WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation safety performance

  1. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  2. Radiation Safety Aspects of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, David; Cash, Leigh Jackson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guilmette, Raymond [Ray Guilmette & Associates, LLC, Perry, ME (United States); Kreyling, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Munchen, (Germany); Oberdorster, Gunter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Smith, Rachel [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards

    2017-03-27

    This Report is intended primarily for operational health physicists, radiation safety officers, and internal dosimetrists who are responsible for establishing and implementing radiation safety programs involving radioactive nanomaterials. It should also provide useful information for workers, managers and regulators who are either working directly with or have other responsibilities related to work with radioactive nanomaterials.

  3. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Michelle S

    2015-01-01

    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety.

  4. [Radiation safety of exploitation of radiation sources at the civil aviation airlines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, R V; Zuev, V G; Berezin, G I; Sereda, V N; Zasiad'ko, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiation risks from isotope-containing equipment, and ionizing and unused X-ray radiation sources are characterized and relevant normative documents with safety requirements to radiation sources installation, radiation safety of aircraft servicing and repair, hand luggage control and heavy luggage registration, personal protection items, system of radiation monitoring at airlines and aircraft works, and liability for breach of performance guidelines are cited.

  5. Addressing a radiation safety sentinel event alert: one state's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, James B; Lane, Thomas; Rutar, Frank; McGowan, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert in August 2011 to address the radiation risks related to diagnostic medical imaging. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) and Nebraska Coalition for Patient Safety (NCPS) sent a survey to Nebraska hospital radiology departments in May 2012 to solicit responses regarding radiation safety management practices. Survey results demonstrate that Nebraska hospitals perform well in many radiation safety efforts, but lack in others, as well as the need for additional research to track or compare progress. Nebraska's experience can serve as a model for other states to perform similar radiation safety management research.

  6. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  7. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  8. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  9. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  10. Maintenance of radiation safety information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Sun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Chung, Chong Kyu; Lim, Bock Soo; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chang, Kwang Il; Nam, Kwan Hyun; Cho, Hye Ryan [AD center incubation LAB, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of radiation safety information system maintenance are to maintain the requirement of users, change of job process and upgrade of the system performance stably and effectively while system maintenance. We conduct the code of conduct recommended by IAEA, management of radioisotope inventory database systematically using analysis for the state of inventory database integrated in this system. This system and database will be support the regulatory guidance, rule making and information to the MOST, KINS, other regulatory related organization and general public optimizationally.

  11. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  12. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  13. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  14. Operational Safety Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Research reactors need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. The importance of a safety management in nuclear facilities and activities has been emphasized. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. Last year, HANARO prepared two indicator sets to measure and assess the safety status of the reactor's operation and utilization. One is Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) and the other is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Through reviewing these indicators, we can obtain the following information; - Plant safety status - Safety parameter trends - Safety information, for example, reactor operation status and radiation safety HANARO will continuously pursue the trends of SPI and BSC.

  15. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

    2001-10-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  16. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C

    2001-10-17

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  17. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  18. HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, J.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1998-11-04

    The HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System was designed to permit experimenters and operations staff controlled access to beam transport and experiment areas with accelerated beam present. Neutron-Gamma detectors are mounted in eaeh area at points of maximum dose rate and the resulting signals are integrated by redundan~ circuitry; beam is stopped if dose rate or integrated dose exceeds established limits. This paper will describe the system, in use for several vears at the HRIBF, and discuss changes recently made to modernize the system and to make the system compliant with DOE Order 5480.25 and related ORNL updated safety rules.

  19. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section, and has achieved a level of radiation safety knowledge sufficient to function... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for Radiation Safety Officer. 35.50 Section 35.50... Requirements § 35.50 Training for Radiation Safety Officer. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee...

  20. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  1. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  2. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Сommunication 2. Ensuring radiation safety during the universiade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second communication, the authors present and analyze in detail in chronological order all the activities performed in the course of providing radiation safety of the XXVII World Summer Universiade in Kazan. Special attention is given to assessing the effectiveness of the measures envisaged and implemented. Recommendations to improve the planning system have been developed, the list of measures ensuring radiation safety of the participants and guests to be held before and during large-scale events to ensure radiation safety was specified.

  3. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

  4. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  5. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  6. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  7. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer.

  8. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  9. Study on development of education model and its evaluation system for radiation safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, K W; Nam, Y M

    2002-01-01

    As one of the detailed action strategy of multi object preparedness for strengthening of radiation safety management by MOST, this project was performed, in order to promote the safety culture for user and radiation worker through effective education program. For the prevention of radiological accident and effective implementation of radiation safety education and training, this project has been carried out the development of education model and its evaluation system on radiation safety. In the development of new education model, education course was classified; new and old radiation worker, temporary worker, lecturer and manager. The education model includes the contents of expanding the education opportunity and workplace training. In the development of evaluation system, the recognition criteria for commission-education institute and inside-education institute which should establish by law were suggested for evaluation program. The recognition criteria contains classification, student, method, facilities, ...

  10. Characteristics of radiation safety for synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2011-07-01

    Radiation safety problems are discussed for typical electron accelerators, synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. The radiation sources at the beamline of the facilities are SR, including XFEL, gas bremsstrahlung and high-energy gamma ray and photo-neutrons due to electron beam loss. The radiation safety problems for each source are compared by using 8 GeV class SR and XFEL facilities as an example.

  11. Army Programs: The Army Radiation Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    area or very high radiation area. (For example, medical and dental diagnostic x-ray systems do not require an ARA.) However, commanders will...the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation. Background radiation

  12. Three keys: safety performance, comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetto, Fred

    2012-07-01

    Thanks to advances in safety, the hard hat has evolved through the decades. There have been many recent improvements, but its story began almost 100 years ago with the "Hard-Boiled Hat:" Patented in 1919, its name came from the steam used in the manufacturing process. The original "Hard-Boiled Hat" was manufactured of steamed canvas, glue, and black paint. North

  13. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  14. What Parents Should Know about Medical Radiation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 health care professionals in radiology, pediatrics, medical physics, and radiation safety. References Amis ES, Jr., Butler PF, Applegate KE, et al. American College of Radiology white paper on radiation dose in medicine. Journal of the American College of Radiology 2007; 4: ...

  15. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies.

  16. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  17. Radiation safety control on Ulchin NPP Unit 1 s/g sleeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. T.; Jang, Y. S. [KEPCO Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 1, 2, Kyongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Ulchin NPP unit 1 has been entered its tenth operation year. As the operation years went by, S/G tubes' defects have been reported, which was analyzed mainly due to PWSCC through ECT and various studies. In the ninth overhaul, technical staffs of Ulchin unit 1 decided to do sleeve installation for defected tubes. This sleeve installation was a second experience on our plant in KEPCO. The sleeving tubes were estimated to 600 pieces, but increased to 987 pieces by ECT results. As the sleeve installation was performed in high radiation level, we have considered various radiation safety, i e. protection of radiation source and internal exposure. The collective radiation exposure dose was recorded to 142.32 man-mSv and no internal exposed person was discovered. But there are some requirements to improve radiation safety for reducing exposure dose to radiation. PWSCC : Primary Water Side Stress Corrosion Crack (author)

  18. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986.

  19. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  20. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Devlieghere, F.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Luning, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Vali

  1. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.; Devlieghere, F.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Luning, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses.

  2. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  3. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  4. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience.

  5. Mining Behavior Based Safety Data to Predict Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2010-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a behavior based safety program called Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR). This peer-to-peer observation program encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other's work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of conducting these observations is that more serious accidents are prevented from occurring because lower level “at risk” behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted “unsafe” behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. Although the approach increases employee involvement in safety, the premise of the program has not been subject to sufficient empirical evaluation. The INL now has a significant amount of SOAR data on these lower level “at risk” behaviors. This paper describes the use of data mining techniques to analyze these data to determine whether they can predict if and when a more serious accident will occur.

  6. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  7. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  8. New adventures in biomedical engineering: Radiation safety program management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, D.M. (Washington Hospital Center, DC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As biomedical/clinical engineers expand their managerial expertise into nontraditional areas, it makes sense that they pursue areas where their formal training in physics and mathematics can be applied. Radiation safety requires having the educational background to understand atomic structure, the nature of radioactivity, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and instrumentation. Program management requires having the administrative experience to manage people, data, files, documentation, and budgets. Radiation safety program management also requires an understanding of how best to prepare for a surprise inspection, similar to but technically more specific than other inspections and surveys previously experienced by the BME/CE professional.

  9. Evaluation of radiation safety in 29 central Ohio veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, S.A.; Wilkins, J.R. III; Hueston, W.D.

    1989-07-01

    A sample of 29 veterinary practices in Central Ohio were visited to assess radiation safety practices and observance of state regulations. Lead aprons and gloves were usually available, but gloves were not always worn. Protective thyroid collars and lead glasses were not available in any practice, lead shields in only five practices, and lead-lined walls and doors in only two practices. Eighteen practices had none of the required safety notices posted.

  10. 2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 review of the INL Criticality Safety Program has determined that the program is robust and effective. The review was prepared for, and fulfills Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item H.20, 'Annual Criticality Safety Program performance summary that includes the status of assessments, issues, corrective actions, infractions, requirements management, training, and programmatic support.' This performance summary addresses the status of these important elements of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Assessments - Assessments in 2011 were planned and scheduled. The scheduled assessments included a Criticality Safety Program Effectiveness Review, Criticality Control Area Inspections, a Protection of Controlled Unclassified Information Inspection, an Assessment of Criticality Safety SQA, and this management assessment of the Criticality Safety Program. All of the assessments were completed with the exception of the 'Effectiveness Review' for SSPSF, which was delayed due to emerging work. Although minor issues were identified in the assessments, no issues or combination of issues indicated that the INL Criticality Safety Program was ineffective. The identification of issues demonstrates the importance of an assessment program to the overall health and effectiveness of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Issues and Corrective Actions - There are relatively few criticality safety related issues in the Laboratory ICAMS system. Most were identified by Criticality Safety Program assessments. No issues indicate ineffectiveness in the INL Criticality Safety Program. All of the issues are being worked and there are no imminent criticality concerns. Infractions - There was one criticality safety related violation in 2011. On January 18, 2011, it was discovered that a fuel plate bundle in the Nuclear Materials Inspection and Storage (NMIS) facility exceeded the fissionable mass limit, resulting in a technical safety requirement (TSR) violation. The

  11. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS Communication 1. Ensuring radiation safety at the preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorist attack at theBostonMarathon, Federal and Republican executive bodies took increased security measures during the XXVII World Summer Universiade inKazan. Bodies and Organizations of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being (Rospotrebnadzor were participants of all preparatory activities and directly provided security of the Student Games inKazan. This report analyzes the experience of providing radiation safety by Rospotrebnadzor experts at the stage of preparation for the Universiade. So far, Rospotrebnadzor organizations had no experience of providing radiation safety of such large-scale events. Analysis of the performed work with account for both positive and negative experiences is especially important in the context of preparations for the safety providing of the Olympic Winter Games inSochiin 2014. 

  12. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  13. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  14. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  15. Establishment of database for radiation exposure and safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G. S.; Kim, J. H. [Science Culture Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    The nuclear electric energy in our country plays a major role for the national industrial development as well as for the secure living of the peoples. It is, however, considered as a socially dreadful elements because of the radiation materials exposed into the environment. In effect, the DB is intended to serve for the reference to the epidemical study upon the low-level radiation exposure involving the nuclear facilities, radio-isotope business enterprises, and the related workers at the radiation sites. In connection with the development of nuclear energy, the low-level radiation, associated with the radioisotope materials exposed into our environment out of nuclear facilities, is believed to possibly raise significant hazardous effects toward human persons. Therefor, it is necessary to take a positive counter measures by means of comprehensive quantitative estimates on its possibilities. In consequence, the low-level radiation effects do not bring about the immediate hazard cases, however, appear to possibly pose the lately caused diseases such as cancer cause, life reduction, and creation of mutation, etc. Therefore, it is intended to set up the social security with the secure safety, by conducting an advanced safety study on the low-level radiation.

  16. Radiation Safety of Sealed Radioactive Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between US regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed, and that fail, can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threatened to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally-licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight, and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way that it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high-dose rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that result in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The NCRP has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to provide recommendations for sealed source programs are discussed.

  17. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    transparent basis for making decisions in safety matters. During the year it has however become apparent that further improvement measures are necessary. The plant has had a relatively large number of operational disturbances during 2007 which have been analysed in order to implement suitable measures. Modernisation projects follow the time schedules which were decided earlier for implementation in order to comply with the regulations. Some measures are already completed, others are underway, and the programme will continue until 2013. SKI is supervising the progress of the modernisation and the improvements to the physical protection of the plants. Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB has applied for permission to increase the thermal power in reactors Forsmark 1-3. The government hasn't yet granted permission for these power increases. SKI has approved trial operation for Ringhals 1 and Ringhals 3 at the increased power levels during the year. For Ringhals 3 this is the first stage of the planned power increases. Ringhals has also applied to increase the thermal power in Ringhals 4. The government has granted permission for the thermal power increase in Oskarshamn 3. SKI is currently performing a safety review of this application. Oskarshamn have made an application to increase the thermal power in Oskarshamn 2. During 2007 SKI has performed inspections to control how nuclear safeguards are managed by the nuclear power stations. In all 80 inspections have been carried out. Nothing has been found during these inspections to indicate that there are any deficiencies in the nuclear safeguard activities. No serious incidents or accidents have occurred resulting in abnormal radiation exposure of personnel. Radioactive releases from the plants have resulted in calculated doses to the most exposed person in the critical group that are well below the environmental impact goal of 10 microsievert. Forsmark, which in recent years has had recurrent problems with the measurement of airborne

  18. Compendium of resources for radiation safety in medical imaging using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Anum S; Frush, Donald P

    2013-05-01

    Diagnostic imaging, including ionizing radiation modalities, maintains a prominent role in the medical evaluation of patients. There is increasing awareness and need for information across varied sectors about low-level radiation and potential risks. Many medical and scientific organizations have resources discussing radiation risk and management. However, there is no single resource compiling this information. Websites, including those of national and international medical organizations, were reviewed for information on radiation dose, risk, justification, optimization, guidelines (including general information about improvement in quality and dose reduction without specific mention of optimization techniques), appropriateness criteria, and general principles of radiation safety for CT, fluoroscopy or angiography, and radiography. This information was organized into 8 tables, categorized by modality, and separated for adult and pediatric populations. Websites with training modules were noted as well. Twenty-nine websites were explored. Overall, less information is available about medical radiation safety in children compared with adults. Across both groups, most information is available on CT, then fluoroscopy, and finally radiography. Across all groups and modalities, there is no information available for patients or parents on optimization, appropriateness, or guidelines, with the exception of adult radiography, for which there are some guidelines. This compendium serves as a collective resource for communities including the public and regulatory organizations. Additionally, the compendium can be used to determine redundant or deficient areas, providing opportunities for more comprehensive resources and efficient efforts in accessing medical radiation patient safety information. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa

    2015-09-01

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology.

  20. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology. (orig.)

  1. Delivering a radiation protection dividend: systemic capacity-building for the radiation safety profession in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hilton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many African countries planning to enter the nuclear energy “family” have little or no experience of meeting associated radiation safety demands, whether operational or regulatory. Uses of radiation in medicine in the continent, whether for diagnostic or clinical purposes, are rapidly growing while the costs of equipment, and hence of access to services, are falling fast. In consequence, many patients and healthcare workers are facing a wide array of unfamiliar challenges, both operational and ethical, without any formal regulatory or professional framework for managing them safely. This, combined with heighted awareness of safety issues post Fukushima, means the already intense pressure on radiation safety professionals in such domains as NORM industries and security threatens to reach breaking point. A systematic competency-based capacity-building programme for RP professionals in Africa is required (Resolution of the Third AFRIRPA13 Regional Conference, Nairobi, September 2010. The goal is to meet recruitment and HR needs in the rapidly emerging radiation safety sector, while also addressing stakeholder concerns in respect of promoting and meeting professional and ethical standards. The desired outcome is an RP “dividend” to society as a whole. A curriculum model is presented, aligned to safety procedures and best practices such as Safety Integrity Level and Layer of Protection analysis; it emphasizes proactive risk communication both with direct and indirect stakeholders; and it outlines disciplinary options and procedures for managers and responsible persons for dealing with unsafe or dangerous behavior at work. This paper reports on progress to date. It presents a five-tier development pathway starting from a generic foundation course, suitable for all RP professionals, accompanied by specialist courses by domain, activity or industry. Delivery options are discussed. Part of the content has already been developed and delivered as

  2. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  3. Radiation Hard High Performance Optoelectronic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-hard, widely-tunable integrated laser/modulator chip and large-area avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components of optical...

  4. [Use of system of radiation and hygienic certification of territories for ensuring supervision of radiation safety of the population at the regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, I A; Gorsky, G A

    2013-01-01

    In article the experience of Department of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare in St. Petersburg, related with performing of radiation and hygienic certification of the organizations and territories is considered. The annual assessment of individual and collective risks of emergence of stochastic effects for the population and the personnel of radiation objects shows the significance of radiation and hygienic certification for hygienic justification of the measures directed on a decrease in radiation exposure of the population from technogenic, natural and medical sources of ionizing radiation. The long-term analysis of the structure and dynamics of annual individual and collective effective doses of radiation of the population within the framework of radiation and hygienic certification and the Universal state system for control and accounting for individual doses of radiation of citizens allows to estimate efficiency of address target programs for the solution of actual problems of radiation safety at the regional level.

  5. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  6. Computational Analysis of Safety Injection Tank Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadia, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine; Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    The APR 1400 is a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). Just like many other water reactors, it has an emergency core cooling system (ECCS). One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling. The SIT of APR1400 was analyzed using MARS and CFD. CFD calculation was executed first to obtain the form loss factor. Using the two form loss factors from the vendor and calculation, calculation using MARS was performed to compare with experiment. The accumulator model in MARS was quite accurate in predicting the water level. The pipe model showed some difference with the experimental data in the water level.

  7. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental...... and respiratory physiology • Combustion and natural fires • Explosion theory • Fire Chemistry • Fire Extinction Chemistry and Physics • Evacuation and human behaviour during a fire • Sensitivity and risk analysis • Fire Models • Emission and Radiation Theory...

  8. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations.

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  10. High-performance work systems and occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharatos, Anthea; Barling, Julian; Iverson, Roderick D

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and occupational safety. In Study 1, data were obtained from company human resource and safety directors across 138 organizations. LISREL VIII results showed that an HPWS was positively related to occupational safety at the organizational level. Study 2 used data from 189 front-line employees in 2 organizations. Trust in management and perceived safety climate were found to mediate the relationship between an HPWS and safety performance measured in terms of personal-safety orientation (i.e., safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance, and safety initiative) and safety incidents (i.e., injuries requiring first aid and near misses). These 2 studies provide confirmation of the important role organizational factors play in ensuring worker safety.

  11. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS, 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS, 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible.

  12. An analysis of the awareness and performance of radiation workers' radiation/radioactivity protection in medical institutions : Focused on Busan regional medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Koo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Graduate School of Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate safety management awareness and behavioral investigation of radiation/radioactivity performance defenses of radiation workers' in medical institutions. Data collection consisted of 267 radiation workers working in medical institutions using structured questionnaires. As a result, it was analyzed that radiation safety management awareness and performance were high in 40s, 50s group and higher education group. The analysis according to the radiation safety management knowledge was analyzed that the 'Know very well' group had higher scores on awareness and performance scores. The analysis according to the degree of safety management effort showed the high awareness scale and the performance scale in the group 'Receiving various education or studying the safety management contents through book'. The correlations between the sub-factors showed the highest positive correlation between perceived practician and personal perspective and perceived by patient and patient's caretaker perspective. Therefore, radiation safety management for workers, patients, and patient's caretaker should be conducted through continuous education of radiation safety management through various routes of radiation workers working at medical institutions.

  13. An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing often lead to similar conclusions. Management acknowledges the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) or Director of Radiation Safety's concern but asks the RSO to provide benchmarking and justification for additional full-time equivalents (FTEs). The RSO must determine a method to benchmark and justify additional staffing needs while struggling to maintain a safe and compliant radiation safety program. Benchmarking and justification are extremely important tools that are commonly used to demonstrate the need for increased staffing in other disciplines and are tools that can be used by radiation safety professionals. Parameters that most RSOs would expect to be positive predictors of radiation safety staff size generally are and can be emphasized in benchmarking and justification report summaries. Facilities with large radiation safety departments tend to have large numbers of authorized users, be broad-scope programs, be subject to increased controls regulations, have large clinical operations, have significant numbers of academic radiation-producing machines, and have laser safety responsibilities.

  14. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  15. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  16. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  17. EURISOL-DS Multi‐MW Target: Radiological Protection, Radiation Safety and Shielding Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Y. Romanets and R. Luís (ITN)

    The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed study and analysis of all aspects related toradioprotection and radiation safety of the spallation target area and the whole spaces reservedfor the fission targets and spallation target maintenance. Operational and no‐operationalconditions were considered for an evaluation of the radiation safety conditions.An analysis of the proposed shielding dimensions and configuration was performed for thesystem during operation time. Parameters as activation, dose rate, energy deposition, etc. aremore important for the no‐operation period, in order to evaluate the hazard level anddetermine the staff access type to the maintenance areas (direct or remote control).Such elements as the fission targets and the whole structure involved on it were studied in moredetail because of the disposal issues, after operation. Activation, dose rate and residual nuclideswere studied for each element of the assembly. All parameters were analyzed according to their...

  18. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) - History 1958-2008; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen historia 1958-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, K.

    2008-07-01

    The publication is the 50th anniversary book of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The organisation was founded in 1958 by the name Saeteilyfysiikan laitos (The Institute of Radiation Physics). The first duties were to inspect x-ray machines and machines used for radiation therapy in hospitals. The activities were started by six persons but were quickly widened and in the end of 1970's the institute employed more than 100 experts, who supervised nuclear power plants, radiation devices, radioactivity in the environment, and the radiation safety of miners. The present name Saeteilyturvakeskus - the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) was given in 1984. Today STUK is the Finnish national regulatory authority in radiation and nuclear safety fields, research centre and organisation providing radiation related services. STUK employs about 350 experts

  19. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zongzhi Li; Hoang Dao; Harshingar Patel; Yi Liu; Bei Zhou

    2017-01-01

    .... This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI) as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis...

  20. Report for spreading culture of medical radiation safety in Korea: Mainly the activities of the Korean alliance for radiation safety and culture in medicine (KARSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yong Su; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kyung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Safety, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    There are many concerns about radiation exposure in Korea after Fukushima Nuclear Plant Accident on 2011 in Japan. As some isotope materials are detected in Korea, people get worried about the radioactive material. In addition, the mass media create an air of anxiety that jump on the people’s fear instead of scientific approach. Therefore, for curbing this flow, health, medical institute from the world provide a variety of information about medical radiation safety and hold the campaign which can give people the image that medical radiation is safe. At this, the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA) suggested that make the alliance of medical radiation safety and culture on August, 2011. Seven societies and institutions related medical radiation started to research and advertise the culture of medical radiation safety in Korea. In this report, mainly introduce the activities of the Korean Alliance for Radiation Safety and Culture in Medicine(KARSM) for spreading culture of medical radiation safety from 2011 to 2012.

  1. Study of safety performance of the 241Am fire alarm source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The safety performance of 241Am fire alarm sources made by using powder metallurgical technology has been preliminarily studied, so as to determine an allowable maximum energy limit value of the alpha particles outgoing from this kind of sources in light of radiation safety and the present technology. The yielded results show that 241Am leak has not been found when the peak energy of the alpha energy spectrum of this kind of sources is less than 4.96 MeV.

  2. Radiation Safety Professional Certification Process in a Multi-Disciplinary Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.; Jones, P.; Ilson, R.

    2004-07-01

    There is no one set of criteria that defines the radiation safety professional in Canada. The many varied positions, from university and medical to industry and mining, define different qualifications to manage radiation safety programs. The national regulatory body has to assess many different qualifications when determining if an individual is acceptable to be approved for the role of radiation safety officer under any given licence. Some professional organizations specify education requirements and work experience as a prerequisite to certification. The education component specifies a degree of some type but does not identify specific courses or competencies within that degree. This could result in individuals with varying levels of radiation safety experience and training. The Canadian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA), responding to a need identified by the membership of the association, has initiated a process where the varying levels of knowledge of radiation safety can be addressed for radiation safety professionals. By identifying a core level set of radiation safety competencies, the basic level of radiation safety officer for smaller organizations can be met. By adding specialty areas, education can be pursued to define the more complex needs of larger organizations. This competency based process meets the needs of licensees who do not require highly trained health physicists in order to meet the licensing requirements and at the same time provides a stepping stone for those who wish to pursue a more specialized health physics option. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Benchmarking road safety performances of countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Oppe, S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain political interest in road safety problems and to learn from other countries’ ‘good practices’, it is often helpful to compare one’s own safety situation with that of other countries. In a number of projects tools have been developed for such comparisons. These tools range from si

  4. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  5. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  6. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  7. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.

  8. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta; Kadi, Yacine; Otto, Thomas; Tecchio, L

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  9. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly: radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, M; Kadi, Y; Otto, T; Tecchio, L; Otto, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  10. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seock [Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Ho [Gachun University of Medicine and science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Yuon Young [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research.

  11. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  12. Neuro-oncology update: radiation safety and nursing care during interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T.M.; Drake, D.K.; Sewchand, W.

    1987-12-01

    Radiation control and safety are major considerations for nursing personnel during the care of patients receiving brachytherapy. Since the theory and practice of radiation applications are not part of the routine curriculum of nursing programs, the education of nurses and other health care professionals in radiation safety procedures is important. Regulatory agencies recommend that an annual safety course be given to all persons frequenting, using, or associated with patients containing radioactive materials. This article presents pertinent aspects of the principles and procedures of radiation safety, the role of personnel dose-monitoring devices, and the value of additional radiation control features, such as a lead cubicle, during interstitial brain implants. One institution's protocol and procedures for the care of high-intensity iridium-192 brain implants are discussed. Preoperative teaching guidelines and nursing interventions included in the protocol focus on radiation control principles.

  13. The knowledge, attitude and behavior on the radiation safety management for dental hygiene major students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyon Chul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Suseong College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Kyung [Radiation Safety Management Commission, Daegu Health College, (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job.

  14. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  15. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  16. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in rectal cancer patient: safety and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Asari Sami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility due to pelvic radiation for advanced rectal cancer treatment is a major concern particularly in young patients. Pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition may offer preservation of ovarian function during the treatment however its use is limited. Aim The study investigates the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition and its effect on ovarian function in the treatment o locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Charts review of all young female patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer, underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition, then received preoperative radiotherapy at king Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 2003–2007. Results During the period studied three single patients age between 21–27 years underwent pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition for advanced rectal cancer. All required pretreatment laparoscopic diversion stoma due to rectal stricture secondary to tumor that was performed at the same time. One patient died of metastatic disease during treatment. The ovarian hormonal levels (FSH and LH were normal in two patients. One has had normal menstrual period and other had amenorrhoea after 4 months follow-up however her ovarian hormonal level were within normal limits. Conclusions Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in advanced rectal cancer treatment is an effective and feasible way of preservation of ovarian function in young patients at risk of radiotherapy induced ovarian failure. However, this procedure is still under used and it is advisable to discuss and propose it to suitable patients.

  17. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by

  18. Performance standards and meat safety--developments and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2012-11-01

    Performance standards have been developed to express, for regulatory purposes, an acceptable level of food safety afforded by either a product or a process. These performance standards have reflected the development of scientific thought on food safety management through setting of microbiological criteria, implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems, process control and risk-based management. In meat safety management, some performance standards reflect current risk-based thinking which sets objectives and/or criteria and allows freedom on how those objectives/criteria can be met. However, many performance standards do not reflect current thinking and some perpetuate the idea that meat can be consumed with zero risk.

  19. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  20. The effect of team building practices on safety performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Marshall T.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS Team Building creates a working atmosphere where characteristics are developed that enable the team to be effective. Construction projects that have successful safety programs have many of the same characteristics of effective teams. This thesis analyzes whether team building use affects safety performance for different sized projects. Comparisons are also made of safety practices based on team building use. The analysis is centered on the data collected in the 1996 and 1997 Benchma...

  1. Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.

  2. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  3. A prediction model for the radiation safety management behavior of medical cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ssang Tae [CareCamp Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study attempted to provide reference materials for improving the behavior level in radiation safety managements by drawing a prediction model that affects the radiation safety management behavior because the radiation safety management of medical Cyclotrons, which can be used to produce radioisotopes, is an important factor that protects radiation caused diseases not only for radiological operators but average users. In addition, this study obtained follows results through the investigation applied from January 2 to January 30, 2008 for the radiation safety managers employed in 24 authorized organizations, which have already installed Cyclotrons, through applying a specific form of questionnaire in which the validity was guaranteed by reference study, site investigation, and focus discussion by related experts. The radiation safety management were configured as seven steps: step 1 is a production preparation step, step 2 is an RI production step, step 3 is a synthesis step, step 4 is a distribution step, step 5 is a quality control step, step 6 is a carriage container packing step, and step 7 is a transportation step. It was recognized that the distribution step was the most exposed as 15 subjects (62.5%), the items of 'the sanction and permission related works' and 'the guarantee of installation facilities and production equipment' were the most difficult as 9 subjects (37.5%), and in the trouble steps in such exposure, the item of 'the synthesis and distribution' steps were 4 times, respectively (30.8%). In the score of the behavior level in radiation safety managements, the minimum and maximum scores were 2.42 and 4.00, respectively, and the average score was 3.46 {+-} 0.47 out of 4. Prosperity and well-being programs in the behavior and job in radiation safety managements (r=0.529) represented a significant correlation statistically. In the drawing of a prediction model based on the factors that affected the behavior in

  4. Radiation safety awareness among medical interns: are EU guidelines being implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A M; Lee, M J

    2016-11-14

    European recommendations suggest that medical students should be taught radiation safety before entering clinical practice. The aim of this study was to produce a summative assessment of radiation protection training in medical school in Ireland. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to the 2014 intern population (n = 683) via network intern-coordinators. The survey encompassed knowledge of radiation dose in X-ray investigations, laws governing the prescribing of radiation and complications of radiation exposure to staff and patients. Response rate was 14.2% (97/683) with all Irish medical schools represented. 64% of interns reported no formal training in radiation safety. 80% correctly identified MRI and 94% US as not posing a radiation risk. 54% identified CT PET as emitting the highest radiation dose to patients. Only 32% correctly identified one CT abdomen/pelvis as equivalent to the dose from 300 to 500 chest X-rays and 22% correctly identified the theoretical lifetime risk of cancer induction from CT abdomen/pelvis as 1 in 2000. While 71% thought it was very important that prescribers should be aware of patient radiation dose and 28% thought it was moderately important, 74% were not aware of any laws governing the prescribing of radiology investigations. Currently, there is little formal radiation safety training in Irish medical schools. Knowledge of radiation dose and the laws governing prescribing is limited among qualifying interns. Implementation of a formal radiation safety curriculum in Irish Medical Schools would adhere to EU guidelines and improve prescriber knowledge, patient, and personal radiation safety.

  5. Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R.L.; Cole, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling

  6. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle t

  7. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is...

  8. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  9. Six sigma tools for a patient safety-oriented, quality-checklist driven radiation medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Potters, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and implement six sigma practices toward the enhancement of patient safety in an electronic, quality checklist-driven, multicenter, paperless radiation medicine department. A quality checklist process map (QPM), stratified into consultation through treatment-completion stages was incorporated into an oncology information systems platform. A cross-functional quality management team conducted quality-function-deployment and define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) six sigma exercises with a focus on patient safety. QPM procedures were Pareto-sorted in order of decreasing patient safety risk with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Quantitative metrics for a grouped set of highest risk procedures were established. These included procedural delays, associated standard deviations and six sigma Z scores. Baseline performance of the QPM was established over the previous year of usage. Data-driven analysis led to simplification, standardization, and refinement of the QPM with standard deviation, slip-day reduction, and Z-score enhancement goals. A no-fly policy (NFP) for patient safety was introduced at the improve-control DMAIC phase, with a process map interlock imposed on treatment initiation in the event of FMEA-identified high-risk tasks being delayed or not completed. The NFP was introduced in a pilot phase with specific stopping rules and the same metrics used for performance assessments. A custom root-cause analysis database was deployed to monitor patient safety events. Relative to the baseline period, average slip days and standard deviations for the risk-enhanced QPM procedures improved by over threefold factors in the NFP period. The Z scores improved by approximately 20%. A trend for proactive delays instead of reactive hard stops was observed with no adverse effects of the NFP. The number of computed potential no-fly delays per month dropped from 60 to 20 over a total of 520 cases. The fraction of computed

  10. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  11. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety www.imagegently.org What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes to create pictures of the human body. ...

  12. Managing patient safety through NPSGs and employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Liberty

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety can only exist in a culture of patient safety, which implies it is a value perceived by all. Culture predicts safety outcomes and leadership predicts the culture. Leaders are obligated to continually mitigate hazard and take action consciously. Healthcare workers should focus on preventing and reporting mistakes with the National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs) in mind. These include: accuracy of patient identification, effectiveness of communication among caregivers, improving safety of medications, reducing infections, reducing risk of falls, and encouraging patients to be involved in care. Poor performers and reckless behavior need to be mitigated. If employees recognize their roles in the process, feel empowered,and have appropriate tools, resources,and data to implement solutions, errors can be avoided and patient safety becomes paramount.

  13. The implementation and assessment of a quality and safety culture education program in a large radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina D; Volz, Edna; Bellerive, Marc; Bergendahl, Howard W; Gabriel, Peter E; Maity, Amit; Hahn, Stephen M; Vapiwala, Neha

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology launched a national campaign to improve patient safety in radiation therapy. One recommendation included the expansion of educational programs dedicated to quality and safety. We subsequently implemented a quality and safety culture education program (Q-SCEP) in our large radiation oncology department. The purpose of this study is to describe the design, implementation, and impact of this Q-SCEP. In 2010, we instituted a comprehensive Q-SCEP, consisting of a longitudinal series of lectures, meetings, and interactive workshops. Participation was mandatory for all department members across all network locations. Electronic surveys were administered to assess employee engagement, knowledge retention, preferred learning styles, and the program's overall impact. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Survey on Patient Safety Culture was administered. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 100% of targeted staff participated in Q-SCEP. Thirty-three percent (132 of 400) and 30% (136 of 450) responded to surveys in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Mean scores improved from 73% to 89% (P safety culture education was critical to performing their jobs well. Full course compliance was achieved despite the sizable number of personnel and treatment centers. Periodic assessments demonstrated high knowledge retention, which significantly improved over time in nearly all department divisions. Additionally, our AHRQ patient safety grade remains high and continues to improve. These results will be used to further enhance ongoing internal safety initiatives and to inform future innovative efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  15. Hypofractionated radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic alternatives can improve the safety and efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. To assess whether hypofractionated radiation therapy results in better safety and efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Systematic review of the literature through searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, CRD, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan, collecting indicators of safety and efficacy. We included 2 systematic reviews and a clinical trial. In terms of efficacy, there is considerable heterogeneity among the studies, and no conclusive results were found concerning the superiority of the hypofractionated option over the normal fractionated option. In terms of safety, there were no significant differences in the onset of acute genitourinary complications between the 2 treatments. However, one of the reviews found more acute gastrointestinal complications in patients treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy. There were no significant differences in long-term complications based on the type of radiation therapy used, although the studies did have limitations. To date, there are no conclusive results that show that hypofractionated radiation therapy is more effective or safer than normal fractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding the relationship between safety investment and safety performance of construction projects through agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Miaojia; Cheung, Clara Man; Li, Heng; Hsu, Shu-Chien

    2016-09-01

    The construction industry in Hong Kong increased its safety investment by 300% in the past two decades; however, its accident rate has plateaued to around 50% for one decade. Against this backdrop, researchers have found inconclusive results on the causal relationship between safety investment and safety performance. Using agent-based modeling, this study takes an unconventional bottom-up approach to study safety performance on a construction site as an outcome of a complex system defined by interactions among a worksite, individual construction workers, and different safety investments. Instead of focusing on finding the absolute relationship between safety investment and safety performance, this study contributes to providing a practical framework to investigate how different safety investments interacting with different parameters such as human and environmental factors could affect safety performance. As a result, we could identify cost-effective safety investments under different construction scenarios for delivering optimal safety performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety performance evaluation using proactive indicators in a selected industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barkhordari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Quality and effectiveness of safety systems are critical factors in achieving their goals. This study was aimed to represent a method for performance evaluation of safety systems by proactive indicators using different updated models in the field of safety which will be tested in a selected industry. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Proactive indicators used in this study were: Unsafe acts rate, Safety Climate, Accident Proneness, and Near-miss incident rate. The number of in 1473 safety climate questionnaires and 543 Accident Proneness questionnaires was completed. Results: The minimum and maximum safety climate score were 56.88 and 58.2, respectively, and the minimum and maximum scores of Accident Proneness were 98.2 and 140.7, respectively. The maximum number of Near-miss incident rate were 408 and the minimum of that was 196. The maximum number of unsafe acts rate was 43.8 percent and the minimum of that was 27.2 percent. In nine dimensions of Safety climate the eighth dimension (personal perception of risk with the score of 4.07 has the lowest score and the fourth (laws and safety regulations dimension with 8.05 has the highest score. According to expert opinions, the most important indicator in the assessment of safety performance was unsafe acts rate, while near-miss incident rate was the least important one. Conclusion: The results of this survey reveal that using proactive (Prospective indicators could be an appropriate method in organizations safety performance evaluation.

  18. Assessing the Performance of Global Solar Radiation Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Performance of Global Solar Radiation Empirical Models at a ... such as simulation of crop performance and the design of solar energy conversion ... Three of these statistical performance indicators were combined to generate ...

  19. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.b, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao. Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  20. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  1. Report on administrative work at radiation safety center in fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Sakuma, Yoichi; Kawano, Takao; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Shinotsuka, Kazunori; Asakura, Yamato; Miyake, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    National Institute for Fusion Science constructed Large Helical Device (LHD) which is the largest magnetic confinement plasma experimental device using super conductive magnet coils. It took eight years to construct and the first plasma shot had been carried out on March 1998. Since then plasma confinement experiments have been improved. This is the report of administrative work at the radiation safety center considering radiation protection for workers at the LHD and related devices, and radiation monitoring in the site. Major scope is as follows. (1) Radiation measurement and dose monitoring in the radiation controlled area and in the site using particularly developed monitoring system named as Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiments (RMSAFE). (2) Establishment of education and registration system for radiation workers and access control system for the LHD controlled area. I hope that as like the published report of fiscal year 1999, the present report will be helpful for management of future radiation protection in the research institute. (author)

  2. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    2017-06-29

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41).

  4. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and their workers if new workers are trained well in the work site and they are informed about dangerous places, and if a workable safety plan is well preplanned. The results also showed that reported accident rates increased among subcontractors when using old, unsafe equipment and due to the complexity or difficulty in the construction sites features. Owners and general contractors need to stipulate strict clauses for safety in the contract for improving safety record of subcontractors. Construction workers must receive proper job related safety and health training with a safety logbook. It is recommended that the subcontractors and workers should attend continuing safety programs on regular basis as part of their perquisite to work in construction sites.

  5. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  6. Safety performance evaluation of taekwondo headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P; Pieter, Willy; Shin, Insik

    2013-05-01

    With over 20 years of taekwondo concussion research highlighting the high incidence of injury, previous studies recommend an investigation of headgear impact attenuation performance. To examine impact attenuation differences between the anterior, posterior and sides of selected taekwondo headgear brands. Between-groups. Biomechanics laboratory. Five different commercially available taekwondo headgear were selected for impact testing. A 50th percentile Hybrid II Dummy Crash Test head and neck was fitted with the selected helmet and was bolted to a 25 kg steel torso-like structure. Each headgear model was impacted eight times to the anterior, posterior and sides by a 6.75 kg bowling ball at three heights to produce 52.25, 85 and 144 J strikes. Resultant head linear acceleration. Two-way (Helmet×Location) mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures on the second factor was performed to determine the differences between headgear by location of impact. There was a two-way (Helmet×Location) interaction for acceleration (η(2)=0.368). Taekwondo headgear manufacturers and sport governing bodies must consider improving the design of especially anterior helmet properties.

  7. Radio Frequency Radiation of Millimeter Wave Length: An Evaluation of Potential Occupational Safety Issues Relating to Surface Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Radio frequency radiation of millimeter wave length: An evaluation of potential occupational safety issues. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Paper------------------------------- RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION OF MILLIMETER WAVE LENGTH: POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL...cancer. Health Phys. 78(2):170-181; 2000 Key words: cancer; radiation , nonionizing; occupational safety; radiofrequency INTRODUCTION THE RADIO

  8. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercial aircrew members and frequent flyers face radiation hazards from the effects of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. During significant solar events,...

  9. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing state-of-the-art for physics-based, data-driven, climatological specification of the global radiation environment is the capability embodied by Nowcast...

  10. Radiation safety knowledge and practices among Irish orthopaedic trainees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2014-04-23

    Fluoroscopy is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery, particularly in a trauma setting. Exposure of patients and staff to ionising radiation has been studied extensively; however, little work has been done to evaluate current knowledge and practices among orthopaedic trainees.

  11. Performance scorecard for occupational safety and health management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Veloso Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pro-active and systematic search for best performances should be the two assumptions of any management system, so safety and health management in organizations must also be guided by these same precepts. However, the scientific production evidences that the performance evaluation processes in safety and health continue to be guided, in their essence, by intermittency, reactivity and negativity, which are not consistent with the assumptions referenced above. Therefore, it is essential that health and safety at work management systems (HSW MS are structured from an active and positive viewpoint, focusing on continuous improvement. This implies considering performance evaluation processes that incorporate, on the one hand, monitoring, measuring and verification procedures, and on the other hand, structured matrixes of results that capture the key factors of success, by mobilizing both reactive and proactive indicators. One of the instruments that can fulfill these precepts of health and safety performance evaluation is the SafetyCard, a performance scorecard for HSW MS that we developed and will seek to outline and demonstrate over this paper.

  12. Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ludlow, John B. [Graduate Program in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2013-09-15

    X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.

  13. Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Do; Ludlow, John B

    2013-09-01

    X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.

  14. Griffin and Neal's safety model: Determinants and components of individual safety performance in the Italian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, S; Gaggia, A; Mariani, M G; Mancini, G; Broccoli, M

    2015-11-22

    Griffin and Neal's model is a useful model to understand workers' different safety behaviour (compliance and participation) starting from their mastery of safety procedures (safety knowledge) and the motivation to put them in place (safety motivation). Although the theoretical model has proven to be adequate and is widely used in research, two problems arise: 1) there is no Italian validation of the four scales measuring the key constructs of the model; 2) the hypothesis regarding the differential impact of the determinants on the components of safety performance produced mixed evidence. The study had a twofold objective: 1) validate an Italian version of the four scales, primarily assessing their construct validity; 2) verify the relationships between the constructs according to the assumptions made within the theoretical model. The psychometric properties of the scales as well as the relationships between the constructs were investigated in a sample of 277 workers in the construction and logistics sectors, using questionnaires. The analyses were based on the use of structural equation modelling technique. Results confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian scales, showing indices that were both satisfactory and aligned with those from previous studies. The relationships between the constructs were substantially consistent with the safety model. The study provided a valid version of the scales measuring determinants and components of individual safe performance. Such scales can be appropriately used in the Italian context for the development of theoretical as well as practical contributions on work safety. The results suggest that interventions to increase overall safe performance should address both knowledge and motivation for safety.

  15. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-11-30

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of "substitution" and "moderation", since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed.

  16. EVALUATION OF BRACHYTHERAPY FACILITY SHIELDING STATUS IN KOREA OBTAINED FROM RADIATION SAFETY REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI HYUN KEUM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight radiation safety reports for brachytherapy equipment were evaluated to determine the current status of brachytherapy units in Korea and to assess how radiation oncology departments in Korea complete radiation safety reports. The following data was collected: radiation safety report publication year, brachytherapy unit manufacturer, type and activity of the source that was used, affiliation of the drafter, exposure rate constant, the treatment time used to calculate workload and the HVL values used to calculate shielding design goal values. A significant number of the reports (47.4% included the personal information of the drafter. The treatment time estimates varied widely from 12 to 2,400 min/week. There was acceptable variation in the exposure rate constant values (ranging between 0.469 and 0.592 (R-m2/Ci·hr, as well as in the HVLs of concrete, steel and lead for Iridium-192 sources that were used to calculate shielding design goal values. There is a need for standard guidelines for completing radiation safety reports that realistically reflect the current clinical situation of radiation oncology departments in Korea. The present study may be useful for formulating these guidelines.

  17. Radiation safety issues in the water treatment plant - Indoor radon and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsikene, A.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    the second stage filters, classifying them as radioactive material. {sup 222}Rn activity generated in the filter columns was compared to {sup 222}Rn activity entering the plant with raw water; the latter was estimated via liquid scintillation technique. The results indicate that {sup 222}Rn inflow is insignificant compared to the {sup 222}Rn generation in the columns. The estimated difference is in six orders of magnitude. Six alpha-track detectors were placed inside the treatment plant (in filter hall and working rooms) for measuring {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn indoor air concentrations. The obtained results are above 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. According to the Estonian Standard EVS 840:2009 'Design of radon-safe buildings', the annual radon concentration in living-, rest- and workrooms should remain below 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. The implemented investigation presented in this paper reveals the importance of monitoring radiation safety of the workers of this water treatment plant. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  19. Systems Engineering and Safety Issues in Scientific Facilities Subject to Ionizing Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bonnal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The conception and development of large- scale scientific facilities emitting ionizing radiations rely more on project management practices in use in the process industry than on systems engineering practices. This paper aims to highlight possible reasons for this present situation and to propose some ways to enhance systems engineering so that the specific radiation safety requirements are considered and integrated in the approach. To do so, we have reviewed lessons learned from the management of large-scale scientific projects and more specifically that of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. It is shown that project management and systems engineering practices are complementary and can beneficially be assembled in an integrated and lean managerial framework that grants the appropriate amount of focus to safety and radiation safety aspects.

  20. Systems Engineering and Safety Issues in Scientific Facilities Subject to Ionizing Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bonnal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The conception and development of large-scale scientific facilities emitting ionizing radiations rely more on project management practices in use in the process industry than on systems engineering practices. This paper aims to highlight possible reasons for this present situation and to propose some ways to enhance systems engineering so that the specific radiation safety requirements are considered and integrated in the approach. To do so, we have reviewed lessons learned from the management of large-scale scientific projects and more specifically that of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. It is shown that project management and systems engineering practices are complementary and can beneficially be assembled in an integrated and lean managerial framework that grants the appropriate amount of focus to safety and radiation safety aspects.

  1. Core size effects on safety performances of LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Byung Chan; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An oxide fuel small size core (1200 MWt) was analyzed in comparison with a large size core (3600 MWt) in order to evaluate the size effects on transient safety performances of liquid-metal reactors (LMRs). In the first part of the study, main static safety parameters (i.e., Doppler coefficient, sodium void effect, etc.) of the two cores were characterized, and the second part of the study was focused on the dynamic behavior of the cores in two representative transient events: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) and the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). Margins to fuel melting and sodium boiling have been evaluated for these representative transients. Results show that the small core has a generally better or equivalent level of safety performances during these events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  2. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  3. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  4. High performance radiation curable hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Salleh, Nik Ghazali; Sofian Alias, Mohd; Gläsel, H.-J.; Mehnert, R.

    2013-03-01

    Radiation curing is one of the most effective processes to produce rapidly composite materials at ambient temperature. Silica nanoparticles can be introduced into radiation curable resins to produce scratch and abrasion resistant materials, which can be used as sealants or clear coatings. In preparation of radiation cured polymeric composites for wood based products such as medium density fiberboard etc., we synthesized radiation curable silico-organic nanoparticles from silica/acrylates system. These nano-sized silica particles were used as fillers. Epoxy acrylates was used as prepolymer while pentaerythritol triacrylate and tetraacrylate (PETIA) was used as monomer. The acrylated epoxy resin synthesized from palm oil based product (EPOLA) i.e. bio-renewable raw materials was also used in the system. The surface of the silica was chemically modified to improve the embedding of the filler within the acrylate matrix. Modification of the silica surface using silane was done to overcome the problem of incompatibility with acrylates at high silica contents. The nature of the nanoparticles is now changed from hydrophilic to organophilic. In these investigations, we use low energy electron beam accelerator to initiate polymerization and interaction at the interface between the nanoparticles and the monomeric materials. These polymerization active nanoparticles were obtained by heterogeneous hydrolytic condensation of the silane to the silanol groups of the silica particles. Formulations useful for technical coating processes could be prepared and these composite materials showed highly improved mechanical properties. They also provided a high network density whilst the coatings remain transparent. These polymeric nanocomposites show excellent resistances toward abrasion properties including scratch property as compared to pure acrylates.

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  6. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the a

  7. SUNflowerNext : towards a composite road safety performance index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Doveh, E. Eksler, V. Gitelman, V. Hakkert, A.S. Lynam, D. & Oppe, S.

    2008-01-01

    One of the aims of international cooperation in the field of road safety is to make oneself familiar with performances and progress in other countries and to understand if and how these can be of guidance to policymaking, in an adapted form if appropriate. Comparisons can be a starting point to lear

  8. Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Do; Ludlow, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. Materials and Methods The study included...

  9. Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety (consequential amendments) Bill 1998. Explanatory memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this Bill is to make consequential changes to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act 1987 (the ANSTO Act) and to provide for transitional arrangements to cover the operation of controlled facilities and the handling of radiation sources while applications for licences to cover these facilities and activities are being made under the proposed Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 (the ARPANS Act) For this purpose, the Bill: (a) repeals Parts VI and VII A of the ANSTO Act under which, respectively, the Safety Review Committee and the Nuclear Safety Bureau are established, as the functions of the Committee and Bureau will be transferred to the CEO of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, established under the ARPANS Act; (b) makes transitional arrangements for the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the Nuclear Safety Bureau to the Commonwealth, and confers on the CEO of ARPANSA the powers of the Director of the Nuclear Safety Bureau in relation to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation during the transitional period before the offenses provisions commence to operate under the ARPANS Act; (c) repeals the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. That Act provides for the development and endorsement of Codes of Practice which will be undertaken under the auspices of ARPANSA; (d) provides that Commonwealth entities have a transition period of 6 months after the ARPANS Act commences to apply for a licence to authorize specified activities under that Act

  10. Development of evaluation and performance verification technology for radiotherapy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Jang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H. and others

    2005-02-15

    No matter how much the importance is emphasized, the exact assessment of the absorbed doses administered to the patients to treat the various diseases such as lately soaring malignant tumors with the radiotherapy practices is the most important factor. In reality, several over-exposed patients from the radiotherapy practice become very serious social issues. Especially, the development of a technology to exactly assess the high doses and high energies (In general, dose administered to the patients with the radiotherapy practices are very huge doses, and they are about three times higher than the lethal doses) generated by the radiation generators and irradiation equipment is a competing issue to be promptly conducted. Over fifty medical centers in Korea operate the radiation generators and irradiation equipment for the radiotherapy practices. However, neither the legal and regulatory systems to implement a quality assurance program are sufficiently stipulated nor qualified personnel who could run a program to maintain the quality assurance and control of those generators and equipment for the radiotherapy practices in the medical facilities are sufficiently employed. To overcome the above deficiencies, a quality assurance program such as those developed in the technically advanced countries should be developed to exactly assess the doses administered to patients with the radiotherapy practices and develop the necessary procedures to maintain the continuing performance of the machine or equipment for the radiotherapy. The QA program and procedures should induce the fluent calibration of the machine or equipment with quality, and definitely establish the safety of patients in the radiotherapy practices. In this study, a methodology for the verification and evaluation of the radiotherapy doses is developed, and several accurate measurements, evaluations of the doses delivered to patients and verification of the performance of the therapy machine and equipment are

  11. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiologi

  12. Radiation Safety Management Guidelines for PET-CT: Focus on Behavior and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Wook [Cancer Imaging Center, National University Cancer Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daegu Health College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Our purpose is to specify behavior and environmental factors aimed at reducing the exposed dosage caused by PET-CT and to develop radiation safety management guidelines adequate for domestic circumstances. We have used a multistep-multimethod as the methodological approach to design and to carry out the research both in quality and quantity, including an analysis on previous studies, professional consultations and a survey. The survey includes responses from 139 practitioners in charged of 109 PET-CTs installed throughout Korea(reported by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2010). The research use 156 questions using Cronbach's {alpha} (alpha) coefficients which were: 0.818 for 'the necessity of setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; 0.916 for 'the necessity of radiation protection', 'setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; and 0.885 for 'radiation protection'. The check list, derived from the radiation safety management guidelines focused on behavior and environment, was composed of 20 items for the radiation protective environment: including 5 items for the patient; 4 items for the guardian; 3 items for the radiologist; and 8 items applied to everyone involved; for a total of 26 items for the radiation protective behavior including: 12 items for the patient; 1 item for the guardian, 7 items for the radiologist; and 6 items applied to everyone involved. The specific check list is shown in (Table 5-6). Since our country has no safety management guidelines of its own to reduce the exposed dosage caused by PET-CTs, we believe the guidelines developed through this study means great deal to the field as it is not only appropriate for domestic circumstances, but also contains specific check lists for each target who may be exposed to radiation in regards to behavior and environment.

  13. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a large straw tube tracking system that is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). With over 350,000 readout channels, the TRT provides both excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation, as well as contributing significantly to the resolution for high-pt tracks in the ID. As the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC increases, the occupancy of the TRT will increase as well. The low-occupancy tracking resolution and efficiency will be presented, as will be studies of resolution and PID at higher occupancies.

  14. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  15. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  16. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  17. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed.

  18. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, RJ; Rios, J

    2017-01-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty”, defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  19. The Role of Leadership in Safety Performance and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravello, Halina E.

    Employee injury rates in U.S. land-based operations in the energy industry are 2 to 3 times higher relative to other regions in the world. Although a rich literature exists on drivers of safety performance, no previous studies investigated factors influencing this elevated rate. Leadership has been identified as a key contributor to safety outcomes and this grounded theory study drew upon the full range leadership model, situational leadership, and leader-member exchange theories for the conceptual framework. Leadership aspects influencing safety performance were investigated through guided interviews of 27 study participants; data analyses included open and axial coding, and constant comparisons identified higher-level categories. Selective coding integrated categories into the theoretical framework that developed the idealized, transformational leader traits motivating safe behaviors of leading by example, expressing care and concern for employees' well-being, celebrating successes, and communicating the importance of safety (other elements included visibility and commitment). Employee and supervisor participants reported similar views on the idealized leader traits, but low levels of these qualities may be driving elevated injury rates. Identifying these key elements provides the foundation to creating strategies and action plans enabling energy sector companies to prevent employee injuries and fatalities in an industry where tens of thousands of employees are subjected to significant hazards and elevated risks. Creating safer workplaces for U.S. employees by enhancing leaders' skills, building knowledge, and improving behaviors will improve the employees' and their families' lives by reducing the pain and suffering resulting from injuries and fatalities.

  20. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  1. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety on dental hygienist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Jun, Sung Hee [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of this study is to draw an educational plant for reducing the probability of troubles caused by radiation for dental hygienists who are the major applicants of radiation equipments used in dental offices. This study investigated the knowledge and self-efficacy, which is the major variable that affects the attitude and behavior, on the radiation safety that is an educational approach. Also, this study obtained following results from a survey for 25 days from June 15, 2008 that was applied for 225 dental hygienists worked at dental offices and clinics in the area of Youngnam in order to verify the relationship between such variables. The average scores for the knowledge, attitude, and behavior were 54.28±16.33, 87.93±9.75, and 59.85±14.76, respectively. Also, the average score of the self-efficacy was 72.88±8.60. In the knowledge level for the radiation safety, ‘a case that prepares personal dosimeters’, ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’, ‘a case that presents 6⁓10 dental hygienists’, ‘a case that presents radiological technologists’, and ‘a case that is a general hospital’ represented high values. In the attitude level for the radiation safety, ‘a case who is a married person’, ‘a case that prepares personal dosimeters’, and ‘a case that is a general hospital’ showed high values. In the behavior level for the radiation safety, ‘a case that shows a career in dental hygienist or radiographic for 6⁓10 years’, ‘a case that attends radiation safety education’, ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’ showed high values. Also, in the self-efficacy level, ‘a case that who has a high education level more than graduate school education’ and ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’ represented high values. In the relationship between the knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy for the radiation safety, it showed statistically significant differences in this

  2. Safety Performance Index Industri Batik Tulis Berdasarkan Kriteria Majemuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachnul Ansori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accident generally occurs due to the activities which is done in unsafe conditions or even unsafe behavior. These conditions can influence workers productivity. In batik industries, those workers use toxic material and work in non ergonomic atmosphere. Moreover, they also do not take care of the environment and do not use personal protective equipments (PPE. Workers at Madura batik SMEs have not fully realized the significance of occupational health and safety (OHS in their working areas. The aims of this research is to evaluate OHS performance based on the indicators of safety performance index (SPI, which is multicriteria, in that industri. The safety performance attributes were obtained from factor analysis from the previous study. The index is calculated based on the weighted evaluation results of critical behavior checklist (CBC, integrated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP. As the results, we should give priority to improve the knowledge and experience toward OHS of the workers and also improve the working environment of the Madura’s batik industries. Additionally, the performance of OHS in coloring process is also on the threshold of unsafe condition, further development on the coloring process is needed.

  3. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  4. Development of a Quality and Safety Competency Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residency: An International Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jenna; Gillan, Caitlin; Caissie, Amanda; Davis, Carol-Anne; Liszewski, Brian; McNiven, Andrea; Giuliani, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics. During Round 1, each item was scored independently on a 9-point Likert scale indicating appropriateness for inclusion in the competency profile. Items indistinctly ranked for inclusion or exclusion were re-evaluated through web conference discussion and reranked in Round 2. An initial 1211 items were compiled from 32 international sources and distilled to 105 unique potential quality and safety competency items. Fifteen of the 50 invited experts participated in round 1: 10 radiation oncologists, 4 radiation therapists, and 1 medical physicist from 13 centers in 5 countries. Round 1 rankings resulted in 80 items included, 1 item excluded, and 24 items indeterminate. Two areas emerged more prominently within the latter group: change management and human factors. Web conference with 5 participants resulted in 9 of these 24 items edited for content or clarity. In Round 2, 12 participants rescored all indeterminate items resulting in 10 items ranked for inclusion. The final 90 enabling competency items were organized into thematic groups consisting of 18 key competencies under headings adapted from Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. This quality and safety competency profile may inform minimum training standards for radiation oncology residency programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Fiducial Marker Implantation for CyberKnife Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Seong; Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, Yun Woo; Chang, A Ram [Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Seok Beom [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of an ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantation in preparation for CyberKnife radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 270 percutaneous ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantations in 77 patients, which were performed from June 2008 through March 2011. Of 270 implantations, 104 were implanted in metastatic lymph nodes, 96 were in the liver, 39 were in the pancreas, and 31 were in the prostate. During and after the implantation, major and minor procedure-related complications were documented. We defined technical success as the implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and CT simulation. The major and minor complication rates were 1% and 21%, respectively. One patient who had an implantation in the liver suffered severe abdominal pain, biloma, and pleural effusion, which were considered as major complication. Abdominal pain was the most common complication in 11 patients (14%). Among nine patients who had markers inserted in the prostate, one had transient hematuria for less than 24 hours, and the other experienced transient voiding difficulty. Of the 270 implantations, 261 were successful (97%). The reasons for unsuccessful implantations included migration of fiducial markers (five implantations, 2%) and failure to discriminate the fiducial markers (three implantations, 1%). Among the unsuccessful implantation cases, six patients required additional procedures (8%). The symptomatic complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of fiducial markers are relatively low. However, careful consideration of the relatively higher rate of migration and discrimination failure is needed when performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantations of fiducial markers.

  6. Performance of Compiler-Assisted Memory Safety Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Performance of Compiler -Assisted Memory Safety Checking David Keaton Robert C. Seacord August 2014 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2014-TN...014 | vii Abstract Buffer overflows affect a large installed base of C code. This technical note describes the criteria for deploying a compiler ...describes a modification to the LLVM compiler to enable hoisting bounds checks from loops and functions. This proof-of-concept prototype has been used

  7. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  8. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  9. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  10. Bullying among radiation therapists: effects on job performance and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Megan; Johnson, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    To identify the effects of workplace bullying in the radiation therapy department on job performance and explore the environment and morale of individuals who work with a bully. A quantitative research study was designed to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying in the radiation therapy workplace. A total of 308 radiation therapists participated in the study for a return rate of 46%. Of those, 194 indicated that workplace bullying was present either in their current workplace or in a previous radiation therapy environment and that it negatively affected job performance and satisfaction. Findings of this study indicate a need for evaluation of the radiation therapy workplace, education on how to identify and prevent bullying behavior, and better communication among members of the radiation therapy environment. Participants indicated that working in a hostile environment led to forgetfulness, ineffective communication, and perceived discrepancies in promotion and treatment by management. Any bullying behavior contributes to an overall toxic work environment, which is unhealthy and unsafe for patients and therapists. Those who manage therapists should promote a culture of safety and embrace their staff's independence.

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.

    1996-05-15

    Topping the list of WHC Safety recognition during this reporting period is a commendation received from the National Safety Council (NSC). The NSC bestowed their Award of Honor upon WHC for significant reduction of incidence rates during CY 1995. The award is based upon a reduction of 48 % or greater in cases involving days away from work, a 30 % or greater reduction in the number of days away, and a 15% or greater reduction in the total number of occupational injuries and illnesses. (page 2-1). A DOE-HQ review team representing the Office of Envirorunent, Safety and Health (EH), visited the Hanford Site during several weeks of the quarter. Ile 40-member Safety Management Evaluation Team (SMET) assessed WHC in the areas of management responsibility, comprehensive requirements, and competence commensurate with responsibility. As part of their new approach to oversight, they focused on the existence of management systems and programs (comparable approach to VPP). Plant/project areas selected for review within WHC were PFP, B Plant/WESF, Tank Farms, and K-Basins (page 2-2). Effective safety meetings, prejob safety meetings, etc., are a cornerstone of any successful safety program. In an effort to improve the reporting of safety meetings, the Safety/Security Meeting Report form was revised. It now provides a mechanism for recording and tracking safety issues (page 2-4). WHC has experienced an increase in the occupational injury and illness incidence rates during the first quarter of CY 1996. Trends show this increase can be partially attributed to inattention to workplace activities due 0999to the uncertainty Hanford employees currently face with recent reduction of force, reorganization, and reengineering efforts (page 2-7). The cumulative CY 1995 lost/restricted workday case incidence rate for the first quarter of CY 1996 (1.28) is 25% below the DOE CY 1991-93 average (1.70). However, the incidence rate increased 24% from the CY 1995 rate of 1.03 (page 2-8). The

  12. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansberry, David R., E-mail: hansbedr@njms.rutgers.edu; Ramchand, Tekchand, E-mail: ramchate@njms.rutgers.edu; Patel, Shyam, E-mail: patel288@njms.rutgers.edu; Kraus, Carl, E-mail: krauscf@njms.rutgers.edu; Jung, Jin, E-mail: jungjk@njms.rutgers.edu; Agarwal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.agarwal@rutgers.edu; Gonzales, Sharon F., E-mail: gonzalsh@njms.rutgers.edu; Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@njms.rutgers.edu

    2014-09-15

    Introduction: Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Methods: Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. Results: The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. Conclusions: All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material.

  13. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety.

  14. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions.

  15. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  16. Performance studies of scintillating ceramic samples exposed to ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, G; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Wallny, R

    2014-01-01

    Scintillating ceramics are a promising, new development for various applications in science and industry. Their application in calorimetry for particle physics experiments is expected to involve an exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. In this paper, changes in performance have been measured for scintillating ceramic samples of different composition after exposure to penetrating ionizing radiation up to a dose of 38 kGy. 2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record

  17. Performance studies of scintillating ceramic samples exposed to ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, G; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pauss, F; Wallny, R

    2012-01-01

    Scintillating ceramics are a promising, new development for various applications in science and industry. Their application in calorimetry for particle physics experiments is expected to involve an exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. In this paper, changes in performance have been measured for scintillating ceramic samples of different composition after exposure to penetrating ionizing radiation up to a dose of 38 kGy.

  18. Simulated performance of a position sensitive radiation detecting system (COCAE)

    CERN Document Server

    Karafasoulis, K; Seferlis, S; Kaissas, I; Lambropoulos, C; Loukas, D; Poritiriadis, C

    2011-01-01

    Extensive simulations of a portable radiation detecting system have been performed in order to explore important performance parameters. The instrument consists of a stack of ten detecting layers made of pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) crystals. Its aim is to localize and identify radiation sources, by exploiting the Compton imaging technique. In this paper we present performance parameters based on simulation studies. Specifically the ratio of incompletely absorbed photons, the detector's absolute efficiency as well as its energy and angular resolution are evaluated in a wide range of incident photon energies.

  19. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/ lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested.

  20. Rigid performance requirements assure public safety by regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Title 10, Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) provides a set of prescriptive performance test requirements for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste transport packaging containment systems. The hypothetical accident conditions, which involve a sequence of impact, puncture, fire, and water immersion events, are referred to as rigid because of their extremely prescriptive nature. These hypothetical accident events have now been placed within the context of real transportation accidents, at least for conventional austenitic stainless steel/lead gamma shielded cask designs. The assurance of public safety, including the issue of safety margin for very severe accident events, is discussed in this paper for both conventional and innovative cask design concepts. A particular risk assessment approach that follows from work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is suggested. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Road Safety Performance Indicators and a Methodology for Creating a Performance Index

    OpenAIRE

    HERMANS, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with road safety performance indicators. Three main objectives are postulated. First, to introduce the concept of road safety performance indicators. This involves summarising essential information on indicators in general and road safety performance indicators in particular. Second, to develop a set of (best needed and best available) safety performance indicators. The selection of these indicators results from the elaboration of the theoretical framework. Th...

  2. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  3. A framework for quality improvement and patient safety education in radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Anamaria; Greenwalt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In training future radiation oncologists, we must begin to focus on training future QI specialists. Our patients are demanding better quality and safer care, and accrediting bodies are requiring it. We must equip radiation oncology trainees to be leaders in this new world. To that end, a QI/PS educational program should contain 2 components: a didactic portion focused on teaching basic QI tools as well as an overview of the quality and safety goals of the institution, and an experiential component, ideally a resident-led QI project mentored by an expert faculty member and that is linked to the department's and institution's goals.

  4. Behavior and awareness of thyroid cancer patients in Korea having non-hospitalized low-dose radioiodine treatment with regard to radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seog Gyun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Eo, Jae Seon; Shim, Hye Kyung; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, non-hospitalized low-dose (NH-LD) radioiodine treatment (RIT) has also increased rapidly. The radioactivity limit that is allowed to be administered without hospitalization depends on individual calculation, based partly on patients' behavior. In this study, Korean patients' behavior in relation to radiation safety in NHLD RIT was surveyed. A total of 218 patients who underwent NH-LD RIT of 1.1 GBq {sup 131}I in a single center were surveyed. The patients underwent RIT with a standard protocol and the survey was performed by interview when they visited subsequently for a whole-body scan. The survey questionnaire included three parts of questions: general information, behavior relating to isolation during RIT, and awareness of radiation safety. After administration of radioiodine, 40% of patients who returned home used mass transportation, and another 47% went home by taxi or in car driven by another person. Isolation at home was generally sufficient. However, 7% of patients did not stay in a separate room. Among the 218 patients, 34% did not go home and chose self-isolation away from home, mostly due to concerns about radiation safety of family members. However, the places were mostly public places, including hotels, resorts, and hospitals. About half of the patients replied that access to radiation safety information was not easy and their awareness of radiation safety was not satisfactory. As a result, 45% of patients wanted hospitalized RIT. In many countries, including Korea, RIT is continuously increasing. Considering the radiation safety of patients' family members or the public and the convenience of patients, the pretreatment education of patients should be enhanced. In addition, the hospitalization of patients having low-dose therapy is recommended to be seriously considered and expanded, with the expansion of dedicated treatment facilities

  5. Safety and radiation protection in waste management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Lipponen, M.; Vuori, S. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Ruokola, E. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Palsson, S.E. [Geslavarnir (Iceland); Sekse, T. [NRPA, Oesteraas (Norway); Ramsoey, T. [IFE, Kjeller (Norway)

    2001-12-01

    During 1998-2001, a project on the management of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS programme. The project was called NKS/SOS-3 and was divided into three sub-projects: SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment; EIA), SOS-3.2 (Intermediate storage) and SOS-3.3 (Contamination levels in metals). SOS-3.1 included four EIA seminars on the use of EIA in the Nordic countries. The seminars were held in Norway in 1998, Denmark in 1999, Iceland in 2000 and Finland in 2001. (The last seminar was performed in co-operation with the NKS project SOS-1.) The seminars focused on experiences from EIA procedures for the disposal of radioactive waste, and other experiences from EIA processes. SOS-3.2 included a study on intermediate storage of radioactive waste packages in the Nordic countries. An overview of experiences was compiled and recommendations were made regarding different intermediate storage options as well as control and supervision. SOS-3.3 included investigation of contamination levels in steel, aluminium and magnesium samples from smelting facilities and an overview of current practice for clearance in the Nordic countries. Clearance, clearance levels, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactive waste, radioactive material, intermediate storage, waste disposal, environmental impact assessment, gamma spectrometric measurements, beta measurements, neutron activation analyses. (au)

  6. To control the nuclear safety and the radiation protection; Controler la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Bordarier, Ph. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), 75 - Paris (France); Saint-Raymond, Ph. [Conseil General des Mines, 75 - Paris (France); Repussard, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Gouze, J.R. [Apave Groupe, 75 - Paris (France); Degos, L. [Haute Autorite de Sante, 93 - Saint-Denis La Plaine (France); Massart, S.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Cahen, B.; Hubert, I.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G. [Ministere de l' Ecologie et du Developpement Durable, Direction de la Prevention des Pollutions et des Risques (DPPR), 75 - Paris (France); Kaufer, B. [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (AEN/OCDE), 75 - Paris (France); Taniguchi, T. [Agence Internationale de l' Energie Atomique (AIEA), Vienna (Austria); Revol, H. [Office Parlementaire d' Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques (OPECST), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-10-15

    Publishing this dossier, the aim is to present the principles and the variety of issues linked to nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision, and the main strategic choices made to use efficiently and effectively A.S.N. supervision means. A.S.N. is responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision. A.S.N. has to be itself evaluated and supervised by external bodies. The Parliament Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options (O.P.E.C.S.T.) supervises it; the foreign peers watch and A.S.N. has to be the object of an international audit conducted by its peers under the leadership of I.A.E.A. by the beginning of 2007. (N.C.)

  7. Public information and education on radiation safety and protection in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaloeis, Azhar [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jalan KH Abdul Rohim, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of public information and education concerning nuclear science and technology in general and radiation safety and protection in particular in Indonesia from the perspective of promoting the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology in the country. The role of nuclear science and technology in Indonesia is first introduced, followed by an overview of the nuclear activities in the country. Basic considerations, major objectives of the public information and education program on radiation safety and protection as well as basic and operational strategies to achieve those objectives are then presented. Major programs including highlights of the past and present activities as well as prospect on future course of actions are discussed. (author)

  8. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  9. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  10. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  11. How to Reduce Radiation Exposure to Physicians Performing Fluoroscopy Procedures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Fluoroscopy procedures refer to a group of procedures which use real-time moving radiological images of patient internal organs and blood vessels. The procedure can be diagnostic, therapeutic, or both. The fluoroscopy procedures have substantially expanded both in scope and in number. Currently various medical specialties, including radiology, neurology, cardiology, electrophysiology, surgery, orthopedics, urology, gastroenterology etc. perform fluoroscopy procedures One concern of the fluoroscopy procedures is radiation exposure to physicians and thus potential cancer risk. Physicians generally stand close to a patient during a procedure and are exposed radiation scattered from the patient. Physicians perform numbers of procedures during the lifetime and receive cumulative radiation doses. According to a recent systematic review of occupation radiation dose from cardiac fluoroscopy procedures, physician doses varied by 100-1000 times for the same type of procedure. The large variation in the doses suggests that occupational dose can be greatly reduced by considering what factors and how much these factor influence physician doses from fluoroscopy procedures. The present study identifies and discusses various factors that affect radiation dose to physicians performing fluoroscopy procedures.

  12. Reduction of adult fingers visualized on pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs after radiation technologist and PICU staff radiation safety education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, J.R.; Duncan, M.D.; Burbridge, B.E., E-mail: jentynan@hotmail.com [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    A recent publication from our centre revealed a disturbing finding of a significant incidence of adult fingers seen on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs. This is inappropriate occupational exposure to diagnostic radiation. We hypothesized that the incidence of adult fingers on PICU chest radiographs would decline after radiation safety educational seminars were given to the medical radiation technologists and PICU staff. The present study's objectives were addressed by using a pretest-posttest design. Two cross-sectional PICU chest radiograph samples, taken before and after the administration of radiation safety education for our medical radiation technologists and PICU staff, were compared by using a {chi}{sup 2} test. There was a 61.2% and 76.9% reduction in extraneous adult fingers, directly exposed to the x-ray beam and those seen in the coned regions of the film, respectively, on PICU chest radiographs (66.7% reduction overall). This reduction was statistically significant ({chi}2 = 20.613, P < .001). Limiting unnecessary occupational radiation exposure is a critical issue in radiology. There was a statistically and clinically significant association between radiation safety education and the decreased number of adult fingers seen on PICU chest radiographs. This study provides preliminary evidence in favour of the benefit of radiation safety seminars. (author)

  13. ON NEW RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION (ICRP PART 1: RADIATION SAFETY BASIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ICRP Publication 103 was issued in November, 2007.  The new approaches of ICRP to maintenance radiation protection are formulated in this publication. These recommendations are the further development of the previous document - the ICRP 60 Publication. The new data, allowing to specify or reconsider quantitative protection criteria have appeared after 1990. ICRP suggests to use a number of new ideas and concepts as base principles of radiation protection maintenance. Taking into account that the standard of radiating safety of Russia (RSSR [3] which is used in Russian Federation since 1999 have been developed in a view of the 60 publication and other international publications, and also in a view of national experience of radiation safety maintenance. It is very important to study and comprehend innovations of ICRP, and also to estimate an opportunity and an acceptability of their realization by development of new edition of RSSR. In the first and second parts of present article the review of the new ICRP Recommendations and some judgments concerning an opportunity of the refraction of Publication ICRP positions in the future RSSR is given.

  14. Radiation safety and protection in U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, A G; Hunter, N; Grammer, S

    1986-07-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.

  15. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  16. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  17. Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-03-01

    Full Bayes linear intervention models have been recently proposed to conduct before-after safety studies. These models assume linear slopes to represent the time and treatment effects across the treated and comparison sites. However, the linear slope assumption can only furnish some restricted treatment profiles. To overcome this problem, a first-order autoregressive (AR1) safety performance function (SPF) that has a dynamic regression equation (known as the Koyck model) is proposed. The non-linear 'Koyck' model is compared to the linear intervention model in terms of inference, goodness-of-fit, and application. Both models were used in association with the Poisson-lognormal (PLN) hierarchy to evaluate the safety performance of a sample of intersections that have been improved in the Greater Vancouver area. The two models were extended by incorporating random parameters to account for the correlation between sites within comparison-treatment pairs. Another objective of the paper is to compute basic components related to the novelty effects, direct treatment effects, and indirect treatment effects and to provide simple expressions for the computation of these components in terms of the model parameters. The Koyck model is shown to furnish a wider variety of treatment profiles than those of the linear intervention model. The analysis revealed that incorporating random parameters among matched comparison-treatment pairs in the specification of SPFs can significantly improve the fit, while reducing the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation. Also, the proposed PLN Koyck model fitted the data much better than the Poisson-lognormal linear intervention (PLNI) model. The novelty effects were short lived, the indirect (through traffic volumes) treatment effects were approximately within ±10%, whereas the direct treatment effects indicated a non-significant 6.5% reduction during the after period under PLNI compared to a significant 12.3% reduction in predicted collision

  18. Road safety performance indicators : updated country comparisons. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.11a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent figures of chosen safety performance indicators of 29 European countries – the 27 EU member states, complemented with Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for five road safety performance indicators in the following areas: alcohol and drugs,

  19. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM. Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation. To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE. The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel’s microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  20. Radiation Authority and Nuclear Safety in Finland (STUK); La autoridad de Radiacion y Seguridad Nuclear de Finlandia (STUK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Created in 1958 as an institute in charge of inspecting radioactive equipment used in hospitals, STUK is nowadays a specialised organisation whose functions cover all fields for applying radiation and nuclear safety. (Author)

  1. Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training

  2. The Dread Factor: How Hazards and Safety Training Influence Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J.; Salvador, Rommel O.; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous…

  3. Safety and performance analysis of a commercial photovoltaic installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavy, Babak T.; Bradley, Alexander Z.

    2013-09-01

    Continuing to better understand the performance of PV systems and changes in performance with the system life is vital to the sustainable growth of solar. A systematic understanding of degradation mechanisms that are induced as a result of variables such as the service environment, installation, module/material design, weather, operation and maintenance, and manufacturing is required for reliable operation throughout a system's lifetime. We wish to report the results from an analysis of a commercial c-Si PV array owned and operated by DuPont. We assessed the electrical performance of the modules by comparing the original manufacturers' performance data with the measurements obtained using a solar simulator to determine the degradation rate. This evaluation provides valuable PV system field experience and document key issues regarding safety and performance. A review of the nondestructive and destructive analytical methods and characterization strategies we have found useful for system, module, and subsequent material component evaluations are presented. We provide an overview of our inspection protocol and subsequent control process to mitigate risk. The objective is to explore and develop best practice protocols regarding PV asset optimization and provide a rationale to reduce risk based on the analysis of our own commercial installations.

  4. Safety performance models for urban intersections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Heloisa; Cunto, Flávio; Bezerra, Bárbara; Nodari, Christine; Jacques, Maria Alice

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a modeling effort for developing safety performance models (SPM) for urban intersections for three major Brazilian cities. The proposed methodology for calibrating SPM has been divided into the following steps: defining the safety study objective, choosing predictive variables and sample size, data acquisition, defining model expression and model parameters and model evaluation. Among the predictive variables explored in the calibration phase were exposure variables (AADT), number of lanes, number of approaches and central median status. SPMs were obtained for three cities: Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. The SPM developed for signalized intersections in Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte had the same structure and the most significant independent variables, which were AADT entering the intersection and number of lanes, and in addition, the coefficient of the best models were in the same range of values. For Brasília, because of the sample size, the signalized and unsignalized intersections were grouped, and the AADT was split in minor and major approaches, which were the most significant variables. This paper also evaluated SPM transferability to other jurisdiction. The SPM for signalized intersections from Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte have been recalibrated (in terms of the Cx) to the city of Porto Alegre. The models were adjusted following the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) calibration procedure and yielded Cx of 0.65 and 2.06 for Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte SPM respectively. This paper showed the experience and future challenges toward the initiatives on development of SPMs in Brazil, that can serve as a guide for other countries that are in the same stage in this subject.

  5. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets......, both in free space and including a human head & shoulder phantom. Different models of the environment allow a comparison of the MEG obtained for realistic models based on measurements with the total radiated power (TRP) and the total isotropic sensitivity (TIS). All the comparisons are based on the MEG...

  6. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...... handsets, both in free space and including a human head & shoulder phantom. Different models of the environment allow a comparison of the mean effective gain obtained for realistic models based on measurements with the total radiated power and the total isotropic sensitivity. All the comparisons are based...

  7. Radiation safety issues in Y-90 microsphere selective hepatic radioembolization therapy: possible radiation exposure from the patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yun Hwan; Uhm, Soon Ho; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Eun Kyung; Oh, Sun Young; Jeong, Eu Gene; Lee, Sin Ae; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the possible external radiation dose to other individuals from patients treated with Y-90 resin microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We designed the study prospectively to estimate the possible radiation dose to other individuals from patients who had been treated with Y-90 microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We estimated the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) using two methods: 'theoretical' TEDEs according to the administered activity and 'measured' TEDE based on the 'measured' ambient radiation exposure rate. We compared the results from each method to determine when we can release patients from confinement at the earliest time complying with the patient release criteria. A total of 20 administrations of Y-90 resin microspheres were done in 18 patients. The average administered activity was 1.2{+-}0.77 (0.28-2.97) GBq. The 'theoretical' TEDEs were in the range of 0.8-10 {mu}Sv. The 'measured' TEDEs were in the range of 2.31-185 {mu}Sv. The measured TEDEs tend to be higher than the theoretical TEDEs. The values of theoretical and measured TEDE were both far less than 1 mSv, the upper limit at which the licensee can release a patient without any written documents. The effective dose equivalent caused by the Y-90 microsphere administered patient is very low. It is safe in terms of radiation safety to the other individuals when Y-90 microsphere radioembolization therapy is done with dose less than 3 GBq. Because the measured TEDE tends to be higher than the theoretical TEDE, it is recommended to use 'measured' TEDE for determining patient release

  8. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog

  9. Evaluation of radiation safety for storage o high integrity container in Yonggwang NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Sang Soo; Park, Seung Chil; Ha, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byung Tae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, KEPCO, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    In order to reduce the generation of radioactive waste in Yonggwang NPP, the spent resin dry system(SRDS) will be used for treatment of spent resin. According to operation of SRD, a different container will be required for containment of spent resin instead of DOT-17H drum. Therefore, the high integrity container (HIC) which is manufactured for disposal will be used for containment of spent resin generated from SRDS. Because the HIC contained with spent resin as high radioactivity and high radiation dose rate, a special attention in handling of HIC and storage of HIC in radioactive waste storage building should be paid. Accordingly, it is necessary to prepare the program for safe storage of HIC. Several options on storage of HIC into the radioactive waste storage building in Yonggwang NPP were established. Depending on the field conditions, it can be of help to the choice of pertinent method for safe and effective storage of HIC. In this report, the radiation safety of each option on the storage of HIC was evaluated and it shows that any option can be adapted as an effective storage method for Younggwang NPP if some problems appeared through the radiation safety evaluation are resolved. (author)

  10. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Miller, B [Henry Ford Health System, Clinton Township, MI (United States); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA, and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good

  11. Incident learning and failure-mode-and-effects-analysis guided safety initiatives in radiation medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay eKapur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining incident learning and process failure-mode-and-effects-analysis in a structure-process-outcome framework we have created a risk profile for our radiation medicine practice and implemented evidence-based risk mitigation initiatives focused on patient safety. Based on reactive reviews of incidents reported in our departmental incident-reporting system and proactive failure-mode-and-effects-analysis, high safety-risk procedures in our paperless radiation medicine process and latent risk factors were identified. Six initiatives aimed at the mitigation of associated severity, likelihood of occurrence and detectability risks were implemented. These were the standardization of care pathways and toxicity grading, pre-treatment-planning peer review, a policy to thwart delay-rushed processes, an electronic whiteboard to enhance coordination and the use of six-sigma metrics to monitor operational efficiencies. The effectiveness of these initiatives over a three year period was assessed using process and outcome specific metrics within the framework of the department structure. There has been a 47% increase in incident reporting, with no increase in adverse events. Care pathways have been used with greater than 97% clinical compliance rate. The implementation of peer review prior to treatment planning and use of the whiteboard have provided opportunities for proactive detection and correction of errors. There has been a twofold drop in the occurrence of high-risk procedural delays. Patient treatment start delays are routinely enforced on cases that would have historically been rushed. Z-scores for high risk procedures have steadily improved from 1.78 to 2.35. The initiatives resulted in sustained reductions of failure-mode risks as measured by a set of evidence-based metrics over a three year period. These augment or incorporate many of the published recommendations for patient safety in radiation medicine by translating them to clinical

  12. Evaluation of experimental methods for assessing safety for ultrasound radiation force elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurczynski, M J; Duck, F A; Shipley, J A; Bamber, J C; Melodelima, D

    2009-08-01

    Standard test tools have been evaluated for the assessment of safety associated with a prototype transducer intended for a novel radiation force elastographic imaging system. In particular, safety has been evaluated by direct measurement of temperature rise, using a standard thermal test object, and detection of inertial cavitation from acoustic emission. These direct measurements have been compared with values of the thermal index and mechanical index, calculated from acoustic measurements in water using standard formulae. It is concluded that measurements using a thermal test object can be an effective alternative to the calculation of thermal index for evaluating thermal hazard. Measurement of the threshold for cavitation was subject to considerable variability, and it is concluded that the mechanical index still remains the preferred standard means for assessing cavitation hazard.

  13. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J

    2008-12-15

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials.

  14. Research projects of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety 1996-1997; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen tutkimushankkeet 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R.; Koponen, H. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The research activities of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are based on the Centre`s primary task of preventing and restricting adverse effects of radiation. As a rule, studies concerning nuclear safety (part 1 of the publication) are studies originating from the regulatory function of STUK; these are directed and funded by the Centre but the Centre does not carry them out itself. In contrast, studies dealing with radiation exposure and health risks (part 2 of the publication) are conducted by the Centre itself, often in cooperation with some other research institute or university. Results of these studies are published in open scientific literature.

  15. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  16. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-04-28

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit.

  17. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral assistance to Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in various projects financed by the European Union. The purpose of this project-oriented report is to provide the Swedish Government and other funding agencies as well as other interested audiences in Sweden and abroad with an encompassing understanding of our work and in particular the work performed during 2008. the activities are divided into four subfields: Nuclear waste management; Reactor safety; Radiation safety and emergency preparedness; and, Nuclear non-proliferation. SSM implements projects in the field of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in Russia. The problems in this field also exist in other countries, yet the concentration of nuclear and radioactive materials are nowhere higher than in north-west Russia. And given the fact that most of these materials stem from the Cold War era and remain stored under conditions that vary from 'possibly acceptable' to 'wildly appalling' it is obvious that Sweden's first priority in the field of managing nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste lies in this part of Russia. The prioritisation and selection of projects in reactor safety are established following thorough discussions with the partners in Russia and Ukraine. For specific guidance on safety and recommended safety improvements at RBMK and VVER reactors, SSM relies on analyses and handbooks established by the IAEA in the 1990s. In 2008, there were 16 projects in reactor safety. SSM implements a large number of projects in the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness. The activities are at a first glance at some distance from the activities covered and

  18. The LHCb Vertex Locator – Performance and Radiation Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2014-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is an important part of a LHCb tracking system, enabling precision measurement of beauty and charm mesons’ flight distance. The VELO consist of a set of silicon micro-strip detectors, arranged in two retractable halves, operating only 7 mm from the interac- tion region. In these proceedings the VELO performance during the Run 1 is summarised and radiation damage studies are presented.

  19. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; /Duke U.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /SLAC

    2007-12-17

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a

  20. Health and Safety Guide for Home Performance Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    This report is intended to provide home performance contractor trainers with a resource to keep both their workers and home residents safe and healthy. This document is an attempt to describe what we currently believe is safe, what we believe is unsafe, and what we’re unsure about. It is intended to identify health and safety issues and provide historical context and current understanding of both risks and mitigation strategies. In addition, it provides links to more in-depth resources for each issue. When we tighten the thermal envelope of a house to improve comfort and reduce energy use, we have to be sure that we are not compromising the indoor air quality of the home. This means identifying and mitigating or eliminating pollution sources before and after you make changes to the home. These sources can include materials and finishes in the home, exhaust gasses from combustion appliances, soil gasses such as radon, and moisture from a bathroom, kitchen, or unvented clothes dryer. Our first responsibility is to do no harm — this applies both to our clients and to our employees. Currently, there are many new products that are widely used but whose health effects are not well understood. Our in ability to have perfect information means the directive to do no harm can be difficult to obey. Each home is a little bit different, and in the face of a situation you’ve never encountered, it’s important to have a solid grasp of the fundamental concepts of building science when the hard and fast rules don’t apply . The home performance industry is gaining momentum, and has the potential to expand greatly as energy costs continue to rise. It is imperative that we remain vigilant about protecting the health and safety of our workers and our customers. It only takes a few news stories about a family that got sick after their home was tightened by a home performance contractor to scare off potential customers and taint the reputation of the entire industry. Good

  1. The dread factor: how hazards and safety training influence learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael J; Salvador, Rommel O; Smith-Crowe, Kristin; Chan-Serafin, Suzanne; Smith, Alexis; Sonesh, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of hypotheses derived from social and experiential learning theories, we meta-analytically investigated how safety training and workplace hazards impact the development of safety knowledge and safety performance. The results were consistent with an expected interaction between the level of engagement of safety training and hazardous event/exposure severity in the promotion of safety knowledge and performance. For safety knowledge and safety performance, highly engaging training was considerably more effective than less engaging training when hazardous event/exposure severity was high, whereas highly and less engaging training had comparable levels of effectiveness when hazardous event/exposure severity was low. Implications of these findings for theory testing and incorporating information on objective risk into workplace safety research and practice are discussed.

  2. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures `Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998` organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  3. Understanding the relationship between safety culture dimensions and safety performance of construction projects through partial least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Machfudiyanto, Rossy A.; Arifuddin, Rosmariani; Yogiswara, Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Based on the data, 32% of accidental cases in Indonesia occurs on constructional sectors. It is supported by the data from Public Work and Housing Department that 27.43% of the implementation level of Safety Management System policy at construction companies in Indonesia remains unsafe categories. Moreover, there are dimensions of occupational safety culture formed including leadership, behavior, strategy, policy, process, people, safety cost, value and contract system. The aim of this study is to determine the model of an effective safety culture and know the relationship between dimensions in construction industry. The method used in this research was questionnaire survey which was distributed to the sample of construction companies either in a national private one in Indonesia. The result of this research is supposed to be able to illustrate the development of the relationship among occupational safety culture dimensions which have influences to the performances of constructional companies in Indonesia.

  4. Optical radiation measurements for photovoltaic applications: instrumentation uncertainty and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daryl R.; Reda, Ibrahim; Wilcox, Stephen; Andreas, Afshin

    2004-11-01

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) devices in the laboratory and in the field requires accurate knowledge of the optical radiation stimulating the devices. We briefly describe the radiometric instrumentation used for characterizing broadband and spectral irradiance for PV applications. Spectral radiometric measurement systems are used to characterize solar simulators (continuous and pulsed, or flash sources) and natural sunlight. Broadband radiometers (pyranometers and pyrheliometers) are used to assess solar resources for renewable applications and develop and validate broadband solar radiation models for estimating system performance. We describe the sources and magnitudes of uncertainty associated with calibrations and measuremens using these instruments. The basic calibration and measurement uncertainty associated with this instrumentaion are based on the guidlines described in the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Bureau INternationale des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Guide to Uncertainty in Measurement. The additional contributions to uncertainty arising from the uncertainty in characterization functions and correction schemes are discussed and ilustrated. Finally, empirical comparisons of several solar radiometer instrumentation sets illustrate that the best measurement accuracy for broadband radiation is on the order of 3%, and spectrally dependent uncertainty for spectroradiometer systems range from 4% in the visible to 8% to 10% in the ultraviolet and infrared.

  5. The basis and safety of food irradiation. Advantages of radiation treatment for food sanitation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The food irradiation has the history of more than 60 years in its development. However, its commercial application has not been promoted well in Japan even though the safety of irradiated foods was confirmed. Recently, relevant authorities in 52 countries have given clearance to many commodities, and irradiated foods are commercially distributed in USA and EU countries. The international situation makes some unavoidable circumstances which can not close the commercialization of food irradiation in Japan. The present report contains the basis and application of food irradiation, and history of development in the World and Japan. Moreover, the safety of irradiated foods are demonstrated from many evidences of researches in animal feeding tests, in analysis of radiolytic products, in nutritional evaluations and in microbiological studies of irradiated foods. Especially, it makes obvious from the results of many researches that unique radiolytic products can not be produced by irradiation of foods. Because main radiation effects are induced by oxidation degradation of food components as similar to natural oxidation by heating or UV light. Radiation engineering for commercial process and identification methods of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  6. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient’s safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. Material and Methods: The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. Results: The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Conclusion: Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  8. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  9. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II (IT Corp., (United States)); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  10. Radiation effects on communication performance of radio frequency identification tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuyuki; Meng, Zhaowu; Kikuchi, Hirosumi; Kataoka, Yasuhide; Nakazato, Kazuhisa; Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Saze, Takuya; Hirota, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2010-11-01

    Radioactive materials (sources) are managed by bookkeeping and stocktaking. The radiation protection section staffs should check the sources manually. Annual effective dose concerning stocktaking of them are estimated at some mSv concerning fingers. A radio frequency identification (RFID) tag's absorbed dose is estimated at some dozen Gy. RFID for stocktaking automatically was devised. Radiation effects on the communication performance of RFID tags were investigated by using response times and read ranges as indices. The RFID system was composed of a computer, a detector, and transponders (tag) consisting of an integrated circuit chip and an antenna. The tag is joined to the source for identification. The tags were irradiated at doses between 5 and 5,000 Gy by an x-ray irradiator. The response times and the read ranges were tracked from 40 to 23,200 min after irradiation. Relative read ranges fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.1 in the dose region less than 2,000 Gy, but fluctuated greatly in the dose region beyond 2,000 Gy. Malfunctioning tags appeared from 3,000 Gy, and all tags malfunctioned in the dose region over 4,500 Gy. The threshold dose leading to malfunction was determined to be 2,100 Gy. Time variation of relative read ranges was classified into four patterns. The pattern shifted from pattern 1 to 4 when the dose was increased. The relative read ranges lengthened in pattern 1. The relative read rages were approximately 1.0 in pattern 2. The read ranges tentatively shortened, then recovered in pattern 3. The tags malfunctioned in pattern 4. Once the tags malfunctioned, they never recovered their performance. Radiation enhances or deteriorates communication performance depending on dosage. Tags can spontaneously recover from radiation deterioration. The time variation of the read ranges can be illustrated by enhancement, deterioration, and recovery. The mechanism of four patterns is explained based on the variation of the frequency harmonization strength and

  11. Effects of heavy ion radiation on digital micromirror device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pellish, Jonny; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is a pressing need in the astronomical community for space-suitable multiobject spectrometers (MOSs). Several digital micromirror device (DMD)-based prototype MOSs have been developed for ground-based observatories; however, their main use will come with deployment on a space-based mission. Therefore, the performance of DMDs under exoatmospheric radiation needs to be evaluated. DMDs were rewindowed with 2-μm thick pellicle and tested under accelerated heavy-ion radiation (control electronics shielded from radiation), with a focus on the detection of single-event effects (SEEs) including latch-up events. Testing showed that while DMDs are sensitive to nondestructive ion-induced state changes, all SEEs are cleared with a soft reset (i.e., sending a pattern to the device). The DMDs did not experience single-event induced permanent damage or functional changes that required a hard reset (power cycle), even at high ion fluences. This suggests that the SSE rate burden will be manageable for a DMD-based instrument when exposed to solar particle fluxes and cosmic rays in orbit.

  12. Analysis of radiation performances of plasma sheet antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Zhang, Zu-Fan; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    A novel concept of plasma sheet antennas is presented in this paper, and the radiation performances of plasma sheet antennas are investigated in detail. Firstly, a model of planar plasma antenna (PPA) fed by a microstrip line is developed, and its reflection coefficient is computed by the JE convolution finite-difference time-domain method and compared with that of the metallic patch antenna. It is found that the design of PPA can learn from the theory of the metallic patch antenna, and the impedance matching and reconstruction of resonant frequency can be expediently realized by adjusting the parameters of plasma. Then the PPA is mounted on a metallic cylindrical surface, and the reflection coefficient of the conformal plasma antenna (CPA) is also computed. At the same time, the influence of conformal cylinder radius on the reflection coefficient is also analyzed. Finally, the radiation pattern of a CPA is given, the results show that the pattern agrees well with the one of PPA in the main radiation direction, but its side lobe level has deteriorated significantly.

  13. Westinghouse Hanford Company Health and Safety Performance Report. First quarter calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    During the first quarter of CY 1995, four of the WHC sitewide ALARA performance goals were completed on or ahead of schedule. One of the completed goals related to reduction of radiological areas at WHC-managed facilities. Due to anticipated resource reductions and increased scope of work, several facilities escalated their reduction schedule. This allowed the ALARA goal to be completed and exceeded ahead of schedule. Industrial Safety and Health initiatives are being pursued in areas such as workplace ergonomics, safety training, and standards development. Positive efforts are ongoing in the areas of management commitment and employee involvement through the WHC Voluntary Protection Program. Successful implementation continues through the President`s Accident Prevention Council (PAPC) and division employee Accident Prevention Councils. The Company now has established CY 1995 PAPC goals. Major programmatic accomplishments completed during this reporting period include the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) formally endorsing the Radiological Control organization`s approach toward development of the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) document. The DOE-HQ has recognized the significant contributions and leadership that Radiological Control has provided in planning and implementation of this ``model example of an RPP`` across the DOE complex and is encouraging other sites to contact WHC for assistance in developing their RPPs.

  14. New Methods and Tools to Perform Safety Analysis within RISMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Andrea Alfonsi; Robert Kinoshita; Joshua Cogliati

    2013-11-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway uses a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. What differentiates the RISMC approach from traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is the concept of safety margin. In PRA, a safety metric such as core damage frequency (CDF) is generally estimated using static fault-tree and event-tree models. However, it is not possible to estimate how close we are to physical safety limits (say peak clad temperature) for most accident sequences described in the PRA. In the RISMC approach, what we want to understand is not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or not) to this event and how we might increase our safety margin through margin management strategies in a Dynamic PRA (DPRA) fashion. This paper gives an overview of methods that are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the scope of advance the current state of the art of dynamic PRA.

  15. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  16. Radiation safety protocol for high dose 131I therapy of thyroid carcinoma in patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Almodovar, Samuel; Bass, William B; Ojha, Buddhiwardhan

    2007-02-01

    Iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer on patients receiving dialysis poses unique radiation safety challenges. Exposure to gamma and beta negative particles by the hemodialysis (HD) staff is a concern that has not been well studied. A 53-y-old male patient on HD for chronic renal failure was scheduled for 131I high dose therapy as treatment for thyroid papillary carcinoma. The patient was on HD every other day, prior to ablation. A high dose of 131I (3,607.5 MBq) was required. The patient was admitted for 131I therapy, and continued HD. Thyroid cancer ablation therapy was administered according to our institutional protocol. New radiation safety measures were developed and implemented in order to give the patient an optimal treatment dose, reduce radiation to the patient (critical organs and whole body), and to protect the HD personnel. This included placing two lead shields between the patient and the HD nurse, and HD monitoring by two alternating nurses to reduce their radiation exposure. Film badges were used to measure radiation exposure to the nursing staff. Dosimetry calculations were obtained to determine radiation absorbed doses by the optic lens, skin, and whole body. Quality control verification for this shielding arrangement proved to be effective in protecting the HD staff against gamma and beta negative radiation from recent 131I high dose therapy. Implementation of this model proved to be an effective and adequate radiation safety protocol for limiting radiation exposure to the HD staff. The patient was given 3607.5 MBq for optimal treatment after HD. Hemodialysis was repeated after approximately 48 and 96 h to remove excess 131I and reduce radiation to the patient.

  17. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  18. An initial radiation safety needs assessment of Costa Rica: the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society's strategic planning appraisal for participation in the "Radiation Safety Without Borders" initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Felknor, S A

    2002-05-01

    In response to the Health Physics Society's recent 'radiation safety without borders" initiative, the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society selected Costa Rica as its partner country of choice. To develop an understanding of the radiation safety needs of this country, the fall 2001 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity class was tasked with the assignment of assessing the possible radiation safety needs and concerns for this country. The assignment culminated in a class presentation to the membership of the South Texas Chapter during its annual fall meeting. Using library and web based resources, tile students reviewed a number of public health and radiation-related topics. Life expectancies were found to be equivalent to the United States, even though significant differences in per capita health expenditures were noted. Costa Rica exhibited lower population mortality rates from major causes such as cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and external sources. Maternal and infant mortality rates were found to be much higher in Costa Rica than in the United States. Naturally occurring radiation sources such as uranium deposits were not identified as apparent major radiation issues of concern, although ultraviolet radiation exposures are consistently high. Several recent events in the country and the region involving patient overexposures suggest that concerns are likely focused on ensuring the proper use and maintenance of healing arts radiation equipment. The lack of available information on radioactive waste disposal suggests that waste handling also may be an issue warranting attention. The exercise proved to be very educational for the students, and the information gathered will serve to focus the Chapter's efforts when technical exchanges are initiated. The importance of linking this initiative to other existing programs within the country is also discussed.

  19. Impact of radiation on breakdown performance of Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, A; Chatterji, S; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, E K; Srivastava-Ajay, K

    2002-01-01

    The very intense radiation environment of high luminosity future colliding beam experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC etc.) makes radiation hardness the most urgent demand for Si detectors. The radiation hardness of Si strip detectors especially developed for LHC experiment was investigated with respect to ionizing and nonionizing radiation using computer simulations. (10 refs).

  20. Can Leader–Member Exchange Contribute to Safety Performance in An Italian Warehouse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco G. Mariani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research considers safety climate in a warehouse and wants to analyze the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX role in respect to safety performance. Griffin and Neal’s safety model was adopted and Leader-Member Exchange was inserted as moderator in the relationships between safety climate and proximal antecedents (motivation and knowledge of safety performance constructs (compliance and participation.Materials and Methods: Survey data were collected from a sample of 133 full-time employees in an Italian warehouse. The statistical framework of Hayes (2013 was adopted for moderated mediation analysis.Results: Proximal antecedents partially mediated the relationship between Safety climate and safety participation, but not safety compliance. Moreover, the results from the moderation analysis showed that the Leader–Member Exchange moderated the influence of safety climate on proximal antecedents and the mediation exist only at the higher level of LMX.Conclusion: The study shows that the different aspects of leadership processes interact in explaining individual proficiency in safety practices.Practical Implications: Organizations as warehouses should improve the quality of the relationship between a leader and a subordinate based upon the dimensions of respect, trust, and obligation for high level of safety performance.

  1. Application of an informatics-based decision-making framework and process to the assessment of radiation safety in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Mark D; Myers, David S; Cash, Leigh J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R; Boecker, Bruce B; Grissom, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between ∼1 and 100 nm, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this paper presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  2. Knowledge management: Role of the the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Timothy

    2017-09-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an information analysis center that collects, archives, evaluates, synthesizes and distributes information, data and codes that are used in various nuclear technology applications. RSICC retains more than 2,000 software packages that have been provided by code developers from various federal and international agencies. RSICC's customers (scientists, engineers, and students from around the world) obtain access to such computing codes (source and/or executable versions) and processed nuclear data files to promote on-going research, to ensure nuclear and radiological safety, and to advance nuclear technology. The role of such information analysis centers is critical for supporting and sustaining nuclear education and training programs both domestically and internationally, as the majority of RSICC's customers are students attending U.S. universities. Additionally, RSICC operates a secure CLOUD computing system to provide access to sensitive export-controlled modeling and simulation (M&S) tools that support both domestic and international activities. This presentation will provide a general review of RSICC's activities, services, and systems that support knowledge management and education and training in the nuclear field.

  3. Containment-emergency-sump performance. Technical findings related to Unresolved Safety Issue A-43. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings related to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance, and provides recommendations for resolution of attendant safety issues. The key safety questions relate to: (a) effects of insulation debris on sump performance; (b) sump hydraulic performance as determined by design features, submergence, and plant induced effects, and (c) recirculation pump performance wherein air and/or particulate ingestion can occur. The technical findings presented in this report provide information relevant to the design and performance evaluation of the containment emergency sump.

  4. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-01

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel + whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines.

  5. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. E-mail: huto@omega.kee.hu; Polyak-Feher, K.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10 deg. C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  6. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  7. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  8. Efficacy and safety of polaprezinc as a preventive drug for radiation-induced stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Tsuboi, Keita; Nakao, Norio [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Irie, Miwa [Takarazuka Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Izumi, Masayuki [Minamiosaka Total Health Care Center, Osaka (Japan); Irie, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Hiromi; Muro, Chikaaki [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan). Hospital

    2002-03-01

    Radiation-induced stomatitis is one of the adverse effects of total body irradiation (TBI). We examined the usefulness of oral polaprezinc as a preventive drug for stomatitis. The present study was conducted with 19 patients who were diagnosed with hematologic malignancy and who underwent TBI as pretreatment for bone marrow transplantation, peripheral blood stem transplantation, or cord blood stem cell transplantation. Eleven patients ingested the suspension of polaprezinc and 2% carmellose sodium (carboxymethylcellulose sodium: CMC) beginning the day before TBI (P-CMC group), while the other eight patients did not ingest P-CMC (control group). The severity of stomatitis was assessed in each group during a four-weeks period. Stomatitis (Grade:{>=}3) developed in one of 11 patients in the polaprezinc group and in 4 of 8 patients in the control group (P=0.046). The times at which stomatitis development ranged between weeks 1 and 2 after the onset of TBI in the two groups. No adverse reaction owing to the ingestion of P-CMC was observed. These results suggested the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc as a preventive drug for radiation-induced stomatitis. (author)

  9. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  10. Characterising ultrasonic physiotherapy systems by performance and safety now internationally agreed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The IEC 1689 standard specifies: methods of measurement, characterisation of the output performance, requirements for safety due to the ultrasonic field generated, characteristics to be declared by manufacturers and acceptance criteria for aspects of performance. For the characterisation, reference

  11. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  12. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Turgis, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Borsa, J. [MDS Nordion, 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario, K2K 2P7 (Canada); Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Han, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  13. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  14. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  15. Performance of bulk SiC radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, W; Lamb, G; Scott, J; Mathieson, K; Roy, P; Bates, R; Thornton, P; Smith, K M; Cusco, R; Glaser, M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    SiC is a wide-gap material with excellent electrical and physical properties that may make it an important material for some future electronic devices. The most important possible applications of SiC are in hostile environments, such as in car/jet engines, within nuclear reactors, or in outer space. Another area where the material properties, most notably radiation hardness, would be valuable is in the inner tracking detectors of particle physics experiments. Here, we describe the performance of SiC diodes irradiated in the 24 GeV proton beam at CERN. Schottky measurements have been used to probe the irradiated material for changes in I-V characteristics. Other methods, borrowed from III-V research, used to study the irradiated surface include atomic force microscope scans and Raman spectroscopy. These have been used to observe the damage to the materials surface and internal lattice structure. We have also characterised the detection capabilities of bulk semi-insulating SiC for alpha radiation. By measuring ...

  16. Does safety climate predict safety performance in Italy and the USA? Cross-cultural validation of a theoretical model of safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaranelli, Claudio; Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have acknowledged the relevance of assessing the measurement equivalence of safety related measures across different groups, and demonstrating whether the existence of disparities in safety perceptions might impair direct group comparisons. The Griffin and Neal (2000) model of safety climate, and the accompanying measure (Neal et al. [NGH], 2000), are both widely cited and utilized. Yet neither the model in its entirety nor the measure have been previously validated across different national contexts. The current study is the first to examine the NGH measurement equivalence by testing whether their model of safety climate predicting safety performance is tenable in both English speaking and non-English speaking countries. The study involved 616 employees from 21 organizations in the US, and 738 employees from 20 organizations in Italy. A multi-group confirmatory factor analytic approach was used to assess the equivalence of the measures across the two countries. Similarly, the structural model of relations among the NGH variables was examined in order to demonstrate its cross-country invariance. Results substantially support strict invariance across groups for the NGH safety scales. Moreover, the invariance across countries is also demonstrated for the effects of safety climate on safety knowledge and motivation, which in turn positively relate to both compliance and participation. Our findings have relevant theoretical implications by establishing measurement and relational equivalence of the NGH model. Practical implications are discussed for managers and practitioners dealing with multi-national organizational contexts. Future research should continue to investigate potential differences in safety related perceptions across additional non-English speaking countries.

  17. Why improving the safety climate doesn't always improve the safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, J.; Hudson, P.T.W.; Vandevis, T.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss the results of a study outside the petrochemical industry (Vandevis (2008), but the results may have a profound effect on the way organizations try to influence their safety climate by setting so called SMART goals. It was conducted within the electrical high voltage contract

  18. 78 FR 51754 - Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ..., requesting to replace its security plan with a new radiation safety plan. DATES: Submit comments by September... authorizes the licensee to possess depleted uranium. The proposed change is to modify License Condition No... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72...

  19. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values f...

  20. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  1. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adler, Clemens; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Antonczyk, Dariusz; Arend, Andreas; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartos, D; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Bucher, Damian; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Caragheorgheopol, G; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, V; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chernenko, S; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Ciobanu, M; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; Daues, Heinz; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Devismes, A; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Duta, V; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fateev, O; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fleck, M; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Freuen, S; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gatz, Henriette; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giolu, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glasow, Richard; Glassel, Peter; Gremmler, Svenja; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Gottschalk, Dirk; Gottschlag, Holger; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grajcarek, Robert; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grimm, Helge; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutfleisch, M; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hehner, Joerg; Heide, Markus; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huber, Sebastian; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kislov, E; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; "Klein-Boesing", Melanie; Kliemant, Michael; Klingenmeyer, Hannah; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohn, Martin; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konno, Masahiro; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krumbhorn, Dirk; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehmann, T; Lehner, Jorg; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Lesser, F; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lohner, Daniel; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, XianGuo; Ludolphs, W; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Magureanu, C; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmoud, T; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morino, Yuhei; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Mycke, Jan Felix; Nag, Dipanjan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Neher, Michael; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Panebratsev, Yu; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, WooJin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, M; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Radomski, Sylwester; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Reischl, A; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rusanov, Ivan; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dousatsu; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sann, H; Sano, Masato; Santo, Rainer; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schmiederer, Stefan; Schneider, R; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulze, R; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sedykh, S; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimansky, S; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Shukla, P; Sibiryak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simon, Reinhard S; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Smykov, L; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Solveit, Hans Kristian; Sommer, Wolfgang; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stelzer, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes; Stocco, Diego; Stockmeyer, MR; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Tilsner, Heinz; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vargas, H; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegerle, Dominik; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael; Witt, William Edward; Xu, C; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yurevich, Vladimir; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zanevski, Yuri; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet and for electron selection.

  2. Performance of a lead radiator, gas tube calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, L.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Delchamps, S.W.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.; Guffey, K.; Haire, M.

    1989-03-13

    Design and performance of a 4.2 radiation length lead-sandwich, gas tube hodoscope are discussed. The device, measuring 1 /times/ 2 m/sup 2/ in area and 12 cm in depth, was employed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment 705. Multiple samplings of anode wires situated within three-walled aluminum tubes were used to generate an X coordinate; similarly, capacitively coupled copper-clad strips were ganged together to yield a Y coordinate. The results reviewed are based on an analysis of electron calibration data taken during a recent six-month running period. In particular, position resolution (in millimeters) is seen to be 0.8 + 3.3/..sqrt..E + 31/E for the 9.92 mm spaced wires and 0.6 + 3.2/..sqrt..E + 32/E for the 12.5 mm strips, where E represents the electron beam energy in GeV. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Contractors’ Attitude towards Enhancing Safety Performance: Case Study on Construction Firms in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the safety performance in construction site. Despite the fact that there are many safety initiatives established by the government, the rates of accidents are still in a critically high condition. Thus the purpose of this research is to study the contractors’ attitude towards enhancing the implementation of safety management system in construction site in order to increase the safety awareness of construction practitioners in construction site and improve the safety condition of construction sites. This study is conducted through oral interviews with the construction practitioners, and visual inspection of construction sites. The attitudes of contractors are evaluated from 3 aspects: Contractors’ efforts in implement and enforce the safety rules, Contractors efforts in overcoming the rate of accidents, and Reasons given by the contractors for not implement safety law.

  4. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in Europe - a common approach; Surete nucleaire et radioprotection en Europe - une approche commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, Ann [Institut irlandais de protection radiologique - RPII (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    In Europe, the European Union has adopted directives and implemented other measures which form the basis of a common approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection across all Member States. In particular, there are EU directives setting out radiation protection standards and establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. There are also arrangements in place to provide for an effective response to nuclear emergencies and to facilitate high quality research into nuclear and radiation protection related topics. Inevitably the stage of development in each area is somewhat different, but generally progress is ongoing in each area. From the point of view of a small country like Ireland, the development of common standards and arrangements across Europe is beneficial as they are based on the best available knowledge and expertise; they provide for greater transparency; they facilitate public confidence and make best use of the available resources. However, there are some areas in which common approaches could be further advanced. For example, the medical exposure of patients is increasingly of concern across Europe and the further development of common approaches in this area would be helpful. It would also be useful to develop a more integrated approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation and to better integrate nuclear and radiation issues with other public health and environment concerns. (author)

  5. Integration of Occupational Safety to Contractors` or Subcontractors` Performance Evaluation in Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovská, Mária; Struková, Zuzana

    2013-06-01

    Several factors should be considered by the owner and general contractor in the process of contractors` and subcontractors` selection and evaluation. The paper reviews the recent models addressed to guide general contractors in subcontractors' selection process and in evaluation of different contractors during the execution of the project. Moreover the paper suggests the impact of different contractors' performance to the overall level of occupational health and safety culture at the sites. It deals with the factors influencing the safety performance of contractors during construction and analyses the methods for assessing the safety performance of construction contractors. The results of contractors' safety performance evaluation could be a useful tool in motivating contractors to achieve better safety outcomes or could have effect on owners` or general contractors' decision making about contractors suitability for future contracting works.

  6. Use of information technologies to contribute for optimizing the safety radiation management in Cuba; Uso de las tecnologias de la informacion, para contribuir a la optimizacion de la gestion de la seguridad radiologica en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Hernandez Saiz, A.; Manzano de Armas, J., E-mail: zury@cphr.edu.cu [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in Cuba, with the development of a group of information management tools to implement radiation safety systemic and proactive approaches to safety and ICT supported. These tools were designed for different organisms with responsibility for the security at the country level, to the regulatory authority, for user entities, for individual monitoring services and other radiation protection services. It describes the philosophy of information management model used, the characteristics of the developed tools and their integration, the work performed for the homogenization of information available and the ability to capture and deliver data at different levels in decision making. The tools developed are based on the use of variables and indicators of importance to the safety and the systemic approach adopted allows to facilitate the optimization process for supervision of safety practices as well as contribute to the management of knowledge in radiation safety, through a synergistic combination of process data, information, information management systems, and the creative and innovative radiation safety experts.

  7. Linking production to safety: boosting productive performance through behavior-based safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Howard; Faulkner, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Construction continues to have the largest number of fatal and major injuries among industry groups and the general rates have shown only a small amount of change over the last number of years. Safety processes can (and do) fail, resulting in injuries and incidents. Behavioral science uses data and analysis to come to conclusions about what is actually happening. Therefore, objectivity is at the core of behavioral science. This science of behavior can help us produce more effective implementations of safety solutions. B-BS processes recognize the workplace environment as the dominant factor in the creation of safe working. This focus on behavior needs to be co-ordinated with the elimination of work hazards. This paper will discuss the history, successes, and failures of B-BS, and suggest fertile areas for improving traditional safety practices. The natural effect of the pairing of a successful B-BS roll out with production occurs because the leadership is now much educated regarding human behavior. The interest and attention to planning 'how' things get done on sites is much greater when B-BS exists. This paper will discuss how roll out of B-BS has also resulted in improvements in production and early completion rates of construction Projects.

  8. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  9. Radiation dose reduction in CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine: Feasibility of a new institutional protocol for improved patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artner Juraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image guided spinal injections are successfully used in the management of low back pain and sciatica. The main benefit of CT-guided injections is the safe, fast and precise needle placement, but the radiation exposure remains a serious concern. The purpose of the study was to test a new institutional low-dose protocol for CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine to reduce radiation exposure while increasing accuracy and safety for the patients. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective database during a 4-month period (Oct-Dec 2011 at a German University hospital using a newly established low-dose-CT-protocol for periradicular injections in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation and nerve root entrapment. Inclusion criteria were acute or chronic nerve root irritation due to lumbar disc hernia, age over 18, compliance and informed consent. Excluded were patients suffering from severe obesity (BMI > 30, coagulopathy, allergy to injected substances, infection and non-compliant patients. Outcome parameters consisted of the measured dose length product (mGycm2, the amount of scans, age, gender, BMI and the peri-interventional complications. The results were compared to 50 patients, treated in the standard-interventional CT-protocol for spinal injections, performed in June-Oct 2011, who met the above mentioned inclusion criteria. Results A total amount of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. A significant radiation dose reduction (average 85.31% was achieved using the institutional low-dose protocol compared to standard intervention mode in CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine. Using the low-dose protocol did not increase the complications rate in the analyzed cohort. Conclusions Low-dose-CT-protocols for lumbar perineural injections significantly reduce the exposure to radiation of non-obese patients without an increase of complications. This increases long-time patient

  10. The nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France in 2003; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    Nine points are reviewed: the law project relative to the safety and openness in nuclear field, the safety of the European PWR type Reactor, the priorities in radiation protection, inspection of radiation protection, the surveillance of patients exposure to ionizing radiations, the hot days and dryness of summer 2003 and the functioning of nuclear power plant, the national planning of radioactive waste management, the becoming of high level and years living radioactive waste, the European nuclear policy. (N.C.)

  11. Radiation safety during remediation of the SevRAO facilities: 10 years of regulatory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, M K; Shandala, N; Kiselev, S; Simakov, A; Titov, A; Seregin, V; Kryuchkov, V; Shcheblanov, V; Bogdanova, L; Grachev, M; Smith, G M

    2015-09-01

    In compliance with the fundamentals of the government's policy in the field of nuclear and radiation safety approved by the President of the Russian Federation, Russia has developed a national program for decommissioning of its nuclear legacy. Under this program, the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' is carrying out remediation of a Site for Temporary Storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) at Andreeva Bay located in Northwest Russia. The short term plan includes implementation of the most critical stage of remediation, which involves the recovery of SNF from what have historically been poorly maintained storage facilities. SNF and RW are stored in non-standard conditions in tanks designed in some cases for other purposes. It is planned to transport recovered SNF to PA 'Mayak' in the southern Urals. This article analyses the current state of the radiation safety supervision of workers and the public in terms of the regulatory preparedness to implement effective supervision of radiation safety during radiation-hazardous operations. It presents the results of long-term radiation monitoring, which serve as informative indicators of the effectiveness of the site remediation and describes the evolving radiation situation. The state of radiation protection and health care service support for emergency preparedness is characterized by the need to further study the issues of the regulator-operator interactions to prevent and mitigate consequences of a radiological accident at the facility. Having in mind the continuing intensification of practical management activities related to SNF and RW in the whole of northwest Russia, it is reasonable to coordinate the activities of the supervision bodies within a strategic master plan. Arrangements for this master plan are discussed, including a proposed programme of actions to enhance the regulatory supervision in order to support accelerated mitigation of threats related to the nuclear legacy in the

  12. Safety and feasibility of STAT RAD: Improvement of a novel rapid tomotherapy-based radiation therapy workflow by failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Handsfield, Lydia; Read, Paul W; Wilson, David D; Van Ausdal, Ray; Schlesinger, David J; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Chen, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical challenge of radiation therapy (RT) for painful bone metastases requires clinicians to consider both treatment efficacy and patient prognosis when selecting a radiation therapy regimen. The traditional RT workflow requires several weeks for common palliative RT schedules of 30 Gy in 10 fractions or 20 Gy in 5 fractions. At our institution, we have created a new RT workflow termed "STAT RAD" that allows clinicians to perform computed tomographic (CT) simulation, planning, and highly conformal single fraction treatment delivery within 2 hours. In this study, we evaluate the safety and feasibility of the STAT RAD workflow. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed on the STAT RAD workflow, including development of a process map, identification of potential failure modes, description of the cause and effect, temporal occurrence, and team member involvement in each failure mode, and examination of existing safety controls. A risk probability number (RPN) was calculated for each failure mode. As necessary, workflow adjustments were then made to safeguard failure modes of significant RPN values. After workflow alterations, RPN numbers were again recomputed. A total of 72 potential failure modes were identified in the pre-FMEA STAT RAD workflow, of which 22 met the RPN threshold for clinical significance. Workflow adjustments included the addition of a team member checklist, changing simulation from megavoltage CT to kilovoltage CT, alteration of patient-specific quality assurance testing, and allocating increased time for critical workflow steps. After these modifications, only 1 failure mode maintained RPN significance; patient motion after alignment or during treatment. Performing the FMEA for the STAT RAD workflow before clinical implementation has significantly strengthened the safety and feasibility of STAT RAD. The FMEA proved a valuable evaluation tool, identifying potential problem areas so that we could create a safer workflow

  13. Performance of safety management systems in Spanish food service establishments in view of their context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Chinchilla, A.C.; Jacxsens, L.; Kirezieva, K.K.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Food service establishments (FSE) operate under restricted technological and organisational circumstances, making them susceptible to food safety problems as reported frequently. Aim of this study was to get insight in Food Safety Management System (FSMS) performance in different types of FSE in vie

  14. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL...

  15. Performance of safety management systems in Spanish food service establishments in view of their context characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Chinchilla, A.C.; Jacxsens, L.; Kirezieva, K.K.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Food service establishments (FSE) operate under restricted technological and organisational circumstances, making them susceptible to food safety problems as reported frequently. Aim of this study was to get insight in Food Safety Management System (FSMS) performance in different types of FSE in

  16. The roles of emotional intelligence, interpersonal skill, and transformational leadership on improving construction safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Yosia Sunindijo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics of the constructionindustry, human skills are essential for working with and through others inmanaging safety. Research has shown that emotional intelligence, interpersonalskill, and transformational leadership are human skill components that generatesuperior performance in today’s workplace. The aim of this research is toinvestigate the influence of project management personnel’s human skills on theimplementation of safety management tasks and development of safety climate inconstruction projects. The structural equation modelling (SEM method wasapplied to analyse the quantitative data collected and establishinterrelationship among the research variables. The results indicate thatemotional intelligence is a key factor for developing interpersonal skill andtransformational leadership, and for implementing safety management tasks whichleads to the development of safety climate. This research also found thatinterpersonal skill is needed for becoming transformational leaders whocontribute to the development of safety climate.

  17. Factors affecting Safety Performance in Repair, Maintenance, Alteration, and Addition (RMAA Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Enshassi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair, Maintenance, Alteration and Addition (RMAA works are playing an increasingly important role in developing countries. The accidents and fatalities records of RMAA sector in Gaza Strip have been alarmingly high; however, research in the RMAA sector remains limited. Safety of RMAA works has long been neglected because the project sizes of RMAA are small and only last for a short period of time, which make the working environment of RMAA works more difficult to control than new building works. The aim of this paper is to identify, valuate and rank the most important factors that affect safety performance and the most important causes of fatal accidents in RMAA projects. A questionnaire survey was used in this study. The results revealed that poor safety awareness of managers in maintenance firms and lack of training of RMAA workers for handling multi-tasks were the most important factors that affecting safety performance of RMAA works. The results showed that ineffectiveness of lack of training and certification of competence; immature corporate systems of firms which does not care with safety and health through RMAA works, and lack of leadership from government as a key client are the most significant causes of construction fatal accidents of RMAA projects. The results also indicated that the macro level factor is the most important category that causes fatal accidents in RMAA works. It is recommended to enhance the awareness of construction firms, project managers and workers regarding the importance of safety performance in repair and maintenance works and strengthen site monitoring and supervision system in construction firms. Safety training courses should be organized for workers and project managers in order to improve their safety culture and competence regarding safety performance through repair and maintenance works. Furthermore the RMAA subcontractors should be selected according to their good records of safety performance.

  18. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, C. C.; Zin, W. M. Wan; Ibrahim, P.; Ibrahim, S.

    2010-05-01

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  19. Safety of Redo Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases after Selective Interarterial Radiation Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection is the only potentially curative strategy in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Unfortunately, only about 10%–15% of patients are candidates for resection. Preoperative chemotherapy aims to increase the number of patients that may be eligible for liver resection by downsizing liver metastases. For patients with unresectable, chemotherapy refractory CLM the available treatment options are limited. Selective interarterial radiation therapy (SIRT is one of the most promising treatment options for this group of patients. Although only a small number of these patients have been reported as becoming candidates for potentially curative hepatic resection following sufficient reduction in the volume of liver metastases, the question arises regarding the safety of liver resection in these patients. We report a case of a patient who presented unresectable liver relapse of CLM after previous right hepatectomy. He underwent SIRT which resulted in downsizing of the liver metastases making the patient candidate for left lateral sectionectomy. He underwent the redo hepatectomy without any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of redo hepatectomy after SIRT for CLM.

  20. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keong, C C; Zin, W M Wan; Ibrahim, P; Ibrahim, S, E-mail: chai@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  1. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  2. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  3. Fault tolerant, radiation hard, high performance digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmann, Edgar; Linscott, Ivan R.; Maurer, Michael J.; Tyler, G. L.; Libby, Vibeke

    1990-01-01

    An architecture has been developed for a high-performance VLSI digital signal processor that is highly reliable, fault-tolerant, and radiation-hard. The signal processor, part of a spacecraft receiver designed to support uplink radio science experiments at the outer planets, organizes the connections between redundant arithmetic resources, register files, and memory through a shuffle exchange communication network. The configuration of the network and the state of the processor resources are all under microprogram control, which both maps the resources according to algorithmic needs and reconfigures the processing should a failure occur. In addition, the microprogram is reloadable through the uplink to accommodate changes in the science objectives throughout the course of the mission. The processor will be implemented with silicon compiler tools, and its design will be verified through silicon compilation simulation at all levels from the resources to full functionality. By blending reconfiguration with redundancy the processor implementation is fault-tolerant and reliable, and possesses the long expected lifetime needed for a spacecraft mission to the outer planets.

  4. Stability Performance Dilemma in Hydronic Radiators with TRV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRV) have proved their significant contribution in energy savings for several years. However, at low heat demands, an unstable oscillatory behavior is usually observed and well known for these devices. It happens due to the nonlinear dynamics of the radiator itself w...

  5. Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

    2004-12-31

    This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

  6. Transformational leadership and employee safety performance: a within-person, between-jobs design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, Michelle; Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Stride, Chris B

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the extent to which the safety performance (i.e., self-reported safety compliance and safety participation) of employees with 2 jobs was predicted by their respective supervisors' transformational leadership behaviors. We compared 2 within-person models: a context-specific model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance only in that context) and a context-spillover model (i.e., transformational leadership experienced by employees in 1 context related to those same employees' safety performance in the same and other contexts). Our sample comprised 159 "moonlighters" (73 men, 86 women): employees who simultaneously hold 2 different jobs, each with a different supervisor, providing within-person data on the influence of different supervisors on employee safety performance across 2 job contexts. Having controlled for individual differences (negative affectivity and conscientiousness) and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked and length of relationship with supervisor), the context-specific model provided the best fit to the data among alternative nested models. Implications for the role of transformational leadership in promoting workplace safety are discussed.

  7. Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Faan; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    For road safety improvement, comparing and benchmarking performance are widely advocated as the emerging and preferred approaches. However, there is currently no universally agreed upon approach for the process of road safety benchmarking, and performing the practice successfully is by no means easy. This is especially true for the two core activities of which: (1) developing a set of road safety performance indicators (SPIs) and combining them into a composite index; and (2) identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class), one which has already obtained outstanding road safety practices. To this end, a scientific technique that can combine the multi-dimensional safety performance indicators (SPIs) into an overall index, and subsequently can identify the 'best-in-class' is urgently required. In this paper, the Entropy-embedded RSR (Rank-sum ratio), an innovative, scientific and systematic methodology is investigated with the aim of conducting the above two core tasks in an integrative and concise procedure, more specifically in a 'one-stop' way. Using a combination of results from other methods (e.g. the SUNflower approach) and other measures (e.g. Human Development Index) as a relevant reference, a given set of European countries are robustly ranked and grouped into several classes based on the composite Road Safety Index. Within each class the 'best-in-class' is then identified. By benchmarking road safety performance, the results serve to promote best practice, encourage the adoption of successful road safety strategies and measures and, more importantly, inspire the kind of political leadership needed to create a road transport system that maximizes safety.

  8. Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Alomari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry.

  9. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Div. of Cardiology; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Community Medicine; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Div. of Internal Medicine

    2015-10-15

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm{sup 2}), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm{sup 2} per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm{sup 2}/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm{sup 2}), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm{sup 2}), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm{sup 2}), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm{sup 2}/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm{sup 2}). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  10. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm(2)).

  11. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    is therefore of interest. Furthermore, the method based on prescriptive procedures is not free of design limitations and does not provide detailed information about the structure’s performance under high temperature, which is often crucial if a disproportionate collapse must be avoided. The more advanced......A provision of an adequate consideration of both the people and structure safety is a crucial goal in a rational fire design. However, only a partial agreement concerning the general structural fire safety approach exists, and several meaningful discrepancies concerning the design and verification...... approach of performance-based fire design (PBFD) becomes therefore more and more popular. A higher design flexibility based on performance objectives constitutes a beneficial and competitive concept within the structural fire safety engineering, ensuring a higher safety level of a design choice. The aim...

  12. Scientific Approach for Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Michael; Vogy, Joachim; Nolle-Gösser, Tanja

    2008-09-01

    The ESO coordinated study “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories” is based on a psychological approach using a questionnaire for data collection and assessment of high-altitude effects. During 2007 and 2008, data from 28 staff and visitors involved in APEX and ALMA were collected and analysed and the first results of the study are summarised. While there is a lot of information about biomedical changes at high altitude, relatively few studies have focussed on psychological changes, for example with respect to performance of mental tasks, safety consciousness and emotions. Both, biomedical and psychological changes are relevant factors in occupational safety and health. The results of the questionnaire on safety, health and performance issues demonstrate that the working conditions at high altitude are less detrimental than expected.

  13. Specifications and Performances of Series Superfluid Helium Safety Relief Valves for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, A.; Fontanive, V.

    2006-04-01

    Protecting the LHC magnets requires safety relief valves operating with 1.9 K pressurized superfluid helium at their inlet. Following the evaluation of prototype valves, a specification for the production of the 360 safety relief valves needed for the LHC was issued. The production of the safety valves was then awarded to an industrial contractor. The performances of pre-series valves were assessed for a variety of aspects including thermal performance, leak tightness in superfluid helium, dynamic behavior and resistance to intensive mechanical cycling. After the initial validation phase the series production was completed within the technical requirements of the specification. This paper describes the characteristics of the safety relief valves and the specifications for their industrial production. The performances of the pre-series valves are presented and an overview of the series production phase is given.

  14. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    OpenAIRE

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the comparison of road safety status within and between countries, and the accelerated sharing of best practice in road safety policy. One of the macroscopic road safety related areas that SafetyNet focus...

  15. Comparison of the performance of net radiation calculation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Cuenca, R H; Martinez-Cob, A

    2009-01-01

    values of net radiation were calculated using three net outgoing long-wave radiation models and compared to measured values. Four meteorological datasets representing two climate regimes, a sub-humid, high-latitude environment and a semi-arid mid-latitude environment, were used to test the models...... meteorological input data is limited. Model predictions were found to have a higher bias and scatter when using summed calculated hourly time steps compared to using daily input data.......Daily values of net radiation are used in many applications of crop-growth modeling and agricultural water management. Measurements of net radiation are not part of the routine measurement program at many weather stations and are commonly estimated based on other meteorological parameters. Daily...

  16. Construction and performance of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emschermann, David

    2010-01-20

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been designed to identify electrons in the pion dominated background of heavy-ions collisions. As electrons do not interact strongly, they allow to probe the early phase of the interaction. As trigger on high-p{sub t} e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs within 6.5 {mu}s after collision, the TRD can initiate the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TRD is composed of 18 super modules arranged in a barrel geometry in the central part of the ALICE detector. It offers almost 1.2 million readout channels on a total area of close to 700 m{sup 2}. The particle detection properties of the TRD depend crucially on details in the design of the cathode pad readout plane. The design parameters of the TRD readout pad plane are introduced and analysed regarding their physical properties. The noise patterns observed in the detector can be directly linked to the static pad capacitance distribution and corrected for it. A summary is then given of the TRD services infrastructure at CERN: a 70 kW low voltage system, a 1080 channel 2.5 kV high voltage setup and the Ethernet network serving more than 600 nodes. Two beam tests were conducted at the CERN PS accelerator in 2004 and 2007 using full sized TRD chambers from series production. Details on the setups are presented with particular emphasis on the custom tailored data acquisition systems. Finally the performance of the TRD is studied, focusing on the pion rejection capability and the excellent position resolution. (orig.)

  17. SafetyBarrierManager, a software tool to perform risk analysis using ARAMIS's principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    of the ARAMIS project, Risø National Laboratory started developing a tool that could implement these methodologies, leading to SafetyBarrierManager. The tool is based on the principles of “safety‐barrier diagrams”, which are very similar to “bowties”, with the possibility of performing quantitative analysis......The ARAMIS project resulted in a number of methodologies, dealing with among others: the development of standard fault trees and “bowties”; the identification and classification of safety barriers; and including the quality of safety management into the quantified risk assessment. After conclusion....... The tool allows constructing comprehensive fault trees, event trees and safety‐barrier diagrams. The tool implements the ARAMIS idea of a set of safety barrier types, to which a number of safety management issues can be linked. By rating the quality of these management issues, the operational probability...

  18. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  19. Analysis of radiation environmental safety for China's Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Bin; Wu, Qing-Biao; Ma, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Li, Nan; Wu, Jing-Min; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

    2010-07-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is going to be located in Dalang Town, Dongguan City in the Guangdong Province. In this paper we report the results of the parameters related with environment safety based on experiential calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The main project of the accelerator is an under ground construction. On top there is a 0.5 m concrete and 5.0 m soil covering for shielding, which can reduce the dose out of the tunnel's top down to 0.2 μSv/h. For the residents on the boundary of the CSNS, the dose produced by skyshine, which is caused by the penetrated radiation leaking from the top of the accelerator, is no more than 0.68 μSv/a. When CSNS is operating normally, the maximal annual effective dose due to the emission of gas from the tunnel is 2.40×10-3 mSv/a to the public adult, and 2.29×10-3 mSv/a to a child, both values are two orders of magnitude less than the limiting value for control and management. CSNS may give rise to an activation of the soil and groundwater in the nearest tunnels, where the main productions are 3H, 7Be, 22Na, 54Mn, etc. But the specific activity is less than the exempt specific activity in the national standard GB13376-92. So it is safe to say that the environmental impact caused by the activation of soil and groundwater is insignificant. To sum up, for CSNS, as a powerful neutron source device, driven by a high-energy high-current proton accelerator, a lot of potential factors affecting the environment exist. However, as long as effective shieldings for protection are adopted and strict rules are drafted, the environmental impact can be kept under control within the limits of the national standard.

  20. The creation of IRSN Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety; La creation de l'IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The creation of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) answers to the government will to modify the organisation of safety and radiation protection, in order to separate the functions of expert, monitor and operator. The I.R.S.N. has for missions to realize expertise by giving to the government advice on nuclear risks; to conduct researches in order to improve the knowledge; to work towards radiation monitoring of environment and workers as well as exposure sources to radiations. (N.C.)

  1. Radiation exposure for medical staff performing quantitative coronary perfusion PET with 13N-ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Skovgaard, Dorthe Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate radiation doses to medical staff performing quantitative (13)N-ammonia myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Seventeen PET examinations were performed. Nine examinations consisted of two PET scans (one during rest and one after pharmacological stress......-ammonia exposes the staff to radiation doses that are comparable to doses from (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose scans and the annual doses are well within the recommended upper limits for radiation workers....

  2. Photonic-Networks-on-Chip for High Performance Radiation Survivable Multi-Core Processor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    TR-14-7 Photonic-Networks-on-Chip for High Performance Radiation Survivable Multi-Core Processor Systems Approved for public release...Networks-on-Chip for High Performance Radiation Survivable Multi-Core Processor Systems DTRA01-03-D-0026 Prof. Luke Lester and Prof. Ganesh...release; distribution is unlimited. The University of New Mexico has undertaken a study to determine the effects of radiation on Quantum Dot Photonic

  3. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  4. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  5. Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.; Murray, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time radiation dose predictions of biologically harmful radiation at commercial airline altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP reanalysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. In this paper we discuss the concept and design of the NAIRAS model, and present recent progress in the implementation and give examples of the model results. Specifically, we show predictions of representative annual background exposure levels and radiation exposure levels for selected SEP events during solar cycle 23, with emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure. We discuss the key uncertainties and areas that need improvement in both model and data, the timeline for project completion, and access to model results.

  6. Control of AWD System for Vehicle Performance and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hojin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AWD (All-Wheel Drive system transfers drive force to all wheels so that it can help vehicle escape low mu surface or climb hill more conveniently. Recently, AWD system for on road vehicle has become popular to improve vehicle driving performance. However, there has not been enough research of applying AWD system for vehicle stability especially for lateral movement. Compared with ESC (Electronic Stability Control, AWD system does not cause any inconveniences to the driver because it controls vehicle only by distributing front and rear drive torque, without using brake. By allowing slipping/locking of wet clutch inside the transfer case, AWD system can distribute different amount of torque between front and rear axle. This paper introduces modelling of AWD system and suggests the control of AWD system based on peak slip ratio and slip angle at which tyre saturates. Carsim based vehicle simulation results of AWD controller is presented.

  7. Analysis on Occupants’ Satisfaction for Safety Performance Assessment in Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Husrul Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery performance of the low cost housing is questioned since the occupants are prone towards safety hazards in the housing complex, such as structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements for the development of low cost housing, the prevailing safety factors are hard to be determined. This paper explores the rationale of safety performance assessment in the low cost housing by considering the occupants’ participation to achieve a better safety provision during occupancy period. Questionnaire survey was distributed to 380 occupants of the low cost housing in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. The result shows that 80.8% of the respondents had expressed their dissatisfaction with the safety performance of the lift. By referring to the mode of ranking level, the most significant aspect rated by the respondents is Building Safety Features, with 51.6% respondents. The attained aspects can be fundamental parameters which can be considered in the future development of low cost housing.

  8. Performance of the AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Doetinchem, P; Karpinski, W; Kirn, T; Lübelsmeyer, K; Orboeck, J; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Wallraff, W; Becker, U; Bürger, J; Henning, R; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V F; Wyatt, J

    2006-01-01

    For cosmic particle spectroscopy on the International Space Station the AMS experiment will be equipped with a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to improve particle identification. The TRD has 20 layers of fleece radiator with Xe/CO2 proportional mode straw tube chambers. They are supported in a conically shaped octagon structure made of CFC-Al-honeycomb. For low power consumption VA analog multiplexers are used as front-end readout. A 20 layer prototype built from final design components has achieved proton rejections from 100 to 2000 at 90% electron efficiency for proton beam energies up to 250 GeV with cluster counting, likelihood and neural net selection algorithms.

  9. Challenges in Performance of Food Safety Management Systems: A Case of Fish Processing Companies in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the per

  10. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the synth

  11. Performance of beacon safety message dissemination in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing belief that putting an IEEE 802.11-like radio into road vehicles can help the drivers to travel more safely. Message dissemination protocols are primordial for safety vehicular applications. There are two types of safety messages which may be exchanged between vehicles: alarm and beacon. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of deploying safety applications based on beacon message dissemination through extensive simulation study and pay special attention to the safety requirements. Vehicles are supposed to issue these messages periodically to announce to other vehicles their current situation and use received messages for preventing possible unsafe situations. We evaluate the performance of a single-hop dissemination protocol while taking into account the quality of service (QoS) metrics like delivery rate and delay. We realize that reliability is the main concern in beacon message dissemination. Thus, a new metric named effective range is defined which gives us more accurate facility for evaluating QoS in safety applications specifically. Then, in order to improve the performance, the effects of three parameters including vehicle's transmission range, message transmission's interval time and message payload size are studied. Due to special characteristics of the safety applications, we model the relationship between communication-level QoS and application-level QoS and evaluate them for different classes of safety applications. As a conclusion, the current technology of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer has still some challenges for automatic safety applications but it can provide acceptable QoS to driver assistance safety applications.

  12. Integrated indicator to evaluate vehicle performance across: Safety, fuel efficiency and green domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrao, G; Fontes, T; Coelho, M; Rouphail, N

    2016-07-01

    In general, car manufacturers face trade-offs between safety, efficiency and environmental performance when choosing between mass, length, engine power, and fuel efficiency. Moreover, the information available to the consumers makes difficult to assess all these components at once, especially when aiming to compare vehicles across different categories and/or to compare vehicles in the same category but across different model years. The main objective of this research was to develop an integrated tool able to assess vehicle's performance simultaneously for safety and environmental domains, leading to the research output of a Safety, Fuel Efficiency and Green Emissions (SEG) indicator able to evaluate and rank vehicle's performance across those three domains. For this purpose, crash data was gathered in Porto (Portugal) for the period 2006-2010 (N=1374). The crash database was analyzed and crash severity prediction models were developed using advanced logistic regression models. Following, the methodology for the SEG indicator was established combining the vehicle's safety and the environmental evaluation into an integrated analysis. The obtained results for the SEG indicator do not show any trade-off between vehicle's safety, fuel consumption and emissions. The best performance was achieved for newer gasoline passenger vehicles (engine size (fuel economy and/or in green performance. On the other hand, for larger engine size vehicles (>2000cm(3)) the combined score for safety user profile was in average more satisfactory than for vehicles in the smaller engine size group (fuel efficiency and green emissions). Furthermore, SEG indicator allows the comparison of vehicles across different categories and vehicle model years. Hence, this research is intended to support the decision-making process for transportation policy, safety and sustainable mobility, providing insights not only to policy makers, but also for general public guidance.

  13. Performance study of cavity-backed dual-band radiators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaldoss, S.E.; Yarovoy, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of a cavity for dual-band patch radiator with a frequency ratio of 1.65:1 is analysed. The use of cavities can help in maintaining impedance matching, reducing the levels of mutual coupling between the elements as well as in containing the surface waves, aspects vital to array perf

  14. The effect of employees’ management commitment to safety and consciousness on unsafe performance: The mediating role of safety self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rahimi Pordanjani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to test a model of the relationship between management commitment to safety and consciousness with unsafe performance,considering the mediating role of safety self-efficacy.  .Material and Method: Research design was the correlation throughStructural Equation Modeling (SEM and the sampleconsisted of 265 employees of an industrialcompany who were selected by stratifiedrandom sampling method. Participants of this study completedsafety climatescale, short form of NEO personality questionnaire,safety self-efficacy scale, and unsafe performance questionnaire.Reliability and validity of the questionnaires were reported as acceptable. Evaluation of the proposed model was done by SEM through AMOS-21and SPSS-19 software packages. In addition, Preacher and Hayes’ SPSS Macro program was used for testing the mediating role.  .Result: The results showed that the proposedmodel fit the data properly.Management commitment to safety and consciousness had direct effect on unsafe performance and safety self-efficacy.Moreover, the mediating effect of safety self-efficacy in the relationship between management commitment to safety and consciousness with unsafe performancewas confirmed. . Conclusion: Overall, organizations canreduce unsafe performance and consequently occupational accidentsby increasing the management commitment to safety and employees’ consciousness and also training of employees and supervisors to reinforce their safety self-efficacy.

  15. Comparison of approaches to weighting of multiple criteria for selecting equipment to optimise performance and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarski, Boris; Hadzistevic, Miodrag; Budak, Igor; Moraca, Slobodan; Vukelic, Djordje

    2017-06-12

    Nowadays every piece of working equipment and tool has to comply with safety standards and laws. This study investigated multi-criteria methods for selecting working equipment in order to optimise performance and occupational safety. The multi-criteria decision-making (MDCM) method was applied to the problem of selecting optimal working equipment using four different criterion weighting approaches (direct weighting, revised Simos procedure, Fuller's triangle and analytic hierarchy process). Groups of economic, technical, and safety criteria were defined and five weighting scenarios were developed. Although the four weighting methods produced similar results, in some situations they produced different criterion weighting factors. The final output of the MCDM method was the identification of the optimal forklift in the five weighting scenarios. Although we have applied the MCDM method to a forklift selection problem it can be applied to all sorts of working equipment in contexts where economic, technical and safety selection criteria can be identified.

  16. CT equipment and performance issues: radiation protection 162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvean, S

    2013-02-01

    Since the development of the CT scanner in the early 1970s, CT scanner technology has continuously developed through technical advancement, faster computer processing, superior detectors and helical and multi-detector scanning modes. As a result, the scope of clinical examinations has broadened considerably, and in parallel, this has been achieved with improvement in image quality and radiation dose efficiency. Despite this, and perhaps because image quality can always be improved at the expense of increased radiation dose, CT examinations are among the highest-dose procedures encountered routinely in medical imaging. The qualitative criteria for acceptability in RP 162 address some functional and operational issues, and the quantitative criteria, in the form of suspension levels, focus primarily around hardware aspects of the CT scanner, though consideration is also given to software, operator aspects and selection of scan protocols. Some of the specific aspects and challenges in modern CT systems, in particular multi-slice and wide beams are also addressed.

  17. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  18. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2013-08-15

    In this nineteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2012 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 38 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 98% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last nineteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the fourth year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  19. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2012-07-15

    In this eighteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2011 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 34 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 96% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last eighteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the third year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  20. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2016-03-01

    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  1. An oil-free compact X-pinch plasma radiation source: Design and radiation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Roman V.; Spielman, Rick B.; Imel, George R.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a new, high-current, X-pinch radiation source recently developed and tested at Idaho State University. Our design is based on two linear transformer driver (LTD) bricks arranged in side-by-side geometry and directly coupled with an X-pinch load. The salient features of our 2-LTD-bricks are its simplicity, compactness, and portability: there is no oil, no water, and no SF6. It can be easily relocated to any place where a compact X-pinch radiation source is wanted. The driver can store up to 2.8 kJ of initial energy and can deliver more than 200-kA peak-current with less than 200-ns, 10%-90%, rise time into a short-circuit load. When the driver is coupled with an X-pinch load, it generates a very fast and bright radiation pulse. Source size measurements indicate that this radiation originates from a very small dense plasma, known as a "hot spot."

  2. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  3. Implementation of European Directive on Optical Radiation Safety takes place in May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    At the latest by May 10th 2010, Directive 2006/25/EC regarding the exposure of workers to risks arising from artificial optical radiation must be implemented by all EU-member states, thus legally adopting ICNIRP limit values for ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. For IUVA-members the

  4. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Artificial neural network model for prediction of safety performance indicators goals in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Kelling C.; Nunes, Wallace W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Aplicacoes Computacionais; Machado, Marcelo D., E-mail: dornemd@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear - GCN.T

    2011-07-01

    Safety performance indicators have been developed to provide a quantitative indication of the performance and safety in various industry sectors. These indexes can provide assess to aspects ranging from production, design, and human performance up to management issues in accordance with policy, objectives and goals of the company. The use of safety performance indicators in nuclear power plants around the world is a reality. However, it is necessary to periodically set goal values. Such goals are targets relating to each of the indicators to be achieved by the plant over a predetermined period of operation. The current process of defining these goals is carried out by experts in a subjective way, based on actual data from the plant, and comparison with global indices. Artificial neural networks are computational techniques that present a mathematical model inspired by the neural structure of intelligent organisms that acquire knowledge through experience. This paper proposes an artificial neural network model aimed at predicting values of goals to be used in the evaluation of safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  7. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  8. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2001; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laatu roentgendiagnostiikassa 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The obligations of the medical exposure directive (97/43/Euratom) for hospitals dominate the current activities in radiation protection in medical radiology. The directive gives special emphasis to radiation exposure of children, to examinations with high radiation doses and to radiation exposure in health screening programmes. The most important examinations with high doses are radiological interventions, where even acute skin effects are possible, and the computed tomography where the number of CT examinations makes only about 5% from the total number of x-ray examinations but the collective effective dose about 40% from the combined collective effective dose of all x-ray examinations. In the research projects financed by the European Commission, radiation exposures to paediatric patients have been measured in radiography, fluoroscopy and CT, and various dose assessment methods have been compared to develop a method for national follow-up of patients' radiation dose. The newest research project is focused on dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional radiology and digital imaging. Other actual topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, and clinical audits. This report deals with new radiation protection guides and recommendations and the education and training of radiological staff in radiation protection. One important topic is the development of national follow-up method of radiation exposure to patients and comparison of various dose assessment methods. Quality assurance in health care and in paediatric radiology, and the acceptance test and quality assurance measurements of radiological equipment are also described. (orig.)

  9. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the com

  10. Road safety performance indicators : country profiles. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Morsink, P. Gent, A. van Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    The EC 6th Framework Integrated Project SafetyNet aims to accelerate the availability and use of harmonised road safety data in Europe. Having such data available throughout Europe would be tremendously beneficial for road safety, since it would enable the evaluation of road safety measures, the

  11. Establishment of Testing Device for Shielding Performance of X and Gamma Ray Radiation Protection Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Ming-zhe; WEI; Ke-xin; HOU; Jin-bing; WANG; Hong-yu; GAO; Fei; NI; Ning

    2015-01-01

    X and gamma ray radiation protective material shielding performance testing device was built based on the international standard IEC61331.1-2014.The device can be used to test attenuation ratio,attenuation equivalent and lead equivalent of radiation protective material in"narrow beam condition","broad beam condition"and"inverse

  12. [The control of radiation protection in the field of radiotherapy by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, J-L

    2007-11-01

    During the last months, several incidents at radiotherapy services occurred in France; one of these accidents led to the death of several patients or required further heavy surgical acts. In this context, ASN (Autorité de sûreté nucléaire) issued an experimental guide for the notification of radiation protection events and achieved, in dialogue with professional organisations, a new scale intended to facilitate public information on radiotherapy incidents. ASN is also fully involved in the preparation of the action plan managed by the Health ministry in order to improve the safety of treatment in radiotherapy.

  13. Body-Cooling Paradigm in Sport: Maximizing Safety and Performance During Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-12-01

    Although body cooling has both performance and safety benefits, knowledge on optimizing cooling during specific sport competition is limited. To identify when, during sport competition, it is optimal for body cooling and to identify optimal body-cooling modalities to enhance safety and maximize sport performance. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify articles with specific context regarding body cooling, sport performance, and cooling modalities used during sport competition. A search of scientific peer-reviewed literature examining the effects of body cooling on exercise performance was done to examine the influence of body cooling on exercise performance. Subsequently, a literature search was done to identify effective cooling modalities that have been shown to improve exercise performance. The cooling modalities that are most effective in cooling the body during sport competition depend on the sport, timing of cooling, and feasibility based on the constraints of the sports rules and regulations. Factoring in the length of breaks (halftime substitutions, etc), the equipment worn during competition, and the cooling modalities that offer the greatest potential to cool must be considered in each individual sport. Scientific evidence supports using body cooling as a method of improving performance during sport competition. Developing a strategy to use cooling modalities that are scientifically evidence-based to improve performance while maximizing athlete's safety warrants further investigation.

  14. Scan Performance and Reconfigurability of Agile Radiating Matrix Antenna Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abou Taam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to different experimental validations concerning a novel concept of beam forming and beam steering antenna. The working principle of the antenna is based on the equivalent radiating surface approach and inspired from an electromagnetic band gap antenna. The theoretical aspect and some numerical validations have been already published in the work of Abou Taam et al. (2014. Different electromagnetic behaviors have been demonstrated, such as low mutual coupling, and high gain preservation for high scanning angles values. In this paper, some of these electromagnetic behaviors will be proven experimentally by the means of two different feeding configurations.

  15. Ceramic Matrix Composites Performances Under High Gamma Radiation Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemmi, A.; Baccaro, S.; Fiore, S.; Gislon, P.; Serra, E.; Fassina, S.; Ferrari, E.; Ghisolfi, E.

    2014-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composites reinforced by continuous ceramic fibers (CMCs) represent a class of advanced materials developed for applications in automotive, aerospace, nuclear fusion reactors and in other specific systems for harsh environments. In the present work, the silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites, manufactured by Chemical Vapour Infiltration process at FN S.p.A. plant, have been evaluated in term of gamma radiation hardness at three different absorbed doses (up to around 3MGy). Samples behavior has been investigated before and after irradiation by means of mechanical tests (flexural strength) and by surface and structural analyses (X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR-ATR, EPR).

  16. Initial experience with an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron on operation and radiation safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-shielded medical cyclotron (11 MeV was commissioned at our center, to produce positron emitters, namely, 18 F, 15 O, 13 N and 11 C for positron emission tomography (PET imaging. Presently the cyclotron has been exclusively used for the production of 18 F - for 18 F-FDG imaging. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - production were monitored. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were also monitored to assess the radiation safety status in the facility. The target material, 18 O water, is bombarded with proton beam from the cyclotron to produce 18 F - ion that is used for the synthesis of 18 F-FDG. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - were observed during 292 production runs out of a total of more than 400 runs. The radiation dose levels were also measured in the facility at various locations during cyclotron production runs and in the radiochemistry laboratory during 18 F-FDG syntheses. It was observed that rinsing the target after delivery increased the number of production runs in a given target, as well as resulted in a better correlation between the duration of bombardment and the end of bombardment 18 F - activity with absolutely clean target after being rebuilt. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were observed to be well within prescribed limits with safe work practice.

  17. EICT Based Diagnostic Tool and Monitoring System for EMF Radiation to Sustain Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and communication towers on health issues are being well documented today. However, exact correlation between radiation of communication towers and their radiation levels, are not monitored. Aim of this paper is to study, analyze, apply networking and data mining technologies to develop an EICT based Diagnostic tool and Monitoring system for electromagnetic radiation levels into environment. This system is to network all mobile towers of each service provider as a single entity and then connect all service providers to a central monitoring agency online for continuous monitoring. Since very large numbers of mobile towers exist in India, each state can have its own regional network which is further networked with national central network. This can be enlarged to entire world for monitoring the EMF radiation levels near every mobile tower. For these regional national and international networks the connectivity is to be instituted by the respective service provider. In this paper an attempt is made to logically apply Data Mining and networking technologies to develop a central EICT based diagnostic tool and monitoring system for EMF radiation from each transmission tower. With this system regional, national and international agencies/authorities can monitor the EMF radiation at each and every transmission tower area continuously and verify them with exposure standards. It is proposed to display this information using Integrated Display System in front of monitoring authority at appropriate levels.

  18. Safety performance assessment of food industry facilities using a fuzzy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barreca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to assuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the utmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements and to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of safety and welfare of the workers in their working environment. The safety of the workers has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. However, the technical solutions adopted in the manufacturing facilities in order to achieve adequate levels of safety and welfare of the workers are not always consistent with the solutions aimed at achieving adequate levels of food hygiene, even if both of them comply with sectoral rules which are often unconnected with each other. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as the safety and welfare of workers. Hence, this paper proposes an evaluation model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows evaluating the global safety level of a building. The proposed model allows to obtain a synthetic and global value of the building performance in terms of food hygiene and safety and welfare of the workers as well as to highlight possible weaknesses. Though the model may be applied in either the design or the operational phase of a building, this paper focuses on its application to certain buildings already operational in a specific

  19. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  20. The EH safety representative information system on the safety performance measurement system is where you will find... Word processing and helps with a V-PLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, P. I.

    What are some of the current environmental, safety, and health problems being found at different DOE facilities? What are some of latest software products available for HP-3000 on-line application? How can I meet my customer's ever-changing requirements? These and many other questions will be focused on within this review of the Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) Safety Representative Information System (SRIS) located on the Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS). SPMS is a collection of automated environmental, safety, and health information modules for references by DOE and DOE contractors. SPMS is operated by the Management Information Systems (MIS) Unit of the System Safety Development Center at EG&G Idaho, Inc. In the following sections an overview of SRIS, an on-line system designed for the HP-3000, will be presented along with an analysis of design methods and software packages used to develop the system.

  1. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuguchi, Masayuki; Chida, Koichi; Taura, Masaaki; Inaba, Yohei; Ebata, Ayako; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh approximately 20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic.

  2. Radiation exposure to cardiologists performing interventional cardiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delichas, Miltiadis; Psarrakos, Kyriakos; Molyvda-Athanassopoulou, Elisabeth E-mail: moly@med.auth.gr; Giannoglou, Georgios; Sioundas, Anastasios; Hatziioannou, Konstantinos; Papanastassiou, Emmanouil

    2003-12-01

    Medical doctors, who practice interventional cardiology, receive a noticeable radiation dose. In this study, we measured the radiation dose to 9 cardiologists during 144 procedures (72 coronary angiographies and 70 percutaneus translumined coronary angioplasties) in two Greek hospitals. Absorbed doses were measured with TLD placed underneath and over the lead apron at the thyroid protective collar. Based on these measurements, the effective dose was calculated using the Niklason method. In addition, dose area product (DAP) was registered. The effective doses, E, were normalised to the total DAP measured in each procedure, producing the E/DAP index. The mean effective dose values were found to be in the range of 1.2-2.7 {mu}Sv while the mean E/DAP values are in the range of 0.010-0.035 {mu}Sv/Gy cm{sup 2}. The dependence of dose to the X-ray equipment, the exposure parameters and the technique of the cardiologist were examined. Taking under consideration the laboratories' annual workload, the maximum annual dose was estimated to be 1.9 and 2.8 mSv in the two hospitals.

  3. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety, prote

  4. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... reviewing a safety approval application per 14 CFR 414.19(a)(1). The FAA's evaluation included assessment of... consciousness) due to hypoxia. Understand the effects of prolonged oxygen use. Understand the difference between... about the performance criteria, you may contact Randal Maday, Licensing and Evaluation Division...

  5. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative fuel

  6. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells with Two Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2001-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for Space Shuttle in the future, Samsung 18650 cylindrical Li-ion cells with two different capacities have been evaluated. The capacities are 1800 mAh, and 2000 mAh. The studies focused on the performance and safety tests of the cells.

  7. Time Pressure in Scenario-Based Online Construction Safety Quizzes and Its Effect on Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Martin; Adair, Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Online quizzes have been shown to be effective learning and assessment approaches. However, if scenario-based online construction safety quizzes do not include time pressure similar to real-world situations, they reflect situations too ideally. The purpose of this paper is to compare engineering students' performance when carrying out an online…

  8. Tools for the performance assessment and improvement of food safety management systems ; review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Kousta, M.; Drosinos, E.H.; Jasson, V.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2011-01-01

    Food business operators are challenged to combine requirements from different stakeholders (e.g. government, retailers) into a company specific Food Safety Management System (FSMS). Tools to diagnose the performance of an implemented FSMS (diagnostic tools), tools to help a selection process

  9. Framework to implement a risk-informed performance-based fire safety approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2014-01-01

    The demand of a risk-informed performance-based approach for fire safety in the Netherlands is growing. Various major incidents (pub fire within the city of Volendam with 14 casualties in 2001, fire in the detention centre of Schiphol-East (airport) with 11 casualties in 2005 and the fire in the men

  10. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  11. Standardization Safety Management of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Supervision in Colleges and Universities%高校核与辐射安全监管规范化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪霞; 刘朋; 陈永清

    2016-01-01

    针对目前高校核与辐射安全监管方面存在的问题,以苏州大学核与辐射安全监管为研究对象,对高校核与辐射安全监管进行探索与实践。规范化核与辐射的安全监管可以促进大学的安全监管水平。%It has the important meaning to formulate university related safety administrative regulations and security standard, specially regarding standardized safety supervision of the nuclear and radiation, It can promote the university security supervision being scientiifc, standardized normative, and raise the university safety supervision being level. In view of the problems which exist in present university safety supervision on nuclear and radiation, taking the actual situation of Suzhou University safety supervision on nuclear and radiation as an example, it has been explored about the safety supervision on nuclear and radiation.

  12. Long-term safety and efficacy of fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, Frederick; Glatz, Stefan; Toussaint, Andre; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Patients with long life expectancy despite metastatic status might benefit from long-term local control of spinal metastases. Dose-intensified radiotherapy (RT) is believed to control tumor growth better and thus offers longer pain relief. This single-institution study reports on fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases in patients with good life expectancy based on performance status, extent of metastases, histology, and time to metastasis. Between 2004 and 2010, 36 treatment sites in 32 patients (median age 55 years; male 61 %; median Karnofsky performance score 85) were treated with fractionated SBRT. The median treatment dose was 60 Gy (range, 48.5-65 Gy) given in a median of 20 fractions (range, 17-33); the median maximum dose to the planning risk volume for the spinal cord (PRV-SC) was 46.6 Gy. All patients suffering from pain prior to RT reported pain relief after treatment; after a median follow-up of 20.3 months, 61 % of treatment sites were pain-free, another 25 % associated with mild pain. In 86 % of treatments, patients were free from neurological symptoms at the time of the last clinical follow-up. Acute grade 1 toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were observed in 11 patients. Myelopathy did not occur in any patient. Radiologically controlled freedom from local progression was 92 and 84 % after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 19.6 months. Patient selection resulted in long OS despite metastatic disease, and dose-intensified fractionated SBRT for spinal metastases was safe and achieved long-term local tumor control and palliation of pain. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit guter Lebenserwartung trotz metastasierter Erkrankung koennten von einer lang andauernden lokalen Kontrolle von Wirbelsaeulenmetastasen profitieren. Eine dosisintensivierte Radiotherapie (RT) kann vermutlich eine bessere Tumorkontrolle und daher eine laengere Schmerzpalliation erreichen. Ausgewertet wurden die monozentrischen

  13. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2011-01-01

    A review of the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology, including a general review of federal medical device regulation and explanations of the legal and regulatory framework.

  14. Focus on safety and environment : a comparative analysis of pipeline performance 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    The number and frequency of various incidents that affect pipeline integrity, safety and the environment must be examined regularly in order to evaluate pipeline performance. This paper evaluated incidents at companies that are regulated by the National Energy Board (NEB) and compared pipeline performance in other jurisdictions. This constituted the fifth edition of the report and included data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2005. The report provided an introduction to the National Energy Board and performance indicators that were used to evaluate the safety of pipeline employees and contractors. Performance indicators were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of pipeline integrity programs and the protection of the environment during pipeline operations. Eight performance indicators were identified by the Board, grouped under the rubrics of: safety, integrity, environment and incidents. The indicators included the number of fatalities; injuries; pipeline ruptures; pipeline contacts; and liquid releases, leaks and spills. Other indicators included the volume and frequency of liquid releases, leaks and spills; number and frequency of gas releases; and, number of onshore pipeline regulations (OPR) reportable incidents. The methodology of moving averages and analysis of each of the indicators was also discussed. It was concluded that NEB-regulated pipelines performed consistently with reference organizations in Canada, the U.S. and overseas, within the limits of data comparability and that pipelines remain an efficient and safe method of transporting hydrocarbon products. refs., 21 tabs., 17 figs., 3 appendices.

  15. Safety performance of traffic phases and phase transitions in three phase traffic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin

    2015-12-01

    Crash risk prediction models were developed to link safety to various phases and phase transitions defined by the three phase traffic theory. Results of the Bayesian conditional logit analysis showed that different traffic states differed distinctly with respect to safety performance. The random-parameter logit approach was utilized to account for the heterogeneity caused by unobserved factors. The Bayesian inference approach based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used for the estimation of the random-parameter logit model. The proposed approach increased the prediction performance of the crash risk models as compared with the conventional logit model. The three phase traffic theory can help us better understand the mechanism of crash occurrences in various traffic states. The contributing factors to crash likelihood can be well explained by the mechanism of phase transitions. We further discovered that the free flow state can be divided into two sub-phases on the basis of safety performance, including a true free flow state in which the interactions between vehicles are minor, and a platooned traffic state in which bunched vehicles travel in successions. The results of this study suggest that a safety perspective can be added to the three phase traffic theory. The results also suggest that the heterogeneity between different traffic states should be considered when estimating the risks of crash occurrences on freeways.

  16. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related accidents may cause damage to people, environment and lead to waste of time and money. Health, Safety and Environment Management System has been developed in order to reduce accidents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementation of this system on reduction of the accidents and its consequences and also on the safety performance indices in Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Material and Method: In this study, records of accidents were collected by OSHA incident report form 301 over 4 years. Following, the mean annual accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were calculated and reported. Then, using statistical analysis, the impacts of two years implementation of this system on the accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were evaluated. Result: The results showed that the implementation of HSE system was significantly correlated with Frequency Severity Indicator, Accident Severity Rate, lost days, minor accidents and total incidents (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  17. Recent performance experience with US light water reactor self-actuating safety and relief valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, C.G.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past several years, there have been a number of operating reactor events involving performance of primary and secondary safety and relief valves in U.S. Light Water Reactors. There are several different types of safety and relief valves installed for overpressure protection of various safety systems throughout a typical nuclear power plant. The following discussion is limited to those valves in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) and main steam systems of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and in the RCS of boiling water reactors (BWR), all of which are self-actuating having a setpoint controlled by a spring-loaded disk acting against system fluid pressure. The following discussion relates some of the significant recent experience involving operating reactor events or various testing data. Some of the more unusual and interesting operating events or test data involving some of these designs are included, in addition to some involving a number of similar events and those which have generic applicability.

  18. Experimental investigation on radiation shielding of high performance concrete for nuclear and radiotherapy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, Szymon; Gryziński, Michał A.; Maciak, Maciej; Murawski, Łukasz; Tulik, Piotr; Tymińska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the set of procedures developed in Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory at National Centre for Nuclear Research for evaluation of shielding properties of high performance concrete. The purpose of such procedure is to characterize the material behaviour against gamma and neutron radiation. The range of the densities of the concrete specimens was from 2300 to 3900 kg/m3. The shielding properties against photons were evaluated using 137Cs and 60Co sources. The neutron radiation measurements have been performed by measuring the transmitted radiation from 239PuBe source. Scattered neutron radiation has been evaluated using the shadow cone technique. A set up of ionization chambers was used during all experiments. The gamma dose was measured using C-CO2 ionization chamber. The neutron dose was evaluated with recombination chamber of REM-2 type with appropriate recombination method applied. The method to distinguish gamma and neutron absorbed dose components in mixed radiation fields using twin detector method was presented. Also, recombination microdosimetric method was applied for the obtained results. Procedures to establish consecutive half value layers and tenth value layers (HVL and TVL) for gamma and neutron radiation were presented. Measured HVL and TVL values were linked with concrete density to highlight well known dependence. Also, influence of specific admixtures to concrete on neutron attenuation properties was studied. The results confirmed the feasibility of approach for the radiation shielding investigations.

  19. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area: steps and prospects; L'Europe de la surete nucleaire et de la radioprotection: grandes etapes et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, G. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. des relations internationales 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    Launched with enthusiasm and determination in 1957, The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC - EURATOM), which aimed to promote the development of a 'powerful nuclear industry' in Europe, has not ultimately fulfilled the wishes of its founding fathers. Rapidly, and on a topic as strategic as the peaceful use of the atom, national reflexes prevailed. The Chernobyl disaster, in 1986, also substantially slowed down the use of nuclear energy in Europe. Nuclear safety and radiation protection have followed two different paths. Backed by Chapter III of the EURATOM treaty, over time the EAEC has developed a substantial legislative corpus on radiation protection. Meanwhile, and strange as it may seem, nuclear safety has remained the poor relation, on the grounds that the treaty does not grant EURATOM competence in the area. It is true that legislation was adopted in reaction to Chernobyl, but for a long time there was no specific regulation of nuclear safety in the EU. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area owes its construction to Community mechanisms as well as to informal initiatives by safety authorities. Today, more than ever, this centre provides consistency, an overall balance which should both strengthen it and impose it as an international reference. Progress can now be expected on waste management, radiation protection and the safety objectives of new reactors. (author)

  20. Safety and performance of a long life lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, W. R.; Street, H. K.

    A Li/SOCl2 'D' cell for applications requiring 10 to 15 years life at very low drain rates, typically less than 150 microA, were developed. Maximizing cell safety and reliability, while delivering very good energy density, were the goals. These goals were achieved by designing the cell to be application specific. The low-rate cell was optimized to deliver up to 16 Ah at drain rates of less than 70 mA. By virtue of its low surface area, 145 cm(sup 2), the cell demonstrated excellent safety behavior. Safety testing was performed on individual cells as well as on two-cell and four-cell batteries. Single cells did not vent when short-circuited. Benign venting in a two cell string was produced, but only when the string was partially discharged before shorting. The vent mechanism is a 300 psi rupture pressure burst disc manufactured by BS&B Safety Systems. Benign venting is defined as full opening of the 3/8 in. dia vent hole without deformation of the case. Material is expelled from the cell without flame, and the cell stack remains largely intact. Venting of the Sandia-designed low rate cell was not produced under any other abuse test conditions. The vent functions as an ultimate safety mechanism in the case of severe abuse, but resistance to venting under normal use and mild abuse conditions is key to the achievement of high reliability.

  1. Impact of Pilot Delay and Non-Responsiveness on the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria; Hoadley, Sherwood; Wing, David; Baxley, Brian; Allen, Bonnie Danette

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the safety effects of prediction errors and uncertainty on automationsupported functions in the Next Generation Air Transportation System concept of operations is of foremost importance, particularly safety critical functions such as separation that involve human decision-making. Both ground-based and airborne, the automation of separation functions must be designed to account for, and mitigate the impact of, information uncertainty and varying human response. This paper describes an experiment that addresses the potential impact of operator delay when interacting with separation support systems. In this study, we evaluated an airborne separation capability operated by a simulated pilot. The experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assistance systems. Pilot actions required by the airborne separation automation to resolve traffic conflicts were delayed within a wide range, varying from five to 240 seconds while a percentage of randomly selected pilots were programmed to completely miss the conflict alerts and therefore take no action. Results indicate that the strategicAirborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) functions exercised in the experiment can sustain pilot response delays of up to 90 seconds and more, depending on the traffic density. However, when pilots or operators fail to respond to conflict alerts the safety effects are substantial, particularly at higher traffic densities.

  2. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (pfood safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries.

  3. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    approach of performance-based fire design (PBFD) becomes therefore more and more popular. A higher design flexibility based on performance objectives constitutes a beneficial and competitive concept within the structural fire safety engineering, ensuring a higher safety level of a design choice. The aim...... of this paper is to present the diversity in fundamentals, procedures and solutions of the two foregoing approaches. The aim is primarily accomplished through the detailed case-study analysis of an open car-park in compliance with the European and Scandinavian prescriptive regulations. Furthermore, the advanced...... methodology of the performance-based fire design approach is considered, with the avail of computer-aided simulations of the main frame of the car-park. Nonlinear analyses, with respect to thermally induced effects and emphasis laid to the collapse modality, are carried out on a frame of the considered...

  4. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S.B.

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, SA; Voronov, YA; Onishchenko, EM; Simakov, AB; Sosnovtsev, VV; Suchkov, SI; Sugrobova, TA

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas-filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blow-out ti

  6. External Beam Radiation Therapy and Abiraterone in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer: Safety and Effect on Tissue Androgens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eunpi [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mostaghel, Elahe A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Russell, Kenneth J.; Liao, Jay J.; Konodi, Mark A. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kurland, Brenda F. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Marck, Brett T. [Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Matsumoto, Alvin M. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dalkin, Bruce L. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Montgomery, R. Bruce, E-mail: rbmontgo@uw.edu [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Optimizing androgen suppression may provide better control of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous trials have supported the benefit of combining androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiation therapy in men with locally advanced or high-grade disease. Addition of abiraterone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) with radiation has not been reported. We examined the safety of this combination as well as its impact on androgen suppression. Methods and Materials: A prospective, phase 2 study was conducted in men with localized PCa treated with 6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent abiraterone with LHRHa and radiation. Duration of adjuvant LHRHa was at the discretion of the treating clinician. Prostate biopsy assays were obtained prior to the start of therapy and prior to radiation. Sera and tissue androgen levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 22 men with intermediate- (n=3) and high-risk PCa (n=19) received study therapy. Sixteen men completed the intended course of abiraterone, and 19 men completed planned radiation to 77.4 to 81 Gy. Radiation to pelvic nodes was administered in 20 men. The following grade 3 toxicities were reported: lymphopenia (14 patients), fatigue (1 patient), transaminitis (2 patients), hypertension (2 patients), and hypokalemia (1 patient). There were no grade 4 toxicities. All 21 men who complied with at least 3 months of abiraterone therapy had a preradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration nadir of <0.3 ng/mL. Median levels of tissue androgen downstream of CYP17A were significantly suppressed after treatment with abiraterone, and upstream steroids were increased. At median follow-up of 21 months (range: 3-37 months), only 1 patient (who had discontinued abiraterone at 3 months) had biochemical relapse. Conclusions: Addition of abiraterone to LHRHa with radiation is safe and achieves effective prostatic androgen suppression

  7. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed.

  8. Performance and Safety to NAVSEA Instruction 9310.1A of Lithium-thionyl Chloride Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The design, performance and safety of a fully engineered, selfcontained Li/SOCl2 battery as the power source for underwater applications. In addition to meeting the performance standards of the end user this battery is successfully tested under the rigorous safety conditions of NAVSEA Instruction 9310.1A for use on land, aircraft and surface ships.

  9. GPU-based high-performance computing for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xun; Ziegenhein, Peter; Jiang, Steve B

    2014-02-21

    Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. The graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of study has been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this paper, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented.

  10. Application of FPGA technology to performance limitations in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, John J.; Smathers, J. B.; Solberg, Tim D.; Casselman, Steve

    1996-10-01

    The field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a promising technology for increasing computation performance by providing for the design of custom chips through programmable logic blocks. This technology was used to implement and test a hardware random number generator (RNG) versus four software algorithms. The custom hardware consists of a sun SBus-based board (EVC) which has been designed around a Xilinx FPGA. A timing analysis indicates the Sun/EVC hardware generator computes 1 multiplied by 106 random numbers approximately 50 times faster than the multiplicative congruential algorithm. The hardware and software RNGs were also compare using a Monte Carlo photon transport algorithm. For this comparison the Sun/EVC generator produces a performance increase of approximately 2.0 versus the software generators. This comparison is based upon 1 multiplied by 105 photon histories.

  11. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities.

  12. Radiation Measurements Performed with Active Detectors Relevant for Human Space Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2015-01-01

    A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  13. Radiation measurements performed with active detectors relevant for human space exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eNarici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long duration mission planning in human spaceflight.Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former are easier to handle, cheaper, lighter and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station (ISS.To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool which allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.

  14. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  15. Performance and Safety Tests on Samsung 18650 Li-ion Cells: Two Cell Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Jeevarajan, Judith; Rehm, Raymond; Bragg, Bobby; Zhang, Wenlin

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the applications for space shuttle in future, two types of Samsung cells, with capacity 1800 mAh and 2000 mAh, have been investigated. The studies focused on: (1) Performance tests: completed 250 cycles at various combinations of charge/discharge C rates and discharge capacity measurements at various temperatures; and (2) Safety tests: overcharge and overdischarge, heat abuse, short circuit, internal and external short, and vibration, vacuum, and drop tests

  16. Do clinical safety charts improve paramedic key performance indicator results? (A clinical improvement programme evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Phillip; Middleton, Paul M; Bonner, Ann; Loudfoot, Allan; Elliott, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Is the Clinical Safety Chart clinical improvement programme (CIP) effective at improving paramedic key performance indicator (KPI) results within the Ambulance Service of New South Wales? The CIP intervention area was compared with the non-intervention area in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant improvement in KPI results. The CIP was associated with a statistically significant improvement in paramedic KPI results within the intervention area. The strategies used within this CIP are recommended for further consideration.

  17. Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-elliptic radiator conformed on elliptical surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.

  18. Comparison of the Thermal Performance of Radiative and Convective Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    of interest to compare the energy efficiency of the two types of terminals for heating and cooling buildings. Convective terminals (i.e. air conditioning systems) have been widely used in buildings, but the level of comfort is not always acceptable due to high air velocity. On the other hand radiant terminals...... can provide a better indoor climate, and be more energy efficient because they can make use of low-grade sources. The output of this conceptual approach is a better understanding of the advantages and drawbacks of the two technologies under different conditions. The analysis has been performed...

  19. The Effective Radiation Pattern Concept for Realistic Performance Estimation of LTE Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Zarbouti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio channels induce distortions to the radiation pattern of beamforming systems such as beam broadening as well as sidelobe level and null rising. If these effects are ignored, the system performance is overestimated. This paper proposes the simple concept of an effective radiation pattern (ERP calculated by optimally fitting the “real-world” radiation pattern to the ERP. The proposed ERP method is incorporated into a multicell bad urban 4G LTE operational scenario which employs beamforming for both the BSs and the RNs. The performed simulations provide evidence that the ideal instead of the real radiation pattern overestimates the SIR and capacity by almost 3 dB and 13 Mbps, respectively, for the reference scenario without RNs. It also proves that the ERP method produces almost identical performance results with the real radiation pattern, and hence it is a simple and viable option for realistic performance analysis. Finally, the network performance is studied as a function of the number of RNs with the help of the ERP method. Results show that a beamforming LTE network with RNs that also employ beamforming provides 3 dB SIR gain with the addition of 1 RN per cell and 15 dB gain with 4 RNs per cell.

  20. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Kenneth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerber, David E. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wardak, Zabi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sher, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin [Department of Clinical Science, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Corona, Irma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sharma, Akanksha [School of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wadsworth, Margaret E. [Radiation Oncology of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Timmerman, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  1. Performance and Reliability of DSRC Vehicular Safety Communication: A Formal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available IEEE- and ASTM-adopted dedicated short range communications (DSRC standard toward 802.11p is a key enabling technology for the next generation of vehicular safety communication. Broadcasting of safety messages is one of the fundamental services in DSRC. There have been numerous publications addressing design and analysis of such broadcast ad hoc system based on the simulations. For the first time, an analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance and reliability of IEEE 802.11a-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V safety-related broadcast services in DSRC system on highway. The proposed model takes two safety services with different priorities, nonsaturated message arrival, hidden terminal problem, fading transmission channel, transmission range, IEEE 802.11 backoff counter process, and highly mobile vehicles on highway into account. Based on the solutions to the proposed analytic model, closed-form expressions of channel throughput, transmission delay, and packet reception rates are derived. From the obtained numerical results under various offered traffic and network parameters, new insights and enhancement suggestions are given.

  2. Performance and Reliability of DSRC Vehicular Safety Communication: A Formal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xianbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE- and ASTM-adopted dedicated short range communications (DSRC standard toward 802.11p is a key enabling technology for the next generation of vehicular safety communication. Broadcasting of safety messages is one of the fundamental services in DSRC. There have been numerous publications addressing design and analysis of such broadcast ad hoc system based on the simulations. For the first time, an analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance and reliability of IEEE 802.11a-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V safety-related broadcast services in DSRC system on highway. The proposed model takes two safety services with different priorities, nonsaturated message arrival, hidden terminal problem, fading transmission channel, transmission range, IEEE 802.11 backoff counter process, and highly mobile vehicles on highway into account. Based on the solutions to the proposed analytic model, closed-form expressions of channel throughput, transmission delay, and packet reception rates are derived. From the obtained numerical results under various offered traffic and network parameters, new insights and enhancement suggestions are given.

  3. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  4. A study on the radiation and environment safety -Development of technology for biological dosimetry-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun Kee Jung; Park, Hyo Kook; Kim, Sang Bok; Park Sun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Adult rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Gy. The animals were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours following exposure. The amount of serum acute phase proteins(haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, transferrin) were measured by competitive ELISA. In the 0.1 Gy irradiated rats, serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were 400% higher and serum transferrin was 50% lower as compared to controls, 96 hours after irradiation. Ceruloplasmin increased by 400%, 24 hours after irradiation, but 96 hours after irradiation, the concentration of this protein in rat returned to normal level. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the case of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. In the group of the 3.0 Gy irradiated rats, transferrin increased by 200%, 96 hours after irradiation. These biochemical responses to radiation did not show dose-dependent relation, but the sensitivity of the indicators was high enough to detect absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy. The above results can be applied to the measurements of acute phase reactants in human serum for the assessment of exposure doses in radiation workers and patients under radiation therapy. 39 figs, 72 refs. (Author).

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2010; Rapport sur la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection des installations nucleaires de Fessenheim - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  6. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  7. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.;

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values...... for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments, on the test and comparison of models to assess the transfer of tritium and 14C to biota and humans, on the validation of models for dose reconstruction due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident, on modelling the transfer of radionuclides...... in aquatic systems, on remediation of rural and urban sites with radioactive residues, and on the impact of environmental radioactivity on non-human species. The book concludes with a summary of the outcomes of the EMRAS programme and is accompanied by a CD-ROM which provides details of the work...

  8. Using lagging and leading indicators for the evaluation of occupational safety and health performance in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) management is closely related to the development of OSH performance measurement, which should include OSH outcomes (e.g., occupational accidents), OSH inputs (including working conditions) and OSH-related activities. The indicators used to measure the OSH outcomes are often called lagging indicators, and the indicators of inputs and OSH activities are leading indicators. A study was conducted in 60 companies in order to determine what kinds of indicators were used for OSH performance measurement by companies with different levels of OSH performance. The results reveal that the indicators most commonly used in all of the companies are those related to ensuring compliance with the statutory requirements. At the same time, the leading indicators are much more often adopted in companies with a higher performance level. These companies also much more often monitor on a regular basis the indicators adopted for the evaluation of their OSH performance.

  9. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues.

  10. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, S A; Onishchenko, E M; Simakov, A B; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Sugrobova, T A

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas- filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blowout time of the fuse is 10-50 ms; whereupon the leakage current through it is less than 1 nA at a 2-kV voltage. The resistance of the fuse case is greater than or equivalent equal' greater than 10**1**2 Omega. Its overall dimensions are 5.8 multiplied by 3.8 multiplied by 2 mm.

  11. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannala, S.; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  12. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, S., E-mail: spannala@sabic.com; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J. [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, H.; Nanda, J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  13. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects.

  14. Dynamics of safety performance and culture: a group model building approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Love, Peter E D; Stagbouer, Greg; Annesley, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The management of occupational health and safety (OHS) including safety culture interventions is comprised of complex problems that are often hard to scope and define. Due to the dynamic nature and complexity of OHS management, the concept of system dynamics (SD) is used to analyze accident prevention. In this paper, a system dynamics group model building (GMB) approach is used to create a causal loop diagram of the underlying factors influencing the OHS performance of a major drilling and mining contractor in Australia. While the organization has invested considerable resources into OHS their disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR) has not been decreasing. With this in mind, rich individualistic knowledge about the dynamics influencing the DIFR was acquired from experienced employees with operations, health and safety and training background using a GMB workshop. Findings derived from the workshop were used to develop a series of causal loop diagrams that includes a wide range of dynamics that can assist in better understanding the causal influences OHS performance. The causal loop diagram provides a tool for organizations to hypothesize the dynamics influencing effectiveness of OHS management, particularly the impact on DIFR. In addition the paper demonstrates that the SD GMB approach has significant potential in understanding and improving OHS management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety analysis and lay-out aspects of shieldings against particle radiation at the example of spallation facilities in the megawatt range; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse und Auslegungsaspekte von Abschirmungen gegen Teilchenstrahlung am Beispiel von Spallationsanlagen im Megawatt Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslik, R.

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses the shielding of particle radiation from high current accelerators, spallation neutron sources and so called ADS-facilities (Accelerator Driven Systems). ADS-facilities are expected to gain importance in the future for transmutation of long-lived isotopes from fission reactors as well as for energy production. In this paper physical properties of the radiation as well as safety relevant requirements and corresponding shielding concepts are discussed. New concepts for the layout and design of such shielding are presented. Focal point of this work will be the fundamental difference between conventional fission reactor shielding and the safety relevant issues of shielding from high-energy radiation. Key point of this paper is the safety assessment of shielding issues of high current accelerators, spallation targets and ADS-blanket systems as well as neutron scattering instruments at spallation neutron sources. Safety relevant shielding requirements are presented and discussed. For the layout and design of the shielding for spallation sources computer base calculations methods are used. A discussion and comparison of the most important methods like semi-empirical, deterministic and stochastic codes are presented. Another key point within the presented paper is the discussion of shielding materials and their shielding efficiency concerning different types of radiation. The use of recycling material, as a cost efficient solution, is discussed. Based on the conducted analysis, flowcharts for a systematic layout and design of adequate shielding for targets and accelerators have been developed and are discussed in this paper. By use of these flowcharts layout and engineering design of future ADS-facilities can be performed. (orig.)

  16. Safety analysis and lay-out aspects of shieldings against particle radiation at the example of spallation facilities in the megawatt range; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse und Auslegungsaspekte von Abschirmungen gegen Teilchenstrahlung am Beispiel von Spallationsanlagen im Megawatt Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslik, R.

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses the shielding of particle radiation from high current accelerators, spallation neutron sources and so called ADS-facilities (Accelerator Driven Systems). ADS-facilities are expected to gain importance in the future for transmutation of long-lived isotopes from fission reactors as well as for energy production. In this paper physical properties of the radiation as well as safety relevant requirements and corresponding shielding concepts are discussed. New concepts for the layout and design of such shielding are presented. Focal point of this work will be the fundamental difference between conventional fission reactor shielding and the safety relevant issues of shielding from high-energy radiation. Key point of this paper is the safety assessment of shielding issues of high current accelerators, spallation targets and ADS-blanket systems as well as neutron scattering instruments at spallation neutron sources. Safety relevant shielding requirements are presented and discussed. For the layout and design of the shielding for spallation sources computer base calculations methods are used. A discussion and comparison of the most important methods like semi-empirical, deterministic and stochastic codes are presented. Another key point within the presented paper is the discussion of shielding materials and their shielding efficiency concerning different types of radiation. The use of recycling material, as a cost efficient solution, is discussed. Based on the conducted analysis, flowcharts for a systematic layout and design of adequate shielding for targets and accelerators have been developed and are discussed in this paper. By use of these flowcharts layout and engineering design of future ADS-facilities can be performed. (orig.)

  17. Training in nuclear and radiation safety in Latin American and Caribbean; Capacitacion en seguridad nuclear y radiologica en America Latina y el Caribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopulos, S.; Diaz, O.; Larcher, A.; Echenique, L.; Nicolas, R., E-mail: spapadopulos@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: odiaz@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: alarcher@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: lechenique@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: rnicolas@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, R.; Quintana, G., E-mail: alombar@fi.uba, E-mail: quinta@fi.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (FI/UBA), (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2013-07-01

    From thirty-three years, Argentina has taken the commitment to train professionals in the field of nuclear and radiation safety for the care and protection of workers and public in general. Sponsored by the IAEA and supported by the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires (FIUBA), an undertaking was made to encourage the training of scientists and experts in the countries of the region in order to establish a strong safety culture in radiation in individuals and maintaining high standards of safety practices using ionizing radiation. In 2012, the Graduate Course in Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources has acquired the status of 'Specialization' of the FIUBA, a category that further hierarchies skills training in the subject. This is a highly anticipated achievement by the implications for academic institutions, national and regional level, contributing to the strengthening of the Regional Training Center for Latin America and the Caribbean, acknowledged in a long-term agreement between the IAEA and Argentina in September 2008. Due to increased demand for nuclear activity, it is important to continue and deepen further training in radiological and nuclear areas. In order to satisfy both national and regional needs a process of increase on training offer training is being carried out, under the jurisdiction frame of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This paper presents the achievements of the country so far as regards training of human resource in radiation protection and nuclear safety in the region and highlights the challenges ahead for the extension of the offer in education and training. (author)

  18. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Department of Biomedical Physics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  19. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10{sup {minus}4}/y.

  20. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  1. Factors Associated With Radiation Treatment Compliance for Women With Cervical Cancer in a Safety Net Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Alfredo; Manley, Haley; OʼDonnell, Barrett; Asper, Joshua; Bonnen, Mark; Ludwig, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether patient characteristics are associated with radiation treatment noncompliance. We retrospectively studied 244 patients with cervical cancer treated with chemoradiation between May 2006 and August 2015 at a safety net health center. Compliance with treatment was defined as missing less than 2 days of scheduled radiation. Treatment records revealed a compliance rate of 50.8% in this population. Factors associated with noncompliance were younger age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.037; P = 0.004), presence of psychiatric diagnosis (HR, 0.581; P = 0.044), and having insurance (HR, 0.484; P = 0.022). Noncompliance was associated with a decrease in disease-free survival (HR, 0.555; P = 0.042) but was not associated with overall survival. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage was associated with detriment in overall survival on multivariate analysis (HR, 2.034; P = 0.001). Younger patients, those with psychiatric illness, and those with insurance define a group that is more likely to be noncompliant with treatment and hence may require up-front intervention to improve outcomes.

  2. Establish the Foundation of Environmental Assessment Technique in ROK via the International Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety Managed by IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Soo; Choi, Y. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, H. S.; Ahn, S. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Hwang, W. T.; Seo, K. S

    2005-08-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) released from the nuclear facilities can easily be absorbed by plants via their stomata and incorporated into organics by metabolic processes such as photosynthesis. Organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant cells is mostly inexchangeable and remains at harvest to contribute some to the ingestion radiation dose (Barry et al., 1999). In assessing the ingestion dose due to an accidental release of HTO, a dynamic model simulating its environmental behaviors is needed. Various types of dynamic HTO models have been developed in many different countries. Joint international researches have been conducted many times for model comparisons and validations (BIOMOVS II, 1996a, 1996b). In 2003, however, with the understanding of an insufficiency in the validation test, the IAEA started on a joint international research program for the validation of environmental models (EMRAS : Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) as a successor to the BIOMASS (2001). The KAERI submitted 'a scenario of an acute soybean exposure to HTO' to the Tritium Working Group (Theme 1) in the EMRAS program. It was accepted as Task 2 of the working group. This report is the result of a joint research for the KAERI scenario carried out by the EMRAS tritium working group with the KAERI playing a role of a coordinator.

  3. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2005; Rapport annuel: la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn (Nuclear safety authority) considers that 2005 was a satisfactory year in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection. However, further progress can and must be made. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. 2005 was marked by significant progress in the process of harmonizing national nuclear safety policies Against a backdrop of the preparation of a bill on management of radioactive materials and waste, to be presented to Parliament in March 2006, 2005 was a year of important milestones. The Asn control activities encompass the following seven areas: development of general regulations for nuclear safety and radiation protection; management of individual authorization requests and receipt of declarations; inspection of nuclear activities; organisation of radiological surveillance of individuals and of the environment; preparation for management of emergency situations and implementation if necessary; contribution to public information on nuclear safety and radiation protection; determination of the French position within international community. Main topics in 2005: government bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field; the challenges and ambitions of the Asn; controlling exposure to radon; EPR Reactor Project Safety; working towards a law on radioactive waste in 2006; I.R.R.T.: an international audit of Asn in 2006; harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe; Chernobyl: what has been achieved over the past 20 years; informing the Public; internal authorizations. (N.C.)

  4. 根植于航空安全文化的内隐安全态度的预测效应%Predictive Effect of Implicit Safety Attitudes on Safety Performance in Aviation Safety Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏碧华; 姬鸣; 赵小军; 屠金路; 游旭群

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental feature of safety culture is represented by safety attitudes. In terms of measuring safety cultures, many researchers have mainly focused on explicit safety attitudes and generally relied on specific survey instruments. It is questionable, however, whether self-report measures can capture all aspects of organizational safety culture. Instead of getting direct answers, it is necessary to introduce implicit measures and the implicit safety attitudes test into safety culture evaluation. The basic hypothesis of this study was that while various enterprises share different safety culture, the structure and intensity of implicit and explicit safety attitudes differ for employees. The present study was aimed at investigating the complete model of aviation safety culture and the importance of implicit safety attitudes by detecting the relationship between explicit and implicit safety attitudes as well as the prediction effect of implicit safety attitudes. The Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire (FMAQ 2.0, international version) was adopted in this study which was based on the work characteristics of modern airlines pilots. With the purpose of evaluating explicit safety attitudes under the background of aviation safety culture, FMAQ 2.0 is comprised of three subscales, including basic organizational attitudes, cockpit work attitudes, and flight automation attitudes. Moreover, Evaluative Implicit Association Test and Affective Implicit Association Test were developed for aviatic implicit safety attitudes test. 134 pilots were involved in the investigation, 126 valid cases were obtained. Safety performance were obtained from airline company The results showed that (1) IAT of aviation safety attitudes indicated a high effect value, aviation safety led to more positive evaluation and feelings while flight risk and adventure were more connected with negative evaluation and emotion. (2) on four dimensions, including safety regulation, flight style, flight

  5. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  7. Performance of a radiation protection cabin during implantation of pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, Sylvain; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Bordachar, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Pacemaker implants are associated with a high cumulative exposure of the operators to radiation. Standard radiation protection with lead aprons is incomplete and the cause of spine disorders. A radiation protection cabin offers complete protection by surrounding the operator, without requiring a lead apron. We randomly and evenly assigned 60 patients undergoing implantations of permanent pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) with (a) a radiation protection cabin (cabin group, n = 30) versus (b) standard protection with a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (control group, n = 30). Radiation exposure was measured using personal electronic dosimeters placed on the thorax, back, and head of the operator. The patient, procedural, and device characteristics of the 2 study groups were similar. All procedures in the cabin group were performed as planned without increase in duration or complication rate compared with the control group. The mean radiation dose to the head, normalized for fluoroscopy duration, was significantly lower in the cabin (0.040 +/- 0.032 microSv/min) than in the control (1.138 +/- 0.560 microSv/min) group (p < 0.0001). The radiation doses to the thorax (0.043 +/- 0.027 vs 0.041 +/- 0.040 microSv/min) and back (0.038 +/- 0.029 vs 0.033 +/- 0.018 microSv/min) in the cabin versus control group (under the apron) were similar. The use of a radiation protection cabin markedly decreased the exposure of the operator to radiation, and eliminated the need to wear a lead apron, without increasing the procedural time or complication rate during implantation of pacemaker and ICD.

  8. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  9. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  10. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  11. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2016-12-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  12. Heat transfer performance characteristics of hybrid nanofluids as coolant in louvered fin automotive radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R.; Sarkar, Jahar

    2017-06-01

    Present study deals with the enhancement of convective heat transfer performance of EG brine based various hybrid nanofluids i.e. Ag, Cu, SiC, CuO and TiO2 in 0-1% volume fraction of Al2O3 nanofluid, as coolants for louvered fin automobile radiator. The effects of nanoparticles combination and operating parameters on thermo physical properties, heat transfer, effectiveness, pumping power and performance index of hybrid nanofluids have been evaluated. Comparison of studied hybrid nanofluids based on radiator size and pumping power has been made as well. Among all studied hybrid nanofluids, 1% Ag hybrid nanofluid (0.5% Ag and 0.5% Al2O3) yields highest effectiveness and heat transfer rate as well as pumping power. However, SiC + Al2O3 dispersed hybrid nanofluid yields maximum performance index and hence this can be recommended for best coolant. For the same radiator size and heat transfer rate, pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to increase in engine thermal efficiency and hence reduction in engine fuel consumption. For same coolant flow rate and heat transfer rate, the radiator size reduces and pumping power increases by using Ag hybrid nanofluids leading to reduction in radiator size, weight and cost.

  13. Training Programs on Radiological Safety for users of Ionizing Radiations in Peru; Programas de formacion en proteccion radiologica para usuarios de radiaciones ionizantes en el Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    2003-07-01

    In Peru, people who work with ionizing radiations must have an authorization (Individual License) as established in the Radiological Safety Regulations, which are the mandatory rules. The Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN), which is the technical organ of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) in charge of controlling radiations within the country, grants the authorization after the candidate demonstrates that he/she knows the specific use of the technique using radiations, as well as the aspects related to safety and radiological protection. Since it was created in 1972, the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (VSEN) from IPEN has carried out different training courses so that people can work safety with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and investigation. The analysis of the radiological safety programs carried out by CSEN during the last 30 years, which allowed the training of more than 2200 people in the country and, at the same time, made possible the securing of the respective Individual License, is presented in this work. The courses, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear gauges gamma irradiator, etc..., are part of the continuous education program of CSEN. (Author)

  14. ASN annual report 2007 - ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2007; ASN rapport annuel 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2007 annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) presents the highlights of the year in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France. The year 2007 was marked by the implementation of a new legislative and regulatory framework created by the 13 June 2006 Act on transparency and security in the nuclear field (TSN) and the 28 June Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. As in the previous two years, the year was relatively satisfactory from the nuclear safety viewpoint and slightly less so with regard to small-scale nuclear activities. For two years now, the medical field has been marked by the declaration to ASN of a number of serious radiotherapy accidents which have led to several deaths or the need for extensive surgery. The following main topics are reviewed in the document: 1 - the decrees implementing the 'TSN' act and the 'Waste' act; 2 - the new ASN, one year on; 3 - ASN regulatory actions in the field of radiotherapy; 4 - regulation of new installations; 5 - the key issues for regulation of existing installations; 6 - nuclear safety and radiation protection research; 7 - policy for management of the post-accident phase of a radiological emergency; 8 - sites and soils polluted by radioactive materials; 9 - international harmonization of nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  15. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  16. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  17. Performance And Radiation Hardness Of The Atlas/sct Detector Module

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose experiment being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at FERN, Geneva. ATLAS is designed to exploit the full physics potential of LHC, in particular to study topics concerning the Higgs mechanism, Super-symmetry and CP violation. The cross sections for the processes under study are extremely small, requiring very high luminosity colliding beams. The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is an essential part of the Inner Detector tracking system of ATLAS. The active elements of the SCT is 4088 detector modules, tiled on four barrel cylinders and eighteen endcap disks. As a consequence of the high luminosity, the detector modules will operate in a harsh radiation environment. This thesis describes work concerning radiation hardness, beam test performance and methods for production testing of detector modules. The radiation hardness studies have been focused on the electrical performance of the front-end ASIC and the detector module. The results have identified features ...

  18. LED灯具光辐射安全相关标准介绍%Standards about Optical Radiation Safety of LED Luminaires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓晨; 蔡喆; 彭振坚

    2011-01-01

    This is a introduction of standard publications about optical radiation safety of LED luminaries,including ICNIRP optical radiation guidelines,IEC laser products safety,and the IEC,CIE,EU,ANSI/IESNA standards for photobiological safety of lamp and lamp systems.The difference and relations of these standards are analyzed.%介绍了关于LED光辐射安全的主要标准,包括国际非电离辐射防护委员会的光辐射导则、国际照明委员会、国际电工委员会、欧盟、北美的激光产品或灯和灯系统的光生物安全性标准,分析了这些标准的差异和联系。

  19. Performance tuning Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is a designed for dual use for forecasting and research. WRF offers multiple physics options that can be combined in any way. One of the physics options is radiance computation. The major source for energy for the earth's climate is solar radiation. Thus, it is imperative to accurately model horizontal and vertical distribution of the heating. Goddard solar radiative transfer model includes the absorption duo to water vapor,ozone, ozygen, carbon dioxide, clouds and aerosols. The model computes the interactions among the absorption and scattering by clouds, aerosols, molecules and surface. Finally, fluxes are integrated over the entire longwave spectrum.In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 2.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 2.1x compared to the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme code.

  20. Performance Improvement of Total Ionization Dose Radiation Sensor Devices Using Fluorine-Treated MOHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Hsieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine-treated titanium nitride–silicon oxide–hafnium oxide–silicon oxide–silicon devices (hereafter F-MOHOS are candidates for total ionization dose (TID radiation sensor applications. The main subject of the study reportedherein is the performance improvement in terms of TID radiation-induced charge generation effect and charge-retention reliability characterization for F-MOHOS devices. In the case of F-MOHOS TID radiation sensors, the gamma radiation induces a significant decrease of threshold voltage VT and the radiation-induced charge density is nearly six times larger than that of standard metal–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon MONOS devices. The decrease of VT for F-MOHOS after gamma irradiation has a strong correlation to the TID up to 5 Mrad gamma irradiation as well. The improvement of charge retention loss for F-MOHOS devices is nearly 15% better than that of metal–oxide–hafnium oxide–oxide–silicon MOHOS devices. The F-MOHOS device described in this study demonstrates better feasibility for non-volatile TID radiation sensing in the future.

  1. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1995-03-01

    Detailed information pertaining to As Low As Reasonably Achievable/Contamination Control Improvement Project (ALARA/CCIP) activities are outlined. Improved commitment to the WHC ALARA/CCIP Program was experienced throughout FY 1994. During CY 1994, 17 of 19 sitewide ALARA performance goals were completed on or ahead of schedule. Estimated total exposure by facility for CY 1994 is listed in tables by organization code for each dosimeter frequency. Facilities/areas continue to utilize the capabilities of the RPR tracking system in conjunction with the present site management action-tracking system to manage deficiencies, trend performance, and develop improved preventive efforts. Detailed information pertaining to occupational injuries/illnesses are provided. The Industrial Safety and Hygiene programs are described which have generated several key initiatives that are believed responsible for improved safety performance. A breakdown of CY 1994 occupational injuries/illnesses by type, affected body group, cause, job type, age/gender, and facility is provided. The contributing experience of each WHC division/department in attaining this significant improvement is described along with tables charting specific trends. The Radiological Control Program is on schedule to meet all RL Site Management System milestones and program commitments.

  3. Quantification of cerivastatin toxicity supports organismal performance assays as an effective tool during pharmaceutical safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Shannon M; Ruff, James S; Galland, Tessa; Underwood, Tristan K; Kandaris, Kirstie A; Liu, Nicole M; Morrison, Linda C; Veranth, John M; Potts, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    A major problem in pharmaceutical development is that adverse effects remain undetected during preclinical and clinical trials, but are later revealed after market release when prescribed to many patients. We have developed a fitness assay known as the organismal performance assay (OPA), which evaluates individual performance by utilizing outbred wild mice (Mus musculus) that are assigned to an exposed or control group, which compete against each other for resources within semi-natural enclosures. Performance measurements included reproductive success, survival, and male competitive ability. Our aim was to utilize cerivastatin (Baycol(®), Bayer), a pharmaceutical with known adverse effects, as a positive control to assess OPAs as a potential tool for evaluating the safety of compounds during preclinical trials. Mice were exposed to cerivastatin (~4.5 mg/kg/day) into early adulthood. Exposure ceased and animals were released into semi-natural enclosures. Within enclosures, cerivastatin-exposed females had 25% fewer offspring and cerivastatin-exposed males had 10% less body mass, occupied 63% fewer territories, sired 41% fewer offspring, and experienced a threefold increase in mortality when compared to controls. OPAs detected several cerivastatin-induced adverse effects indicating that fitness assays, commonly used in ecology and evolutionary biology, could be useful as an additional tool in safety testing during pharmaceutical development.

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    WHC once again achieved significant improvement in its Overall safety performance as reflected by the injury/illness incidence rates. Incidence rates with one exception (Restricted Work Cases Only Incidence Rate) reflect sharp reductions. The increase in the Restricted Work Case Incidence Rate appears to be the result of effective case management activity and the return to work in a partial duty capacity of employees who may otherwise have been off work due to a work-related injury/illness (Page 2--9).

  5. Development of road safety performance indicators for trauma management in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelman, Victoria; Auerbach, Kerstin; Doveh, Etti

    2013-11-01

    Trauma management (TM) covers two types of medical treatment: the initial one provided by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a further one provided by permanent medical facilities. There is a consensus in the professional literature that to reduce the severity and the number of road crash victims, the TM system should provide rapid and adequate initial care of injury, combined with sufficient further treatment at a hospital or trauma centre. Recognizing the important role of TM for reducing road crash injury outcome, it was decided, within the EU funded SafetyNet project, to develop road safety performance indicators (SPIs) which would characterize the level of TM systems' performance in European countries and enable country comparisons. The concept of TM SPIs was developed based on a literature study of performance indicators in TM, a survey of available practices in Europe and data availability examinations. A set of TM SPIs was introduced including 14 indicators which characterize five issues such as: availability of EMS stations; availability and composition of EMS medical staff; availability and composition of EMS transportation units; characteristics of the EMS response time, and availability of trauma beds in permanent medical facilities. Basic information on the TM systems was collected in close cooperation with the national expert group. A dataset with TM SPIs for 21 countries was created. It was demonstrated that the countries can be compared using selected TM SPIs. Moreover, a more general comparison of the TM systems' performance in the countries is possible, using multiple ranking and statistical weighting techniques. By both methods, final estimates were received enabling the recognition of groups of countries with similar levels of the TM system's performance. The results of various trials were consistent as to the recognition of countries with high or low level of the TM systems' performance, where in grouping countries with intermediate levels of

  6. Performance Analysis of Si-Based Ultra-Shallow Junction Photodiodes for UV Radiation Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a performance investigation of newly-developed ultra-shallow junction photodiodes (PureB-diodes) for ultraviolet (UV) radiation detection. The photodiodes are fabricated by pure boron chemical vapor deposition (PureB CVD) technology, which can provide nanometer-thin boron cappin

  7. Predicting Radiation Induced Performance Decrements of AH-1 Helicopter Crews. Volume 2. Evaluation of Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Predicting Radiation Induced Performance Decrements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    X E-2 jerk joule 1J) 1.000 0 XOOX E#9 jouleikilogram IJ/Kgl (radiation dose absorbed) Gray IGyv 1.000000 kilotons teraJoules 4.183 kip 11000 Ibfl...newton (N) 4.448 222 X E*3 kip /tnch 2 (ksti kilo pascal tkPa) 6.894 757 X E+3 ktap newton-secondim 2 IN-s/M 2) 1.000 000 X E-2 micron meter (mI 1.000 000...designed as a research tool for following performance changes over time, treatments, dosages or levels ( Thorne , Genser, Sing & Hegge, 1985). The WRPAB

  8. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  9. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  10. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  11. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  12. Evaluation of safety, an unavoidable requirement in the applications of ionizing radiations; La evaluacion de la seguridad un requisito de seguridad insoslayable en las aplicaciones de las radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres, E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The safety assessments should be conducted as a means to evaluate compliance with safety requirements (and thus the application of fundamental safety principles) for all facilities and activities in order to determine the measures to be taken to ensure safety. It is an essential tool in decision making. For long time we have linked the safety assessment to nuclear facilities and not to all practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in daily life. However, the main purpose of the safety assessment is to determine if it has reached an appropriate level of safety for an installation or activity and if it has fulfilled the objectives of safety and basic safety criteria set by the designer, operating organization and the regulatory body under the protection and safety requirements set out in the International Basic safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. This paper presents some criteria and personal experiences with the new international recommendations on this subject and its practical application in the region and demonstrates the importance of this requirement. Reflects the need to train personnel of the operator and the regulatory body in the proportional application of this requirement in practice with ionizing radiation.

  13. From striving to thriving: systems thinking, strategy, and the performance of safety net hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jonathan; Singer, Sara; Kane, Nancy; Valentine, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Safety net hospitals (SNH) have, on average, experienced declining financial margins and faced an elevated risk of closure over the past decade. Despite these challenges, not all SNHs are weakening and some are prospering. These higher-performing SNHs provide substantial care to safety net populations and produce sustainable financial returns. Drawing on the alternative structural positioning and resource-based views, we explore strategic management as a source of performance differences across SNHs. We employ a mixed-method design, blending quantitative and qualitative data and analysis. We measure financial performance using hospital operating margin and quantitatively evaluate its relationship with a limited set of well-defined structural positions. We further evaluate these structures and also explore the internal resources of SNHs based on nine in-depth case studies developed from site visits and extensive interviews. Quantitative results suggest that structural positions alone are not related to performance. Comparative case studies suggest that higher-performing SNH differ in four respects: (1) coordinating patient flow across the care continuum, (2) engaging in partnerships with other providers, (3) managing scope of services, and (4) investing in human capital. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of strategic action related to systems thinking--the ability to see wholes and interrelationships rather than individual parts alone. Our exploratory findings suggest the need to move beyond generic strategies alone and acknowledge the importance of underlying managerial capabilities. Specifically, our findings suggest that effective strategy is a function of both the internal resources (e.g., managers' systems-thinking capability) and structural positions (e.g., partnerships) of organizations. From this perspective, framing resources and positioning as distinct alternatives misses the nuances of how strategic advantage is actually achieved.

  14. A strategic management model for evaluation of health, safety and environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Majid; Toutounchian, Solmaz; Roayaei, Emad; Nassiri, Parvin

    2012-05-01

    Strategic health, safety, and environmental management system (HSE-MS) involves systematic and cooperative planning in each phase of the lifecycle of a project to ensure that interaction among the industry group, client, contractor, stakeholder, and host community exists with the highest level of health, safety, and environmental standard performances. Therefore, it seems necessary to assess the HSE-MS performance of contractor(s) by a comparative strategic management model with the aim of continuous improvement. The present Strategic Management Model (SMM) has been illustrated by a case study and the results show that the model is a suitable management tool for decision making in a contract environment, especially in oil and gas fields and based on accepted international standards within the framework of management deming cycle. To develop this model, a data bank has been created, which includes the statistical data calculated by converting the HSE performance qualitative data into quantitative values. Based on this fact, the structure of the model has been formed by defining HSE performance indicators according to the HSE-MS model. Therefore, 178 indicators have been selected which have been grouped into four attributes. Model output provides quantitative measures of HSE-MS performance as a percentage of an ideal level with maximum possible score for each attribute. Defining the strengths and weaknesses of the contractor(s) is another capability of this model. On the other hand, this model provides a ranking that could be used as the basis for decision making at the contractors' pre-qualification phase or during the execution of the project.

  15. Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Lyndon; Dorn, Jessy D; Humayun, Mark S; Dagnelie, Gislin; Handa, James; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E; Hafezi, Farhad; Safran, Avinoam B; Salzmann, Joel; Santos, Arturo; Birch, David; Spencer, Rand; Cideciyan, Artur V; de Juan, Eugene; Duncan, Jacque L; Eliott, Dean; Fawzi, Amani; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Ho, Allen C; Brown, Gary; Haller, Julia; Regillo, Carl; Del Priore, Lucian V; Arditi, Aries; Greenberg, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc, Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception resulting from end-stage RP. Prospective, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the nonimplanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared with their vision with the Argus II. Thirty participants in 10 centers in the United States and Europe. The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by 3 computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively scored real-world tasks. Twenty-four of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years after implantation. Only 1 additional serious adverse event was experienced after the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the Argus II on than off on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. The 5-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind as a result of RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  17. Psychological safety: The key to high performance in high stress, potentially traumatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Saveland

    2011-01-01

    Safety is typically talked about in a context of the absence of injury. The field of resilience engineering has been advocating that we think about safety differently, by taking a systems view and begin to see how people create safety in unsafe systems by managing risk. There is growing recognition that safety is an emergent behavior of our complex system of human...

  18. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A [Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact.

  19. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Jillian, E-mail: jillian.becker@health.qld.gov.au [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bridge, Pete [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet [Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  20. Investigation of the performance based structural safety factor of elbow pipes in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The piping systems in nuclear power plant are composed of various typed pipes such as straight pipe, elbow, branch and reducer etc. The elbow is connected from straight pipe to another pipes in order to establish the complicated piping system. Elbow is one of very important components considering management of wall thinning degradation. It is however applied by various loads such as system pressure, earthquake, postulated break loading and many transient loads, which provoke simply the internal pressure, bending and torsional stress. In this study, firstly pipes in the secondary system of the nuclear power plant are investigated in view of the ratio of radius to thickness. Next, a large number of finite element analysis considering the all typed dimensions of commercial pipe has been performed to find out the behavior of TES(Twice Elastic Slope) plastic load of elbows, which is based on evaluation of the structural safety factor. Finally performance based structural safety factor was investigated comparing with maximum allowable load by construction code.

  1. Investigating different approaches to develop informative priors in hierarchical Bayesian safety performance functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    The Bayesian inference method has been frequently adopted to develop safety performance functions. One advantage of the Bayesian inference is that prior information for the independent variables can be included in the inference procedures. However, there are few studies that discussed how to formulate informative priors for the independent variables and evaluated the effects of incorporating informative priors in developing safety performance functions. This paper addresses this deficiency by introducing four approaches of developing informative priors for the independent variables based on historical data and expert experience. Merits of these informative priors have been tested along with two types of Bayesian hierarchical models (Poisson-gamma and Poisson-lognormal models). Deviance information criterion (DIC), R-square values, and coefficients of variance for the estimations were utilized as evaluation measures to select the best model(s). Comparison across the models indicated that the Poisson-gamma model is superior with a better model fit and it is much more robust with the informative priors. Moreover, the two-stage Bayesian updating informative priors provided the best goodness-of-fit and coefficient estimation accuracies. Furthermore, informative priors for the inverse dispersion parameter have also been introduced and tested. Different types of informative priors' effects on the model estimations and goodness-of-fit have been compared and concluded. Finally, based on the results, recommendations for future research topics and study applications have been made.

  2. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    An important characteristic of a mobile handset is its ability to receive and transmit power. One way to characterize the performance of a handset in this respect is to use measurements of the spherical radiation pattern from which the total radiated power (TRP), total isotropic sensitivity (TIS......), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom...... and the same mounting of the handset on the phantom. In this work the influence of mounting errors on the TRP, TIS, and MEG is investigated. Knowledge about the error due to incorrect mounting is necessary in determining requirements for both the mounting accuracy as well as for other parts of the measurement...

  3. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  4. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... was accomplished, This paper deals with the part of the performance test concerned with exposure to beta radiation. Fifteen dosimetric services participated with whole-body dosemeters intended to measure beta doses (H-p(0.07)) of which 13 used thermoluminescent (TL) detectors and two used photographic films. Eight...... services participated with extremity dosemeters which all used TL detectors. A description is given of the irradiation set-up, the characteristics of the irradiation fields, the calibration quantity applied and the performance criteria used for the evaluation of the results. The paper discusses in detail...

  5. Performance Testing Of Selected Types of Electronic Personal Dosimeters in X- and Gamma Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Nikola; Živanović, Miloš; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarević, Đorđe; Ćeklić, Sandra; Stanković, Srboljub

    2017-10-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are increasingly being used alongside conventional thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure the dose of legal record in terms of personal dose equivalent. Therefore, it is of great importance to execute performance tests of these dosimeters in photon fields of various energies and at various angles of incidence. This testing is done in order to simulate the behavior of these dosimeters in realistic multidirectional polyenergetic ionizing radiation fields. Tests of accuracy, linearity, energy response, and angular response have been performed on 10 EPDs from multiple manufacturers. Various radiation qualities have been used in the energy range from 33 keV to 1.33 MeV and for angles of incidence 0° to 80°. This research proves that many of the EPDs tested performed according to the manufacturer's specifications and the requirements of the international standards regarding personal dosimetry.

  6. Impact of Performance Obstacles on Intensive Care Nurses‘ Workload, Perceived Quality and Safety of Care, and Quality of Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Carayon, Pascale; Wall, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses‘ workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses‘ capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent. Study Design A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling. Principal Findings Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL. Conclusions Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses‘ work. PMID:19207589

  7. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  8. Viimsi water treatment plant for Ra removal: NORM residue/waste generation, radiation safety issues, and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Realo, E.; Jantsikene, A.; Lumiste, L.; Vaeaer, K.; Isakar, K.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In early 2012, the first large-scale water treatment plant, specifically designed to remove Ra-isotopes from groundwater, was commissioned in Viimsi parish, North-Estonia. The plant serves approximately 15 000 consumers with maximum production capacity of 6000 m{sup 3}/d. The chosen water treatment technology is chemical free and is based on co-precipitation and adsorption with Fe(OH){sub 3} and MnO{sub 2} flocks, and adsorption of residual Ra onto zeolite sand. The chosen technology is a complex approach and is designed to reduce high Fe and Mn concentrations as well as dissolved gases along with Ra isotopes. It is proved to be well adapted with hydro-chemical conditions of the groundwater feeding the plant. As the novel technology has been applied for the first time on a large scale, the plant was taken under long-term investigation when commissioned. The latter focuses on three areas: Ra removal efficiency and its dynamics, build-up of radioactive waste, and radiation safety. The average Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations in raw water feeding the plant are approximately 0.5 Bq/L and 0.6 Bq/L, respectively, resulting in total indicative dose of 0.4 mSv/y. Operating conditions of the plant are restricted by the established indicative value of 0.1 mSv/y for drinking water, i.e. a minimum 75% removal efficiency for Ra is required. Results of the studies show that the plant operates at Ra-removal efficiency of 98% or higher without the need of regeneration or replacement of filtering materials within the first two years. Measurements confirm that ∼90% of Ra accumulates in the solid filter media, 8-9% is washed out by backwash system as liquid effluent and 1-2% is fed on to the consumer distribution network. It has been calculated that at the level of current production capacity (below 3000 m{sup 3}/d) the yearly accumulation rate in the plant is approximately 300 and 400 MBq/y for Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively. These values strongly exceed the exemption

  9. Vacuum application increases therapeutic safety and allows intensified local radiation treatment of malignant soft-tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, J.; Bach, A.D.; Horsch, R.E. [University Medical Center Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Strnad, V.; Sauer, R. [University Medical Center Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: In order to simplify and improve outcome of radiation therapy and final defect coverage in patients suffering from invasive soft-tissue tumors, brachytherapy and application of V.A.C.uum-assisted closure (V.A.C. {sup registered}) were combined with delaying flap incision. Patients and Methods: Two patients were excised as radically as possible and brachytherapy tubes were implanted directly on the tumor bed. At the same time, flaps for later defect coverage were preconditioned by circumcision. Brachytherapy and external-beam irradiation were performed directly on the vacuum sponge followed by subsequent defect coverage with the preconditioned flaps. Results: Excision significantly reduced tumor masses in both patients; in one case sensible and motor function of the involved extremity was clearly improved. V.A.C. {sup registered} coverage allowed repeated brachytherapy and external-beam applications following exact placing of plastic tubes and FLABs on the tumor bed. Sequential irradiation had no effect on neighboring flap tissues, which healed without impairment following transposition. Conclusion: Combination of V.A.C. {sup registered} and brachytherapy can effectively replace circumstantial and laborious IORT (intraoperative radiotherapy) procedures. Exact placement of tubes on the tumor bed without subsequent tissue coverage is conserving preconditioned flap tissues, which are transposed for final defect coverage at the end of radiotherapy. However, by circumventing radiation exposure of these tissues, a possible later irradiation sequence can be performed without endangering defect-covering flaps. (orig.)

  10. Transient Analysis and Performance Prediction of Nocturnal Radiative Cooling of a Building in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Nwaigwe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study aimed at a Transient analysis and performance prediction of passive cooling of a building using long wave nocturnal radiation in Owerri, Nigeria are presented. The system modeled consists of the room of a building with a radiator panel attached to its roof, water storage tank located inside the room, pump to circulate water through the radiator panel at night and through a heat exchanger in the room during the day. The mathematical model is based on the thermal radiation properties of the local atmosphere, the heat exchange equations of the radiator panel with the sky during the night and the equations incorporating the relevant heat transfers within the space to be cooled during the day. The resulting equations were transformed into explicit finite difference forms for easy implementation on a personal computer in MATLAB language. This numerical model permits the evaluation of the rate of heat removal from the water storage tank through the radiator panel surface area, Qwt,out, temperature depression between the ambient and room temperatures (Tamb-Trm and total heat gained by water in the storage tank from the space to be cooled through the action of the convector during the day, Qwt,in. The resulting rate of heat removal from the radiator gave a value of 57.6 W/m2, temperature depression was predicted to within 1-1.5ºC and the rate of heat gain by the storage water was 60 W/m2. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters to ±25% of the base case input values was carried out and the results given as a percentage variation of the above system performance parameters showed consistency to the base case results. An optimal scheme for the modeled 3.0×3.0×2.5 m3 room showed a radiator area of 18.2 m2, a convector area of 28.62 m2 and a tank volume of 1.57 m3. These results show that passive nocturnal cooling technique is a promising solution to the cooling needs for preservation of food and other agricultural produce. It is also

  11. Activation studies and radiation safety for the N_tof experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoste, V; Silari, Marco; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    2001-01-01

    The Neutron Time Of Flight (n_TOF) facility, whose installation is about to be completed at CERN, will use a high intensity proton beam (7E12 protons per bunch, 1 or 4 bunches allowed per 14.4 s at 20 GeV/c), which through the spallation process onto a solid lead target (80 x 80 x 60 cm3), produces a high flux of neutrons, charged particles, and photons. Intensive simulation studies with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were undertaken to calculate the radioactivity induced in the target and in the surrounding structures as well as in the cooling water. Shielding calculations were also performed for the various critical locations along the 200 m long tunnel which houses the proton beam line, the target and the TOF tube. In particular, extensive simulations were required to define the shielding of the target area and the dimensions of the access labyrinths.

  12. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Luning, P A; Jacxsens, L; Santillana, S; Jaime, I; Rovira, J

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety management system (FSMS) that was implemented according to legislative requirements. Microbial safety level profiles were constructed for each establishment and provided clear indications of which pathogens, hygiene indicators, or utility parameters required attention to improve the performance of the microbiological control protocols of the implemented FSMS. The highest contamination was found in the slaughterhouses in samples taken from the meat products (aerobic mesophilic plate counts [AMPs] of 3.40 to 6.63 log CFU/cm(2) and Enterobacteriaceae counts of 1.00 to 4.62 log CFU/cm(2)), contact surfaces (AMPs of 2.44 to 8.92 log CFU/cm(2)), and operators' hands and/or gloves (AMPs of 2.84 to 8.09 log CFU/cm(2)), especially after hide removal and evisceration. The microbial assessment scheme is a useful tool for providing insight into the actual microbiological results achieved with an FSMS implemented in establishments at various stages along the lamb production chain.

  13. The Tiotropium Safety and Performance in Respimat® (TIOSPIR®) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anzueto, Antonio; Wise, Robert; Calverley, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tiotropium Safety and Performance in Respimat® (TIOSPIR®) compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat® and tiotropium HandiHaler® in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A prespecified spirometry substudy compared the lung function efficacy between...... treatment groups. METHODS: TIOSPIR® was a large-scale, long-term (2.3-year), event-driven, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial of 17,135 patients with COPD. In the spirometry substudy, trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured at baseline......: The TIOSPIR® spirometry substudy showed that tiotropium Respimat® 5 μg was noninferior to tiotropium HandiHaler® 18 μg for trough FEV1, but Respimat® 2.5 μg was not. Tiotropium Respimat® 5 μg provides similar bronchodilator efficacy to tiotropium HandiHaler® 18 μg with comparable rates of FEV1 decline...

  14. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1—For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

  16. Performance of the transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ambriola, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the transition radiation detector (TRD) of the PAMELA telescope has been studied using beam test data and simulation tools. PAMELA is a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer designed to measure particles and antiparticles spectra in cosmic rays. The particle identification at high energy will be achieved by combining the measurements by the TRD and a Si-W imaging calorimeter. The TRD is composed of 9 planes of straw tubes, interleaved with carbon fiber radiators. A prototype of the detector has been exposed to particle beams of electrons, pions and muons of various momenta at the CERN-PS and SPS accelerator facilities. In addition a dedicated Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate the detector. Here we illustrate both simulation results and experimental data analysis procedures and we will discuss the estimated TRD performance. (15 refs).

  17. Performance Analysis of Transposition Models Simulating Solar Radiation on Inclined Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-02

    Transposition models have been widely used in the solar energy industry to simulate solar radiation on inclined photovoltaic panels. Following numerous studies comparing the performance of transposition models, this work aims to understand the quantitative uncertainty in state-of-the-art transposition models and the sources leading to the uncertainty. Our results show significant differences between two highly used isotropic transposition models, with one substantially underestimating the diffuse plane-of-array irradiances when diffuse radiation is perfectly isotropic. In the empirical transposition models, the selection of the empirical coefficients and land surface albedo can both result in uncertainty in the output. This study can be used as a guide for the future development of physics-based transposition models and evaluations of system performance.

  18. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  19. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more sensitive to both UV-A and UV-B and Purna is more sensitive to ambient UV-B radiation.

  20. Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishi M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.

  1. 'Speaking Truth' Protects Underrepresented Minorities' Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L; Goldstein, Emily J; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-06-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs' abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs' worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP's two-pronged approach-explicating the effects of structural 'isms' while harnessing URMs' existing assets-shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  2. Performance of the meteorological radiation model during the solar eclipse of 29 March 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Psiloglou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Various solar broadband models have been developed in the last half of the 20th century. The driving demand has been the estimation of available solar energy at different locations on earth for various applications. The motivation for such developments, though, has been the ample lack of solar radiation measurements at global scale. Therefore, the main goal of such codes is to generate artificial solar radiation series or calculate the availability of solar energy at a place.

    One of the broadband models to be developed in the late 80's was the Meteorological Radiation Model (MRM. The main advantage of MRM over other similar models was its simplicity in acquiring and using the necessary input data, i.e. air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and sunshine duration from any of the many meteorological stations.

    The present study describes briefly the various steps (versions of MRM and in greater detail the latest version 5. To show the flexibility and great performance of the MRM, a harsh test of the code under the (almost total solar eclipse conditions of 29 March 2006 over Athens was performed and comparison of its results with real measurements was made. From this hard comparison it is shown that the MRM can simulate solar radiation during a solar eclipse event as effectively as on a typical day. Because of the main interest in solar energy applications about the total radiation component, MRM focuses on that. For this component, the RMSE and MBE statistical estimators during this study were found to be 7.64% and −1.67% on 29 March as compared to the respective 5.30% and +2.04% for 28 March. This efficiency of MRM even during an eclipse makes the model promising for easy handling of typical situations with even better results.

  3. A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Kussaga, J.; Luning, P.A.; Spiegel, van der M.; Devlieghere, F.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the mos

  4. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  5. Challenges in performance of food safety management systems: a case of fish processing companies in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Luning, Pieternel A; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka P M; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the performance levels of FSMS activities regarding context riskiness and FS performance in 14 fish processing companies in Tanzania. Two clusters (cluster I and II) with average FSMS (level 2) operating under moderate-risk context (score 2) were identified. Overall, cluster I had better (score 3) FS performance than cluster II (score 2 to 3). However, a majority of the fish companies need further improvement of their FSMS and reduction of context riskiness to assure good FS performance. The FSMS activity levels could be improved through hygienic design of equipment and facilities, strict raw material control, proper follow-up of critical control point analysis, developing specific sanitation procedures and company-specific sampling design and measuring plans, independent validation of preventive measures, and establishing comprehensive documentation and record-keeping systems. The risk level of the context could be reduced through automation of production processes (such as filleting, packaging, and sanitation) to restrict people's interference, recruitment of permanent high-skilled technological staff, and setting requirements on product use (storage and distribution conditions) on customers. However, such intervention measures for improvement could be taken in phases, starting with less expensive ones (such as sanitation procedures) that can be implemented in the short term to more expensive interventions (setting up assurance activities) to be adopted in the long term. These measures are essential for fish processing companies to move toward FSMS that are more effective.

  6. The whole body counting laboratory of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens helkroppslaboratorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Risco Norrlid, Lilian; Oestergren, Inger

    2010-03-15

    , weight, gender and age of the subject. As the conclusion, the WBC facility at the SSM new location has been established. The background re-assessment as well as the uncertainty analysis was performed. A first round of measurements showed the need for applying a correction, which has been now implemented in the present location

  7. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  8. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  11. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  12. A Performance Improvement of Power Supply Module for Safety-related Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Kyun; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Hwang, Sung-Jae; Lee, Myeong-Kyun; Yoo, Kwan-Woo [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, in relation to voltage shortage state when power supply module is a slave mode, the performance improvement by modifying a PFC(Power Factor Correction) circuit is presented. With the modification of the PFC circuit, the performance improvement in respect of the voltage shortage state when the power supply module is a slave mode is checked. As a result, POSAFE-Q PLC can ensure the stability with the redundant power supply module. The purpose of this paper is to improve the redundant performance of power supply module(NSPS-2Q). It is one of components in POSAFE-Q which is a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) that has been developed for the evaluation of safety-related. Power supply module provides a stable power in order that POSAFE-Q can be operated normally. It is possible to be mounted two power supply modules in POSAFE-Q for a redundant(Master/Slave) function. So that even if a problem occurs in one power supply module, another power supply module will provide a power to POSAFE-Q stably.

  13. Relationship Between Operating Room Teamwork, Contextual Factors, and Safety Checklist Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara J; Molina, George; Li, Zhonghe; Jiang, Wei; Nurudeen, Suliat; Kite, Julia G; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Foster, Richard; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R

    2016-10-01

    Studies show that using surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces complications. Many believe SSCs accomplish this by enhancing teamwork, but evidence is limited. Our study sought to relate teamwork to checklist performance, understand how they relate, and determine conditions that affect this relationship. Using 2 validated tools for observing and coaching operating room teams, we evaluated the association between checklist performance with surgeon buy-in and 4 domains of surgical teamwork: clinical leadership, communication, coordination, and respect. Hospital staff in 10 South Carolina hospitals observed 207 procedures between April 2011 and January 2013. We calculated levels of checklist performance, buy-in, and measures of teamwork, and evaluated their relationship, controlling for patient and case characteristics. Few teams completed most or all SSC items. Teams more often completed items considered procedural "checks" than conversation "prompts." Surgeon buy-in, clinical leadership, communication, a summary measure of teamwork overall, and observers' teamwork ratings positively related to overall checklist completion (multivariable model estimates from 0.04, p teamwork and surgeon buy-in related positively to completing more conversation prompts; none related significantly to procedural checks (estimates from 0.10, p teamwork characterized by shared clinical leadership, open communication, active coordination, and mutual respect were critical in prompting case-related conversations, but not in completing procedural checks. Findings highlight the importance of surgeon engagement and high-quality, consistent teamwork for promoting checklist use and ensuring a safe surgical environment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Mortality Performance: How Did Safety-Net Hospitals Compare With Other Hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H Joanna; Reiter, Kristin L; Wang, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Safety-net hospitals (SNHs) tend to be weaker in financial condition than other hospitals, leading to a concern about how the quality of care at these hospitals would compare to other hospitals. To assess mortality performance of SNHs using all-payer databases and measures for a broad range of conditions and procedures. Longitudinal analysis of hospitals from 2006 through 2011 with data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases, the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, and the Area Health Resources File. A total of 1891 urban, nonfederal, general acute hospitals from 31 states. SNHs were identified by the percentage of Medicaid and uninsured patients. Hospital mortality performance was measured by 2 composites covering 6 common medical conditions and 4 surgical procedures with risk adjustment for patient characteristics. Differences in each composite between SNHs and non-SNHs were estimated through generalized estimating equations to control for hospital factors and community resources. Inpatient mortality rates declined over time for all hospitals. Small differences in risk-adjusted mortality rates between SNHs and non-SNHs were found only among teaching hospitals. After controlling for hospital factors, these differences were substantially reduced and remained