDNA). In the absence of streptomycin the gate remains closed. Thus, the electrochemical signal is weak. Upon addition of streptomycin, the Apt leaves the CS and binds to streptomycin and the Arch-shape structure is disassembled. Then, Exo I addition leads to a strong electrochemical signal. The designed electrochemical aptasensor exhibited high selectivity toward streptomycin with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 11.4nM. Moreover, the developed electrochemical aptasensor was successfully used to detect streptomycin in milk and serum with LODs of 14.1 and 15.3nM, respectively.

  13. Dual Targeting of Intracellular Pathogenic Bacteria with a Cleavable Conjugate of Kanamycin and an Antibacterial Cell-Penetrating Peptide. (United States)

    Brezden, Anna; Mohamed, Mohamed F; Nepal, Manish; Harwood, John S; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Seleem, Mohamed N; Chmielewski, Jean


    Bacterial infection caused by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium, Salmonella, and Brucella, is a burgeoning global health epidemic that necessitates urgent action. However, the therapeutic value of a number of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, against intracellular pathogenic bacteria is compromised due to their inability to traverse eukaryotic membranes. For this significant problem to be addressed, a cleavable conjugate of the antibiotic kanamycin and a nonmembrane lytic, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide with efficient mammalian cell penetration, P14LRR, was prepared. This approach allows kanamycin to enter mammalian cells as a conjugate linked via a tether that breaks down in the reducing environment within cells. Potent antimicrobial activity of the P14KanS conjugate was demonstrated in vitro, and this reducible conjugate effectively cleared intracellular pathogenic bacteria within macrophages more potently than that of a conjugate lacking the disulfide moiety. Notably, successful clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within macrophages was observed with the dual antibiotic conjugate, and Salmonella levels were significantly reduced in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model.

  14. Preparation, optimisation and characterisation of novel wound healing film dressings loaded with streptomycin and diclofenac. (United States)

    Pawar, H V; Tetteh, J; Boateng, J S


    Streptomycin (STP) and diclofenac (DLF) loaded film dressings were prepared by blending Polyox(®) (POL) with four hydrophilic polymers [hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), carrageenan (CAR), sodium alginate (SA) or chitosan (CS)] using glycerol (GLY) as plasticiser. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, texture analysis (tensile and swelling characteristics) and in vitro dissolution profiles using Franz diffusion cell. SEM showed homogeneous morphology for both blank (BLK) and drug loaded (DL) films. Films prepared by blending of POL with the other polymers showed a reduction in the crystallisation of POL in descending order of SA>CS>HPMC>CAR respectively. DSC and XRD showed no crystalline peaks of STP and DLF suggesting molecular dispersion of both drugs as well as possible drug interaction with negatively charged sulphate ions present in CAR. The DL films did not show any IR bands of both drugs, confirming the DSC and XRD results. POL-CAR-BLK films showed higher tensile strength (12.32±1.40 MPa) than the POL-CAR-DL films (9.52±1.12 MPa). DL films plasticised with 25%w/w GLY revealed soft and tough (tensile strength 1.02±0.28 MPa, % elongation 1031.33±16.23) formulations. The swelling capacities of POL-CAR-BLK and POL-CAR-DL films were (733.17±25.78%) and (646.39±40.39%), increasing to (1072.71±80.30%) and (1051±86.68%) for POL-CAR-BLK-25% GLY and POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY respectively. POL-CAR-DL films showed significantly (n=3, p<0.0318) lower cumulative release of STP and DLF (52.11±1.34, 55.26±2.25) compared to POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY films (60.07±1.56, 63.39±1.92) respectively.

  15. Proteomic analysis of streptomycin resistant and sensitive clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Venkatesan Krishnamurthy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptomycin (SM is a broad spectrum antibiotic and is an important component of any anti-tuberculosis therapy regimen. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emergence of resistance but still our knowledge is inadequate. Proteins form a very complex network and drugs are countered by their modification/efflux or over expression/modification of targets. As proteins manifest most of the biological processes, these are attractive targets for developing drugs, immunodiagnostics or therapeutics. The aim of present study was to analyze and compare the protein profile of whole cell extracts from Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates susceptible and resistant to SM. Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was employed for analyzing the protein profiles. Homology and in silico characterization for identified proteins was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan and KEGG database searches. Computational studies on the possible interactions between SM and identified proteins were carried out by a battery of online servers and softwares, namely, CLUSTALW (KEGG, I-TASSER, VMD, PatchDock and FireDock. On comparing 2DE patterns, nine proteins were found consistently overexpressed in SM resistant isolates and were identified as Rv0350, Rv0440, Rv1240, Rv3075c, Rv2971, Rv3028c, Rv2145c, Rv2031c and Rv0569. In silico docking analysis showed significant interactions of SM with essential (Rv0350, Rv0440 and Rv2971 and non essential (Rv1240, Rv3075c and Rv2031c genes. Conclusions The computational results suggest high protein binding affinity of SM and suggested many possible interactions between identified proteins and the drug. Bioinformatic analysis proves attributive for analysis of diversity of proteins identified by whole proteome analysis. In-depth study of the these proteins will give an insight into probable sites of drug

  16. Screening for streptomycin resistance-conferring mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Poland.

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    Tomasz Jagielski

    Full Text Available Currently, mutations in three genes, namely rrs, rpsL, and gidB, encoding 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein S12, and 16S rRNA-specific methyltransferase, respectively, are considered to be involved in conferring resistance to streptomycin (STR in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectrum and frequency of these mutations in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, both resistant and susceptible to STR. Sixty-four M. tuberculosis isolates recovered from as many TB patients from Poland in 2004 were included in the study. Within the sample were 50 multidrug-resistant (32 STR-resistant and 18 STR-susceptible and 14 pan-susceptible isolates. Preliminary testing for STR resistance was performed with the 1% proportion method. The MICs of STR were determined by the Etest method. Mutation profiling was carried out by amplifying and sequencing the entire rrs, rpsL, and gidB genes. Non-synonymous mutations in either rrs or rpsL gene were detected in 23 (71.9% of the STR-resistant and none of the STR-susceptible isolates. Mutations in the gidB gene were distributed among 12 (37.5% STR-resistant and 13 (40.6% STR-susceptible isolates. Four (12.5% STR-resistant isolates were wild-type at all three loci examined. None of the rrs, rpsL or gidB mutations could be linked to low, intermediate or high level of STR resistance. In accordance with previous findings, the gidB 47T→G (L16R mutation was associated with the Latin American-Mediterranean genotype family, whereas 276A→C (E92D and 615A→G (A205A mutations of the gidB gene were associated with the Beijing lineage. The study underlines the usefulness of rrs and rpsL mutations as molecular markers for STR resistance yet not indicative of its level. The gidB polymorphisms can serve as phylogenetic markers.


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    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.

  18. RNA-seq analysis of the effect of kanamycin and the ABC transporter AtWBC19 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings reveals changes in metal content.

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    Ayalew Mentewab

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to antibiotics produced by soil microorganisms, but little is known about their responses at the transcriptional level. Likewise, few endogenous mechanisms of antibiotic resistance have been reported. The Arabidopsis thaliana ATP Binding Cassette (ABC transporter AtWBC19 (ABCG19 is known to confer kanamycin resistance, but the exact mechanism of resistance is not well understood. Here we examined the transcriptomes of control seedlings and wbc19 mutant seedlings using RNA-seq analysis. Exposure to kanamycin indicated changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic fluxes and metal uptake. Elemental analysis showed a 60% and 80% reduction of iron uptake in control and wbc19 mutant seedlings respectively, upon exposure to kanamycin. The drop in iron content was accompanied by the upregulation of the gene encoding for FERRIC REDUCTION OXIDASE 6 (FRO6 in mutant seedlings but not by the differential expression of other transport genes known to be induced by iron deficiency. In addition, wbc19 mutants displayed a distinct expression profile in the absence of kanamycin. Most notably the expression of several zinc ion binding proteins, including ZINC TRANSPORTER 1 PRECURSOR (ZIP1 was increased, suggesting abnormal zinc uptake. Elemental analysis confirmed a 50% decrease of zinc content in wbc19 mutants. Thus, the antibiotic resistance gene WBC19 appears to also have a role in zinc uptake.

  19. Comparing amikacin and kanamycin-induced hearing loss in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment under programmatic conditions in a Namibian retrospective cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagwa, Evans L; Ruswa, Nunurai; Mavhunga, Farai; Rennie, Timothy; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098


    BACKGROUND: Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. Their protracted use in MDR-TB treatment is known to cause dose-dependent irreversible hearing loss, requiring hearing

  20. Comparing amikacin and kanamycin-induced hearing loss in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment under programmatic conditions in a Namibian retrospective cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagwa, Evans L; Ruswa, Nunurai; Mavhunga, Farai; Rennie, Timothy; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    BACKGROUND: Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. Their protracted use in MDR-TB treatment is known to cause dose-dependent irreversible hearing loss, requiring hearing

  1. Sulfonamide-Based Inhibitors of Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Eis Abolish Resistance to Kanamycin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzan, Atefeh; Willby, Melisa J.; Green, Keith D.; Gajadeera, Chathurada S.; Hou, Caixia; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Posey, James E.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie


    A two-drug combination therapy where one drug targets an offending cell and the other targets a resistance mechanism to the first drug is a time-tested, yet underexploited approach to combat or prevent drug resistance. By high-throughput screening, we identified a sulfonamide scaffold that served as a pharmacophore to generate inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase Eis, whose upregulation causes resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rational systematic derivatization of this scaffold to maximize Eis inhibition and abolish the Eis-mediated KAN resistance of M. tuberculosis yielded several highly potent agents. A crystal structure of Eis in complex with one of the most potent inhibitors revealed that the inhibitor bound Eis in the AG-binding pocket held by a conformationally malleable region of Eis (residues 28–37) bearing key hydrophobic residues. These Eis inhibitors are promising leads for preclinical development of innovative AG combination therapies against resistant TB.

  2. Streptomycin affinity depends on 13 amino acids forming a loop in homology modelled ribosomal S12 protein (rpsL gene) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSLS5 associated with marine sponge (Tedania anhelans). (United States)

    Suriyanarayanan, Balasubramanian; Lakshmi, Praveena Pothuraju; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini; Dhevendaran, Kandasamy; Priya, Balakrishnan; Krishna, Shivaani


    Streptomycin, an antibiotic used against microbial infections, inhibits the protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal protein S12, encoded by rpsL12 gene, and associated mutations cause streptomycin resistance. A streptomycin resistant, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSLS5 (MIC >300 µg/mL for streptomycin), was isolated from a marine sponge (Tedania anhelans). The characterisation of rpsL12 gene showed a region having similarity to long terminal repeat sequences of murine lukemia virus which added 13 amino acids for loop formation in RpsL12; in addition, a K56R mutation which corresponds to K43R mutation present in streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli is also present. The RpsL12 protein was modelled and compared with that of Lysinibacillus boronitolerans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The modelled proteins docked with streptomycin indicate compound had less affinity. The effect of loop on streptomycin resistance was analysed by constructing three different models of RpsL12 by, (i) removing both loop and mutation, (ii) removing the loop alone while retaining the mutation and (iii) without mutation having loop. The results showed that the presence of loop causes streptomycin resistance (decreases the affinity), and it further enhanced in the presence of mutation at 56th codon. Further study will help in understanding the evolution of streptomycin resistance in organisms.

  3. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

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    Yu-Kuo Tsai

    Full Text Available The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5 CFU and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4 CFU than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2 CFU. A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P < 0.01 in an in vitro growth competition experiment. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  4. Streptomycin-lidocaine injections for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: Report of three cases with literature review (United States)

    Waghray, Shefali; Asif, Shaik Mohammed; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj


    The sudden, stabbing, paroxysmal pain of neuralgia is the fiercest agony that a patient may experience in his life. Many varied medical treatments and surgical procedures have been suggested in the literature for neuralgic pain. Most of the patients fail to respond to medical treatments or succumb to complications of total anesthesia owing to surgical procedures. Herein, we tried a new treatment modality in patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia with appreciable success in all the three cases that are presented in this paper. Streptomycin sulfate dissolved in 2% lidocaine solution was deposited at the peripheral branches on the involved nerves targeting the trigger zones, given weekly once for a maximum of 6 week period and continued once in 2 weeks if symptoms persisted. All patients were followed-up for 1 year and there was a marked improvement on follow-up. PMID:24966716

  5. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge


    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates.

  6. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

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    Neagu Maria


    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  7. Characterization of mutations in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China and the association between Beijing-lineage and dual-mutation in gidB. (United States)

    Sun, Honghu; Zhang, Congcong; Xiang, Ling; Pi, Rui; Guo, Zhen; Zheng, Chao; Li, Song; Zhao, Yuding; Tang, Ke; Luo, Mei; Rastogi, Nalin; Li, Yuqing; Sun, Qun


    Mutations in rpsL, rrs, and gidB are well linked to streptomycin (STR) resistance, some of which are suggested to be potentially associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages in certain geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mutation characteristics of streptomycin resistance and the relationship between the polymorphism of drug-resistant genes and the lineage of M. tuberculosis isolates in Sichuan, China. A total of 227 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, including 180 STR-resistant and 47 pan-susceptible isolates, were analyzed for presence of mutations in the rpsL, rrs and gidB loci. Mutation K43R in rpsL was strongly associated with high-level streptomycin resistance (P mutations in rrs and gidB potentially contributed to low-level resistance (P genotype, however, in STR-resistant strains, Beijing genotype was significantly correlated with high-level STR resistance, as well as the rpsL mutation K43R (P genotype has an evolutionary advantage under streptomycin pressure. Notably, in all isolates of Beijing genotype, a dual mutation E92D (a276c) and A205A (a615g) in gidB was detected, suggesting a highly significant association between this dual mutation and Beijing genotype.

  8. A Mechanism of Synergistic Effect of Streptomycin and Cefotaxime on CTX-M-15 Type β-lactamase Producing Strain of E. cloacae: A First Report (United States)

    Maryam, Lubna; Khan, Asad U.


    A blaCTX-M-15 gene is one of the most prevalent resistant marker found in member of enterobacteriaceae. It encodes cefotaxime hydrolysing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) causing resistance against beta lactam antibiotics. Since single antibiotic therapy fails to control infection caused by multidrug resistance strain, therefore combination therapy was came into practice as an effective treatment. We have first time explained the mechanism where two antibiotics of different classes work against resistant strains. Binding parameters obtained by spectroscopic approach showed significant interaction and complex formation between drugs and CTX-M-15 enzyme with decreased ksv and kq values. CD analysis showed altered conformation and significant changes in alpha helical content of CTX-M-15 enzyme on interaction with streptomycin in combination with cephalosporin. Steady state kinetics revealed decrease in hydrolytic efficiency of enzyme to about 27% by cooperative binding behavior upon sequential treatment of enzyme with streptomycin and cefotaxime. Therefore, the study concludes that combination therapy against CTX-M-15 producing strain with Cefotaxime/Streptomycin in 1:10 molar ratio, decreases CTX-M-15 efficiency significantly because of the fact that streptomycin induced structural changes in CTX-M-15 hence cefotaxime was not properly bound on its active site for hydrolysis rather available for the target to inhibit bacterial cells. PMID:28018328

  9. Autonomous assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides built from an expanded DNA alphabet. Total synthesis of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance

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    Kristen K. Merritt


    Full Text Available Background: Many synthetic biologists seek to increase the degree of autonomy in the assembly of long DNA (L-DNA constructs from short synthetic DNA fragments, which are today quite inexpensive because of automated solid-phase synthesis. However, the low information density of DNA built from just four nucleotide “letters”, the presence of strong (G:C and weak (A:T nucleobase pairs, the non-canonical folded structures that compete with Watson–Crick pairing, and other features intrinsic to natural DNA, generally prevent the autonomous assembly of short single-stranded oligonucleotides greater than a dozen or so.Results: We describe a new strategy to autonomously assemble L-DNA constructs from fragments of synthetic single-stranded DNA. This strategy uses an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS that adds nucleotides to the four (G, A, C, and T found in standard DNA by shuffling hydrogen-bonding units on the nucleobases, all while retaining the overall Watson–Crick base-pairing geometry. The added information density allows larger numbers of synthetic fragments to self-assemble without off-target hybridization, hairpin formation, and non-canonical folding interactions. The AEGIS pairs are then converted into standard pairs to produce a fully natural L-DNA product. Here, we report the autonomous assembly of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance using this strategy. Synthetic fragments were built from a six-letter alphabet having two AEGIS components, 5-methyl-2’-deoxyisocytidine and 2’-deoxyisoguanosine (respectively S and B, at their overlapping ends. Gaps in the overlapped assembly were then filled in using DNA polymerases, and the nicks were sealed by ligase. The S:B pairs in the ligated construct were then converted to T:A pairs during PCR amplification. When cloned into a plasmid, the product was shown to make Escherichia coli resistant to kanamycin. A parallel study that attempted to assemble similarly sized genes

  10. Gold nanorod-covered kanamycin-loaded hollow SiO2 (HSKAurod) nanocapsules for drug delivery and photothermal therapy on bacteria (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Li-Pei; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua


    A hybrid bactericidal material, gold nanorod-covered kanamycin-loaded hollow SiO2 (HSKAurod) nanocapsules, is constructed. The hybrid material combines the features of a chemical drug with photothermal physical sterilization which decreases the dosage of broad-spectrum antibiotic and the physical damage of biological systems. Hollow SiO2 nanocapsules are used as carriers for drug delivery. The nanocapsules load a model drug, kanamycin, and are covered with gold nanorods to avoid drug leakage and realize photothermal treatment. The sterilizing effect on the bacterial strain is investigated by incubating E. coli BL21 with the hybrid nanocapsules and irradiating under near-infrared light (NIR) for 20 min. A bactericidal effect, i.e., a sterilizing rate of 53.47%, is achieved for the HSKAurod nanocapsules under NIR irradiation, with respect to a net sum sterilizing rate of 34.49% for the individual components of the HSKAurod nanocapsules, e.g., carrier nanocapsules, chemical sterilization of kanamycin and physical sterilization due to the gold nanorods under NIR irradiation. It is demonstrated that the combination of chemical drug and physical sterilization results in an obvious synergistic effect and makes the sterilization more effective. This novel hybrid has great potential as an adjuvant therapeutic alternative material for sterilization or even for the control of disease.

  11. The Bactericidal Lectin RegIIIβ Prolongs Gut Colonization and Enteropathy in the Streptomycin Mouse Model for Salmonella Diarrhea. (United States)

    Miki, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Ryosuke; Fujimoto, Mayuka; Okada, Nobuhiko; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich


    The bactericidal lectin RegIIIβ is inducibly produced by intestinal epithelial cells as a defense against infection by enteropathogens. In the gut lumen, RegIIIβ kills not only certain enteropathogens, but also some commensal bacteria; thus, RegIIIβ is also thought to be an innate immune effector shaping microbiota composition and establishing intestinal homeostasis. Using the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella colitis, we show that RegIIIβ can promote sustained gut colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium and prolong enteropathy. RegIIIβ expression was associated with suppression of Bacteroides spp. in the gut lumen, prolonged disease-associated alterations in colonic metabolism, and reduced luminal vitamin B6 levels. Supplementation with Bacteroides spp. or vitamin B6 accelerated pathogen clearance from the gut and remission of enteropathy. Our findings indicate that interventions at the level of RegIIIβ and supplementation with Bacteroides spp. or vitamin B6 might open new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the context of Salmonella colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of rpsL, rrs and embB mutations associated with streptomycin and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Tracevska, Tatjana; Jansone, Inta; Nodieva, Anda; Marga, Olgerts; Skenders, Girts; Baumanis, Viesturs


    In order to characterise molecular mechanisms of first-line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to evaluate the use of molecular markers of resistance (gene point mutations), we analysed 66 multi-drug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Latvian tuberculosis patients. They were all resistant to rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and streptomycin (SM), and 33 were resistant to ethambutol (EMB). Enzymatic digestion by MboII and nucleotide sequencing of the rpsL gene fragment detected a single nucleotide substitution K43R in 40 (61%) of the 66 SM-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. Of the other 26 SM-resistant isolates, 16 (24%) had mutations at positions 513A-->C and 516C-->T of the rrs gene and 10 (15%) had the wild-type sequence. The single-stranded DNA conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was used to detect mutations in the embB gene associated with EMB resistance. Substitutions in the embB gene were found by SSCP analysis in 15 (45%) and by sequencing in 17 (52%) of the 33 EMB-resistant isolates. Surprisingly, SSCP revealed a nucleotide mutation at codon M306 in five (15%) of 33 in vitro EMB-susceptible MDR isolates.

  13. Binding affinity and inhibitory potency of neomycin and streptomycin on the Tat peptide interaction with HIV-1 TAR RNA detected by on-line acoustic wave sensor. (United States)

    Tassew, Nardos; Thompson, Michael


    The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to a segment of the transactivation responsive region (TAR) RNA of the human immunodeficiency virus, and their inhibitory potency to disrupt the interaction of the RNA with a regulatory Tat protein-derived peptide, have been studied using a flow-through acoustic wave detector system. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the acoustic wave detection system shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten-fold greater affinity for TAR RNA and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. These results are in agreement with previous studies. However, unlike the time-consuming batch-based assays, use of the flow-through format offers considerable potential for the rapid screening of the chemistry of relatively small-molecule-nucleic acid binding events.

  14. [Contribution of microbiologists of Kirov City to development of penicillin and streptomycin production processes (70 years since development of technology for submerged production of first domestic antibiotics)]. (United States)

    Bakulin, M K; Tumanov, A S; Bakulin, V M; Kalininskiĭ, V B


    The publication is concerned with development of the technological processes for submered production of the first domestic antibiotics 70 years age. The literature data on the contribution of the microbiologists of the Kirov City and mainly the workers of the Red Army Research Institute of Epidemiology and Hygiene (nowadays Central Research Institute No. 48 of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Kirov), to development of the manufacture processes for production of penicillin and streptomycin are reviewed.

  15. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi


    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  16. Comparing amikacin and kanamycin-induced hearing loss in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment under programmatic conditions in a Namibian retrospective cohort. (United States)

    Sagwa, Evans L; Ruswa, Nunurai; Mavhunga, Farai; Rennie, Timothy; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    Amikacin and kanamycin are mainly used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), especially in developing countries where the burden of MDR-TB is highest. Their protracted use in MDR-TB treatment is known to cause dose-dependent irreversible hearing loss, requiring hearing aids, cochlear implants or rehabilitation. Therapeutic drug monitoring and regular audiological assessments may help to prevent or detect the onset of hearing loss, but these services are not always available or affordable in many developing countries. We aimed to compare the cumulative incidence of hearing loss among patients treated for MDR-TB with amikacin or kanamycin-based regimens, and to identify the most-at-risk patients, based on the real-life clinical practice experiences in Namibia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin-based regimens in four public sector MDR-TB treatment sites in Namibia between June 2004 and March 2014. Patients were audiologically assessed as part of clinical care. The study outcome was the occurrence of any hearing loss. Data were manually extracted from patients' treatment records. We compared proportions using the Chi-square test; applied stratified analysis and logistic regression to study the risk of hearing loss and to identify the most-at-risk patients through effect-modification analysis. A P-value < 0.05 was statistically significant. All 353 patients had normal baseline hearing, 46 % were HIV co-infected. Cumulative incidence of any hearing loss was 58 %, which was mostly bilateral (83 %), and mild (32 %), moderate (23 %), moderate-severe (16 %), severe (10 %), or profound (15 %). Patients using amikacin had a greater risk of developing the more severe forms of hearing loss than those using kanamycin (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95 % CI: 1.5-10.8). Patients co-infected with HIV (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI: 1.1-10.6), males (OR = 4.5, 95 %1.5-13.4) and those with lower

  17. Research progress of acute kanamycin sulfate-induced deafness in guinea pig%豚鼠硫酸卡那霉素急性致聋研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To present a summary of current knowledge regarding acute kanamycin sulfate-induced deafness in guinea pig, by reviewing the published literature. Animal model of acute deafness induced by a single dose of kanamycin sulfate in combination with ethacrynic acid or furosemide in guinea pig was usually used to investigate the mechanism of cochlear cell degeneration. There were different time sequences of cell degeneration of spiral ganglion cell and hair cell in different studies. The findings may result from different doses, order of two drugs administration or rime point chosen. There remains scope for further research in chronic kanamycin-induced deafness, which more replicates the type of exposure to people than acute deafness.

  18. Use of Penicillin and Streptomycin to Reduce Spread of Bacterial Coldwater Disease II: Efficacy of Using Antibiotics in Diluents and During Water Hardening. (United States)

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric J; Cavender, Wade


    Bacterial coldwater disease, caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, has lead to the loss of significant numbers of hatchery-reared salmonids. The bacteria can be spread from parent to progeny within contaminated sperm and ovarian fluid and can enter the egg during fertilization. The addition of antibiotics to diluents and water-hardening solutions could prevent the spread of the disease. In separate trials, a mixture of 0.197 mg/mL penicillin plus 0.313 mg/mL streptomycin was added to both a 0.5% sodium chloride fertilization diluent and hatchery well water during hardening. Tests showed that the addition of the antibiotics to the diluent and during up to 60 min of water hardening had no effect on the eye-up, hatch and deformity rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs compared with the nonantibiotic-treated controls. Also, significant reductions in the prevalence of F. psychrophilum on the surface and inside eggs were observed when compared with controls. These results indicate that the addition of penicillin and streptomycin to diluents and during water hardening can prevent the vertical transmission of bacterial coldwater disease.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of silica microspheres via sol-gel method for the selective extraction of streptomycin in aqueous samples. (United States)

    Junjie, Li; Mei, Yang; Danqun, Huo; Changjun, Hou; Xianliang, Li; Guomin, Wang; Dan, Feng


    Streptomycin-imprinted silica microspheres were prepared by combining a surface molecular-imprinting technique with the sol-gel method. A mixture of tetrahydrofuran, ethanol, and water (6:1:1, v/v/v) was selected as dispersing solvent while 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and triethoxyphenylsilane acted as functional monomers, and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a cross-linker. Characterization of the molecularly imprinted polymers was conducted using scanning electron microscope and dynamic binding experiments. As compared to the nonimprinted polymers, the imprinted polymers exhibited a higher degree of saturated adsorption volume up to 26.3 mg/g, and better selectivity even in an aqueous solution with interfering compounds, including dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline. The adsorption ability and selectivity were observed to be influenced by the mole ratio of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and triethoxyphenylsilane. Feasibility of the polymers to be used for actual application was also evaluated with spiked samples, indicating great potential for large-scale applications. Moreover, the streptomycin-imprinted polymers can be repeatedly used for 12 cycles without losing original performance, which is beneficial for commercial use.

  20. Foscarnet Injection (United States)

    ... Zovirax, Sitavig); aminoglycoside antibiotics such as amikacin, kanamycin, neomycin (Neo-Fradin), paromomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin; amphotericin (Abelcet, Ambisome, Amphotec, Fungizone); cyclosporine ( ...

  1. Vancomycin Injection (United States)

    ... Abelcet, Ambisome, Amphotec), bacitracin (Baciim); cisplatin, colistin, kanamycin, neomycin (Neo-Fradin), paromomycin, polymyxin B, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Your doctor may need to change ...

  2. Acyclovir (United States)

    ... such as amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin), kanamycin (Kantrex), neomycin (Nes-RX, Neo-Fradin), paramomycin (Humatin), streptomycin, and tobramycin (Tobi, Nebcin); aspirin and other nonsteroidal ...

  3. Adefovir (United States)

    ... such as amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin), kanamycin (Kantrex), neomycin (Neo-Rx, NeoFradin), paramomycin (Humatin), streptomycin, and tobramycin (Tobi, Nebcin); amphotericin B (Fungizone); aspirin ...

  4. Colistimethate Injection (United States)

    ... Abelcet, Ambisome), capreomycin (Capastat), gentamicin (Gentak, Genoptic), kanamycin, neomycin (Neo-Fradin), paromomycin, polymyxin B, sodium citrate (in Bicitra), streptomycin, tobramycin (Tobi, Tobrex), or vancomycin (Vancocin). Your doctor ...

  5. 硫酸链霉素对体外培养大鼠前庭毛细胞的损害作用%Ototoxic effects of streptomycin in vestibular organotypic cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于栋祯; 丁大连; 殷善开; Richard J Salvi


    Objective To investigate the ototoxic effects of streptomycin in vestibular organotypic cultures. Methods F344 rats with age at postnatal day three or four were used for this study. The maculae of saccule and utricle were routinely dissected out and cultured with serum-free medium containing various dose of streptomycin for 24 hours. The ciliary turf of vestibular hair ceils was stained with fluorescent phalloidin, and its nucleus was stained with topro-3 DNA probe. The vestibular hair cells were quantitatively counted and photographed under confocal fluorescent microscope. Results Morphological feature of vestibular hair cells were good in normal control cultures. However, the density of hair cells was decreased in evidence with increase of streptomycin sulfate concentrations. wenty-four hours after streptomycin cultures, 0.25 mmol/L streptomycin caused a 10% hair cell missing, 50% hair cell loss from 1 mmol/L streptomycin treatment, and more than 75% hair cells gone post-3 mmol/L streptomycin cultures. After streptomycin treatment, the nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation were found in vestibular hair cells, whereas the vestibular supporting cells were normal. Conclusion Streptomycin induced-vestibular hair cells lesion was in a dose dependent manner with nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation. This may suggest that streptomycin leads vestibular hair cell die through apoptosis.%目的 探讨硫酸链霉素对离体培养条件下大鼠前庭毛细胞的损害特征.方法 取出生后3~4 d的大鼠球囊斑和椭圆囊斑进行离体前庭器官培养,经培养过夜后再用不同浓度的硫酸链霉素培养液继续培养24 h.应用荧光标记的鬼笔环肽对前庭毛细胞的静纤毛和表皮板进行染色,同时应用Topro-3 DNA探针显示细胞核的形态,在激光共聚焦显微镜下计数和摄像.结果 在离体培养条件下,对照组前庭毛细胞生长良好,随着培养液中硫酸链霉素浓度的增加,毛细

  6. Resistances Level of Indian Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Cultivarsagainst Plant Selection Marker Kanamycin and Direct Shoot Organogenesis from Shoot Tip Culture%印度棉花二倍体和四倍体品种对卡那霉素的抗性水平及茎尖培养直接器官发生法诱导成苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Selection of transformed tissues in the antibiotic medium is an important step for developing transgenic plants. The toxic level of G.arboreum and G. hirsutum cotton cuhivars of Indian origin were tested against kanamycin using different concentrations.

  7. Detection of kanamycin and gentamicin residues in animal-derived food using IgY antibody based ic-ELISA and FPIA. (United States)

    Li, Cui; Zhang, Yaoyao; Eremin, Sergei A; Yakup, Omar; Yao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaoying


    Our aim in this study is to show that IgY antibody based immunoassays could be used to detect antibiotic residues in animal-derived food. Briefly, full antigens of gentamicin (Gent) and kanamycin (Kana) were used to immunize the laying chickens to prepare IgY antibodies. Then, these antibodies were evaluated by FPIA and ic-ELISA to detect Gent/Kana in animal-derived samples. The IC50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Gent IgY were 7.70±0.6μg/mL and 0.32±0.06μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Kana IgY were 7.97±0.9μg/mL and 0.15±0.01μg/mL. The limits of detection (LOD, IC10) for FPIA based anti-Gent/Kana IgY were 0.17 and 0.007μg/mL, respectively. The LOD for ic-ELISA were both 0.001μg/mL. These results indicated that the ic-ELISA might more suitable for antibiotic residues detection than FPIA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Standard concentrations of antibiotics in culture media are thought to have no detectable toxic effects on the cultured cells. However, since antibiotics are biologically active substances, the possibility that they interfere to some extent with cellular processes occurring in the cultured cells can not always be totally excluded. This study, therefore, was conducted to assess whether the presence of penicllin-streptomycin (pen-strep during in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs affect nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation and subsequent embryo development. Materials and Methods: Bovine COCs were matured at 39oC in a humidified atmosphere with 5 % CO2 in air for 24 h in: 1- culture medium M 199 supplemented with 10 % FCS (Fetal calf serum, 0.05 IU/ml rhFSH (recombinant human FSH and 100 units penicillin and 100 ?g streptomycin/ ml. 2- culture medium M 199 without FCS and rhFSH in the presence of pen-strep. Cultures without antibiotics served as control. Six series of experiments, each consisted of at least 3 replicates, were performed. Results: In vitro maturation in the presence of pen-strep in culture medium supplemented with FCS and rhFSH significantly (P<0.05 increased the percentage of MII oocytes, however, when the COCs were divided, on the basis of appearance of the cumulus investment, into bright and dark groups, this effect was less obvious in both types of COCs, 76% vs 72% in bright COCs (P= 0.149 or 83% vs 80% in dark COCs (P=0.296 in treated and control groups respectively. The percentage of oocytes with type III of cortical granules (CGs distribution was not affected in the presence of pen-strep. The COCs expansion after IVM was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in culture medium. The subsequent embryo development of IVM/IVF produced ova, which were exposed to pen-strep during IVM, was significantly (P<0.05 decreased with respect to blastocyst formation by day 9. In vitro maturation in

  9. The control of accuracy during protein synthesis in Escherichia coli and perturbations of this control by streptomycin, neomycin, or ribosomal mutations. (United States)

    Brakier-Gingras, L; Phoenix, P


    This review surveys the different experimental approaches which describe the binding of tRNA to mRNA-programmed ribosomes and the control of tRNA selection. This selection is best described by the two-step model proposed by Hopfield and demonstrated by Thompson and his collaborators. The model involves a first control at the initial reversible binding of tRNA to the ribosome and a second control, the proofreading control, which promotes rejection of the incorrect tRNA from a high-energy intermediate during the transition from the initial to the final binding state. Streptomycin, neomycin, and ribosomal fidelity mutations appear to affect both control steps. Their effect can be related to the location of the mutated ribosomal proteins and to the conformational changes induced in the ribosome by the misreading agents. An alteration of the first control probably results from a distortion of the codon-anticodon interaction, while an alteration of the second control may be caused by a change in the association between ribosomal subunits.

  10. Selection of random RNA fragments as method for searching for a site of regulation of translation of E. coli streptomycin mRNA by ribosomal protein S7. (United States)

    Surdina, A V; Rassokhin, T I; Golovin, A V; Spiridonova, V A; Kraal, B; Kopylov, A M


    In E. coli cells ribosomal small subunit biogenesis is regulated by RNA-protein interactions involving protein S7. S7 initiates the subunit assembly interacting with 16S rRNA. During shift-down of rRNA synthesis level, free S7 inhibits self-translation by interacting with 96 nucleotides long specific region of streptomycin (str) mRNA between cistrons S12 and S7 (intercistron). Many bacteria do not have the extended intercistron challenging development of specific approaches for searching putative mRNA regulatory regions, which are able to interact with proteins. The paper describes application of SERF approach (Selection of Random RNA Fragments) to reveal regulatory regions of str mRNA. Set of random DNA fragments has been generated from str operon by random hydrolysis and then transcribed into RNA; the fragments being able to bind protein S7 (serfamers) have been selected by iterative rounds. S7 binds to single serfamer, 109 nucleotide long (RNA109), derived from the intercistron. After multiple copying and selection, the intercistronic mutant (RNA109) has been isolated; it has enhanced affinity to S7. RNA109 binds to the protein better than authentic intercistronic str mRNA; apparent dissociation constants are 26 +/- 5 and 60 +/- 8 nM, respectively. Location of S7 binding site on the mRNA, as well as putative mode of regulation of coupled translation of S12 and S7 cistrons have been hypothesized.

  11. The streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea: functional analysis of the microbiota, the pathogen's virulence factors, and the host's mucosal immune response. (United States)

    Kaiser, Patrick; Diard, Médéric; Stecher, Bärbel; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich


    The mammalian intestine is colonized by a dense microbial community, the microbiota. Homeostatic and symbiotic interactions facilitate the peaceful co-existence between the microbiota and the host, and inhibit colonization by most incoming pathogens ('colonization resistance'). However, if pathogenic intruders overcome colonization resistance, a fierce, innate inflammatory defense can be mounted within hours, the adaptive arm of the immune system is initiated, and the pathogen is fought back. The molecular nature of the homeostatic interactions, the pathogen's ability to overcome colonization resistance, and the triggering of native and adaptive mucosal immune responses are still poorly understood. To study these mechanisms, the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea is of great value. Here, we review how S. Typhimurium triggers mucosal immune responses by active (virulence factor elicited) and passive (MyD88-dependent) mechanisms and introduce the S. Typhimurium mutants available for focusing on either response. Interestingly, mucosal defense turns out to be a double-edged sword, limiting pathogen burdens in the gut tissue but enhancing pathogen growth in the gut lumen. This model allows not only studying the molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella diarrhea but also is ideally suited for analyzing innate defenses, microbe handling by mucosal phagocytes, adaptive secretory immunoglobulin A responses, probing microbiota function, and homeostatic microbiota-host interactions. Finally, we discuss the general need for defined assay conditions when using animal models for enteric infections and the central importance of littermate controls.

  12. Radiation Protection (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  13. Kanamycin Sulphate Loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS Long Circulating Nanoparticles Using Combined Coating of PEG and Water-Soluble Chitosan (United States)

    Mustafa, Sanaul


    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS is cleared from the body within 8 h. KS has a very short plasma half-life (2.5 h). KS is used in high concentrations to reach the therapeutic levels in plasma, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. To overcome aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop KS loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS nanoparticles (KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of KS. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) (cationic deacetylated chitin) to particle surface, was raised for surface modification of NPs. Surface modified NPs (KS-PEG-WSC NPs) were prepared to provide controlled delivery and circulate in the bloodstream for an extended period of time, thus minimizing dosing frequency. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vivo biodistribution following intramuscular administration were investigated. NPs surface charge was close to neutral +3.61 mV and significantly affected by the WSC coating. KS-PEG-WSC NPs presented striking prolongation in blood circulation, reduced protein binding, and long drew-out the blood circulation half-life with resultant reduced kidney sequestration vis-à-vis KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of KS-PEG-WSC NPs with reduced frequency of dosing of KS indicating low incidence of nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity.

  14. Kanamycin Sulphate Loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS Long Circulating Nanoparticles Using Combined Coating of PEG and Water-Soluble Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Mustafa


    Full Text Available Kanamycin sulphate (KS is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS is cleared from the body within 8 h. KS has a very short plasma half-life (2.5 h. KS is used in high concentrations to reach the therapeutic levels in plasma, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. To overcome aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop KS loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS nanoparticles (KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs, to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of KS. To achieve a substantial extension in blood circulation, a combined design, affixation of polyethylene glycol (PEG to KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs and adsorption of water-soluble chitosan (WSC (cationic deacetylated chitin to particle surface, was raised for surface modification of NPs. Surface modified NPs (KS-PEG-WSC NPs were prepared to provide controlled delivery and circulate in the bloodstream for an extended period of time, thus minimizing dosing frequency. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vivo biodistribution following intramuscular administration were investigated. NPs surface charge was close to neutral +3.61 mV and significantly affected by the WSC coating. KS-PEG-WSC NPs presented striking prolongation in blood circulation, reduced protein binding, and long drew-out the blood circulation half-life with resultant reduced kidney sequestration vis-à-vis KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs. The studies, therefore, indicate the successful formulation development of KS-PEG-WSC NPs with reduced frequency of dosing of KS indicating low incidence of nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity.

  15. Screening for Streptomyces Hygroscopicus Strains with High Production of Agricultural Antibiotics by Streptomycin Resistance%链霉素抗性筛选吸水链霉菌高产农用抗生素菌株研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭档; 黄永春; 蔡延明; 曹仁林


    [Objective]The research aimed to screen Streptomyces hygroscopicus strains with high production of agricultural antibiotics.[Method]A strain of S.hygroscopicus was screened from the soil of Hainan Island.After natural screening and consecutive uhravidet induced mutation twice,S6-7 strain was obtained as the original strain then treated by UV irradiation and streptomycin resistance screening,and finally rescreened through shake-flask fermentation.[Result]7 better strains were selected by primary screening from 62 single colonies which were picked out randomly.After 3 generations of consecutive cultivation on slant media and rescreening,5 strains presented obvious forward mutation.The forward mutation rate reached 8.06%,and the largest production increasing rate came up to 25.11%.[Conclusion]By combining streptomycin resistance screening and conventional uhraviolet induced mutation,both the antibiotic-producing capacity and forward mutation screening efficiency of the original strain were greatly enhanced.

  16. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  17. Radiation sickness (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  18. Radiation dosimetry.


    Cameron, J


    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  19. Escherichia coli EDL933 requires gluconeogenic nutrients to successfully colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. (United States)

    Schinner, Silvia A C; Mokszycki, Matthew E; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell; Cohen, Paul S


    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666-1676, 2004, Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine.

  20. Genetic analysis of streptomycin-resistant (Sm(R)) strains of Erwinia amylovora suggests that dissemination of two genotypes is responsible for the current distribution of Sm(R) E. amylovora in Michigan. (United States)

    McGhee, Gayle C; Guasco, Jesse; Bellomo, Lisa M; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Shane, William W; Irish-Brown, Amy; Sundin, George W


    Streptomycin-resistant (Sm(R)) strains of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora were first isolated in southwest Michigan in 1991. Since that time, resistant strains have progressed northward to other apple-producing regions in the state. A total of 98.7% of Sm(R) strains isolated between 2003 and 2009 in Michigan harbored the strA-strB genes on transposon Tn5393. strA and strB encode phosphotransferase enzymes that modify streptomycin to a nonbactericidal form. Mutational resistance to streptomycin, caused by a point mutation-mediated target-site alteration of the ribosomal S12 protein, occurred in 1.3% of E. amylovora strains from Michigan. Tn5393 was originally introduced to E. amylovora on the plasmid pEa34; thus, the first Sm(R) strains isolated contained both pEa34 and the ubiquitous nonconjugative plasmid pEA29. More recently, we have observed Sm(R) strains in which Tn5393 is present on pEA29, suggesting that the transposon has moved via transposition from pEa34 to pEA29. Almost all of the strains containing Tn5393 on pEA29 had lost pEa34. Of 210 pEA29::Tn5393 plasmids examined, the transposon was inserted at either nucleotide position 1,515 or 17,527. Both of these positions were in noncoding regions of pEA29. Comparative sequencing of the housekeeping genes groEL and potentially variable sequences on pEA29 was done in an attempt to genetically distinguish Sm(R) strains from streptomycin-sensitive (Sm(S)) strains isolated in Michigan. Only 1 nucleotide difference within the total 2,660 bp sequenced from each strain was observed in 2 of 29 strains; multiple sequence differences were observed between the Michigan strains and E. amylovora control strains isolated in the western United States or from Rubus spp. Alterations in virulence observable using an immature pear fruit assay were detected in three of eight Sm(R) strains examined. Our current genetic data indicate that only two Sm(R) strain genotypes (strains containing pEA29::Tn5393 with Tn5393

  1. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  2. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J


    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  3. Doxycycline-rifampin versus doxycycline-streptomycin in treatment of human brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis. The GECMEI Group. Grupo de Estudio de Castilla-la Mancha de Enfermedades Infecciosas. (United States)

    Solera, J; Rodríguez-Zapata, M; Geijo, P; Largo, J; Paulino, J; Sáez, L; Martínez-Alfaro, E; Sánchez, L; Sepulveda, M A; Ruiz-Ribó, M D


    Brucellosis is a common zoonosis in many parts of the world; the best regimen for the treatment of brucellosis has not been clearly determined. We have carried out a multicenter, open, controlled trial in five general hospitals in Spain to compare the efficacy and safety of doxycycline and rifampin (DR) versus doxycycline and streptomycin (DS) for the treatment of human brucellosis. The study included 194 ambulatory or hospitalized patients with acute brucellosis, without endocarditis or neurobrucellosis. The diagnostic criterion was isolation of Brucella species from blood or other tissues (n = 120) or a standard tube agglutination titer of 1/160 or more for anti-Brucella antibodies with compatible clinical findings (n = 74). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg of doxycycline twice daily plus rifampin, 900 mg/day, in a single morning dose for 45 days (DR group) or the same dose of doxycycline for 45 days plus streptomycin, 1 g/day, intramuscularly for 14 days (DS group). A lack of therapeutic efficacy developed in 8 of the 100 patients in the DR group (8%) and in 2 of the 94 patients in the DS group (2%)(P = 0.10). Relapses occurred in 16 of the 100 patients in the DR group (16%) but in only 5 of the 94 patients in the DS group (5.3%) (P = 0.02). When relapse was considered in combination with initial lack of efficacy, 26 patients in the DR group (24%) and 7 patients in the DS group (7.45%) failed to respond to therapy (P = 0.0016). In general, therapy was well tolerated and only four patients (4%) in the DR group and two (2%) in the DS group had episodes of adverse effects necessitating discontinuation of treatment (P> 0.2). We conclude that a doxycycline-and-rifampin regimen is less effective than the doxycycline-and-streptomycin regimen in patients with acute brucellosis.

  4. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with streptomycin and a two-week intensified regimen: data from an HIV cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria


    Full Text Available Background. Despite the dramatic scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB is still the main cause of death among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Previous studies in patients with TB meningitis suggest that the use of higher doses of common anti-TB drugs could reduce mortality. Methods. Using clinical data from an HIV cohort study in India, we compared the mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB according to the regimen received during the first two weeks of treatment: standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT (N = 847, intensified ATT (N = 322, and intensified ATT with streptomycin (N = 446. The intensified ATT comprised double dose of rifampicin and substitution of ethambutol with levofloxacin. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW based on propensity scores. Patients with TB meningitis were excluded. Results. The use of intensified ATT alone did not improve survival. However, when streptomycin was added, the use intensified ATT was associated with reduced mortality in Cox models (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.57–0.91] and after IPTW (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI [0.67–0.96]. Other factors associated with improved survival were high serum albumin concentration, high CD4 lymphocyte cell-counts, and high glomerular filtration rates. Factors associated with increased mortality were high urea concentrations, being on antiretroviral therapy at the time of ATT initiation and high BUN/creatinine ratio. In an effect modification analysis, the survival benefits of the intensified ATT with streptomycin disappeared in patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion. The results of this study are in accordance with a previous study from our cohort involving patients with TB meningitis, and suggest that an intensified 2-week ATT with streptomycin could reduce mortality in HIV

  5. Detection of streptomycin resistance and resistance genes in lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan Pickle of China%四川泡菜中乳酸菌链霉素抗性与抗性基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋菲菲; 徐顾榕; 蔡婷; 林凯; 贾碧洪; 陈功; 向文良; 张庆


    目的:探明四川泡菜中链霉素抗性乳酸菌及抗性基因的种类。方法利用含有8μg/ml链霉素的MRS初步分离泡菜液中的抗性乳酸菌,通过16S rRNA分析确定抗性乳酸菌的分类地位后,测定同种不同菌株对链霉素的MIC,并与欧洲食品安全官方机构(EFSA)建议的最低临界值比较确定抗性菌株;通过PCR扩增链霉素抗性基因strA、strB, aadA、aadE、ant(6)、aac(6')-aph(2')和aph(3')-Ⅲa,确定抗性菌株的抗性基因。结果分离到67株链霉素敏感性或抗性菌株,这些菌株分别属于Pediococcus ethanolidurans (36),Lactococcus garvieae (14),Lactobacillus buchneri (12),Lactobacillus acetotolerans (2),Lactococcus lactis(1)和Staphylococcus.spp (2)。其中Lactococcus garvieae、Lactobacillus acetotolerans、Lactococcus lactis和Staphylococcus.spp全部为抗性菌株,Pediococcus ethanolidurans中有抗性菌株20株、Lactobacillus buchneri中有7株。在抗性基因检测中,除Lactobacillus acetotolerans抗性菌株没有检测到被检基因外,其他5个种的抗性菌株中均检测到部分或全部抗性基因。strA和aph(3')-Ⅲa基因在除Lactobacillus acetotolerans外的被检菌株中均有检出,其检出率分别为50%-100%和21.4%-100%;strB基因在抗性菌株Pediococcus ethanolidurans, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactococcus garvieae和Lactococcus lactis检测率分别为70%、42.9%、28.6%和100%;aac(6')-aph(2')基因仅在3株Pediococcus ethanolidurans、1株Lactobacillus buchneri、1株Lactococcus garvieae和Staphylococcusspp中检测到。aadA、aadE andant(6)在所有抗性菌株中都没有检测到。总体而言,strA、strB和aph(3')-Ⅲa基因在链霉素抗性菌株中的检出率高于其他抗性基因。结论当前的研究结果表明:四川泡菜中存在链霉素乳酸菌抗性菌株,这些抗性菌株对四川泡菜存在潜在安全风险。%Objective To detect the streptomycin resistance and resistance genes of

  6. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  7. Resultado do tratamento da tuberculose com estreptomicina, isoniazida e etambutol (esquema SHM Results of tuberculosis treatment with streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (scheme SHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do esquema SHM (estreptomicina, isoniazida e etambutol, na rotina de trabalho de uma unidade ambulatorial de tratamento da tuberculose. Método: Setenta e oito pacientes tuberculosos, cujo tratamento prévio com o esquema RHZ (seis meses de rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida teve de ser interrompido devido a efeitos adversos, ou que não puderam receber o esquema RHZ por serem de alto risco para hepatotoxicidade a esse esquema, foram tratados ambulatorialmente com o esquema de 12 meses de SHM, de 1986 a 1994, em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Resultados: Em três pacientes houve necessidade de troca de esquema por toxicidade (3,8%. Nos 75 restantes observaram-se 58 curas (77,3%, oito abandonos (10,7%, cinco falências (6,7% e quatro óbitos (5,3%. A taxa teórica de cura, que é o percentual de cura entre os bacilíferos que fizeram tratamento regular, foi de 95,3%. Reações adversas ocorreram em 32 pacientes (41%, sendo as mais freqüentes as manifestações de dano vestibular, em 18 (23,1%. Esses resultados foram comparados com os obtidos no mesmo ambulatório com o esquema de 12 meses de RHM (rifampicina, isoniazida e etambutol e de seis meses de RHZ. Conclusão: O esquema SHM pode ser recomendado como alternativa para o tratamento da tuberculose quando o esquema RHZ não pode ser indicado.Aim: To evaluate the performance of an SHM scheme (streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol in an outpatient clinic routine treatment for tuberculosis. Method: Seventy-eight patients with tuberculosis whose prior treatment with the RHZ scheme (six months of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide had to be discontinued due to adverse effects, or who could not receive the RHZ scheme due to high risk for liver toxicity, were treated in the outpatient clinic with the 12 month SHM scheme from 1986 to 1994, in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results: Three patients (3.8% required a scheme change

  8. 巨桉无性系Eg5的卡那霉素和头孢霉素敏感性研究%Study on kanamycin and cefotaxime sensitivity of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利军; 曾炳山; 刘英; 李湘阳; 裘珍飞


    By taking Eucalyptus grandis colne Eg5 leaves as explants, the effects of Kanamycin sulfate on the callus proliferation, bud differentiation and shoot rooting of leaf explains of Eucalyptus grandis clone Eg5 and the effect of Cefotaxime on explant's regeneration and the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 were studied. The results showed that the concentration of kanamycin for restraining callus proliferation was 17.5 mg/L, that for fully suppressing bud differentiation was 60 mg/L and that for inhibiting shoots rooting was 400 mg/L. Cefotaxime at a dosage from 0 mg/L to 300 mg/L had minimal impact on the differentiation of leaf explants. With a soak of the explants in the solution of 500 mg/L Cefotaxime, the growth of agrobacterium can be fully inhibited at a Cefotaxime dosage of 100 mg/L in medium.%以巨桉无性系Eg5叶片为外植体材料,试验了硫酸卡那霉素(kanamycin sulfate,Km)对外植体愈伤组织诱导增殖、芽分化、芽生根的影响,并且试验了头孢霉素(Cefotaxime,Cef对外植体再生的影响及其对根癌农杆菌GV3101的抑制效果.结果表明:抑制愈伤组织增殖培养的卡那霉素浓度为17.5 mg/L,完全抑制芽分化的卡那霉素浓度为60 mg/L,完全抑制生根的卡那霉素浓度为400 mg/L; Cef在0~500mg/L范围内,0~300mg/L Cef对外植体的生长分化影响最小;共培养结束后的外植体经过500mgL的Cef处理后,共培养基中添加100 mg/L的Cef便可以完全抑制农杆菌GV3101的生长.

  9. Use of experimental design to optimize a triple-potential waveform to develop a method for the determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in pharmaceutical veterinary dosage forms by HPLC-PAD. (United States)

    Martínez-Mejía, Mónica J; Rath, Susanne


    An HPLC-PAD method using a gold working electrode and a triple-potential waveform was developed for the simultaneous determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in veterinary drugs. Glucose was used as the internal standard, and the triple-potential waveform was optimized using a factorial and a central composite design. The optimum potentials were as follows: amperometric detection, E1=-0.15V; cleaning potential, E2=+0.85V; and reactivation of the electrode surface, E3=-0.65V. For the separation of the aminoglycosides and the internal standard of glucose, a CarboPac™ PA1 anion exchange column was used together with a mobile phase consisting of a 0.070 mol L(-1) sodium hydroxide solution in the isocratic elution mode with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The method was validated and applied to the determination of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in veterinary formulations (injection, suspension and ointment) without any previous sample pretreatment, except for the ointments, for which a liquid-liquid extraction was required before HPLC-PAD analysis. The method showed adequate selectivity, with an accuracy of 98-107% and a precision of less than 3.9%.

  10. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)


    - tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  11. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  12. Susceptibility Testing of the Combination of enrolfoxacin and kanamycin against Some Pathogenic Bacteria of Dairy Cow Mastitis%恩诺沙星与硫酸丁胺卡那霉素对奶牛乳房炎常见病原菌的联合药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽; 张鹏宇; 刘宇; 王岩; 李丹; 朱丹丹; 和翀翼; 史同瑞


    本试验对恩诺沙星和硫酸丁胺卡那霉素在4种奶牛乳房炎常见病原菌(无乳链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、致病性大肠埃希氏菌)联合药敏试验中的相互作用进行了研究。结果表明,恩诺沙星和硫酸丁胺卡那霉素对各菌的MIC为8~64μg/mL,二者联合后的FIC指数范围为0.5~1,二者联合用药时为协同作用或相加作用。%To study the interaction between enrolfoxacin and kanamycin against the bacteria of dairy cow mastitis, the susceptibility testing of drug combination to Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli in vitro was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of enrolfoxacin and kanamycin against the batertia was determined with the grade dilution method. The fractional inhibitory concentration(FIC) was measured with checkerboard microdilution method. The results showed MIC of enrolfoxacin and kanamycin against the batertia was 8~64μg/mL and the FIC of enrolfoxacin and kanamycin was 0.5~1. The study suggested that the combination of enrolfoxacin and kanamycin to Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes and E.coli had additive effect, and to Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated synergic action.

  13. Pelvic radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  14. 表面印迹法制备链霉素分子印迹聚合物及其性能研究%Study on synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers of streptomycin by surface imprinting polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨眉; 侯长军; 李贤良; 霍丹群; 黄清菁


    Silicon dioxide (SiO2 )particles were treated with silane and their surface were grafted with 3-(methacryloxypropyl)- trimethoxysilane (y- MPS) . Subsequently molecularly imprinted membrane was synthesized on the surface of SiO2 particles,where streptomycin was used as the template molecule, methacrylic acid(MAA) was used as functional monomer and N, N'-Methylenebisacrylamide( MBA)was used as cross linker. Finally, molecularly imprinted polymer(MIPMs) and non- molecularly imprinted polymer (NMIPMs) were prepared by surface imprinting polymerization.The morphology of MIPMs was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy( SEM ). Infrared spectra of MIPMs and NMIPMs demonstrated the components of them. The experimental results of isotherm binding of MIPMs and NMIPMs at different concentrations of streptomycin indicated that MIPMs absorbed more substrates than NMIPMs. MIPMs also showed good selectivity for streptomycin through the isotherm binding test of two other different substrates which were neomycin and gentamicin.%利用硅胶颗粒为基质,在其表面接枝硅烷化试剂3-甲基丙烯酰氧基丙基三甲氧基硅烷(γ-MPS),进行硅烷化处理后,以链霉素为模板分子,甲基丙烯酸(MAA)为功能单体,N,N'-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(MBA)为交联剂在颗粒表面合成分子印迹层,制备得到链霉素分子印迹聚合物(MIPMs)和空白聚合物(NMIPMs),并采用静态平衡结合法借助高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射(HPLC-ELSD)研究了聚合物对模板分子链霉素的吸附能力、结合动力学和选择特性。扫描电镜观察和红外光谱分析结果表明表面印迹层已经成功合成;吸附实验结果表明,MIPMs比NMIPMs对链霉素具有更强的吸附特性和更好的选择性。

  15. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E


    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  16. Radiation Chemistry (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  17. 溶胶-凝胶法制备链霉素分子表面印迹聚合物及其性能表征%Preparation and characterization of streptomycin imprinted polymers by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤良; 侯长军; 郗存显; 王国明; 杨眉; 张雷; 李俊杰


    以四氢呋喃、乙醇和水的混合溶液(体积比6∶1∶1)为分散剂,3-氨基丙基三乙氧基硅烷和苯基三乙氧基硅烷为功能单体,正硅酸乙酯为交联剂,氨水为催化剂,通过溶胶-凝胶法在二氧化硅微球表面制备了分子印迹聚合物.用分子对接的方法初步分析了链霉素与功能单体和交联剂之间的相互作用,验证了它们形成氢键的可能性.活化时间会影响分子印迹微球的形貌.吸附实验表明,分子印迹微球比非印迹聚合物微球对链霉素具有更优越的吸附性能和选择性.%A mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran, ethanol and water (volume ratio is 6: 1:1) was chosen as dispersion agent, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and phenyltriethoxysilane as functional monomers, and tet-raethyl orthosilicate as cross-linker, while ammonia solution served as catalyst, the preparation of molecu-larly imprinted polymers on the surface of silica microspheres by sol-gel method. Preliminary analysis of the interaction between the streptomycin and functional monomer and crosslinker with the molecular docking, verifying the forming hydrogen bond possibility. The activation time will affect the morphology of the molecularly imprinted microspheres. The absorption capacity and selectivity of the obtained molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were also evaluated for streptomycin and its analogue compounds in water samples.

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.


    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  19. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M


    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  20. Hawking radiation (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe


    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  1. calpain1在卡那霉素致毒豚鼠耳蜗中的表达%Expression of calpain 1 in kanamycin-poisoned guinea pig cochlea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aim To investigate the expression of calpain 1 in kanamycin( KM )-poisoned guinea pig cochlea. Methods Guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four groups : control group, KM 3 days group , 7 days group and 14 days group. Auditory brainstem response ( ABR )measurement was used to test the hearing of guinea pig. The expression of calpain I was detected by the SABC method of immunohistochemistry combined with imaging analysis technique. Auditory brainstem response( ABR )measurement was used to test the hearing of guinea pig. Results Immunoreactivity for calpain 1 was mainly found in hair cells , spiral ganglions, spiral ligament and stria vascularis. The results of imaging analysis indicated that immuncorectivity for calpain 1 gradually lowered with the days up. Conclusion Calpain 1 is found in Cochlea of control group and KM group. The results of imaging analysis indicate that immuncorectivity for calpain 1 gradually lower with the days up.%目的 探讨钙蛋白酶(calpain 1)在卡那霉素(kanamycin,KM)致毒豚鼠耳蜗中的定位与表达.方法 将40只豚鼠随机均分成4组:对照组、KM 3 d组、KM 7 d组和KM 14 d组,KM各组每天肌肉注射硫酸卡那霉素注射液200 mg·kg-1.应用电生理指标听性脑干反应(auditory brainstem response,ABR)观察用药前后豚鼠听力的变化;采用免疫组织化学SABC法结合显微图像分析技术,观察豚鼠耳蜗组织中calpain 1的表达.结果 calpain 1阳性免疫反应主要见于耳蜗毛细胞、螺旋神经节、螺旋韧带和血管纹,并随给药天数的增加,calpain 1在耳蜗上述部位的表达逐渐减弱.结论 calpain 1在正常豚鼠和卡那霉素致毒豚鼠耳蜗中都有表达,且随卡那霉素给药天数的增加表达逐渐减弱.

  2. Characterization of putative multidrug resistance transporters of the major facilitator-superfamily expressed in Salmonella Typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, Aqsa; Ismat, Fouzia; Iqbal, Mazhar


    conferred resistance to at least ten of the tested antimicrobials: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ethidium bromide, and acriflavine, including fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which were drugs of choice to treat S. Typhi infections...

  3. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I


    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  4. Radiation Exposure (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  5. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva


    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  6. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  7. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M


    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  8. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction (United States)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira


    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  9. Abdominal radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  10. Brain radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  11. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process%自适应MPCA方法在链霉素过程监控中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宁; 王树青


    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA,especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  12. Expression of calpains in the cochlea in kanamycin-poisoned guinea pig%钙蛋白酶在卡那霉素致毒豚鼠耳蜗中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德菊; 王爱梅


    目的 探讨钙蛋白酶(calpain)在卡那霉素(kanamycin,KM)致耳中毒豚鼠耳蜗的表达.方法 将豚鼠随机分成对照组、KM 3 d组、KM 7 d组和KM 14 d组,应用免疫组织化学SABC(streptavidin-biotin peroxidae complex,链霉亲合素-生物素过氧化物酶复合物)法和显微图像分析技术检测耳蜗中钙蛋白酶的表达,用药前后给予短纯音刺激检测听性脑干反应阈值,观察豚鼠听力的变化.结果 对照组calpain 1阳性免疫反应主要见于耳蜗毛细胞、螺旋神经节、血管纹和螺旋韧带,以螺旋神经节的染色较深,而其它部位均呈阴性.肌肉注射KM后,calpain 1在耳蜗中的阳性反应部位与对照组大致相同,显微图像分析结果表明,随着给药天数的增加,calpain 1在耳蜗上述部位的阳性反应逐渐减弱.Calpain 2在各组豚鼠耳蜗中的表达部位与calpain 1的相同,显微图像分析结果提示,随着给药天数的增加,calpain 2在耳蜗上述部位的阳性反应逐渐增强.结论 正常豚鼠耳蜗中有calpain1和calpain 2的表达.注射KM后,随着给药天数的增加,calpain 1在耳蜗的表达逐渐减弱,而calpain 2的表达则逐渐增强,提示calpain 2可能参与了卡那霉素致耳中毒的过程.%Objective To investigate expression of calpains in the cochlea in kanamycin (KM) -poisoned guinea pigs. Methods Guinea pigs were randomly assigned to serve as controls or to receive KM for 3, 7 or 14 days. SABC im-munohistochemistry and imaging analysis were used to examine expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were used to determine auditory thresholds and their changes. Results Immunoreactivity for clapin 1 was mainly seen in the hair cell, spiral ganglion, stria vascularis and spiral ligament in the control group, with greater staining in the spiral ganglion. The location of calpain 1 expression in the cochlea was similar in the control and KM treatment groups. Imaging analysis indicated that

  13. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.


    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  14. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  15. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism (United States)


    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  16. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  17. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service


    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tél. 73171

  18. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server


    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tel. 73171

  19. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia


    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: Tél. 73171

  20. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.


    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  1. Radiation Engineering for Designers (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.


    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  2. Acute Radiation Syndrome (United States)

    ... Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public ... is called the radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose ...

  3. Chest radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  4. Risk Factors: Radiation (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  5. Radiation Engineering for Designers (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.


    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  6. Determination of streptomycin residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,


    Full Text Available Honey was the first sweet substance used in human food as a precursor sugar cane or beet. Honey production by bees is a complex process of transformation, from harvesting and ending with a striking honeycomb cells. Immediately after extraction, honey is always clear and liquid. This is due to the high content of fructose, which makes some items, such as locust always remain liquid. If the glucose is higher than that of fructose, honey will crystallize at temperatures below 18°C. Honey is easily susceptible to heat, so they should be stored at room temperature. Bees, like all living organisms, can become ill with various diseases. These, by mortality that occur among individuals of the colony, thereby reducing the number of bees and beefamilies are emptied and become unproductive. In many cases, it appears significant damage resulting in large losses for beekeepers. Prevention, detection and treatment of diseases with antibiotics is an extremely important factor in ensuring the health of bee.

  7. Math1 gene therapy for kanamycin and furosemide-induced deaf guinea pigs%卡那霉素联合速尿致聋豚鼠的Math1基因治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤芬; 杨仕明; 韩东一; 郭维维; 孙建和; 高举; 孙东绣; 孙爱玲; 李臻


    Objective To observe the morphology and function changes of cochlear hair cells before and after math1 gene injection into the cochlea of deaf guinea pigs which were induced by kanamycin and furosemide.To explore the feasibility of Math1 gene for medicine-induced deafness therapy.Methods Kanamycin(500 mg/kg) and furosemide(50 mg/kg) were given to the healthy adult guinea pigs intramuscularly and intravenously to establish the deafness model.The guinea pigs whose auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold > 95 dB SPL were randomly divided into five groups.Blank control group (without any treatment,n =3),operation control group (right ear scala tympani operation,n =3),artificial perilymph group (right ear scala tympani injection artificial perilymph,n =3),virus vector group [right ear scala tympani injection adenovirus which carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) gene (Ad.EGFP),n =4],Math1 gene therapy group [right ear scala tympani injection adenovirus which carrying Math1 and EGFP gene(Ad.Math1-EGFP),n =6].Each animal received ABR test before and after injection.The cochlear tissue was observed by scanning electronic microscopy.Results The ABR thresholds of tone burst(4,8,16,20 kHz) were not statistically significant in different groups (P > 0.05).The number of hair cells increased in some of severe deaf guinea pigs after the injection of Ad.Math1-EGFP gene.However,there was no obvious difference with morphology and numbers of cochlea hair cells in other groups.Conclusions The injection of Math1 gene to cochlea can regenerate or repair the hair cells of medicine-induced deaf guinea pigs,but there was no improvement on the hearing loss.%目的 观察卡那霉素和速尿联合致聋豚鼠耳蜗鼓阶导入Math1基因后的形态学及功能改变,探讨Mathl基因治疗药物中毒性耳聋的可行性.方法 健康成年豚鼠经硫酸卡那霉素(500 mg/kg)和速尿(50 mg/kg)联合致聋,将听性脑干反应(ABR)反应阈>95 dB SPL的豚鼠按

  8. Radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amla, T.R.; Chakravarti, R.N.; Lal, K.


    Adult healthy rhesus monkeys were exposed to a course of roentgen irradiation over the chest and back to produce pulmonary changes simulating human radiation pneumonitis. Macroscopic and morphologic changes included dense adhesions, pleural thickening and increased consistency of the lungs. Microscopically the early reaction was characterized by dilatation of pulmonary vessels, microhaemorrhages, collapse of alveoli, permeation of the interstitial tissue with a fibrinous fluid and cells. In the late stage the fibrinous interstitial matrix was replaced by hyaline eosinophilic mass, fragmentation and dissolution of the elastic tissue and thickening of the alveolar walls. The cell population in the interstitial tissue showed decline and at places radiolytic effect. There was peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and hyalinization and pulmonary arteries revealed marked degree of arteriosclerosis. The present study opens a new field for experimental research on the development of pulmonary hypertension as a post-irradiation complication.

  9. Radiation Insulation (United States)


    The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

  10. Experience of Clinical the Load of Streptomycin Powder Bone Morselized Bone Fusion and Internal Fixation for the Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis%负载链霉素粉骨颗粒植骨融合内固定术治疗脊柱结核的治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永松; 王冶; 陈志龙; 王群芳


    目的:探讨负载链霉素粉骨颗粒植入融合及内固定术治疗脊柱结核的临床疗效和应用价值。方法对16例脊柱结核使用一期病灶清除,带链霉素粉骨颗粒植入融合和钉棒系统内固定治疗。结果术后腰痛缓解93.2%。术后1年X线片植骨融合率达96.2%。结论治疗腰椎结核采用一期病灶清除,负载链霉素粉骨颗粒植入融合,钉棒系统内固定具有良好的效果。%Objective To evaluate the load streptomycin powder particles are bone fusion and internal fixation in the treatment of spinal tuberculosis curative ef ect and application value. Methods 16 cases of spinal tuberculosis using a phase lesions cleared, with streptomycin powder particles are bone fusion and good nail internal fixation treatment system. Results 93.2% postoperative back pain relief. A year after X line piece of bone graft fusion rate was 96.2%. Conclusion Treatment of lumbar spinal tuberculosis using a phase lesions cleared, load streptomycin powder particles are bone fusion and internal fixation of screw rod system has a good ef ect.

  11. Attenuation of streptomycin ototoxicity by tetramethylpyrazine and its effect on K+ channels in the outer hair cells of guinea pig cochlea%川芎嗪抗链霉素耳毒性作用及其对豚鼠耳蜗外毛细胞钾通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩; 崔桂英; 石丽娟; 高青华; 曹宇


    In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the attenuation of streptomycin ototoxicity by tetramethylpyrazine (TMP),the present study investigated the effect of TMP on the outward K+ current in the outer hair cells of guinea pig cochlea. Sixty guinea pigs were divided into 6 groups randomly. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to observe the change in thresholds and to evaluate ototoxicity induced by streptomycin. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to observe the effect of TMP on outward K+ current in isolated outer hair cells. The results showed that TMP attenuated the threshold shift caused by streptomycin and increased the amplitudes of Ca2+-sensitive K+ current [IK(Ca)] in the outer hair cells. The present data suggest that TMP displays anti-ototoxicity induced by streptomycin. The augmented amplitudes of IK(Ca) of the outer hair cells induced by TMP may be one of the mechanisms underlying its ototoxicity-attenuating effect.%本文旨在研究川芎嗪(tetramethylpyrazine,TMP)拮抗链霉素耳毒性作用及其对豚鼠耳蜗外毛细胞K+通道的影响,探讨TMP拮抗链霉素耳毒性的离子通道机制.60只豚鼠随机分为6组,应用听觉脑干反应(auditory brainstem response,ABR)技术检测豚鼠ABR听阈,观测TMP的抗链霉素耳毒作用;并采用全细胞膜片钳技术观察TMP对耳蜗外毛细胞Ca2+敏感K+电流的影响.结果显示,TMP明显降低链霉素导致的豚鼠ABR听阈升高,提示TMP具有抗链霉素耳毒性作用;TMP能明显增大豚鼠耳蜗外毛细胞Ca2+敏感K+电流,并呈浓度依赖关系.结果提示,TMP通过增大K+通道电导而拮抗链霉素耳毒性作用.

  12. Breast radiation - discharge (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  13. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure (United States)

    ... Ask the Experts Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure Robert Brent, MD, PhD The following information pertains to reproductive risks of radiation exposures to women who are pregnant and have questions ...

  14. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert


    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  15. Radiation controlling reversible window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A. Jr.


    A coated glass glazing system is presented including a transparent glass substrate having one surface coated with a radiation absorptive film which is overcoated with a radiation reflective film by a technique which renders the radiation reflective film radiation absorptive at the surface contracting the radiating absorptive film. The coated glass system is used as glazing for storm windows which are adapted to be reversible so that the radiation reflective surface may be exposed to the outside of the dwelling during the warm seasons to prevent excessive solar radiation from entering a dwelling and reversed during cold seasons to absorb solar radiation and utilize it to aid in keeping the dwelling interior warm.

  16. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  17. Gravitation radiation observations


    Glass, E. N.


    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  18. Micromechanical radiation dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, T.; Sharp, S.L.; Fisher, W.G.; Warmack, R.J.; Wachter, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6123 (United States))


    We demonstrate the use of microcantilevers coated with ultraviolet cross-linking polymers as optical radiation dosimeters. Upon exposure to radiation, a treated cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency increases due to stiffening. These phenomena can be used to develop sensitive radiation dosimeters which respond to radiation affecting the mechanical properties of the selected coating.

  19. Wireless radiation sensor (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.


    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  20. Plutonium radiation surrogate (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA


    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  1. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities. (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V


    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  2. ERLN Radiation Focus Area (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  3. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  4. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George


    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  5. Cell Radiation Experiment System (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.


    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  6. Environmental Radiation Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air...

  7. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  8. Environmental Radiation Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  9. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server


    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  10. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia


    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  11. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior


    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  12. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.


    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  16. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J.M. [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej


    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  17. Biological implications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.


    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays. (HLW)

  18. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server


    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  19. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  20. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  1. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J


    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  2. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  3. Radiation curing of epoxies (United States)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  4. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome. (United States)

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P


    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  5. Radiation processing of polyethylene (United States)

    Barlow, A.; Biggs, J. W.; Meeks, L. A.

    This paper covers two areas (a) the use of high energy radiation for the synthesis and improvement of polymer properties and (b) the formulation of radiation curable compounds for automotive/appliance wire applications and high voltage insulation. The first part discusses the use of gamma radiation for the bulk polymerization of ethylene and the properties of the polymer produced. The use of low dose radiation to increase polymer molecular weight and modify polydispersity is also described together with its projected operational cost. An update is provided of the cost savings that can be realized when using radiation crosslinked heavy duty film, which expands its applications, compared with noncrosslinked materials. The second section of the paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of radiation vs. peroxide curing of wire and cable compounds. The formulation of a radiation curable, automotive/appliance wire compound is discussed together with the interactions between the various ingredients; i.e., base resin, antioxidants, flame retardant filler, coupling agents, processing aids and radiation to achieve the desired product. In addition, the general property requirements of a radiation curable polyethylene for high voltage insulation are discussed; these include crosslinking efficiency, thermal stability, wet tree resistance and satisfactory dielectric properties. Preliminary data generated in the development of a 230KV radiation crosslinked polyethylene insulation are included.

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.


    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  7. Theory of edge radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition Undulator Radiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long ...

  8. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H


    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  9. Solar radiation models - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamil Ahmad, G.N. Tiwari


    Full Text Available In the design and study of solar energy, information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential. Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, several empirical correlations have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. The main objective of this study is to review the global solar radiation models available in the literature. There are several formulae which relate global radiation to other climatic parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity and maximum temperature. The most commonly used parameter for estimating global solar radiation is sunshine duration. Sunshine duration can be easily and reliably measured and data are widely available.

  10. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne


    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  12. Transgenerational Radiation Epigenetics (United States)


    showed altered expression in normal lung from F3 mice. Thus, traces of the effects of a single dose of radiation during development persist into...radiation showed a loss of global cytosine methylation in DNA from thymus , implicating profound epigenetic dysregulation (Tawa et al., 1998; Pogribny...for the carcinogenic and transgenerational effects of radiation. It is also anticipated that these epigenetic signatures will be developed as

  13. Radiation | (United States)

    About half of all cancer patients get radiation therapy. This treatment can damage healthy cells, which can cause uncomfortable side effects. Use this action deck to get information on common symptoms that affect people going through radiation and learn how to manage them. The side effects of radiation may depend on the part of your body being treated. If you don’t see the symptom cards that describe what you are going through, try building your own deck.

  14. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek


    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  15. Potential theory of radiation (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang


    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  16. [Thyroid and radiation]. (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Namba, H; Nagataki, S


    The topic "Thyroid and Radiation" is both an old and a new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymphnodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed.

  17. Spontaneous kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli mutant with altered periplasmic oligopeptide permease protein (OppA and impermeability to aminoglycosides Mutante espontâneo de Escherichia coli resistente à canamicina com expressão de oligopeptídeo permease periplasmática (OppA alterada e impermeabilidade aos aminoglicosídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica B. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available A spontaneous kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli mutant, showing cross resistance to five other aminoglycosides and absence of the OppA protein was isolated. [3H]-dihydrostreptomycin uptake is reduced in this mutant, implying that the oligopeptide transport system is involved in accumulation of aminoglycosides, although apparently not related with aminoglycoside permeability alteration due to bacterial adaptation to osmotic changes.Um mutante espontâneo de Escherichia coli foi selecionado com canamicina e mostrou resistência cruzada a cinco outros aminoglicosídeos e ausência da proteína OppA. A incorporação de diidroestreptomicina tritiada mostrou-se reduzida nesse mutante, implicando que o sistema de transporte de oligopeptídeos está envolvido na acumulação de aminoglicosídeos, embora aparentemente não esteja relacionado com a alteração de permeabilidade aos aminoglicosídeos decorrente da adaptação bacteriana a mudanças osmóticas.

  18. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  19. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia


    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure.

  20. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  1. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.


    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  2. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... radiation (absorbed dose) or to the potential biological effect in tissue exposed to radiation (equivalent dose). Sv or Sievert The International System of Units (SI) unit for dose equivalent equal to 1 joule/kilogram. The sievert has replaced the rem; one ...

  3. NASA's Space Radiation Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shelley Canright; 陈功


    @@ Imagine a human spacecraft crew voyaging through space. A satellite sends a warning; energetic particles are being accelerated from the Sun's corona①,sending dangerous radiation toward the spacecraft, but the crewmembers aren't worried. Long before their journey, researchers on Earth conducted experiments to accurately measure the hazards of space radiation and developed new materials and countermeasures to protect them.

  4. Radiation Therapy for Cancer (United States)

    ... basic unit of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation . It can be thought of as a bundle ... 3D-CRT uses very sophisticated computer software and advanced treatment machines to deliver radiation to very precisely shaped target areas. Many other ...

  5. New sources of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmerling, W.


    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly.

  6. Electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server


    Addresses the developments in the design of semiconductor detectors and integrated circuits, in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explains how circuits for radiation are built, focusing on practical information about how they are being used, rather than mathematical details.

  7. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.


    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  8. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server


    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan


    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  10. [Radiation induced tumors]. (United States)

    Gutiérrez Bayard, L; Delgado López, L; Tirado Bejarano, C; Gómez Puerto, A; García Fernández, J L


    Radiations at cellular level produce different effects, depending on type of radiation and irradiated tissue. The radiation-induced cancers are associated to non-letals genetics mutations, and to classify like radiation induced tumors is necessary that appear in the treatment volume, a long latency period (years), histolo-different to the primary lesion, enough doses quantitatively and that exists a greater incidence in the irradiated populations. The genetics mutations affect at tumoral suppressors gen(Gen RB I, p53, BRCA I, BRCA 2) and repressors gen (hMSH 2, hMLH I,...), they could be longer and multifocals mutations, and produce lack of cellular control and a greater predisposition to develop tumors and a probable risk of increment of radiosensitivity. We present some of the more representatives studies about radiation-induced tumors.

  11. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry (United States)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.


    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  12. Transition radiation by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannisian, A.N., E-mail: [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Ioannisian, D.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Physics Department, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian (Armenia); Kazarian, N.A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia)


    We calculate the transition radiation process {nu}{yields}{nu}{gamma} at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For E{sub {nu}=}1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10{sup -39} and the energy intensity is about 10{sup -34} eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be {approx}10{sup -20}. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  13. Transition radiation by neutrinos (United States)

    Ioannisian, A. N.; Ioannisian, D. A.; Kazarian, N. A.


    We calculate the transition radiation process ν→νγ at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For Eν=1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10 and the energy intensity is about 10 eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be ˜10. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  14. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn


    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  15. Fading Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I; Pasaoglu, H


    In this study, we explore a particular type Hawking radiation which ends with zero temperature and entropy. The appropriate black holes for this purpose are the linear dilaton black holes. In addition to the black hole choice, a recent formalism in which the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling formalism amalgamated with quantum corrections to all orders in \\hbar is considered. The adjustment of the coefficients of the quantum corrections plays a crucial role on this particular Hawking radiation. The obtained tunneling rate indicates that the radiation is not pure thermal anymore, and hence correlations of outgoing quanta are capable of carrying away information encoded within them. Finally, we show in detail that when the linear dilaton black hole completely evaporates through such a particular radiation, entropy of the radiation becomes identical with the entropy of the black hole, which corresponds to "no information loss".

  16. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee


    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  17. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  18. 烟草野火病菌对细菌杀星的敏感性测定及敏感基线建立%Sensitivity Determination and Sensitivity Baseline Establishment of Pseudomonas syringae pv.tabaci to Streptomycin·Saikuzuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长卿; 隋原; 杨丽娜; 周洪波; 张文中; 高洁


    从黑龙江省和吉林省烟草主要种植区获得烟草野火病菌(Pseudomonas syringae pv.tabaci)菌株61个,采用抑菌圈法对50%细菌杀星WP进行了敏感性测定.结果表明:不同地理来源的烟草野火病菌对细菌杀星敏感性有一定差异,EC50=1.070~1.517 μg/mL,平均1.421μg/mL;黑龙江省鸡西的菌株h28为最敏感菌株,其EC50为1.070μg/mL,而黑龙江宁安菌株h40敏感性最低,其EC50值为1.517 μg/mL.同时确定了两省烟草野火病菌对细菌沙星的敏感基线为1.421μg/mL,可用于对烟草野火病菌对细菌杀星的抗药性监测;烟草野火病菌对细菌杀星未产生抗药性.%The fungicide sensitivity to streptomycin · saikuzuo of sixty one strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tabaci (Pst) from tabacco regions in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces was determined using the method of inhibition zone. The results showed there were sensitivity differences among the strains, and EC50 value of all strains was lower than 2 μg/mL, which ranged from 1.070 to 1.517 μg/mL, and the av erage value was 1.421 μg/mL. Strains h28( EC50 1.070 μg/mL) from Jixi, Heilongjiang was the most sensitive to the fungicide, but h4O(EC50 1.517 μg/mL) from Ning'an, Heilongjiang was strain of the low est sensitivity. The sensitivity baseline of Pst strains to streptomycin ? saikuzuo was determined as 1.421 μg/mL, which could be used for monitoring resistance of Pst strains to the fungicide. There wasno resistance of Pst strains to the fungicide.

  19. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... of the lung cancer and your overall health. Radiation Therapy Radiation is a high-energy X-ray that can ... surgery, chemotherapy or both depending upon the circumstances. Radiation therapy works within cancer cells by damaging their ...

  20. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  1. Depression and ionizing radiation. (United States)

    Loganovsky, K N; Vasilenko, Z L


    The objective of this at issue paper is the analysis of published data in correlation with the results of own research on the potential role of ionizing radiation in the genesis of depressive disorders. Depression is one of the most significant and long-term effect of the atomic bombings, nuclear testing and radiation emergences. The participants of the accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant increased prevalence of depression (18.0% and 13.1% in controls) and suicide rates. Depression is mainly observed in the structure of an organic mental disorder against cerebrovascular disease. The clinical pattern is dominated by asthenoadynamic and asthenoapathetic depression. Depressive disorders in radiation emergencies are multifactorial, that is the result of exposure to the complex psychogenic and radiological accident's factors, impact of traditional risk factors, somatic and neurological diseases, genetic predisposition, predisposition, etc. At the same time, exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor in the genesis of depression. This impact can be direct (to the Central Nervous System), and indirectly through the somatic and neurological abnormalities (multiorgan dysfunction) as well as by a variety of pathogenic mechanisms of ionizing radiation on the brain that have been discovered recently. It is strongly necessary analytical clinical and epidemiological studies with verification of depression and evidence-based establishment of the role of radiation and non-radiation risk factors. Loganovskyj K. N., Vasylenko Z. L., 2013.

  2. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.


    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  3. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.


    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  5. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  6. The theory of heat radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Planck, Max


    Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.

  7. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Wygant, J. R., et al., “The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission,” Space Sci. Rev., 179, 2013, pp. 183–220, doi...A. N., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Hudson, M. K., and Kress, B. T., “Observations of the Inner Radiation Belt: CRAND and Trapped Solar Protons,” J...1215–1228, doi:10.1002/2014JA020777. [27] Selesnick, R. S., “ Measurement of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons with Kinetic Energy Above 1 MeV,” J

  8. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J


    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  9. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hendee, William R; Hendee, Eric G


    The Third Edition of Radiation Therapy Physics addresses in concise fashion the fundamental diagnostic radiologic physics principles as well as their clinical implications. Along with coverage of the concepts and applications for the radiation treatment of cancer patients, the authors have included reviews of the most up-to-date instrumentation and critical historical links. The text includes coverage of imaging in therapy planning and surveillance, calibration protocols, and precision radiation therapy, as well as discussion of relevant regulation and compliance activities. It contains an upd

  10. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri


    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  11. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek


    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  12. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  14. Intelligent Radiative Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An opportunity to boost energy efficiency in homes and buildings exists through the design of functional radiative properties in glass and other building materials....

  15. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology. (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E


    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E


    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  17. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  18. Lecture on Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.


    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  19. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.


    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  20. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.


    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  1. Radiation synovectomy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, E. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Brodack, J.W. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Deutsch, K.F. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))


    Radiation synovectomy is a potential weapon in the therapeutic armamentarium of nuclear medicine. It is an attractive alternative to surgical or chemical synovectomy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this article the clinical results obtained with radiation synovectomy from the 1950s through 1992 are summarized and reviewed. Even after taking into account the paucity of well-controlled trials and rigorous clinical follow-up, it is clear that radiation synovectomy is efficacious in controlling the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the procedure is not widely used because of concerns about leakage of radioactivity from the treated joint, and the resulting high doses that can be delivated to nontarget organs. New approaches to the preparation of radiolabeled particles for use in radiation synovectomy promise to minimize this leakage and thus allows the full potential of this important radiotherapy to be realized. (orig.)

  2. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph


    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  3. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology


    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  4. Blackbody Radiation Tables (United States)

    at the indicated wavelength and temperature, Planck’s equation. This equation represents the monochromatic radiant intensity at a particular wavelength from a perfect radiator maintained at the indicated temperature.

  5. Radiation Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... with ink to highlight the treatment area. This "tattoo" should not be wiped off because it helps ... quickly to reduce exposure. previous continue Common Side Effects of Radiation If your child has cancer, you' ...

  6. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F


    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  7. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia


    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  8. Radiation practices 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.


    At the end of 1996, there were 1,762 valid safety licences in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,052 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety listed 13,360 radiation sources and 313 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.14 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 7.78 x 10{sup +13} Bq. A total of 4.02 x 10{sup +13} Bq of short-lived radionuclides were produced in Finland. There were 11,842 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,352 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of individual dosimeter readings) was 7.96 manSv in 1996, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 69% of this total. The annual dosimeter reading of ten medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and eight nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of dosimeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 242 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations where unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Report was made of 12 incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Five of these cases occurred in radiotherapy, three in use of a radiation source in industry, three in transport of radiation sources and one in use of solarium appliances. Radiation-contaminated material was found in 17 shipments of scrap. (orig.)

  9. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server


    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  10. Radiative transfer dynamo effect (United States)

    Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.


    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  11. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  12. Acute local radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))


    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  13. Radiation technology in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo Van Thuan [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    Most of researches and developments in the field of radiation technology that have completed in a decade before 1995 were concentrated to sterilization and food irradiation. A series of medical devices and products were the main commodities for research and application trials. Also, many kind of food have attracted the scientists and technologists to investigate the application and commercialization of irradiated food. In addition, the radiation technology also was utilized for processing of non-food items including herbs, medicinal produces, and tobacco material. Since 1996 VAEC and INST has realized the important role of radiation processing on natural polymers. Hence, along with the commercialization of radiation technology, three research teams were established for the target. This report reviews the recent activities and achievements on radiation technology in the country emphasizing on the radiation processing of polysaccharides. A number of polysaccharides, which originated from bio-/agro-wastes such as seaweed, shrimp shells, lignocelluloses, was modified or degraded by irradiation to prepare hydrogel and bio-active material using for health-care and crop production. (author)

  14. Effects of sulfate streptomycin treatments on bacterial number, enzyme activities and compound transformations in simulated constructed wetlands%模拟人工湿地中硫酸盐氯霉素处理对细菌数量、湿地酶活性和生化作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪姣; 徐婷婷; 叶海冬; 都李萍; 应杰; 章晓凝; 李鑫; 张崇邦


    霉素的不同浓度(P <0.05),而酶活性的总体变化则未能区分。结论本研究突出了细菌在人工湿地氮和有机磷转化方面的重要性,因为细菌的逐渐抑制导致了与氮和磷循环有关的酶以及生化作用的显著降低。另一方面,还发现土壤生化作用的总体变化对链霉素的浓度梯度比酶活性敏感,这一规律是否具有普遍性还需进一步验证。%Objectives]It is well known that bacteria are the most important microbial component in the constructed wetlands, since some biochemical processes are associated with bacterial communities.However, this conclusion mentioned above is obtained through a comparison of bacterial community dynamics with the specific biochemical processes or removal efficiencies of pollutants in wastewaters, thus being indirect.The direct evidences are not available till now.The current study was intended to reveal the important role of bacteria in the constructed wetlands using a selective inhibition method accepted extensively by researchers around the world, along with some analyses of bacterial number, enzyme activities and biochemical processes.[Methods]The current study was conducted using the vertical flow simulated wetlands in which were filled with three players of materials such as fine sand (diameter =1-2 mm), coarse sand (diameter 6-12 mm) and gravel (diameter 50-120 mm).Nutgrass ( Cyperu srotundus L.) was planted in the constructed wetlands.Wastewater was the effluent from a pig breeding farm, and filled into wetlands using a pulse-irrigation program, the water retention time was 7 d and the draining empty time was 0.5 d.Six treatment gradients of sulfate streptomycin were applied into the simulated wetlands (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg/kg sand) to investigate relationships between the sulfate streptomycin treatment doses and bacterial number, enzyme activities and biochemical transformations.Bacterial number was determined using a plate counting approach, enayme

  15. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene


    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  16. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  17. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations (United States)

    Schaefer, G.


    Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.

  18. Radiation practices 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.


    At the end of 1997, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,065 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,839 radiation sources and 302 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.09 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 2.4 x 10{sup +13} Bq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 5.2 x 10{sup +13} Bq. There were 11,773 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,316 work sites. Of these employees, 24% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.6 Sv in 1997, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 62% of this total. The annual dosemeter reading of thirteen medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and six nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of the dosemeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 253 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations in which unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Reports were made of four incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Two of these cases occurred in the medical use of radiation, one in the use of radiation sources in industry, and one in the use of solarium appliances. (orig.)

  19. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.


    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  20. Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy. (United States)

    Greenstock, Clive L.


    Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

  1. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  2. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M


    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle

  3. [Transmissivity of antibiotic resistance factors in intergeneric crossing of salmonellae and Escherichia Crimea]. (United States)

    Kharchenko, G I; Zadorina, T M; Belova, N N


    The results of the crosses between Salmonella and Escherichia 0151C are presented. Transmissive determinants resistant to ampicillin, dentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, monomycin, streptomycin, morphocyclin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were detected. It was shown that almost 50 per cent of Escherichia 0151K except the transmissive R factors were able to transferring the colicinogenic determinants.





    The methodic for quantitative determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, amikacin, neomycin) in food by polarization fluorescent immunoassay (FPIA) is developed. The size and structure influence of a fluorescent molecule on a fluorescence polarization degree is analyzed. Affinity constants of antibodies to compounds and tracers were estimated, optimized working concentration of tracers and antibodies that provide the maximum value of analytical signal. M...

  5. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory


    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  6. Radiation Shielding Materials (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)


    NASA has relied on the materials to provide radiation shielding for astronauts since the first manned flights. Until very recently existing materials in the structure of manned spacecraft as well as the equipment and consumables onboard have been taken advantage of for radiation shielding. With the advent of the International Space Station and the prospect of extended missions to the Moon or Mars, it has been found that the materials, which were included in the spacecraft for other reasons, do not provide adequate shielding. For the first time materials are being added to manned missions solely to improve the radiation shielding. It is now recognized that dual use materials must be identified/developed. These materials must serve a purpose as part of the spacecraft or its cargo and at the same time be good shielding. This paper will review methods for evaluating the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials and describe the character of materials that have high radiation shielding effectiveness. Some candidate materials will also be discussed.

  7. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert


    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan


    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  9. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  10. Radiation techniques for acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minniti Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy (RT remains an effective treatment in patients with acromegaly refractory to medical and/or surgical interventions, with durable tumor control and biochemical remission; however, there are still concerns about delayed biochemical effect and potential late toxicity of radiation treatment, especially high rates of hypopituitarism. Stereotactic radiotherapy has been developed as a more accurate technique of irradiation with more precise tumour localization and consequently a reduction in the volume of normal tissue, particularly the brain, irradiated to high radiation doses. Radiation can be delivered in a single fraction by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS or as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT in which smaller doses are delivered over 5-6 weeks in 25-30 treatments. A review of the recent literature suggests that pituitary irradiation is an effective treatment for acromegaly. Stereotactic techniques for GH-secreting pituitary tumors are discussed with the aim to define the efficacy and potential adverse effects of each of these techniques.

  11. Physics: unknown radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, E; Liksonov, V I; Tsinoiev, V G


    This article reports experiments concerning the study of the electrical explosion of a titanium foil in water. During the electrical discharge a strong luminescence appears, the analysis of spectra shows the presence of new chemical elements and this presence is confirmed by the mass-spectrometry measurements performed on the precipitates found after the discharge. This experiment has been repeated about 200 times and the results are consistent an show an average titanium transmutation rate of 4%. Neither gamma nor neutron radiation have been detected but an unknown radiation, sensitive to magnetic fields, has been detected through tracks left on RF-ZMP fluo-graphical films covered with a 10 mu m-thick emulsion layer. The assumption of a radiation made up of magnetic monopoles is supported by the author. (A.C.)

  12. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S


    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  13. Space radiation protection issues. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A


    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  14. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  15. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A


    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  16. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D


    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  17. Digital Radiation image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Bakr Ramadan


    Full Text Available This work introduces a new way for data visualization. Its name is Digital Application name' Image. Normal digital image is created by digital camera or digital scanner but digital application name image is created by measurements of monitoring data. This work uses the data which is measured by radiation monitoring station and classifies it using fuzzy logic rules to create digital radiation image. The main unique advantage of digital radiation image is that it expresses thousands of measurements in a very clear form through only one picture while the maximum number of measurements does not exceed 100 with other conventional visualization methods. This feature gives a facility to view one year of all recorded measurements in only one photo. This picture helps the user to observe the behavior of thousands of measurements in few minutes instead of spending few hours for reviewing hundreds of charts for the same measurements.

  18. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R


    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  19. Case of radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Noriyoshi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yoshihito; Shimizu, Nobuya; Takagi, Yasushi


    A 72-year-old woman presented with right hemiparesthesia and left hemiparalysis. At the age of 63, the patient was treated with pre- and post-operative radiation with a total dose of 100 Gy for maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Five years later, a dose of 50 Gy was delivered again to the head and neck because of the suspicion of recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed flat and thinned cervical spine on the transverse section and markedly atrophied cervical spine at the C1 to C3 levels on the sagittal section. She was diangosed as having chronic progressive radiation myelopathy in view of a history of large doses of radiation to the head and neck. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C


    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  1. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.


    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  2. Properties of undulator radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, B.W.


    Properties of the radiation emitted by a plane sinusoidal undulator are calculated in the far field approximation. Software has been developed to calculate the spectral distribution and polarization of the radiated intensity I(E) at a point on (or integrated over) a cross sectional observation plane of the photon beam. Spatial distribution of monochromatic radiation and power density contours are also calculated. Spectral broadening caused by an electron beam of finite spatial distribution is considered. Dispersive properties of the photon beam, including the dependence on deflection parameter, are analyzed. It is shown that reasonably constant intensity distribution I(E) can be obtained by properly shaping the beam acceptance aperture. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Solar cell radiation handbook (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.


    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  4. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R M; Graziani, F R; Glosli, J; Surh, M


    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known (section 3). The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (plane-waves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion (section 4). The third method is a hybrid MD/MC (molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions (section 5). The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc.(section 6). This approach is inspired by the Virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  5. Proposed Radiation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, C. S.


    Current scientific evidence is that radiation at low levels is not harmful, but beneficial. This is borne out by both radiobiology and epidemiology. The ICRP 26 recommended limits of 50 mSv and 5 mSv per annum are comparable with the average natural background levels in Iran and Norway, respectively, and levels five times higher than that quoted for Iran are to be found in some populated parts of this world. The new limits proposed for ionising radiation are generated by comparison to existing recommended limits for essential minerals. There is a range of acceptable exposures to radiation, just as there is for minerals. The replacement for the ICRP 60 recommendations (20 mSv and 1 mSv for radiation workers and public respectively) should be higher limits of 200 mSv and 50 mSv. There should also be minimum recommended annual levels of 10 mSv, for both radiation workers and the public. The consequences of not proposing this change are continuing huge negative impacts to society. In cancer therapy, even the older guidelines caused unnecessary expense and delays. The cost to Canada is astronomical, when one considers the effect of the existing limits on the use of nuclear power, and the resulting use of hydrocarbons and the consequent increase in acid rain, etc. Of course, the same thing can be said of the entire world limited funds are diverted from areas where they would be better applied, and alternative solutions to societal needs are implemented, solutions which increase pollution and cause injury and death. It is time to reverse the current, expensive trend into misapplied ALARA, based on the paranoia about all things nuclear, which has developed since the linear no-threshold hypothesis was first proposed.propose the transition to a realistic and balanced approach to ionising radiation. (Author)

  6. Radiative plateau inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo


    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  7. ATHENA radiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumway, R.W.


    The ATHENA computer program has many features that make it desirable to use as a space reactor evaluation tool. One of the missing features was a surface-to-surface thermal radiation model. A model was developed that allows any of the regular ATHENA heat slabs to radiate to any other heat slab. The view factors and surface emissivities must be specified by the user. To verify that the model was properly accounting for radiant energy transfer, two different types of test calculations were performed. Both calculations have excellent results. The updates have been used on both the INEL CDC-176 and the Livermore Cray. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Radiation Detectors and Art (United States)

    Denker, Andrea

    The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, γ-rays, β particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE).

  9. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William


    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  10. Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A


    I review a new rapidly growing area of high-energy plasma astrophysics --- radiative magnetic reconnection, i.e., a reconnection regime where radiation reaction influences reconnection dynamics, energetics, and nonthermal particle acceleration. This influence be may be manifested via a number of astrophysically important radiative effects, such as radiation-reaction limits on particle acceleration, radiative cooling, radiative resistivity, braking of reconnection outflows by radiation drag, radiation pressure, viscosity, and even pair creation at highest energy densities. Self-consistent inclusion of these effects in magnetic reconnection theory and modeling calls for serious modifications to our overall theoretical approach to the problem. In addition, prompt reconnection-powered radiation often represents our only observational diagnostic tool for studying remote astrophysical systems; this underscores the importance of developing predictive modeling capabilities to connect the underlying physical condition...

  11. Sensitivity of photosynthesis to UV radiation in several Cosmarium strains (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) is related to their geographical distribution. (United States)

    Marija, Stamenković; Dieter, Hanelt


    Photoinhibitory effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on four Cosmarium strains were studied with respect to their geographical distribution pattern. This study dealt with two strains of a cosmopolitan taxon (C. punctulatum var. subpunctulatum) collected from high-mountain tropical and lowland polar regions, one typical tropical species (C. beatum) and one typical polar representative (C. crenatum var. boldtianum). Physiological characteristics of the strains during and after various UVR spectral combinations at two temperature gradients were determined by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen evolution rates and using an inhibitor of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis (streptomycin). All of the Cosmarium strains investigated exhibited consistent geographical distribution patterns in accordance with the UVR prevailing at their sampling sites, despite a long-term cultivation under constant laboratory conditions. It appeared that moderate ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) treatment did not exert large damages to photosystem II in all of the Cosmarium strains, compared to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVAR) treatment at 21 °C. Interestingly, an ameliorating effect of UVBR at 21 °C was observed in C. beatum as concluded from higher rates of recovery of maximum quantum yield after moderate UVBR treatment, compared to that after UVAR application. This study also reveals that the mucilage of desmids has a limited role in the protection against UVR as demonstrated by the measurements of absorption in the UVR range, in contrast to previous assumptions. Increased UVBR (i.e. high UVBR : PAR ratio) severely decreases oxygen evolution in all of the Cosmarium strains, pointing to possible consequences for peat bogs which are native habitats of desmids, as they are particularly poor in oxygen.

  12. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)


    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  13. Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses. (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Sugarman, Stephen L


    Although the spectrum of information related to diagnosis and management of radiation injuries and illnesses is vast and as radiation contamination incidents are rare, most emergency practitioners have had little to no practical experience with such cases. Exposures to ionizing radiation and internal contamination with radioactive materials can cause significant tissue damage and conditions. Emergency practitioners unaware of ionizing radiation as the cause of a condition may miss the diagnosis of radiation-induced injury or illness. This article reviews the pertinent terms, physics, radiobiology, and medical management of radiation injuries and illnesses that may confront the emergency practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics. (United States)

    Caird, Michelle S


    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety.

  15. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  16. Evidence for extra radiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, J.


    during the marginalisation process, and we demonstrate that the effect is related to the fact that cosmic microwave background (CMB) data constrain N_eff only indirectly via the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Once present CMB data are combined with external information about, e.g., the Hubble...

  17. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  18. Radiative Corrections and Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens


    Radiative corrections to parity violating deep inelastic electron scattering are reviewed including a discussion of the renormalization group evolution of the weak mixing angle. Recently obtained results on hypothetical Z' bosons - for which parity violating observables play an important role - are also presented.

  19. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.


    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  20. Microwave Radiation Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrahmanian


    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to microwave radiation could lead to biological damage. The criteria for maximum permissible exposure limits derived from experiments by several countries are discussed. Recommendations made for safety of operating personnel based on a recent protection survey are also presented.

  1. Radiation damping on cryoprobes. (United States)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Otting, Gottfried


    Radiation damping on 600 and 800 MHz cryoprobes was investigated. The phase angle β between a vector 90° phase shifted to the precessing magnetization and the rf field induced in the coil was found to depend markedly on whether an FID was being acquired or not. The magnitude of the radiation damping field was sufficiently strong to restore 95% of the equilibrium water magnetization of a 90% H2O sample in a 5 mm sample tube within about 5 ms following a 165° pulse. This can be exploited in water flip-back versions of NOESY and TOCSY experiments of proteins, but care must be taken to limit the effect of the radiation damping field from the water on the Ha protons. Long water-selective pulses can be applied only following corrections. We developed a program for correcting pulse shapes if β is non-zero. The WATERGATE scheme is shown to be insensitive to imperfections introduced by radiation damping.

  2. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.


    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  3. Modeling Radiation Fog (United States)

    K R, Sreenivas; Mohammad, Rafiuddin


    Predicting the fog-onset, its growth and dissipation helps in managing airports and other modes of transport. After sunset, occurrence of fog requires moist air, low wind and clear-sky conditions. Under these circumstances radiative heat transfer plays a vital role in the NBL. Locally, initiation of fog happens when the air temperature falls below the dew-point. Thus, to predict the onset of fog at a given location, one has to compute evolution of vertical temperature profile. Earlier,our group has shown that the presence of aerosols and vertical variation in their number density determines the radiative-cooling and hence development of vertical temperature profile. Aerosols, through radiation in the window-band, provides an efficient path for air layers to lose heat to the cold, upper atmosphere. This process creates cooler air layer between warmer ground and upper air layers and resulting temperature profile facilitate the initiation of fog. Our results clearly indicates that accounting for the presence of aerosols and their radiative-transfer is important in modeling micro-meteorological process of fog formation and its evolution. DST, Govt. INDIA.

  4. VDT Emissions Radiate Debate. (United States)

    Morgan, Bill


    Discusses the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields of radiation that are emitted from video display terminals (VDTs). Responses from vendors in the computer industry are related, steps to reduce possible risks are suggested, and additional sources of information on VDTs are listed. (LRW)

  5. Radiation monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Farias, Marcos S. de; Lacerda, Fabio de; Heimlich, Adino [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Design of a portable low-power multichannel analyzer with wireless connectivity for remote radiation monitoring, powered from a solar panel with a internal battery to be operated in field. The multichannel analyzer is based on a single microcontroller which performs the digital functions and an analog signal processing board for implementing a Gaussian shaper preamplifier, a Gaussian stretcher, sample and hold, pile-up rejector and a 10 bit ADC. Now this design is to be used with a NaI(Ti) scintillator detector. This multichannel analyzer is designed to be a part of radiation monitoring network. All of them are connected, by radio in a radius of 10 kilometers, to a supervisor computer that collects data from the network of multichannel analyzers and numerically display the latest radiation measurements or graphically display measurements over time for all multichannel analyzers. Like: dose rate, spectra and operational status. Software also supports remotely configuring operating parameters (such as radiation alarm level) for each monitor independently. (author)

  6. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.


    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  7. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa


    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  8. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation (United States)

    Besson, U.


    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  9. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation. (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S


    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  10. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)


    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  11. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))


    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  12. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding (United States)


    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  13. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.


    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate, dose-

  14. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.


    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate,

  15. Radiation physics for medical physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B


    This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or ...

  16. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options (United States)

    ... Cancer Upper GI Cancers Search x FIND A RADIATION ONCOLOGIST CLOSE SNIPEND TREATMENT TYPES SNIPSTART Home / Treatment ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive ...

  17. American Society for Radiation Oncology (United States)

    ... for other cancer types View videos on radiation oncology Please Select an Action Read a news release ... This online career board is the premier radiation oncology recruitment tool, offering employers and job seekers an ...

  18. Radiation Injury to the Brain (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  19. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (United States)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.


    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  20. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator (United States)

    Miller, E. R.


    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  1. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  2. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko


    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells s

  4. Scar formation in mice deafened with kanamycin and furosemide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Magdalena; van der Linden, Cynthia A; Bezdjian, Aren; Hendriksen, Ferry G; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    In mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. To develop and test the functioning of different strategies aiming at hair cell regeneration, animal models of sensorineural hearing loss are essential. Although cochleae of these animals should lack hair cells, supporting cells

  5. An introduction to radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter


    The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

  6. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas


    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  7. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.


    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  8. Space Radiation Cancer Risks (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.


    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  9. Historical review of radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)


    The presentation reviews the history of radiation research beginning with the first findings and attempts for modelling of harmful effects of radiation, followed by the contamination of the environment, use of radiation epidemiology and concluding with the question of cancer generation. (26 refs.).

  10. Infrared Radiation from Rough Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ayryan, E A; Oganesyan, K B


    We consider generation of diffusive radiation by a charged particle passing through a random stack of plates in the infrared region. Diffusive radiation originates due to multiple scattering of pseudophotons on the plates. To enhance the radiation intensity one needs to make the scattering more effective. For this goal we suggest to use materials with negative dielectric constant .

  11. Prevention of pelvic radiation disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo; Fuccio; Leonardo; Frazzoni; Alessandra; Guido


    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Treatment of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that frequently includes radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal(GI) radiation-induced toxicity is a major complication and the transient or long-term problems, ranging from mild to very severe, arising in non-cancerous tissues resulting from radiation treatment to a tumor of pelvic origin, are actually called as pelvic radiation disease. The incidence of pelvic radiation disease changes according to the radiation technique, the length of follow up, the assessmentmethod, the type and stage of cancer and several other variables. Notably, even with the most recent radiation techniques, i.e., intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the incidence of radiation-induced GI side effects is overall reduced but still not negligible. In addition, radiation-induced GI side effects can develop even after several decades; therefore, the improvement of patient life expectancy will unavoidably increase the risk of developing radiation-induced complications. Once developed, the management of pelvic radiation disease may be challenging. Therefore, the prevention of radiation-induced toxicity represents a reasonable way to avoid a dramatic drop of the quality of life of these patients. In the current manuscript we provide an updated and practical review on the best available evidences in the field of the prevention of pelvic radiation disease.

  12. Material Effectiveness for Radiation Shielding (United States)


    Materials with a smaller mean atomic mass, such as lithium (Li) hydride and polyethylene, make the best radiation shields for astronauts. The materials have a higher density of nuclei and are better able to block incoming radiation. Also, they tend to produce fewer and less dangerous secondary particles after impact with incoming radiation.

  13. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil


    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  14. Assessment of internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. S.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 9 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System. (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  16. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G


    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  17. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae


    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  18. Radiation effects in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W. (Otto-Schott-Inst., Chemische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany))


    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, Dobereiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties are subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed. (orig.).

  19. Radiative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X


    Viscous resistance to changes in the volume of a gas arises when different degrees of freedom have different relaxation times. Collisions tend to oppose the resulting departures from equilibrium and, in so doing, generate entropy. Even for a classical gas of hard spheres, when the mean free paths or mean flight times of constituent particles are long, we find a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. Here we apply a method recently used to uncover this result for a classical rarefied gas to radiative transfer theory and derive an expression for the radiative stress tensor for a gray medium with absorption and Thomson scattering. We determine the transport coefficients through the calculation of the comoving entropy generation. When scattering dominates absorption, the bulk viscosity becomes much larger than either the shear viscosity or the thermal conductivity.

  20. Radiation detector with spodumene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amorim, Raquel Aline P.O.; Lima, Hestia Raissa B.R.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Sasaki, Jose M., E-mail: sasaki@fisica.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this work, {beta}-spodumene potentiality as a radiation detector was evaluated by making use of thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) techniques. The pellets were obtained from the {beta}-spodumene powder mixed with Teflon followed by a sintering process of thermal treatments of 300 deg/30 min and 400 deg/1.5 h. The samples were irradiated in standard gamma radiation beams with doses between 5 Gy and 10 kGy. The TL emission curve showed a prominent peak at 160 deg and in the case of TSEE a prominent peak at 145 Celsius approximately. Initial results show that the material is promising for high-dose dosimetry. (author)

  1. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia


    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  2. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H


    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  3. Genesis Radiation Environment (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.


    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  4. Radiation characterization summary :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Quirk, Thomas J.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick J; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer Michael


    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the 44-inch-long lead-boron bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-LB44-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray flux profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse and steady-state operations are presented with conversion examples.

  5. Radiation damage tolerant nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Beyerlein


    Full Text Available Designing a material from the atomic level to achieve a tailored response in extreme conditions is a grand challenge in materials research. Nanostructured metals and composites provide a path to this goal because they contain interfaces that attract, absorb and annihilate point and line defects. These interfaces recover and control defects produced in materials subjected to extremes of displacement damage, impurity implantation, stress and temperature. Controlling radiation-induced-defects via interfaces is shown to be the key factor in reducing the damage and imparting stability in certain nanomaterials under conditions where bulk materials exhibit void swelling and/or embrittlement. We review the recovery of radiation-induced point defects at free surfaces and grain boundaries and stabilization of helium bubbles at interphase boundaries and present an approach for processing bulk nanocomposites containing interfaces that are stable under irradiation.

  6. Radiative corrections to DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold


    Early deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments at SLAC discovered partons, identified them as quarks and gluons, and restricted the set of the candidate theories for strong interactions to those exhibiting the asymptotic freedom property. The next generation DIS experiments at FNAL and CERN confirmed the predictions of QCD for the size of the scaling violation effects in the nucleon structure functions. The QCD fits to their data resulted in determining the momentum distributions of the point-like constituents of nucleons. Interpretation of data coming from all these experiments and, in the case of the SLAC experiments, even an elaboration of the running strategies, would not have been possible without a precise understanding of the electromagnetic radiative corrections. In this note I recollect the important milestones, achieved in the period preceding the HERA era, in the high precision calculations of the radiative corrections to DIS, and in the development of the methods of their experimental control. ...

  7. HANARO radiation emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai


    The emergency plan of HANARO (High-flux advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is prepared based on the Korea Atomic Law, the Civil Defence Law, Disaster Protection Law and the emergency related regulation guides such as the NUREG series from USNRC to ensure adequate response capabilities to the emergency event which would cause a significant risk to the KAERI staffs and the public near to the site. Periodic training and exercise for the reactor operators and emergency staffs will reduce accident risks and the release of radioactivities to the environment. The plan describes the organization and staff's duties in the radiation emergency, classification on the radiation accidents, urgent actions of reactor operators in the early state, emergency response activities, maintenance of emergency equipment, training and exercise to improve response capabilities against emergency accidents. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. [Heavy particle radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S


    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  9. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.


    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  10. ATLAS Transitional Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach


    This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the transitional radiation tracker within the ATLAS detector. Subjects covered include what the tracker is used to measure, its structure, what happens when particles pass through the tracker, how it distinguishes between different types of particles within it.

  11. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard


    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  12. Infrared Radiation of Flames (United States)


    March 1960. 4. S. Silverman, G. A. Hornbeck, and R. C. Herman , J. Chem. Phys. 16 155 (1947). The Infrared Emission and Absorption or-the Carbon Infrared Radiation. 9. S. Silverman and R. C. Herman , J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 216 (1949). The Infrared Emission Spectra of the Oxy- Hydrogen and Oxy...Press, 1961). 35. W. J, Pearce, Conference on Extremely High Temperatures, Fischer and Mansur , eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1958), p. 123. 36. M. P

  13. Radiation in Yolo County (United States)

    Dickie, H.; Colwell, K.


    In today's post-nuclear age, there are many man-made sources of radioactivity, in addition to the natural background we expect from cosmic and terrestrial origins. While all atoms possess unstable isotopes, there are few that are abundant enough, energetic enough, and have long enough half-lives to pose a signicant risk of ionizing radiation exposure. We hypothesize a decreasing relative radiation measurement (in detected counts per minute [CPM]) at nine locations that might pose occupational or environmental hazard: 1. A supermarket produce aisle (living tissue has high concentration of 40K) 2. A hospital (medical imaging uses X-rays and radioactive dyes) 3. The electronics section of a superstore (high voltage electronics have the potential to produce ionizing radiation) 4. An electrical transformer (similar reasons) 5. An antique store (some ceramics and glazes use radioisotopes that are now outlawed) 6. A gasoline pump (processing and terrestrial isotope contamination might leave a radioactive residue) 7. A fertilized eld (phosphate rock contains uranium and thorium, in addition to potassium) 8. A house (hopefully mild background, but potential radon contamination) 9. A school (should be radiologically neutral) We tested the hypothesis by measuring 100 minutes of counts on a self-assembled MightyOhmTM Geiger counter at each location. Our results show that contrary to the hypothesized ordering, the house was the most radiologically active. We present possible explanations for the observed radiation levels, as well as possible sources of measurement error, possible consequences of prolonged exposure to the measured levels, and suggestions for decreasing exposure and environmental impact.

  14. Uninformed Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I


    We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR)fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlev\\'{e}-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aformentioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index o...

  15. Fanconi anemia and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Asako; Komatsu, Kenshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology


    Aplastic Fanconi anemia (FA) accompanying malformation was firstly reported in 1927. This review concerns the recent findings on FA. FA belongs to the chromosomal instability syndrome and its detailed molecular mechanism is still unknown. The disease has been defined to be highly sensitive to radiation, however, which is quite an important problem since irradiation with a large dose of radiation is required before its radical treatment (bone marrow transplantation). FA cells are also mitomycin C-sensitive and FA patients are said to be the mosaic of the sensitive and normal cells. This enables to classify FA into 8 types of A-H groups, whose genotypes (FAA-FAH, FANCA-FANCH) are becoming clear. However, the intracellular function of the FANC-expressed protein, although known to form a big complex, is not elucidated yet. There is an abnormality in DNA processing such as re-linkage of the double strand-broken DNA in FA cells. FA causal gene FANCG is found identical to XRCC9 which is associated to high sensitivity to radiation. Analysis of FANC genes will provide useful findings on molecular mechanism of DNA-repair. (K.H.)

  16. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  17. Uninformed Hawking radiation (United States)

    Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A.


    We show in detail that the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method (PWTM), which was designed for resolving the information loss problem in Hawking radiation (HR) fails whenever the radiation occurs from an isothermal process. The PWTM aims to produce a non-thermal HR which adumbrates the resolution of the problem of unitarity in quantum mechanics (QM), and consequently the entropy (or information) conservation problem. The effectiveness of the method has been satisfactorily tested on numerous black holes (BHs). However, it has been shown that the isothermal HR, which results from the emission of the uncharged particles of the linear dilaton BH (LDBH) described in the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) theory, the PWTM has vulnerability in having non-thermal radiation. In particular, we consider Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates (PGCs) and isotropic coordinates (ICs) in order to prove the aforementioned failure in the PWTM. While carrying out calculations in the ICs, we also highlight the effect of the refractive index on the null geodesics.

  18. Relativistic Radiation Mediated Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Budnik, Ran; Sagiv, Amir; Waxman, Eli


    The structure of relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) propagating into a cold electron-proton plasma is calculated and analyzed. A qualitative discussion of the physics of relativistic and non relativistic shocks, including order of magnitude estimates for the relevant temperature and length scales, is presented. Detailed numerical solutions are derived for shock Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_u$ in the range $6\\le\\Gamma_u\\le30$, using a novel iteration technique solving the hydrodynamics and radiation transport equations (the protons, electrons and positrons are argued to be coupled by collective plasma processes and are treated as a fluid). The shock transition (deceleration) region, where the Lorentz factor $ \\Gamma $ drops from $ \\Gamma_u $ to $ \\sim 1 $, is characterized by high plasma temperatures $ T\\sim \\Gamma m_ec^2 $ and highly anisotropic radiation, with characteristic shock-frame energy of upstream and downstream going photons of a few~$\\times\\, m_ec^2$ and $\\sim \\Gamma^2 m_ec^2$, respectively.P...

  19. Microbeam radiation therapy (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans


    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  20. Sun and Other Types of Radiation (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  1. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  2. Lunar radiation environment (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  3. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.


    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  4. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.


    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  5. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen


    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  6. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  7. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  8. Radiation shielding for diagnostic radiology. (United States)

    Martin, Colin J


    Scattered radiation makes up the majority of the stray radiation field around an X-ray unit. The scatter is linked to the amount of radiation incident on the patient. It can be estimated from quantities used to assess patient dose such as the kerma-area product, and factors have been established linking this to levels of scattered radiation for radiography and fluoroscopy. In radiography shielding against primary radiation is also needed, but in other modalities this is negligible, as the beam is intercepted by the image receptor. In the same way scatter from CT can be quantified in terms of dose-length product, but because of higher radiation levels, exposure to tertiary scatter from ceilings needs to be considered. Transmission requirements are determined from comparisons between calculated radiation levels and agreed dose criteria, taking into account the occupancy of adjacent areas. Thicknesses of shielding material required can then be calculated from simple equations.

  9. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  10. Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H A


    A primary goal of numerical radiation transport is obtaining a self-consistent solution for both the radiation field and plasma properties. Obtaining such a solution requires consideration of the coupling between the radiation and the plasma. The different characteristics of this coupling for continuum and line radiation have resulted in two separate sub-disciplines of radiation transport with distinct emphases and computational techniques. LTE radiation transfer focuses on energy transport and exchange through broadband radiation, primarily affecting temperature and ionization balance. Non-LTE line transfer focuses on narrowband radiation and the response of individual level populations, primarily affecting spectral properties. Many high energy density applications, particularly those with high-Z materials, incorporate characteristics of both these regimes. Applications with large radiation fields including strong line components require a non-LTE broadband treatment of energy transport and exchange. We discuss these issues and present a radiation transport treatment which combines features of both types of approaches by explicitly incorporating the dependence of material properties on both temperature and radiation fields. The additional terms generated by the radiation dependence do not change the character of the system of equations and can easily be added to a numerical transport implementation. A numerical example from a Z-pinch application demonstrates that this method improves both the stability and convergence of the calculations. The information needed to characterize the material response to radiation is closely related to that used by the Linear Response Matrix (LRM) approach to near-LTE simulation, and we investigate the use of the LRM for these calculations.

  11. Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W


    Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.

  12. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe


    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  13. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.


    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  14. Radiative Equilibrium and Temperature Correction in Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer


    Bjorkman, J. E.; Wood, Kenneth


    We describe a general radiative equilibrium and temperature correction procedure for use in Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes with sources of temperature-independent opacity, such as astrophysical dust. The technique utilizes the fact that Monte Carlo simulations track individual photon packets, so we may easily determine where their energy is absorbed. When a packet is absorbed, it heats a particular cell within the envelope, raising its temperature. To enforce radiative equilibrium, the ...

  15. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y


    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  16. The space radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, D.E.


    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u{sup -1} to over a GeV u{sup -1}. These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d{sup -1} depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d{sup -1}. In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d{sup -1}. Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h{sup -1}. For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y{sup -1} at solar maximum and 580 mSv y{sup -1} at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv.

  17. Chronic radiation myelitis. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R H; Marks, R D; Wallace, K M


    From March 1971 to September 1973, 200 patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma received 4,000 rad (40 Gy) by means of split-course accelerated fractionation. Forty-five patients (22.5%) survived more than 11 months; and of these, 6 (13.3%) were found to have progressive myelitis. Recent reports indicate that rapid fractionation is preferred in some centers and may be undergoing a resurgence. The authors review their experience with this technique and the current understanding of the factors which affect the development of radiation myelitis.

  18. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R


    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  19. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond


    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  20. Danfos: Thermostatic Radiator Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Oliver, James; Hjorth, Poul G.


    This problem deals with modelling the flow through a typical Danfoss thermostatic radiator valve.Danfoss is able to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in calculations of the capacity of valves, but an experienced engineer can often by rules of thumb "guess" the capacity, with a precision...... similar to the one achieved by the expensive and time-consuming CFD calculations. So CFD is only used in case of entirely new designs or where a very detailed knowledge of the flow is required. Even though rules of thumb are useful for those, who have developed them, Danfoss needs an objective and general...... method that can be used to predict the performance of valves....

  1. Microstructured silicon radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Derzon, Mark S.; Draper, Bruce L.


    A radiation detector comprises a silicon body in which are defined vertical pores filled with a converter material and situated within silicon depletion regions. One or more charge-collection electrodes are arranged to collect current generated when secondary particles enter the silicon body through walls of the pores. The pores are disposed in low-density clusters, have a majority pore thickness of 5 .mu.m or less, and have a majority aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of pore depth to pore thickness, of at least 10.

  2. Radiative Augmented Combustion. (United States)


    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  3. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H


    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  4. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan


    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Radiation damping forces and radiation from charged particles (United States)

    Klepikov, N. P.


    A review of the literature on the radiation reaction force on a charged particle shows that the expression given for this force obtained by Lorentz, Abraham, and Dirac is in physically reasonable agreement with the radiation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum, and is successfully used in investigating the motion of particles in a field. A selection of physical solutions by the methods presented herein guarantees that the conservation laws are satisfied. In the first approximation, which is the only one utilized in the majority of physical situations, radiation damping does not depend on assumptions concerning the structure of the charge of the particle. A theory is presented of the losses of energy, momentum and angular momentum by a system of charged particles in the course of their moving together taking into account the external field, the radiation damping forces, and the retarded Lienard-Wiechert forces. Formulas are given for the spectral and angular distribution of the radiation from a system of particles. The concept of a center of a system of events with relativistic particles is utilized in constructing a system of equations for finding the angular momenta of the electromagnetic waves radiated by particles of the system. The angular distribution and the total intensity of the radiation from a system of particles at an arbitrary instant of time is obtained. Using the example of the joint synchrotron radiation from two particles the consistency of all three approaches to the radiation from a system of particles is demonstrated.

  6. Radiation damage in biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, Martina Christina


    Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field of radiation protection. Pioneering experiments done by Sanche and co-workers in 2000 showed that low-energy secondary electrons, which are abundantly generated along radiation tracks, are primarily responsible for radiation damage through successive interactions with the molecular constituents of the medium. Apart from ionizing processes, which are usually related to radiation damage, below the ionization level low-energy electrons can induce molecular fragmentation via dissociative processes such as internal excitation and electron attachment. This prompted collaborative projects between different research groups from European countries together with other specialists from Canada,  the USA and Australia. This book summarizes the advances achieved by these...

  7. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. Sound radiation from finite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas


    A method to account for the effect of finite size in acoustic power radiation problem of planar surfaces using spatial windowing is developed. Cremer and Heckl presents a very useful formula for the power radiating from a structure using the spatially Fourier transformed velocity, which combined...... with spatially windowing of a plane waves can be used to take into account the finite size. In the present paper, this is developed by means of a radiation impedance for finite surfaces, that is used instead of the radiation impedance for infinite surfaces. In this way, the spatial windowing is included...... in the radiation formula directly, and no pre-windowing is needed. Examples are given for the radiation efficiency, and the results are compared with results found in the literature....

  10. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M


    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  11. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.


    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  12. Quantum optical dipole radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, Adam


    We introduce quantum optical dipole radiation fields defined in terms of photon creation and annihilation operators. These fields are identified through their spatial dependence, as the components of the total fields that survive infinitely far from the dipole source. We use these radiation fields to perturbatively evaluate the electromagnetic radiated energy-flux of the excited dipole. Our results indicate that the standard interpretation of a bare atom surrounded by a localised virtual photon cloud, is difficult to sustain, because the radiated energy-flux surviving infinitely far from the source contains virtual contributions. It follows that there is a clear distinction to be made between a radiative photon defined in terms of the radiation fields, and a real photon, whose identification depends on whether or not a given process conserves the free energy. This free energy is represented by the difference between the total dipole-field Hamiltonian and its interaction component.

  13. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman


    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  15. Radiation accident grips Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.


    On 13 September two young scavengers in Goiania, Brazil, removed a stainless steel cylinder from a cancer therapy machine in an abandoned clinic, touching off a radiation accident second only to Chernobyl in its severity. On 18 September they sold the cylinder, the size of a 1-gallon paint can, to a scrap dealer for $25. At the junk yard an employee dismantled the cylinder and pried open the platinum capsule inside to reveal a glowing blue salt-like substance - 1400 curies of cesium-137. Fascinated by the luminescent powder, several people took it home with them. Some children reportedly rubbed in on their bodies like carnival glitter - an eerie image of how wrong things can go when vigilance over radioactive materials lapses. In all, 244 people in Goiania, a city of 1 million in central Brazil, were contaminated. The eventual toll, in terms of cancer or genetic defects, cannot yet be estimated. Parts of the city are cordoned off as radiation teams continue washing down buildings and scooping up radioactive soil. The government is also grappling with the political fallout from the accident.

  16. Space radiation studies (United States)


    Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

  17. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)]. E-mail:; Hamitouche, Katia [Centre de Recherche et Developpement Saidal, El Harrach (Algeria); Maltar-Strmecki, Nadica [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Kos, Karmen [Belupo Pharmaceutical Works, Koprivnica 48000 (Croatia); Pucic, Irina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Britvic-Budicin, Smiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Razem, Dusan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O.B 180, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia)


    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6{+-}0.1)x10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixture of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  18. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (United States)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan


    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation and cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek Kyun; Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun-Mi; Brown, Murray T; Häder, Donat-Peter; Han, Taejun


    Cyanobacteria are the dominant photosynthetic prokaryotes from an ecological, economical, or evolutionary perspective, and depend on solar energy to conduct their normal life processes. However, the marked increase in solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) caused by the continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone shield has fueled serious concerns about the ecological consequences for all living organisms, including cyanobacteria. UV-B radiation can damage cellular DNA and several physiological and biochemical processes in cyanobacterial cells, either directly, through its interaction with certain biomolecules that absorb in the UV range, or indirectly, with the oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. However, cyanobacteria have a long history of survival on Earth, and they predate the existence of the present ozone shield. To withstand the detrimental effects of solar UVR, these prokaryotes have evolved several lines of defense and various tolerance mechanisms, including avoidance, antioxidant production, DNA repair, protein resynthesis, programmed cell death, and the synthesis of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. This study critically reviews the current information on the effects of UVR on several physiological and biochemical processes of cyanobacteria and the various tolerance mechanisms they have developed. Genomic insights into the biosynthesis of MAAs and scytonemin and recent advances in our understanding of the roles of exopolysaccharides and heat shock proteins in photoprotection are also discussed.

  20. [Stereotactic radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Aristu, J J; Ciérvide, R; Guridi, J; Moreno, M; Arbea, L; Azcona, J D; Ramos, L I; Zubieta, J L


    Stereotactic radiotherapy is a form of external radiotherapy that employs a system of three dimensional coordinates independent of the patient for the precise localisation of the lesion. It also has the characteristic that the radiation beams are conformed and precise, and converge on the lesion, making it possible to administer very high doses of radiotherapy without increasing the radiation to healthy adjacent organs or structures. When the procedure is carried out in one treatment session it is termed radiosurgery, and when administered over several sessions it is termed stereotactic radiotherapy. Special systems of fixing or immobilising the patient (guides or stereotactic frames) are required together with radiotherapy devices capable of generating conformed beams (lineal accelerator, gammaknife, cyberknife, tomotherapy, cyclotrons). Modern stereotactic radiotherapy employs intra-tumoural radio-opaque frames or CAT image systems included in the irradiation device, which make possible a precise localisation of mobile lesions in each treatment session. Besides, technological advances make it possible to coordinate the lesion's movements in breathing with the radiotherapy unit (gating and tracking) for maximum tightening of margins and excluding a greater volume of healthy tissue. Radiosurgery is mainly indicated in benign or malign cerebral lesions less than 3-4 centimetres (arteriovenous malformations, neurinomas, meningiomas, cerebral metastases) and stereotactic radiotherapy is basically administered in tumours of extracraneal localisation that require high conforming and precision, such as inoperable early lung cancer and hepatic metastasis.

  1. Proportional counter radiation camera (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.


    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  2. Imaging with terahertz radiation (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M.


    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies.

  3. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server


    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  4. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.


    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  6. On Divergence in Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Joerg


    Three thought experiments demonstrate that under certain circumstances radiation fields have to be attenuated or amplified multiplicatively in order not to violate the conservation of energy. Modulation of radiation by means other than superposition is theoretically made possible by plugging additional terms into the source slots of the Maxwell equations. Modulated radiation would enable the well focused stimulation of neurons for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  7. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  8. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments (United States)

    Koontz, Steve


    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  9. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  10. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars


    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  11. Radiation reaction in fusion plasmas. (United States)

    Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M


    The effects of a radiation reaction on thermal electrons in a magnetically confined plasma, with parameters typical of planned burning plasma experiments, are studied. A fully relativistic kinetic equation that includes the radiation reaction is derived. The associated rate of phase-space contraction is computed and the relative importance of the radiation reaction in phase space is estimated. A consideration of the moments of the radiation reaction force show that its effects are typically small in reactor-grade confined plasmas, but not necessarily insignificant.

  12. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter? (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani


    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

  13. Secondary osteoporosis due to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Kihana, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Yasunari; Matsuura, Shumpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the 3rd lumber vertebra (L3) and the 5th lumber vertebra (L5) were measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). BMD of L3 and L5 in 139 normal control cases decreased linearly with age (L3: Y= 317.32 - 3.283X, L5: Y= 314.35 - 2.9056X). Ratio of the BMD of L5 to L3 (L5/L3 ratio, %) was constant in the value of 106.03{+-}12.84% before 50 years old and increased linearly after 50 years old (Y= 21.624 + 1.7187X). In 30 radiated cases, BMD of the radiated L5 ws decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 47.44{+-}18.74% of the preradiated value after 50 Gy of radiation. L5/L3 ratio was also decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 48.34{+-}19.33% of pre-radiated value after 50 Gy radiation. BMD of L5 and L5/L3 ratio after 50 Gy of radiation were decreased linearly with age (L5: Y= 107.44 - 0.9686X, L5/L3 ratio: Y= 106.98 - 0.9472X). Quality of life (performance status: PS, lumbago score) after radiation correlated significantly with age, body weight, BMD of L3 before radiation, BMD of L5 after radiation. PS and lumbago score were increased significantly in cases of more than 75 years old, less than 50 kg, less than 100 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L3 before radiation and less than 40 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L5 after radiation. Quality of life after radiation was improved by treatment of alfacalcidol (PS: 3.0{+-}0.61 to 1.2{+-}0.47, lumbago score: 15.4{+-}4.08 to 4.2{+-}1.17). In conclusion, it should be said that pelvic radiation for gynecologic malignancy may disturb the bone metabolism and quality of life in the early phase after radiation, especially in the aged patients and that quality of life could be improved by treatment of alfacalcidol. (author).

  14. Radiation Shielding for Space Flight (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.


    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

  15. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov


    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  16. Nanocomposite for Radiation Shielding Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) program requires the need for materials that can protect astronauts and spacecrafts from ionizing radiations such as...

  17. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources (United States)

    ... Memoriam Sections All Sections (listing) Accelerator AIRRS Decommissioning Environmental/Radon Homeland Security Instrumentation Medical Health Physics Military Health Physics Nonionizing Radiation Power Reactor Affiliates ...

  18. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S


    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  19. Radiation damping forces and radiation from charged particles (United States)

    Klepikov, N. P.


    In the present evaluation of reported results on the radiation reaction force to which a charged particle is subject, the expression obtained for this force by Lorentz (1909), Abraham (1904), and Dirac (1938) is noted to be in physically reasonable agreement with the radiation of energy, momentum and angular momentum; it has, moreover, been successfully used in investigations of the motion of particles in a field. A theory is presented for the losses of energy, momentum, and angular momentum by a system of charged particles as they move together, taking the external field, the radiation damping forces, and the retarded Lienard-Wiechert forces into account. Formulas are given for the spectral and angular distribution of the radiation from a system of particles, and a system of equations is constructed for finding the angular momenta of EM waves radiated by particles of the system.

  20. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)


    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities