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Sample records for radiation safety design

  1. Radiation shielding and safety design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ouk; Gil, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. I.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, C. W.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, B. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    A benchmarking for the test facility, evaluations of the prompt radiation fields, evaluation of the induced activities in the facility, and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment were performed in this study. and the radiation safety analysis report for nuclear licensing was written based on this study. In the benchmark calculation, the neutron spectra was measured in the 20 Mev test facility and the measurements were compared with the computational results to verify the calculation system. In the evaluation of the prompt radiation fields, the shielding design for 100 MeV target rooms, evaluations of the leakage doses from the accidents and skyshine analysis were performed. The evaluation of the induced activities were performed for the coolant, inside air, structural materials, soil and ground-water. At last, the radiation safety analysis report was written based on results from these studies

  2. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  3. Radiation safety design of super KEKB factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    The SuperKEKB factory, which was scheduled to start operation early 2015, is an electron-positron collider designed to produce an 80x10"3"4-1/cm"2/s luminosity, which is 40 times greater than the KEKB factory. Built to investigate CP violation and 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model, the facility consists of a 7-GeV electron/3.5-GeV positron linac, a 1.1- GeV positron damping ring, beam transport, and a 7-GeV electron/4-GeV positron collider. To meet this level of luminosity, the collider will be operated with a small beam size and a large crossing angle at the interaction point. According to particle tracking simulations, beam losses under these conditions will be 35 times more than those previously operated. To help optimise shielding configurations, leakage radiation and induced activity are estimated through empirical equations and detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using MARS15 code for the interaction region, beam halo collimators, emergency pathways, ducts, forward direction tunnels, and positron production target. Examples of shielding strategies are presented to reduce both leakage dose and airborne activity for several locations in the facility. (authors)

  4. Thermal Radiation for Structural Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    The lecture notes give a short introduction of the theory of thermal radiation. The most elementary concepts and methods are presented in order to give a fundamental knowledge for calculation of the load bearing capacities of fire exposed building constructions....

  5. Radiation safety design for SSRL storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)]. E-mail: khater1@llnl.gov; Liu, James [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    In 2003, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) had upgraded its storage ring to a 3rd generation storage ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is deigned to operate at 500-mA stored beam current and 3-GeV energy. The 234-m circumference SPEAR3 ring utilizes 60-cm-thick concrete lateral walls, 30-cm-thick concrete roof, as well as 60- or 90-cm-thick concrete ratchet walls. A total of 3.5x10{sup 15}e{sup -}/y will be injected into the ring with an injection power of 4W and an injection efficiency of 75%. Normal beam losses occur due to both injection and stored beam operations in the total of 20 low loss as well as 3 high loss limiting apertures. During the 6-min injection period, an instantaneous power loss of 0.05W occurs at each low loss aperture. When averaged over the operational year, the loss of both the injection and the stored beams is equivalent to an average loss of 2mW at each low loss aperture. On the other hand, the average losses in the high loss apertures are 16mW for the injection septum, 47mW for the beam abort dump, and 13mW for the ring stoppers. The shielding requirements for losses in the new ring were based on a generic approach that used both FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code and empirical computer codes and formulae.

  6. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  7. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  8. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  9. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely

  10. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  11. Radiation protection aspects in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  12. Radiation protection aspects of design for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the Contracting Parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  13. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadadunna, K.P.I.K.; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  14. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  15. Occupational radiation protection organisation, facility and design safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is no absolute standard or excellence in radiation protection. The concept of excellence implies a continuous search for improvement in performance and full utilization of available resources. Radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. The improvements in performance must therefore be based primarily on management rather than technical factors and must be aimed at more effective use of investments already made in plant facilities

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a critically important aspect that must be considered in the design of a nuclear facility in order to ensure the protection of the workers, public and environment. This paper looks at the methodology, approach and incorporation of this aspect, specifically into the design of a research and development facility. The Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design is an initial analysis of nuclear safety and radiation protection considerations that is performed during the conceptual design phase and sets the baseline for what the design of the facility must conform to. It consists of general nuclear safety design principles, such as defence in depth and optimisation considerations, and a hazard management strategy. Following the Health, Safety and Environmental Basis of Design, a Preliminary Safety Assessment Report is generated during the basic design phase in conjunction with various analyses in order to assess the impact of hazards on the workers and members of the public. This assessment follows a hazard graded approach where the depth of the analysis will be determined by the impact of the worst case accident scenario in the facility. The assessment also includes a waste management strategy which is an essential aspect to be considered in the design in order to minimize the generation of waste. The safety assessment also demonstrates compliance to dose limits and risk criteria for the workers and members of the public set by the regulatory body and supported by a legal framework. Measures are taken to keep risk as low as reasonably achievable and prevent transgression of the risk and dose limits. However, a balance needs to be maintained between 5 reducing these doses further and the cost of such a reduction, which is known as optimization. It is therefore imperative to have nuclear safety specialists analyse the design in order to protect the worker and member of the public from unwarranted exposure to nuclear radiation. (author)

  17. Safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2004-01-01

    JAERI established the safety design philosophy of the HTTR based on that of current reactors such as LWR in Japan, considering inherent safety features of the HTTR. The strategy of defense in depth was implemented so that the safety engineering functions such as control of reactivity, removal of residual heat and confinement of fission products shall be well performed to ensure safety. However, unlike the LWR, the inherent design features of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) enables the HTTR meet stringent regulatory criteria without much dependence on active safety systems. On the other hand, the safety in an accident typical to the HTGR such as the depressurization accident initiated by a primary pipe rupture shall be ensured. The safety design philosophy of the HTTR considers these unique features appropriately and is expected to be the basis for future Japanese HTGRs. This paper describes the safety design philosophy and safety evaluation procedure of the HTTR especially focusing on unique considerations to the HTTR. Also, experiences obtained from an HTTR safety review and R and D needs for establishing the safety philosophy for the future HTGRs are reported

  18. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  19. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  20. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Data available on the biological effects of radiation on man are reviewed, with emphasis on dose response to low LET and high LET radiation sources, and the effects of dose rate. Existing guides for radiation protection were formulated largely on the basis of tumor induction in the bone of radium dial painters, but the ICRP/NCRP annual dose guides of 5 rem/yr are of the same general magnitude as the doses received in several parts of the world from the natural radiation environment. Because of the greater sensitivity of rapidly dividing cells and the assumption that radiation occupations would not begin before the age of eighteen, maximum exposure levels were set as 5 (N-18) rem/yr, where N is the exposed worker's age in years. However, in the case of the natural radiation environment, exposure commences, in a sense, with the exposure of the ovum of the individual's mother; and the ovum is formed during the fetal development of the mother. In occupational exposures, the professional health physicist has always practiced the as low as practical philosophy, and exposures have generally averaged far below the guidelines. The average annual exposure of the radiation worker in modern plants and laboratories is approximately equal to the average natural radiation environment exposure rate and far lower than the natural radiation environment in many parts of the world. There are numerous complications and uncertainties in quantifying radiation effects on humans, however, the greatest is that due to having to extrapolate from high dose levels at which effects have been measured and quantified, to low levels at which most exposures occur but at which no effects have been observed

  1. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.B.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In medicine, as in other fields of scientific endeavor, the development of advanced and specialized techniques has resulted in increased hazards for employees. However, by possessing both an appreciation of the proper use of factors that regulate radiation exposure around radiology equipment and a knowledge of the biologic effects of radiation, which can include possible genetic and somatic consequences, it is possible to maximize the usefulness of these valuable procedures while minimizing the risk to medical personnel involved with patient care

  2. Provision of radiation safety at the designing of the industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, S.Yu.; Sevastyuk, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the basic principles and criteria of the radiation safety provision, organization of the radiation control system, and dose calculation for the staff irradiation at the construction and operation of the Industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

  3. A preliminary study on the design in architecture of nuclear and radiation safety standard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dahu; Zhang Chi; Yang Lili; Li Bin; Liu Yingwei; An Hongzhen; Gao Siyi; Liu Ting; Meng De

    2014-01-01

    The connotation and function of nuclear and radiation safety standards are analyzed, and their relationships with the relevant laws and regulations are discussed in the paper. Some suggestions and blue print of overall architecture to build nuclear and radiation safety standard system are proposed, on the basis of researching the application status quo, existing problems and needs for nuclear and radiation safety standards in China. This work is a beneficial exploration and attempt to establish China's nuclear and radiation safety standards. (authors)

  4. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  5. Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high quality radiotherapy. Whilst it has long been recognized that the physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy are vital to achieve and effective and safe treatment, it has been increasingly acknowledged only recently that a systematic approach is absolutely necessary to all steps within clinical and technical aspects of a radiotherapy programme as well. The need to establish general guidelines at the IAEA, taking into account clinical medical physics, radiation protection and safety considerations, for designing and implementing radiotherapy programmes in Member States has been identified through the Member States' increased interest in the efficient and safe application of radiation in health care. Several consultants and advisory group meetings were convened to prepare a report providing a basis for establishing a programme in radiotherapy. The present TECDOC is addressed to all professionals and administrators involved in the development, implementation and management of a radiotherapy programme in order to establish a common and consistent framework where all steps and procedures in radiotherapy are taken into account

  6. Radiation safety at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, operates proton accelerators up to an energy of 450 GeV and an electron-positron storage ring in the 50 GeV energy range for fundamental high-energy particle physics. A strong radiation protection group assures the radiation safety of these machines both during their operation and in periods of maintenance and repair. Particular radiation problems in an accelerator laboratory are presented and recent developments in radiation protection at CERN discussed. (author)

  7. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  8. Radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. Nuclear radiation is a powerful source of benefit to mankind, whether applied in the field of medicine, agriculture, environmental management or elsewhere. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Safety Department aiming at establishing Basic Safety Standard requirements in all Member States. (IAEA)

  9. Operational safety and radiation protection considerations in designing an HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Kreienmeyer, M.; Poehler, M.; Niehues, N.

    2008-01-01

    In Germany the reference concept for disposal of heat generating radioactive waste considers emplacing canisters with vitrified waste in deep vertical boreholes drilled from the drifts of a repository mine in salt at a depth of 870 m. Spent fuel is to be disposed of in self-shielding POLLUX casks in horizontal drifts. An optimized disposal concept anticipates emplacing unshielded canisters with vitrified HLW and canisters containing the fuel rods of 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies in boreholes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of up to 300 m.. In all cases the void space between POLLUX cask and drifts and canisters and borehole wall will be backfilled with crushed salt. (1) Operational Safety: Based on a detailed description of all underground disposal operation steps, the possible impacts on the disposal operations were analysed and the need for further studies determined. The disposal operation steps comprise e.g. rail bound transport from the shaft to the emplacement drift and emplacement process itself. As possible impacts the following occurrences were considered: ventilation failure, power supply failure, rock mechanics impact including cross-section convergence, irregular floor uplift and rock fall, brine and natural gas intrusion, derailing of transport carts and finally internal fire. (2) Radiation Protection: According to the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG), the design, construction and operation of a nuclear site like a final repository has to be licensed by the responsible authority. The Radiological Protection Ordinance and further guidelines i.e. concerning the emission and immission of released radioactive nuclides or the risk analysis of possible failure, build the basis for the licensing procedures. To ensure adequate protection against undue radiation exposure the repository is divided into different radiological protection areas. Generally, the handling of shielded waste packages above und under ground (including all the pathway of transport and

  10. Radiation physics and shielding codes and analyses applied to design-assist and safety analyses of CANDUR and ACRTM reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydogdu, K.; Boss, C. R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiation physics and shielding codes and analyses applied in the design of CANDU and ACR reactors. The focus is on the types of analyses undertaken rather than the inputs supplied to the engineering disciplines. Nevertheless, the discussion does show how these analyses contribute to the engineering design. Analyses in radiation physics and shielding can be categorized as either design-assist or safety and licensing (accident) analyses. Many of the analyses undertaken are designated 'design-assist' where the analyses are used to generate recommendations that directly influence plant design. These recommendations are directed at mitigating or reducing the radiation hazard of the nuclear power plant with engineered systems and components. Thus the analyses serve a primary safety function by ensuring the plant can be operated with acceptable radiation hazards to the workers and public. In addition to this role of design assist, radiation physics and shielding codes are also deployed in safety and licensing assessments of the consequences of radioactive releases of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation and gaseous effluents following accidents. In the latter category, the final consequences of accident sequences, expressed in terms of radiation dose to members of the public, and inputs to accident analysis, e.g., decay heat in fuel following a loss-of-coolant accident, are also calculated. Another role of the analyses is to demonstrate that the design of the plant satisfies the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) radiation doses. This principle is applied throughout the design process to minimize worker and public doses. The principle of ALARA is an inherent part of all design-assist recommendations and safety and licensing assessments. The main focus of an ALARA exercise at the design stage is to minimize the radiation hazards at the source. This exploits material selection and impurity specifications and relies

  11. Radiation safety systems at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes design principles that were used to establish the radiation safety systems at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The author described existing safety systems and the history of partial system failures. 1 fig

  12. Radiation safety and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Kim, Gi Sub.

    1996-12-01

    The principal objective of radiological safety control is intended for achievement and maintenance of appropriately safe condition in environmental control for activities involving exposure from the use of radiation. In order to establish these objective, we should be to prevent deterministic effects and to limit the occurrence stochastic effects to level deemed to be acceptable by the application of general principles of radiation protection and systems of dose limitation based on ICRP recommendations. (author). 22 tabs., 13 figs., 11 refs

  13. Development and design of a computer-assisted information management system for radiation safety management at the University of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, C.G.; Riordan, F.J.; Robb, D.; Grieb, C.; Pence, G.; O'Brien, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Office (RSO) at the University of Washington (UW) found that it needed a computerized information system to help manage the campus radiation safety program and to help provide the records necessary to show compliance with regulations and license requirements. The John L. Locke Computer Center at the UW had just developed the GLAMOR system to aid information entry and query for their computer when the RSO turned to them for assistance. The module that was developed provided a mechanism for controlling and monitoring radioactive materials on campus. This became one part of a multi-faceted system that registers users, employees, sealed sources and radiation-producing machines. The system is designed to be interactive, for immediate information recall, and powerful enough to provide routine and special reports on compliance status. The RSO information system is designed to be flexible and can easily incorporate additional features. Some future features include an interactive SNM control program, an interface to the information system currently being developed for the occupational safety and health program and an interface to the database provided by the commercial film badge service used by the University. Development of this program lead the RSO to appreciate the usefulness of having health physics professionals on the staff who were also knowledgeable about computers and who could develop programs and reports necessary to their activities

  14. Regulatory requirements for radiation safety in the design of a new Finish NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm-Lytz, Kirsi; Vilkamo, Olli [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK, PO Box 14, Laippatie 4, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    There are two operating nuclear power plants in Finland, two BWR units at Olkiluoto site and two PWR units at Loviisa site. These reactors were commissioned between 1977 and 1981. The total electricity capacity in Finland is about 15 GW. In 2003, nuclear power plants generated one fourth of Finland's electricity. Despite of the diversity of the electricity generation methods, Finland is highly dependent on imported energy. Electricity consumption is estimated to increase and the demand for extra capacity has been estimated at about 2500-3000 MW by 2010. It should also be taken into account that a considerable proportion of the production capacity constructed in the 1970's must be replaced with production capacity of new power plants in the near future. In practice, the climate politics commitments made by Finland exclude coal power. Therefore, the capacity can be increased significantly only by natural gas, nuclear power and biofuels. The paper presents the following issues: Licensing a new nuclear power plant in Finland; FIN5 Project at STUK; Work planning and a tool for requirement management; Radiation safety related YVL guides; Collective dose target; On-site habitability during accident situation. Habitability was evaluated on the basis of the calculated dose rate levels, the occupancy times and the dose limits. Radiation hazard was classified into three parts, i.e., possible direct radiation from the containment, air contamination and systems carrying radioactive air or water. The results showed that direct radiation from the containment is generally adequately shielded but penetrations and hatches have to be separately analysed and the radiation dose levels near them are usually rather high. Skyshine radiation from the reactor containment is a special feature at the Loviisa NPP and the nearby area outside the buildings might have very limited access for the first hours after the accident. The skyshine effect is not usually relevant hazard in

  15. Promoting safety mindfulness: Recommendations for the design and use of simulation-based training in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz M. Mazur, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to better prepare radiation therapy (RT providers to safely operate within the health information technology (IT sociotechnical system. Simulation-based training has been preemptively used to yield meaningful improvements during providers' interactions with health IT, including RT settings. Therefore, on the basis of the available literature and our experience, we propose principles for the effective design and use of simulated scenarios and describe a conceptual framework for a debriefing approach to foster successful training that is focused on safety mindfulness during RT professionals' interactions with health IT.

  16. Radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document with which all rules and regulations, etc., concerning protection from ionizing radiations of workers and the general population have to conform. Basic concepts, dimensions, units, and terms used in the area of radiation safety are defined. Radiation exposures are sorted out into three categories: A, to personnel; B, to individual members of the popul;tion; and C, to the general population. Critical organs, furthermore, comprise four groups, the first of them being applicable to the whole-body gonads and bone marrow. Category A maximum permissible dose (MPD) to first group critical organs is 5 rem/year; to second group, 15 rem/year; to thrid group, 3O rem/year; and to fourth group, 75 rem/year. These rate figures include doses from both external and internal radiation exposure. Quality factors needed in computing doses from various types of radiation are provided. Permissible planned exposure levels are specified and guidelines given for accidental exposures. A radiation accident is considered to have occurred if the relevant critical organ dose is 5 times the annual MPD for that organ. For individual members of the population (category B), annual somatic doses to first group critical organs shall not exceed 0,5 rem. Population exposure is controlled in terms of genetically significant dose, which shall not exceed 5 rem/30 years. (G.G.)

  17. Radiological safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundaker, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Under the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1968, the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Radiological Health may prescribe performance standards for products that emit radiation. A description is given of the development of these standards and outlines the administrative procedures by which they are enforced. (author)

  18. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  19. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  20. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  1. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  2. Radiation Safety for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of radiation safety is Assessments of Natural Radioactivity and its Radiological. The following topics were discussed during the conference: AFROSAFE Championing Radiation Safety in Africa, Radiation Calibration, and Development and Validation of a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Method for Cancer Detection and Characterization. Young Generation in NUCLEAR Initiative to Promote Nuclear Science and Technology, Radiation Protection Safety Culture and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Industry and the Environment were discuss. Rapid Chemometric X-Ray Fluorescence approaches for spectral Diagnostics of Cancer utilizing Tissue Trace Metals and Speciation profiles. Fundamental role of medical physics in Radiation Therapy

  3. Radiation Safety Aspects of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, David; Cash, Leigh Jackson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guilmette, Raymond [Ray Guilmette & Associates, LLC, Perry, ME (United States); Kreyling, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Munchen, (Germany); Oberdorster, Gunter [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Smith, Rachel [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards

    2017-03-27

    This Report is intended primarily for operational health physicists, radiation safety officers, and internal dosimetrists who are responsible for establishing and implementing radiation safety programs involving radioactive nanomaterials. It should also provide useful information for workers, managers and regulators who are either working directly with or have other responsibilities related to work with radioactive nanomaterials.

  4. Nuclear and radiation safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T; Strycek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne (SE) is a producer of electricity and heat, including from nuclear fuel source. The board of SE is ultimately responsible for nuclear and radiation safety matters. In this leaflet main principles of maintaining nuclear and radiation safety of the Company SE are explained

  5. Occupational radiation safety in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Safety in Mining was held three years ago in Golden, Colorado, U.S.A., and it provided an excellent forum for an exchange of information on the many scientific, technical and operational aspects of radiation safety in mining. I am aware of the broad spectrum of epidemiological, engineering and related studies which have been pursued during the past three years with a view to achieving further improvements in radiation protection and I expect that the information on these studies will contribute significantly to a wider understanding of subject, and in particular, the means by which radiation safety measures in mining can be optimized

  6. Radiation and waste safety: Strengthening national capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.; Webb, G.; Mrabit, K.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has been collecting information on national infrastructures for assuring safety in applications of nuclear and radiation technologies. For more than a decade, from 1984-95, information relevant to radiation safety particularly was obtained through more than 60 expert missions undertaken by Radiation Protection Advisory Teams (RAPATs) and follow-up technical visits and expert missions. The RAPAT programme documented major weaknesses and the reports provided useful background for preparation of national requests for IAEA technical assistance. Building on this experience and subsequent policy reviews, the IAEA took steps to more systematically evaluate the needs for technical assistance in areas of nuclear and radiation safety. The outcome was the development of an integrated system designed to more closely assess national priorities and needs for upgrading their infrastructures for radiation and waste safety

  7. Design and Simulation of 5-DOF Vision-Based Manipulator to Increase Radiation Safety for Industrial Cobalt-60 Irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solyman, A.E.; Keshk, A.B.; Sharshar, K.A.; Roman, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has proved its efficiency in nuclear and radiation fields. Computer vision is one of the advanced approaches used to enhance robotic efficiency. The current work investigates the possibility of using a vision-based controlled arm robot to collect the fallen hot Cobalt-60 capsules inside wet storage pool of industrial irradiator. A 5-DOF arm robot is designed and vision algorithms are established to pick the fallen capsules on the bottom surface of the storage pool, read the information printed on its edge (cap) and move it to a safe storage place. Two object detection approaches are studied; RGB-based filter and background subtraction technique. Vision algorithms and camera calibration are done using MATLAB/SIMULINK program. Robot arm forward and inverse kinematics are developed and programmed using an embedded micro controller system. Experiments show the validity of the proposed system and prove its success. The collecting process will be done without interference of operators, hence radiation safety will be increased.

  8. Occupational safety meets radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severitt, S.; Oehm, J.; Sobetzko, T.; Kloth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

  9. Radiation safety and gynaecological brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, the Radiation Control Section of the South Australian Health Commission conducted an investigation into radiation safety practices in gynaecological brachytherapy. Part of the investigation included a study of the transportation of radioactive sources between hospitals. Several deficiences in radiation safety were found in the way these sources were being transported. New transport regulations came into force in South Australia in July 1984 and since then there have been many changes in the transportation procedure

  10. Radiation safety among cardiology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Candice; Vasaiwala, Samip; Haque, Faizul; Pratap, Kiran; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2010-07-01

    Cardiology fellows can be exposed to high radiation levels during procedures. Proper radiation training and implementation of safety procedures is of critical importance in lowering physician health risks associated with radiation exposure. Participants were cardiology fellows in the United States (n = 2,545) who were contacted by e-mail to complete an anonymous survey regarding the knowledge and practice of radiation protection during catheterization laboratory procedures. An on-line survey engine, SurveyMonkey, was used to distribute and collect the results of the 10-question survey. The response rate was 10.5%. Of the 267 respondents, 82% had undergone formal radiation safety training. Only 58% of the fellows were aware of their hospital's pregnancy radiation policy and 60% knew how to contact the hospital's radiation safety officer. Although 52% of the fellows always wore a dosimeter, 81% did not know their level of radiation exposure in the previous year and only 74% of fellows knew the safe levels of radiation exposure. The fellows who had received formal training were more likely to be aware of their pregnancy policy, to know the contact information of their radiation safety officer, to be aware of the safe levels of radiation exposure, to use dosimeters and RadPad consistently, and to know their own level of radiation exposure in the previous year. In conclusion, cardiology fellows have not been adequately educated about radiation safety. A concerted effort directed at physician safety in the workplace from the regulatory committees overseeing cardiology fellowships should be encouraged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  12. Integrated Safety in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    An on-going research project investigates the inclusion of health and safety considerations in the design phase as a means to achieve a higher level of health and safety in the construction industry. Moreover, the approach is coupled to the overall quality efforts. Two architectural firms and two...... consulting engineering firms are project participants. The hypothesis is that health and safety problems in execution can be prevented through better planning in the early stages of the construction processes and that accidents are prevented by providing safety. In the first stage of the research project...... a theoretical framework is developed from a combination of existing literature on health and safety and a mapping of existing practices based on interviews in all four companies. The interviews revealed that the basic knowledge on OHS among architects and engineers is limited. Also currently designers typically...

  13. Radiation safety standards and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolina, E.P.; Ivanov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection laws of Russia concerning medical application of ionizing radiation are considered. Main concepts of the documents and recommendations are presented. Attention was paid to the ALARA principle, safety standrds for paietients, personnel and population, radiation protection. Specific feature of the standardization of radiation factors is the establishment of two classes of norms: main dose limits and permissible levels. Maximum dose commitment is the main standard. Three groups of critical organs and three categories of the persons exposed to radiation are stated. Main requirements for radiation protection are shown

  14. The radiation safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  15. SU-F-R-11: Designing Quality and Safety Informatics Through Implementation of a CT Radiation Dose Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, JM [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Samei, E [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Departments of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent legislative and accreditation requirements have driven rapid development and implementation of CT radiation dose monitoring solutions. Institutions must determine how to improve quality, safety, and consistency of their clinical performance. The purpose of this work was to design a strategy and meaningful characterization of results from an in-house, clinically-deployed dose monitoring solution. Methods: A dose monitoring platform was designed by our imaging physics group that focused on extracting protocol parameters, dose metrics, and patient demographics and size. Compared to most commercial solutions, which focus on individual exam alerts and global thresholds, the program sought to characterize overall consistency and targeted thresholds based on eight analytic interrogations. Those were based on explicit questions related to protocol application, national benchmarks, protocol and size-specific dose targets, operational consistency, outliers, temporal trends, intra-system variability, and consistent use of electronic protocols. Using historical data since the start of 2013, 95% and 99% intervals were used to establish yellow and amber parameterized dose alert thresholds, respectively, as a function of protocol, scanner, and size. Results: Quarterly reports have been generated for three hospitals for 3 quarters of 2015 totaling 27880, 28502, 30631 exams, respectively. Four adult and two pediatric protocols were higher than external institutional benchmarks. Four protocol dose levels were being inconsistently applied as a function of patient size. For the three hospitals, the minimum and maximum amber outlier percentages were [1.53%,2.28%], [0.76%,1.8%], [0.94%,1.17%], respectively. Compared with the electronic protocols, 10 protocols were found to be used with some inconsistency. Conclusion: Dose monitoring can satisfy requirements with global alert thresholds and patient dose records, but the real value is in optimizing patient

  16. SU-F-R-11: Designing Quality and Safety Informatics Through Implementation of a CT Radiation Dose Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, JM; Samei, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent legislative and accreditation requirements have driven rapid development and implementation of CT radiation dose monitoring solutions. Institutions must determine how to improve quality, safety, and consistency of their clinical performance. The purpose of this work was to design a strategy and meaningful characterization of results from an in-house, clinically-deployed dose monitoring solution. Methods: A dose monitoring platform was designed by our imaging physics group that focused on extracting protocol parameters, dose metrics, and patient demographics and size. Compared to most commercial solutions, which focus on individual exam alerts and global thresholds, the program sought to characterize overall consistency and targeted thresholds based on eight analytic interrogations. Those were based on explicit questions related to protocol application, national benchmarks, protocol and size-specific dose targets, operational consistency, outliers, temporal trends, intra-system variability, and consistent use of electronic protocols. Using historical data since the start of 2013, 95% and 99% intervals were used to establish yellow and amber parameterized dose alert thresholds, respectively, as a function of protocol, scanner, and size. Results: Quarterly reports have been generated for three hospitals for 3 quarters of 2015 totaling 27880, 28502, 30631 exams, respectively. Four adult and two pediatric protocols were higher than external institutional benchmarks. Four protocol dose levels were being inconsistently applied as a function of patient size. For the three hospitals, the minimum and maximum amber outlier percentages were [1.53%,2.28%], [0.76%,1.8%], [0.94%,1.17%], respectively. Compared with the electronic protocols, 10 protocols were found to be used with some inconsistency. Conclusion: Dose monitoring can satisfy requirements with global alert thresholds and patient dose records, but the real value is in optimizing patient

  17. Architectural Design of a Nuclear Research Center with Radiation Safety Considerations, in North Western Coast of Egypt (Using Auto CAD and 3ds Max Programs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahat, M.A.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the design of nuclear research centers to help architects and engineers who will design these centers. Also, the research covers the site characteristics which are used in site selection of nuclear research centers. It covers the principles and standards used in design and planning of nuclear research centers. The master plan of a nuclear research center should be designed based on the system of segregation according to the level of radioactivity. Radiation safety is an important aspect in the design of nuclear research centers. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority consists of three nuclear research centers, namely, the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas (Grid Planning Concept), the Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center in Inshas (Grid Planning Concept) and The National Center for Radiation Research and Technology in Nasr City (Linear Planning Concept). The Radial Planning Concept is the best among all the Planning Concepts as regard radiation safety considerations. Therefore, an architectural design of a new nuclear research center was proposed in a suitable site in North Western Coast of Egypt (Radial Planning Concept) using Auto CAD and 3ds Max programs. This site is suitable and satisfies many of the site requirements. It is recommended that the architectural design of nuclear research centers should be supervised by an architectural engineer experienced in architectural design of nuclear facilities

  18. A Preliminary Study for Safety Shutter design to Protect Streaming of Residual Radiation Passing through Beamline in Pre-Separator Room of ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Song Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Nam, Shin Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    RAON is a heavy ion accelerator under construction by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in Korea. As one part of the RAON accelerator, ISOL is a facility to generate and separate rare isotopes for various experiments. In ISOL facility, isotopes generated from the reaction between 70 MeV proton beam and UC{sub 2} target are transferred to pre-separator room. Almost all isotopes accumulated in slit of pre-separator except specific isobars, which are set for experiments. Residual radiations are generated from accumulated isotopes because these isotopes are unstable. Streaming of residual radiation by the beamline is weak point for radiation shielding design. In this study, safety shutter was designed. Residual radiation generated from accumulated isotopes at slit of pre-separator was estimated using following conditions: (1) the isotopes generated by proton-target reactions are accumulated at slit with 10 % accumulation rate; (2) it was assumed that the radioactive isotopes are uniformly distributed in the cylindrical slit which have 1 cm height and 15 diameter. To design optimized safety shutter, following steps were performed: (1) thickness and diameter of the bulk shield material were evaluated to optimize safety shutter material; (2) additional shielding structure was proposed using dose contribution of each additional shielding wall.

  19. Radiation safety - an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA relating to radiation safety cover: The preparation of International Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - it is expected that the new Basic Safety Standards will be adopted by the sponsoring organizations in 1994. The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident: the thyroid cancer controversy - the hypothesis that must be tested is whether the reported increased incidence of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine released in the Chernobyl accident, and there are several questions that must be answered before a firm conclusion can be reached. Emergency Response Services (ERS): In March 1993, at the request of Viet Nam, which invoked the Energency Assistance Convention, a medical team organized by the IAEA went to Hanoi and assisted in arranging for an overexposed person to be transferred from Viet Nam to Paris for specialized medical treatment. In April 1993, the ERS was used to inform Member States of the consequences of an explosion at the Tomsk 7 fuel reprocessing plant in Siberia, Russia, which caused a radiation leak. Reassessing the long range transport of radioactive material through the environment: Data from the Chernobyl accident have been used for model validation in the Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study (ATMES). A follow-up programme, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) with experimental studies of long range atmospheric movements over Europe has been established in order to increase knowledge and prediction capability. As part of the programme, a non-toxic atmospheric tracer will be released under suitable conditions in 1994. The Radiation Protection Advisory Teams Service (RAPAT): In many of the developing countries visited, the lack of an adequate infrastructure for radiation protection is the main obstacle to improved radiation protection. Strengthening radiation and nuclear safety infrastructures in successor states of the USSR: The

  20. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  1. Radiation safety research information database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan began to construct Radiation Safety Research Information Database' in 2001. The research information database is of great service to evaluate the effects of radiation on people by estimating exposure dose by determining radiation and radioactive matters in the environment. The above database (DB) consists of seven DB such as Nirs Air Borne Dust Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Tritium Survey DB, Nirs Environmental Carbon Survey DB, Environmental Radiation Levels, Abe, Metabolic Database for Assessment of Internal Dose, Graphs of Predicted Monitoring Data, and Nirs nuclear installation environment water tritium survey DB. Outline of DB and each DB are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Safety and design limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  3. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  4. Design provisions for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages

  5. Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.

  6. Safety guide data on radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Noboru; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1986-04-01

    In a reprocessing facility, various radiation sources are handled and have many geometrical conditions. To aim drawing up a safety guidebook on radiation shielding in order to evaluate shielding safety in a reprocessing facility with high reliability and reasonableness, JAERI trusted investigation on safety evaluation techniques of radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility to Nuclear Safety Research Association. This report is the collection of investigation results, and describes concept of shielding safety design principle, radiation sources in reprocessing facility and estimation of its strength, techniques of shielding calculations, and definite examples of shielding calculation in reprocessing facility. (author)

  7. Internet applications in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Geisse, C.; Wuest, E.

    1998-01-01

    As a means of effective communication the Internet is presently becoming more and more important in German speaking countries, too. Its possibilities to exchange and to obtain information efficiently and rapidly are excellent. Internet and email access are available now in most institutions for professional use. Internet services of importance to radiation safety professionals are described. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiation safety of Takasaki ion accelerators for advanced radiation in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Susumu; Anazawa, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Building layout of Takasaki ion accelerator facility has been started since 1987, with the propulsion of research development of (1) cosmetic environment materials, (2) nuclear fusion reactors, (3) biotechnology, and (4) new functional materials. This paper deals with an AVF cyclotron and a tandem type accelerator, focusing on safety design, radiation safety management, and radioactive waste management. Safety design is discussed in view of radiation shielding and activation countermeasures. Radiation safety management covers radiation monitoring in the workplace, exhaust radioactivity, environment outside the facility, and the other equipments; personal monitoring; and protective management of exposure. For radiation waste management, basic concept and management methods are commented on. (N.K.)

  9. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 3, 5.0 Radiation safety and environment; 6.0 Physics and technology R and D needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: safety and environmental requirements and design targets; accident analyses; personnel safety and maintenance exposure; effluent control; waste management and decommissioning; safety considerations in building design; and safety and environmental conclusions and recommendations

  10. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  11. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  12. System Design and the Safety Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities

  13. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  14. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  15. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  16. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect

  17. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  18. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  19. Design analysis of various transportation package options for BN-350 SNF in terms of nuclear radiation safety in planning for long-terms dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisabekov, A.Z.; Mukenova, S.A.; Tur, E.S.; Tsyngaev, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This effort is performed under the BN-350 reactor facility decommissioning project. One of the project tasks - spent nuclear fuel handling - includes the following: fuel packaging into sealed canisters, transportation of the canisters in multi-seat metallo-concrete containers and placement of the containers for a long-term dry storage. The goal of this effort is to computationally validate nuclear and radiation safety of the SNF containers placed for storage both under normal storage conditions and probable accident situations. The basic unit structure and design configurations are presented: assemblies, canisters, transportation containers. The major factors influencing nuclear and radiation safety are presented: fuel burn-up, enrichment, fabrication tolerance, types of fuel assemblies, configuration of assemblies in the canister and canisters in the container, background of assemblies placed in the reactor and cooling pool. Conditions under which the SNF containers will be stored are described and probable accident situations are listed. Proceeding from the conservatism principle, selection of the assemblies posing the greatest nuclear hazard is validated. A neutron effective multiplication factor is calculated for the SNF containers under the normal storage conditions and for the case of emergency. The effective multiplication factor is shown to be within a standard value of 0.95 in any situation. Based on the experimental data on assembly and canister dose rates, canisters posing the highest radiation threat are selected. Activities of sources and gamma-radiation spectral composition are calculated. Distribution of the dose rate outside the containers both under the normal storage conditions and accident situations are calculated. The results obtained are analyzed

  20. Promoting safety culture in radiation industry through radiation audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing and promoting effective radiation safety program. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. This program is known as radiation safety audit and is able to reveal where and when action is needed to make improvements to the systems of controls. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as the sole requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. As a result safety culture, which has been a vital element on safety in many industries can be improved and promote changes, leading to good safety performance and excellence. (author)

  1. Radiation safety for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities is a growth area in the UK at the present time. NUKEM Nuclear Limited is a leading-edge nuclear decommissioning and waste management contractor (with its own in-house health physics and safety department), working for a variety of clients throughout the UK nuclear industry. NUKEM Nuclear is part of the prestigious, international NUKEM group, a world-class organization specializing in nuclear engineering and utilities technologies. NUKEM Nuclear is involved in a number of large, complex decommissioning projects, both in its own right and as part of consortia. This paper explores the challenges presented by such projects and the interfaces of contractor, client and subcontractors from the point of view of a radiation protection adviser. (author)

  2. Panel 1: Safety design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2013-01-01

    There is general consensus in the nuclear community, and more after the Fukushima accident, that the deployment of nuclear energy has to be done at the highest levels of nuclear safety and that safety cannot be compromised by other factors. It is well understood that reactors that are being licensed and the new generations of reactors that will be constructed in the future will need to reach higher safety levels than the existing ones. Several countries and international organizations or international groups are launching initiatives to harmonise safety goals, safety requirements, safety objectives, regulations, criteria or safety reference levels. There are differences in the meanings of these terms and the working approaches, but the overall purpose is the same: to specify how new plants can be safer. In this context, the IAEA has an statutory function for developing international nuclear safety standards. The IAEA safety standards are per se not mandatory for IAEA Member States. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA’s standards for use in their national regulations in different ways. The IAEA Safety Standards represent international consensus on what must constitute a high level of safety for nuclear installations. In the area of NPP design, IAEA safety standards that are published are intended to apply primarily to new plants. It might not be practicable to apply all the requirements to plants that are already in operation. In addition, the focus is primarily on plants with water cooled reactors

  3. Stock-taking of the safety design of the nuclear power plant with HTR 1160 and the radiation exposure connected with its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.P.; Geiser, H.; Roedder, P.; Dagbjartsson, S.; Ernst, H.; Ledermann, H.; Hecke, R. van.

    1976-06-01

    The study comprises: 1) Environmental pollution due to radioactive emissions; 2) personnel exposure during operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair; 3) environmental pollution due to the closing of the fuel cycle; 4) safety requirements; 5) state of the art of safety design; 6) reliability analyses; 7) the importance of the testability of systems and components relevant for safety. (HP) 891 HP [de

  4. Stock-taking of the safety design of the nuclear power plant with PWR type Biblis B and the radiation exposure connected with its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.P.; Geiser, H.; Roedder, P.; Dagbjartsson, S.; Ernst, H.; Ledermann, H.; Hecke, R. van.

    1976-06-01

    The study comprises: 1) Environmental pollution due to radioactive emissions; 2) personnel exposure during operation, maintenance, inspection, and repair; 3) environmental pollution due to the closing of the fuel cycle; 4) safety requirements; 5) state of the art of safety design; 6) reliability analysis; 7) the importance of the testability of systems and components relevant for safety. (HP) 891 HP [de

  5. OSHA and Experimental Safety Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichak, Stephen, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other agencies.…

  6. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with the section 26 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) the safety requirements to be taken into account in planning laboratories and other premises, which affect safety in the use of radioactive materials, are confirmed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The guide specifies the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive materials are used or stored as unsealed sources. There are also some general instructions concerning work procedures in a radionuclide laboratory

  7. Radiation safety in welding and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.E.; Malaxos, M.; Hartley, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are a number of ways of achieving radiation safety in the workplace. The first is by engineering radiation safety into the equipment, providing shielded rooms and safety interlocks. The second is by following safe working procedures. The National Health and Medical Research Council's Code of practice for the control and safe handling of sealed radioactive sources used in industrial radiography (1968) sets out the standards which must be met by equipment to be used in industrial radiography

  8. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  9. Recent trends in particle accelerator radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, W.F.; Butler, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    The use of particle accelerators in applied and research activities continues to expand, bringing new machines with higher energy and current capabilities which create radiation safety problems not commonly encountered before. An overview is given of these increased ionizing radiation hazards, along with a discussion of some of the new techniques required in evaluating and controlling them. A computer search of the literature provided a relatively comprehensive list of publications describing accelerator radiation safety problems and related subjects

  10. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  11. Construction of data base for radiation safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Shin

    2001-01-01

    Data base with an electronic text on the safety assessment of low dose ionizing radiation have been constructed. The contents and the data base system were designed to provide useful information to Japanese citizens, radiation specialists, and decision makers for a scientific and reasonable understanding of radiation health effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation protection. The data base consists of the following four essential parts, namely, ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION, DETAILED INFORMATION, TOPIC INFORMATION, and RELATED INFORMATION. The first two parts of the data base are further classified into following subbranches: Radiobiological effects, radiation risk assessment, and radiation exposure and protection. (author)

  12. EC6 safety design improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Lee, A.G.; Soulard, M. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) builds on the proven high performance design such as the Qinshan CANDU 6 reactor, and has made improvements to safety, operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback. Completion of all three phases of the pre-licensing design review by the Canadian Regulator - the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has provided a higher level of assurance that the EC6 reference design has taken modern regulatory requirements and expectations into account and further confirmed that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the EC6 design in Canada. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles in INSAG-10 and provides further safety features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. With these safety features, the EC6 design has strengthened accident prevention as the first priority in the defence-in-depth strategy, as outlined in INSAG-10. As well, the EC6 design has incorporated further mitigation measures to provide additional protection of the public and the environment if the preventive measures fail. The EC6 design has an appropriate combination of inherent, passive safety characteristics, engineered features and administrative safety measures to effectively prevent and mitigate severe accident progressions. A strong contributor to the robustness and redundancy of CANDU design is the two-group separation philosophy. This ensures a high degree of independence between safety systems as well as physical separation and functional independence in how fundamental safety functions are provided. This paper will describe the following safety features based on the application of defence-in-depth and design approach to prevent beyond design basis events progressing to severe accidents and to mitigate the consequences if it occurs: Improved steam generator heat sink via a more reliable emergency heat removal system; Increased time before manual field actions are required via enhanced capacity of

  13. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, William R.; Herman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled ''Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action''. The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  14. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  15. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  16. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  17. Effective education in radiation safety for nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, K.; Kaori, T.

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish an efficient training program of radiation safety for nurses, studies have been carried out on the basis of questionnaires. Collaboration of nurses, who are usually standing closest to the patient, is necessary in order to offer safe radiological diagnostics/treatment. The authors distributed the questionnaire to 134 nurses in five polyclinic hospitals in Japan. Important questions were: fear of radiation exposure, knowledge on the radiation treatment, understanding the impact on pregnancy, and so on. Most of the nurses feel themselves uneasy against exposure to radiation. They do not have enough knowledge of radiological treatment. They do not know exactly what is the impact of the radiation on pregnant women. Such tendency is more pronounced, when nurses spend less time working in the radiological department. Nurses play important roles in radiological diagnostics/treatment. Therefore, a well-developed education system for radiation safety is essential. The training for the radiation safety in medicine should be done in the context of general safety in medicine. Education programs in undergraduate school and at the working place should be coordinated efficiently in order to ensure that both nurses and patients are informed about the meaning of radiation safety. (authors)

  18. Radiation safety management system in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper illustrates the Cuban experience in implementing and promoting an effective radiation safety system for the Centre of Isotopes, the biggest radioactive facility of our country. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. All those areas of the radiation protection program are considered (e.g. licensing and training of the staff, occupational exposure, authorization of the practices, control of the radioactive material, radiological occurrences, monitoring equipment, radioactive waste management, public exposure due to airborne effluents, audits and safety costs). A set of indicators designed to monitor key aspects of operational safety performance are used. Their trends over a period of time are analyzed with the modern information technologies, because this can provide an early warning to plant management for searching causes behind the observed changes. In addition to analyze the changes and trends, these indicators are compared against identified targets and goals to evaluate performance strengths and weaknesses. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as a basic requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. The integrated safety management system establishment has been identified as a goal and way for the continuous improvement. (author)

  19. Interface between radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Hoegberg, L.

    1991-01-01

    Interface issues concern the character and management of overlaps between radiation protection and nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. Typical examples include the selection of inspection and maintenance volumes in order to balance occupational radiation doses versus the safety status of the plant, and the intentional release to the environment in the course of an accident in order to secure better plant control. The paper discusses whether it is desirable and possible to employ a consistent management of interface issues with trade-offs between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Illustrative examples are quoted from a major Nordic research programme on risk analysis and safety rationale. These concern for instance in-service inspections, modifications of plant systems and constructions after the plant has been taken into operation, and studies on the limitations of probabilistic safety assessment. They indicate that in general there are no simple rules for such trade-offs

  20. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  1. Safety considerations in the design of the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Safety considerations play a significant role in the design of a near-term Fusion Engineering Device (FED). For the safety of the general public and the plant workers, the radiation environment caused by the reacting plasma and the potential release of tritium fuel are the dominant considerations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris. The highly activated device components make it necessary to design many of the maintenance activities in the reactor building for totally remote operation. The hot cell facility has evolved as a totally remote maintenance facility due to the high radiation levels of the device components. Safety considerations have had substantial impacts on the design of FED. Several examples of safety-related design impacts are discussed in the paper. Feasible solutions have been identified for all outstanding safety-related items, and additional optimization of these solutions is anticipated in future design studies

  2. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  3. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  4. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in … shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  5. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  6. AFROSAFE Championing Radiation Safety in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyabanda, R.

    2015-01-01

    AFRASAFE is a campaign that was formed by Pan African congress of Radiology and imaging (PACOR) and other radiation health workers in Africa in Feb 2015. Its main objective is to unite with a common goal to identify and address issues arising from radiation protection in medicine in Africa. Through this campaign, we state that we shall promote adherence to policies, strategies and activities for the promotion of radiation safety and for maximization of benefits from radiological medical procedures. The campaign strengthens the overall radiation protection of patients, health workers and public. It promotes safe and appropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine and enhances global information to help improve the benefit/risk dialogue with patients and the public. It enhances the safety and quality of radiological procedures in medicine, and encourages safety in diagnostic and therapeutic equipment and facilities. The issue of research in radiation protection and safety needs to be promoted. This presentation will outline the six strategic objectives and the implementation tools for radiation safety in medicine in Kenya, the challenges and way forward to achieve our goal. (Author)

  7. Dictionnary for radiation safety terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The dictionnary of radiation protection terms has been compiled by CMEA member-country specialists under the auspisious of Scientific-Technical Council for Radiation Protection of the Permanent Commision for Peaceful Atomic Energy Applications as a means for better mutual understanding in collaborative activities. The dictionnary incorporates, along with Russian terms, the corresponding ones in the official languages of CMEA member-countries who participated in its compiling: Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Spanish, Polish, Roumanian, Czech as well as English. The dictionnary consists of three sections: 1) Ionizing radiation; 2) Ionizing radiation interaction with materials. Ionizing radiation dosimetry; 3) Radiation protection. The first section contains 16 terms, the second - 25, the third - 110. The terms within the section are arranged in sense sequences

  8. Challenges in promoting radiation safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Safety has quickly become an industry performance measure, and the emphasis on its reliability has always been part of a strategic commitment. This paper presents an approach taken by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) and authority to develop and implement safety culture for industries that uses radioactive material and radiation sources. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. Proper safety audit will help to identify the non-compliance of safety culture as well as the deviation of management, individual and policy level commitment; review of radiation protection program and activities should be preceded. (author)

  9. Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Ndao, Ababacar Sadikhe; Tall, Moustapha Sadibou

    2014-01-01

    Senegal has put in place a regulatory framework which allows to frame legally the use of radioactive sources. A regulatory authority has been established to ensure its application. It is in the process of carrying out its regulatory functions. It cooperates with appropriate national or international institutions operating in fields related to radiation protection, safety and nuclear safety.

  10. Winning public confidence in radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelcher, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations using cost/benefit analysis and the ALARA principle should take account of psychological as well as material considerations. Safety is a basic human need which has to be met. It is also subjective and therefore has to be understood by the individual. The professional health physicist has a duty to see that radiation safety is understood by the general public. (author)

  11. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2006-01-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  12. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M. [Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  13. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Togo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  14. Radiation Safety (General) Regulations 1983 (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The provisions of the Regulations cover, inter alia, the general precautions and requirements relating to radiation safety of the public and radiation workers and registration of irradiating apparatus or premises on which such apparatus is operated. In addition, the Regulations set forth requirements for the operation of such apparatus and for the premises involved. (NEA) [fr

  15. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  16. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  17. Safety Culture on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet, E.

    1996-01-01

    It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

  18. Radiation safety and radiation protection problems on the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.; Orlic, M.

    1997-01-01

    As we can see from the examples of many accelerator facilities installed throughout the world with ion beam energy, mass and charge characteristics and design similar to the TESLA Accelerator Installation, there is a great diversity among them, and each radiation protection and safety programme must be designed to facilitate the safe and effective operation of the accelerator according to the needs of the operating installation. Although there is no standard radiation protection and safety organization suitable for all institutions, experience suggests some general principles that should be integrated with all the disciplines involved in a comprehensive safety programme. (author)

  19. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)

  20. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  1. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  2. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  3. Space radiation and astronaut safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This brief explores the biological effects of long-term radiation on astronauts in deep space. As missions progress beyond Earth's orbit and away from the protection of its magnetic shielding, astronauts risk constant exposure to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. The text concisely addresses the full spectrum of biomedical consequences from exposure to space radiation and goes on to present possible ways to mitigate such dangers and protect astronauts within the limitations of existing technologies.

  4. Radiation safety aspects at Indus accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Indus Accelerator Complex at Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology houses two synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 that are being operated round-the-clock to cater to the needs of the research community. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring and Indus-2 is presently being operated with electrons stored at 2 GeV. Bremsstrahlung radiation and photo-neutrons form the major radiation environment in Indus Accelerator Complex. They are produced due to loss of electron-beam occurring at different stages of operation of various accelerators located in the complex. The synchrotron radiation (SR) also contributes as a potential hazard. In order to ensure safety of synchrotron radiation users and operation and maintenance staff working in the complex from this radiation, an elaborate radiation safety system is in place. The system comprises a Personnel Protection System (PPS) and a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). The PPS includes zoning, radiation shielding, door interlocks, a search and scram system and machine operation trip-interlocks. The RMS consists of area radiation monitors and beam loss monitors, whose data is available online in the Indus control room. Historical data of radiation levels is also available for data analysis. Synchrotron radiation beamlines at Indus-2 are handled in a special manner owing to the possibility of exposure to synchrotron radiation. Shielding hutches with SR monitors are installed at each beamline of Indus-2. Health Physics Unit also carries out regular radiological surveillance for photons and neutrons during various modes of operation and data is logged shift wise. The operation staff is appropriately trained and qualified as per the recommendations of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Safety training is also imparted to the beamline users. Safe operation procedures and operation checklists are being followed strictly. A radiation instrument calibration facility is also being set-up at RRCAT. The radiation

  5. Integration of radiation and physical safety in large radiator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, P.P.M.; Benedito, A.M.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Growing international concern about radioactive sources after the Sept. 11, 2001 event has led to a strengthening of physical safety. There is evidence that the illicit use of radioactive sources is a real possibility and may result in harmful radiological consequences for the population and the environment. In Brazil there are about 2000 medical, industrial and research facilities with radioactive sources, of which 400 are Category 1 and 2 classified by the - International Atomic Energy Agency - AIEA, where large irradiators occupy a prominent position due to the very high cobalt-60 activities. The radiological safety is well established in these facilities, due to the intense work of the authorities in the Country. In the paper the main aspects on radiological and physical safety applied in the large radiators are presented, in order to integrate both concepts for the benefit of the safety as a whole. The research showed that the items related to radiation safety are well defined, for example, the tests on the access control devices to the irradiation room. On the other hand, items related to physical security, such as effective control of access to the company, use of safety cameras throughout the company, are not yet fully incorporated. Integration of radiation and physical safety is fundamental for total safety. The elaboration of a Brazilian regulation on the subject is of extreme importance

  6. New ICRP recommendations and radiation safety of an NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.

    2007-01-01

    In March 2007 the fundamental radiation protection recommendations used world-widely in nuclear facilities were approved by the ICRP. Implementation of radiation safety standards in an NPP is a challenging issue related to all NPP phases from planning a site and its design to its decommissioning also because if neglected it could be very difficult if not impossible to implement improvement of radiation safety later during operation or decommissioning without a substantial cost. The standards are changing with a period of 15 years which is small regarding a prolonged lifetime of many NPPs and also foreseen lifetime of new NPPs, i.e. 60 years. The new recommendations are actually an upgrading of the ICRP 60. Among other changes new sets of wR and wT are given, as well as an update of around 50 different values related to doses. Two new concepts are also tackled i.e. terrorist attacks and protection of the environment. The influence of the new recommendations on the radiation safety of NPPs can be analysed by a selection of four renewed or new concepts: types of exposure situation, dose constraints, source-related approach and safety and security. Their implementation could lead to upgrading the radiation safety of future or existing NPPs as well as of decommissioning processes. Some of the concepts were already extensively and successfully used by designers of modifications or of new NPPs, as well as by operators. (author)

  7. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian defence organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified

  8. Radiation safety in 'install and operate type' irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, D.K.; Kohli, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Install and operate type irradiator has been designed to carry out radiation processing of various food products as well as medical products. It is a category 1 type batch irradiator. This paper brings out the radiation safety aspects of this irradiator. Comparison has been made with conveyor type category IV irradiators, which are more common in use for commercial purposes. The design has many features that make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of all items that are permitted and amenable for gamma radiation processing. (author)

  9. Monitoring and crisis system of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartok, J.; Borovansky, P.; Macica, J.; Petrovicova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we have briefly described our practical experiences with the most complex Radiation Monitoring System we have designed. This system consists of number of stations; those data are collected in the main crisis center of the whole system. The main center integrates RMS Central Database, the IMS Model Suite workstation and the Graphics workstation. The radiations probes of the RP series are the base for stationary , portable sets and for sets measuring underwater radiation. The radiation and meteorological data, which are necessary for reasonable interpretation of radiation data, are archived in RMS Central database. The Lagrangian trajectory model from the IMS Model Suite serves for radiation dispersion modeling. (authors)

  10. Design experience: CRBRP radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Chan, T.C.; Gallo, F.G.; Hedgecock, L.R.; McGinnis, C.A.; Wrights, G.N.

    1978-11-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is being designed as a fast breeder demonstration project in the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program. Radiation shielding design of the facility consists of a comprehensive design approach to assure compliance with design and government regulatory requirements. Studies conducted during the CRBRP design process involved the aspects of radiation shielding dealing with protection of components, systems, and personnel from radiation exposure. Achievement of feasible designs, while considering the mechanical, structural, nuclear, and thermal performance of the component or system, has required judicious trade-offs in radiation shielding performance. Specific design problems which have been addressed are in-vessel radial shielding to protect permanent core support structures, flux monitor system shielding to isolate flux monitoring systems for extraneous background sources, reactor vessel support shielding to allow personnel access to the closure head during full power operation, and primary heat transport system pipe chaseway shielding to limit intermediate heat transport system sodium system coolant activation. The shielding design solutions to these problems defined a need for prototypic or benchmark experiments to provide assurance of the predicted shielding performance of selected design solutions and the verification of design methodology. Design activities of CRBRP plant components an systems, which have the potential for radiation exposure of plant personnel during operation or maintenance, are controlled by a design review process related to radiation shielding. The program implements design objectives, design requirements, and cost/benefit guidelines to assure that radiation exposures will be ''as low as reasonably achievable''

  11. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  12. Radiation safety and care of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with radiation safety measures which can be pursued to minimize radiation load to the patient and staff. The basic principle is that all unnecessary administration should be avoided and a number of simple techniques be used to reduce radiation dose. For example, the kidney excretes many radionuclides. Drinking plenty of fluid and frequent bladder emptying can minimize absorbed dose to the bladder. Thyroid blocking agents must be used if radioactive iodine is being administered to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. When it is necessary to administer radioactive substances to a female of childbearing age, the radiation exposure should be minimum and information whether the patient is pregnant or not must be obtained. Alternatives techniques, which do not involve ionizing radiation, should also be considered. (author)

  13. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  15. Monitoring System For Improving Radiation Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Tal, N.; Ankry, N.; Ashkenazi, B.; Tirosh, D.; Marziano, R.; Chisin, R.

    1999-01-01

    Medi SMARTS (Medical Survey Mapping Automatic Radiation Tracing System), a gamma radiation monitoring system, was installed in a nuclear medicine department. In this paper the evaluation of the system's ability to improve radiation safety management is presented. The system is based on a state of the art software that continuously collects on line radiation measurements for display, analysis and logging. Radiation is measured by GM tubes; the signal is transferred to a data processing unit and then via an RS-485 communication line to a computer. The system automatically identifies the detector type and its calibration factor, thus providing compatibility, maintainability and versatility when changing detectors. Radiation levels are displayed on the nuclear medicine department map at six locations. The system has been operating continuously for more than one year, documenting abnormal events caused by routine operation or failure incidents. In cases where abnormal working conditions were encountered, an alarm message was sent automatically to the supervisor via his tele-pager. An interesting issue observed during the system evaluation, was the inability to distinguish between high radiation levels caused by proper routine operation and those caused by safety failure incidents. The solution included examination of two parameters, radiation levels as well as their duration period. A careful analysis of the historical data, applying the appropriated combined parameters determined for each location, verified that such a system can identify abnormal events, provide alarms to warn in case of incidents and improve standard operating procedures

  16. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, A.; Oldfather, D.; Lindner, A.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 keV electron gun, 50 MeV linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  17. Radiation (Safety Control) Ordinance 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Ordinance provides for the control, regulation, possession, use and transport of radioactive substance and irradiating apparatus. The Director of Health is responsible for administration of the Ordinance, which contains detailed provisions concerning the terms and conditions of licences, duties of licensees, medical examinations, maximum radiation doses, precautions to be taken to avoid exceeding such doses. The Ordinance also lays down a system of record-keeping and registration as well as packaging specifications for the transport of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  18. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Mannan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  19. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  20. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, E.

    2014-04-01

    Radiation is useful because of its ability to penetrate tissue, allowing imaging of internal structures. However radiation may produce harmful biological effects. Observations of exposed human populations and animal experimentation indicate that exposure to low levels of radiation over a period of time may lead to stochastic radiation effects. Exposures to high levels of radiation above threshold also leads to deterministic effects. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme and implement it without fail may help prevent deterministic effect and limit chances of stochastic effects. This is achieved by assigning responsibilities to the proposed organizational structure, management commitment to safety culture by providing continuous education and training to employees, regular reviewing and auditing of radiation safety policies. Occupational, public and environmental radiation exposure is further achieved by implementation of set local rules and operational procedures, proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. Medical radiation exposure is achieved by justified procedures, optimization of doses, guidance levels, quality assurance and quality control programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and records keeping of radiation doses, calibration certificates of equipment used, equipment service and test certificates. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the minimum possible radiation dose to the patient while therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the maximum dose to the target organ or tissue, while minimizing the dose to non-target tissues such as the bone marrow. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. The proper facility design and shielding of a nuclear medicine facility shall further provide for the radiation protection to the worker, the patient, public and the environment. Precautions should be given to radioactive patients as there

  1. Metrics design for safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Yaping; van den Brand, M.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:In the safety domain, safety assessment is used to show that safety-critical systems meet the required safety objectives. This process is also referred to as safety assurance and certification. During this procedure, safety standards are used as development guidelines to keep the risk at an

  2. Radiation safety standards : an environmentalist's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problem of environmental mutagenic hazards leads to the recommendation of a single dose-limit to the exposure of human beings to all man-made mutagenic agents including chemicals and radiation. However, because of lack of : (1) adequate information on chemical mutagens, (2) sufficient data on their risk estimates and (3) universally accepted dose-limites, control of chemical mutagens in the environment has not reached that advanced stage as that of radiation. In this situation, the radiation safety standards currently in use should be retained at their present levels. (M.G.B.)

  3. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  4. Legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions

  5. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  6. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  7. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  8. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  9. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  10. Safety considerations in the design of the Fusion Engineering Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris

  11. Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, F.; Dollani, K.; Paci, R.

    2005-01-01

    On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

  12. Progress report: 1996 Radiation Safety Systems Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.; Mehta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The activities of Radiation Safety Systems Division include (i) development of specialised monitoring systems and radiation safety information network, (ii) radiation hazards control at the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the radioisotope programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and for the accelerators programme at BARC and Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore. The systems on which development and upgradation work was carried out during the year included aerial gamma spectrometer, automated environment monitor using railway network, radioisotope package monitor and air monitors for tritium and alpha active aerosols. Other R and D efforts at the division included assessment of risk for radiation exposures and evaluation of ICRP 60 recommendations in the Indian context, shielding evaluation and dosimetry for the new upcoming accelerator facilities and solid state nuclear track detector techniques for neutron measurements. The expertise of the divisional members was provided for 36 safety committees of BARC and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Twenty three publications were brought out during the year 1996. (author)

  13. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  14. Radiation safety. Handbook for laboratory workers in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotte, E.D.; Krueger, D.J.; Connor, K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the Handbook is to provide a source of information on radiation safety for those who are involved in the use of ionizing radiation in the laboratory. The potential reader may be a laboratory worker in the university or biomedical setting or the safety professional who desires a basic understanding of radiation protection within the research environment. The Handbook may be used as a reference by the radiation protection specialist or Radiation Safety Officer. To this end, liberal use is made of Appendices to make the Handbook a source of reference for a wide spectrum of readership while avoiding complicating the main body of the text. Each chapter or appendix is designed to stand alone. A complete reading of the Handbook will show that topics may be covered more than once. For example, one may read about the hazards and protective measures on handling radioiodine in Chapter 5 on Practical Radiation Protection as well as in Appendix 19 on Safe Handling of 125 I. Extensive use of figures, rather than tables has been made to present data, in the belief that these produce a good visual representation to a level of precision which is sufficient for most purposes of radiation protection in laboratories. The reader must remember that this Handbook should be taken as a guide only to the applicable regulations. You must consult the appropriate state or federal regulation directly or receive advice of a qualified radiation safety professional. Also, some information in the Appendices, such as commercially available training institutions or radioactive waste brokers, may change with time. Telephone numbers are given for the reader to call directly and check the services provided

  15. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Pursuant to the provisions of its Statute relevant to the adoption and application of safety standards for protection against radiation, the Agency convened a panel of experts which formulated the Basic Safety Standards set forth in this publication. The panel met under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and representatives of the United Nations and of several of its specialized agencies participated in its work. The Basic Safety Standards thus represent the result of a most careful assessment of the variety of complex scientific and administrative problems involved. Nevertheless, of course, they will need to be revised from time to time in the light of advances in scientific knowledge, of comments received from Member States and of the work of other competent international organizations. The Agency's Board of Governors in June 1962 approved the Standards as a first edition, subject to later revision as mentioned above, and authorized Director General Sigvard Eklund to apply the Standards in Agency and Agency-assisted operations and to invite Governments of Member States to take them as a basis in formulating national regulations or recommendations on protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. It is mainly for this last purpose that the Basic Safety Standards are now being published in the Safety Series; but it is hoped that this publication will also interest a much wider circle of readers.

  16. Research on crisis communication of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yali; Zhang Ying

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient public cognition of nuclear and radiation safety and absence of effective method to handle crisis lead to common crisis events of nuclear and radiation safety, which brings about unfavorable impact on the sound development of nuclear energy exploring and application of nuclear technology. This paper, based on crisis communication theory, analyzed the effect of current situation on nuclear and radiation safety crisis, discussed how to handle crisis, and tried to explore the effective strategies for nuclear and radiation safety crisis handling. (authors)

  17. Implementation of radiation safety program in a medical institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanca, Elena D.

    1999-01-01

    A medical institution that utilizes radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of malignancies develops and implements a radiation safety program to keep occupational exposures of radiation workers and exposures of non-radiation workers and the public to the achievable and a more achievable minimum, to optimize the use of radiation, and to prevent misadministration. The hospital radiation safety program is established by a core medical radiation committee composed of trained radiation safety officers and head of authorized users of radioactive materials and radiation machines from the different departments. The radiation safety program sets up procedural guidelines of the safe use of radioactive material and of radiation equipment. It offers regular training to radiation workers and radiation safety awareness courses to hospital staff. The program has a comprehensive radiation safety information system or radsis that circularizes the radiation safety program in the hospital. The radsis keeps the drafted and updated records of safety guides and policies, radioactive material and equipment inventory, personnel dosimetry reports, administrative, regulatory and licensing activity document, laboratory procedures, emergency procedures, quality assurance and quality control program process, physics and dosimetry procedures and reports, personnel and hospital staff training program. The medical radiation protection committee is tasked to oversee the actual implementation of the radiation safety guidelines in the different radiation facilities in the hospital, to review personnel exposures, incident reports and ALARA actions, operating procedures, facility inspections and audit reports, to evaluate the existing radiation safety procedures, to make necessary changes to these procedures, and make modifications of course content of the training program. The effective implementation of the radiation safety program provides increased confidence that the physician and

  18. The Radiation Safety Culture: Image Gently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to Implementing Safety include Silos of Knowledge, Time, training and Resources. Creating a Safety Culture in Healthcare include Decreased authority gradients, Checklists and audits (QA), Use of structured language (SBAR), Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation Team briefings and debriefings (immediate learning, team building tools), Lifelong learning (PQI). Use of Collective Learning Opportunities - QA and PQI that include Web sites: IG, WFPI, IAEA, ISR and Data Registries: ACR . The Key Principles of Radiation Protection: When do we learn them? For Occupational Workers:Time, Distance and Shielding while those of For Patients: Justification, Optimization and Dose Limits (dose reference levels)

  19. Engineering design guidelines for nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    This document provides general engineering design guidelines specific to nuclear criticality safety for a facility where the potential for a criticality accident exists. The guide is applicable to the design of new SRP/SRL facilities and to major modifications Of existing facilities. The document is intended an: A guide for persons actively engaged in the design process. A resource document for persons charged with design review for adequacy relative to criticality safety. A resource document for facility operating personnel. The guide defines six basic criticality safety design objectives and provides information to assist in accomplishing each objective. The guide in intended to supplement the design requirements relating to criticality safety contained in applicable Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The scope of the guide is limited to engineering design guidelines associated with criticality safety and does not include other areas of the design process, such as: criticality safety analytical methods and modeling, nor requirements for control of the design process

  20. Radiation protection and safety culture for cyclotron workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review radiation protection and safety culture measures to be applied to cyclotron workers. The radiation protection (measures are based on Basic Safety standards for the protection) of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation, while the safety culture are based on IAEA publications

  1. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  2. Radiation safety handbook for ionizing and nonionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, C.B.

    1976-10-01

    The Handbook is directed primarily to users of radiation sources throughout the Food and Drug Administration. Specific precautions regarding the possession and use of radiation sources in meeting the Agency's objectives are an inherent responsibility of all employees. In addition, the increased emphasis on occupational safety and health and the responsibilities placed on the Department by Public Law and Executive Order make it mandatory that all organizational levels and activities conform to the intent of this Handbook. The policies and procedures described in this document apply to all Agency operators and activities and are intended to protect employees and the general public

  3. Safety design requirements for safety systems and components of JSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shigenobu; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Yamano, Hidemasa; Kotake, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Safety design requirements for JSFR were summarized taking the development targets of the FaCT project and design feature of JSFR into account. The related safety principle and requirements for Monju, CRBRP, PRISM, SPX, LWRs, IAEA standards, goals of GIF, basic principle of INPRO etc. were also taken into account so that the safety design requirements can be a next-generation global standard. The development targets for safety and reliability are set based on those of FaCT, namely, ensuring safety and reliability equal to future LWR and related fuel cycle facilities. In order to achieve these targets, the defence-in-depth concept is used as the basic safety design principle. General features of the safety design requirements are 1) Achievement of higher reliability, 2) Achievement of higher inspectability and maintainability, 3) Introduction of passive safety features, 4) Reduction of operator action needs, 5) Design consideration against Beyond Design Basis Events, 6) In-Vessel Retention of degraded core materials, 7) Prevention and mitigation against sodium chemical reactions, and 8) Design against external events. The current specific requirements for each system and component are summarized taking the basic design concept of JSFR into account, which is an advanced loop-type large-output power plant with a mixed-oxide-fuelled core. (author)

  4. Nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batjargala, Erdev

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to assess legal environment of Mongolia for development of nuclear and radiation safety and security. The Nuclear Energy Agency, regulatory agency of the Government of Mongolia, was founded in the beginning of 2009. Since then, it has formulated the State Policy for Utilization of Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy and the Nuclear Energy Law, regulatory law of the field. The State Great Khural of Mongolia has enacted these acts. By adopting the State Policy and Nuclear Energy Law, which together imported the international standards for nuclear and radiation safety and security, it is possible to conclude that legal environment has formed in Mongolia to explore and process radioactive minerals and utilize nuclear energy and introduce technologies friendly to human health and environment. (author)

  5. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  6. Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Bogorad, V.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

  7. Radiation Safety Awareness Among Medical Staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarmach, Arkadiusz; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Świętoń, Dominik; Muc, Adam; Mockałło, Gabor; Dzierżanowski, Jarosław; Szurowska, Edyta

    2015-01-01

    The common access to imaging methods based on ionizing radiation requires also radiation protection. The knowledge of ionizing radiation exposure risks among the medical staff is essential for planning diagnostic procedures and therapy. Evaluation of the knowledge of radiation safety during diagnostic procedures among the medical staff. The study consisted of a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed-ended questions concerning the knowledge of the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation as well as questions related to responder’s profession and work experience. The study group included a total of 150 individuals from four professional groups: nurses, doctors, medical technicians, support staff. The study was carried out in the three largest hospitals in Gdańsk between July and October 2013. The highest rates of correct answers to questions related to the issue of radiation protection were provided by the staff of radiology facilities and emergency departments with 1–5 years of professional experience. The most vulnerable group in terms of the knowledge of these issues consisted of individuals working at surgical wards with 11–15 years of professional experience. Education in the field of radiological protection should be a subject of periodic training of medical personnel regardless of position and length of service

  8. Investigation on regulatory requirements for radiation safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok; Cho, Dae Hyung

    2013-01-01

    NRC recognizes that efficient management of radiation safety plan is an important factor to achieve radiation safety service. In case of Korea, the contents to perform the actual radiation safety management are legally contained in radiation safety management reports based on the Nuclear Safety Act. It is to prioritize the importance of safety regulations in each sector in accordance with the current situation of radiation and radioactive isotopes-used industry and to provide a basis for deriving safety requirements and safety regulations system maintenance by the priority of radiation safety management regulations. It would be helpful to achieve regulations to conform to reality based on international standards if consistent safety requirements is developed for domestic users, national standards and international standards on the basis of the results of questions answered by radiation safety managers, who lead on-site radiation safety management, about the priority of important factors in radioactive sources use, sales, production, moving user companies, to check whether derived configuration requirements for radiation safety management are suitable for domestic status

  9. SGHWR safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Merrett, D.J.; Ward, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the characteristic features of the S.G.H.W.R. and identifies the single channel concept as of considerable importance. The unique feature of the design is the provision of individual spray cooling E.C.C.S. to each channel. This spray cooling occupies a prominent position in the main line safety arguments. The reliance on this form of spray cooling leads to provision of a comprehensive E.C.C.S. system of high reliability. Duplicate systems with diverse power and water sources cover the complete pressure range to give very high confidence that spray cooling is available in all major L.O.C.A.s. On the other hand hydraulic analysis of the blowdown phase demonstrates that significant convective flow is available as an alternative/supplementary cooling regime for most faults. The reactor shutdown mechanisms have also been duplicated and will be designed to high reliabilities to give surety of reactor trip in all credible faults. The comparative performance of the two systems is considered. Extent of diversity and redundancy in trip parameters is also discussed. A feature of channel concept is that the pipe sizes can be made relatively small thus restricting rates of blowdown, and the paper discusses effects of this upon long term cooling and flooding arguments. The quantities of pipework in the primary circuit introduce considerations of integrity and the paper goes on to list the measures introduced to improve segregation and protection of individual sections of the plant so that the extent of possible L.O.C.A.s is minimised. The achievement of high standards of reliability by use of in-service inspection is covered, with particular reference to the steam drums. The impact of these inspection requirements upon the very low man-rem exposures required by U.K. utilities is also included. Finally, it is noted that the provision of containment in common with other L.W.R. practice also provides a valuable engineered safety feature. The principles of

  10. Innovation research on the safety supervision system of nuclear and radiation safety in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qihong; Lu Jigen; Zhang Ping; Wang Wanping; Dai Xia

    2012-01-01

    As the rapid development of nuclear technology, the safety supervision of nuclear and radiation becomes very important. The safety radiation frame system should be constructed, the safety super- vision ability for nuclear and radiation should be improved. How to implement effectively above mission should be a new subject of Provincial environmental protection department. Through investigating the innovation of nuclear and radiation supervision system, innovation of mechanism, innovation of capacity, innovation of informatization and so on, the provincial nuclear and radiation safety supervision model is proposed, and the safety framework of nuclear and radiation in Jiangsu is elementally established in the paper. (authors)

  11. Radiation Safety of Gamma, Electron and X Ray Irradiation Facilities. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements of the BSS with regard to irradiation facilities. This Safety Guide provides specific, practical recommendations on the safe design and operation of gamma, electron and X ray irradiators for use by operating organizations and the designers of these facilities, and by regulatory bodies. SCOPE. The facilities considered in this publication include five types of irradiator, whether operated on a commercial basis or for research and development purposes. This publication is concerned with radiation safety issues and not with the uses of irradiators, nor does it cover the irradiation of product or its quality management. The five types of irradiator are: - Panoramic dry source storage irradiators; - Underwater irradiators, in which both the source and the product being irradiated are under water; - Panoramic wet source storage irradiators; - Electron beam irradiation facilities, in which irradiation is performed in an area that is potentially accessible to personnel, but that is kept inaccessible during the irradiation process; - X ray irradiation facilities, in which irradiation is performed in an area that is potentially accessible to personnel, but that is kept inaccessible during the irradiation process. Consideration of non-radiation-related risks and of the benefits resulting from the operation of irradiators is outside the scope of this Safety Guide. The practices of radiotherapy and radiography are also outside the scope of this Safety Guide. Category I gamma irradiators (i.e. 'self-shielded' irradiators) are outside the scope of this Safety Guide

  12. Safety of radiation sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicic-Kolsek, A.; Sutej, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Slovenia, a central European country which has been independent since 1991, has about 2 million inhabitants and an area of 20,256 km 2 . The Constitutional Law on Enforcement of the Basic Constitutional Charter on the Autonomy and Independence of the Republic of Slovenia, adopted on 23 June 1991 (Off. Gaz. of the R of Slovenia No. 1/91), provided that all the laws adopted by the Socialist Federal Republic (SFR) of Yugoslavia should remain in force in the Republic of Slovenia pending the adoption of appropriate legislation by the Slovene Parliament. Under the Slovene Constitution, all international treaties ratified by Slovenia constitute an integral part of Slovenia's legislation and can be applied directly. In Slovenia, all regular types of ionizing radiation source are being used for peaceful purposes and are covered by a system for their safe use and control. All radiation sources and radioactive materials are registered and under regulatory control. Inspections are carried out periodically by the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS) and, in the case of nuclear installations, the Slovene Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Technical checks on radiation sources are carried out periodically by technical support organizations: the Jozef Stefan Institute and the Institute for Occupational Safety (IOS). (author)

  13. Nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Major factors by which the radiation situation in Kazakhstan is formed are: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining and milling activity and geological exploration of uranium; nuclear power plant and research reactors; residues of atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions, which were conducted for military and peaceful purposes at different test sites; mining and milling of commercial minerals accompanied by radioactive substances; use of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific research. Since 1991, after getting sovereignty, creation was started of an own legislative basis of the country for the field of atomic energy use. It includes laws, regulations and standards for nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations, personnel, involved in the activity with using of atomic energy, population and environment. An applicable system of state regulation in this area (including a central regulatory body in the field of atomic energy use) and various ministries, agencies and committees, was created. As a result of these reforms, regulatory activities were improved in the country. This paper presents the current matters of nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan and some difficulties which Kazakhstan encountered during the transition to an independent state. (author)

  14. Test tools of physics radiography children as a support for safety radiation and safety patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Masrochah; Yeti Kartikasari; Ardi Soesilo Wibowo

    2013-01-01

    Radiographic examination of the thorax children aged 1-3 years have a high sufficiently failure. This failure is caused by the movement and difficulty positioning the patient, resulting in the risk of repeat radiographs to patient safety particularly unnecessary radiation risks. It is therefore necessary to develop research on children design fixation devices. This research aims to create a design tool fixation on radiographs children to support radiation safety and patient safety. This research is a descriptive exploratory approach to tool design. The independent variables were the design tools, variable tool function test results, and radiographic variables controlled thorax. The procedure is done by designing data collection tools, further trials with 20 samples. Processing and analysis of data is done by calculating the performance assessment tool scores with range 1-3. The results showed that the design tool of fixation in the form of standard radiographic cassette equipped with chairs and some form of seat belt fixation. The procedure uses a tool fixation is routine radiographic follow thorax child in an upright position. Function test results aids fixation is to have an average score of 2.66, which means good. While the test results for each component, the majority of respondents stated that the reliability of the device is quite good with a score of 2.45 (60 %), convenience tool with a score of 2.60 (70 %), quality of the radiographs did not incontinence of the thorax radiograph with a score 2.55 (85 %), the child protection (security) with a score of 2.70 (70 %), good design aesthetic design with a score of 2.80 (80 %), addition of radiation from the others on the use of these tools do not need with a score of 2.80 (80 %), and there is no additional radiation due to repetitions with a score of 2.85 (90 %). (author)

  15. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  16. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  17. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  18. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  19. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Wright, A.C.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new.

  20. Safety design guide for safety related systems for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    In general, two types of safety related systems and structures exist in the nuclear plant; The one is a systems and structures which perform safety functions during the normal operation of the plant, and the other is a systems and structures which perform safety functions to mitigate events caused by failure of the normally operating systems or by naturally occurring phenomena. In this safety design guide, these systems are identified in detail, and the major events for which the safety functions are required and the major safety requirements are identified in the list. As the probabilistic safety assessments are completed during the course of the project, additions or deletions to the list may be justified. 3 tabs. (Author) .new

  1. Communication on radiation safety: ability and sensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, Jose de Julio; Ministry of Environment

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Communication Issues today, combine aspects of nuclear science, public approach and psychological subjects. The principal objectives are to systematize nuclear public information and to prepare researchers or communicators in a position to comment on the nuclear issues of our stage. The programme should focused on progress of nuclear energy, public perception of risk, conflicts among scientists, as the radiation effect at low doses, and how nuclear industry and scientists may better communicate information concerning the potential for hazard to property, health and the environment. There will be occasions where the competent authority should have formal link with other organizations, as in case of abnormal situation or emergency. Particular attention should be paid to the exchange of distinct parts in order to avoid misinterpretation or mistakes when divulging information to the public.Communication is emphasized in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, [1] as well as, the current approach created to enlarge the relationship between man, practices and protection by the encouragement of a better understanding and implementation of the Safety Culture concept. The application of this concept involves better protection on Radiation Safety to workers, public and environment not only reducing accidents, but also avoiding unnecessary stresses and strains due to intensified operations. This means an advance towards the humanization of practices, equally observed by industrialized and developing countries. Finally, this paper also comment about two very important lessons that there were not yet learned as in reality necessary, considering the goals for a competent Nuclear Communication: the psychological effects of Chernobyl accident in April 1986 resulted from the lack of public information; the psychological effects of the Radiological Accident in Goiania resulted from the misunderstanding of the basic concept of ionizing radiation, which was translated into fear and

  2. Maintenance of radiation safety information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Sun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Chung, Chong Kyu; Lim, Bock Soo; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chang, Kwang Il; Nam, Kwan Hyun; Cho, Hye Ryan [AD center incubation LAB, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of radiation safety information system maintenance are to maintain the requirement of users, change of job process and upgrade of the system performance stably and effectively while system maintenance. We conduct the code of conduct recommended by IAEA, management of radioisotope inventory database systematically using analysis for the state of inventory database integrated in this system. This system and database will be support the regulatory guidance, rule making and information to the MOST, KINS, other regulatory related organization and general public optimizationally.

  3. A concept of radiation safety in radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitskij, R.V.; Vasil'ev, V.N.; Lebedev, L.A.; Blinov, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual problems of up to date radiation safety dosimetric ensurance in radiation diagnostics and radiotherapy of nontumor diseases are as follows: selection of dosimetric criteria of nonequilibrium radiation influence with an account of probable remote radiation aftereffects; determination of dose-response dependence character by low radiation doses; development of optimal technological principles for radiation diagnostics and therapy; development of organizational and methodical approaches to decreasing dose loads by radiation diagnostics and therapy of nontumor diseases; optimization of studies by ALARA principle

  4. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  5. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  6. Modernization of safety system for the radiation facility for industrial sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drndarevic, V.; Djuric, D.; Koturovic, A.; Arandjelovic, M.; Mikic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Modernization of the existing safety system of the radiation facility for industrial sterilization at the Vinca Institute of nuclear science is done. In order to improve radiation safety of the facility, the latest recommendations and requirements of IAEA have been implemented. Concept and design of the modernized system are presented. The new elements of the safety system are described and the improvements achieved by means of this modernization are pointed out. (author)

  7. Safety in the design of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... in the specification material nor in their face-to-face meetings with the supplier. Safety aspects were not part of their work practice. On this basis, it was suggested that formal guidelines or procedures for integrating safety in the design of production lines would have no effect. Instead, the researchers set up...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither...

  8. Design safety improvements of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinovski, I.

    1999-01-01

    Design safety improvements of Kozloduy NPP, discussed in detail, are concerned with: primary circuit integrity; reactor pressure vessel integrity; primary coolant piping integrity; primary coolant overpressure protection; leak before break status; design basis accidents and transients; severe accident analysis; improvements of safety and support systems; containment/confinement leak tightness and strength; seismic safety improvements; WWER-1000 control rod insertion; upgrading and modernization of Units 5 and 6; Year 2000 problem

  9. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  10. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  11. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given

  12. Effective safety training program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, D.A.; Lombardo, G.J.; Pater, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the oil industry require new strategies to reduce costs and retain valuable employees. Training is a potentially powerful tool for changing the culture of an organization, resulting in improved safety awareness, lower-risk behaviors and ultimately, statistical improvements. Too often, safety training falters, especially when applied to pervasive, long-standing problems. Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries (SHL) more commonly known as back injuries and slips, trips and falls have plagued mankind throughout the ages. They are also a major problem throughout the petroleum industry. Although not as widely publicized as other immediately-fatal accidents, injuries from stepping, materials handling, and lifting are among the leading causes of employee suffering, lost time and diminished productivity throughout the industry. Traditional approaches have not turned the tide of these widespread injuries. a systematic safety training program, developed by Anadrill Schlumberger with the input of new training technology, has the potential to simultaneously reduce costs, preserve employee safety, and increase morale. This paper: reviews the components of an example safety training program, and illustrates how a systematic approach to safety training can make a positive impact on Stepping, Handling and Lifting injuries

  13. Safety in design and operation of low energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies the safety in design and operation of low energy accelerators which produce beams of accelerated charged particles and radiations. As radiation sources, the accelerators are widely used in scientific research, industry, food and medical applications. The risks to human and environment are considered. The safety in accelerators is discussed-particularly-the shielding against ionizing radiations, overexposure to RF radiation fire hazards and power failures. Also the paper studies the emergency response at incidents. Emergency procedures are recommended for each type of emergency. Reporting to the competent Authority is also recommended to be prepared for each incident. The basic principles of regulatory control, licensing and inspections for accelerator facilities are discussed. The relation with the competent authority is pointed out. 4 fig

  14. SAFR: a marriage of safety and innovation in LMR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, R.T.; Mills, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) is a natural evolution of earlier designs, given the current economic and licensing environment. Stringent safety and economic goals have been established for the SAFR plant. This paper describes how these goals are being satisfied, with the primary emphasis being placed on safety. The top level safety goals are: (a) to provide inherently safe responses to all credible events (b) to minimize the potential for severe accidents, and (c) to eliminate the need for evacuation, (d) limited financial risk, (e) assured investment protection, (f) minimum development risk, (g) high capacity factor, (h) long plant life, and (i) low personnel radiation exposure

  15. Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Newsletter, No. 2a, May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The IAEA Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (2011-2020) provides a framework for establishing a sustainable education and training infrastructure in Member States that addresses national needs for building and maintaining competence in radiation, transport and waste safety that is consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. For this purpose, IAEA's General Conference has encouraged Member States to develop a national strategy for education and training, underlining the fundamental importance of sustainable programmes for building competence in radiation, transport and waste safety, as a key component of safety infrastructure. Furthermore Member States that receive assistance from IAEA are obliged to apply IAEA Safety Standards which require, inter alia, governments to establish a national policy and strategy for safety, including provisions for acquiring and maintaining the necessary competence nationally for ensuring safety. IAEA's Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety is assisting Member States to develop their own national strategies in Africa via the Regional project RAF/9/04 on ''Strengthening Education and training Infrastructure, and Building Competence in Radiation Safety'', which includes, inter alia, Regional Workshops on National Strategies for education and training in radiation transport and waste safety. AFRA Regional Designated Centres, in Algeria, Ghana and Morocco, equivalent to the IAEA's Regional Training Centres (RTCs) present in all the other regions, are key partners in the African region.

  16. The first symposium of Research Center for Radiation Safety, NIRS. Perspective of future studies of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni

    2002-03-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given in the title symposium, held at the Conference Room of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) on November 29 and 30, 2001. Contained are Introductory remarks: Basic presentations concerning exposure dose in man; Environmental levels of radiation and radioactivity, environmental radon level and exposure dose, and radiation levels in the specific environment (like in the aircraft): Special lecture (biological effects given by space environment) concerning various needs for studies of radiation safety; Requirement for open investigations, from the view of utilization, research and development of atomic energy, from the clinical aspect, and from the epidemiological aspect: Special lecture (safety in utilization of atomic energy and radiation-Activities of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) concerning present state and perspective of studies of radiation safety; Safety of radiation and studies of biological effects of radiation-perspective, and radiation protection and radiation safety studies: Studies in the Research Center for Radiation Safety; Summary of studies in the center, studies of the biological effects of neutron beam, carcinogenesis by radiation and living environmental factors-complicated effects, and studies of hereditary effects: Panel discussion (future direction of studies of radiation safety for the purpose of the center's direction): and concluding remarks. (N.I.)

  17. Safety and radiation protection in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadge, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear energy, an important option for electricity generation is environment friendly, technologically proven, economically competitive and associated with the advantages of energy security and diversity. At present, India has an installed nuclear power generation capacity of 4120 M We with 6 more reactors are under construction/ commissioning at 4 sites. Nuclear power program, in India, as of now is primarily based on pressurized heavy water technology and these reactors are designed with safety features, such as, independent and diverse shut down systems, emergency core cooling system, double containment; pressure suppression pool etc. The principles of redundancy, diversity, fail-safe and passive systems are used in the design. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. In this regard the prime responsibility for safety rests with the organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks and is achieved by establishing and maintaining the necessary competence, providing adequate training and information, establishing procedures and arrangements to maintain safety under all conditions; verifying appropriate design and the adequate quality of facilities and activities and of their associated equipment; ensuring the safe control of all radioactive material that is used, produced, stored or transported, ensuring the safe control of all radioactive waste that is generated. 'Radiation Protection for Nuclear Facilities', issued by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (the regulatory authority for NPPs in India) is the basic document for following radiation protection procedures in NPPs. Approved work procedures for all radiation jobs exist. Pre job briefing and post job analysis are carried out. Radiation protection is integrated with plant operation. Radiation levels indicate the performance of several systems. Several measures are adopted in design and

  18. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-01-01

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  19. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in 'work procedures'. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au)

  20. Supervisor's experiments on radiation safety trainings in school of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Radiation safety training courses in School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, were introduced. The number of radiation workers and the usage of radiation and radioisotopes have been surveyed for past 14 years. The number of radiation workers in School of Engineering has increased due to the treatment of X-ray analysis of materials, recently. It is important for workers to understand the present situation of School of Engineering before the treatment of radiation and radioisotopes. What the supervisor should tell to radiation workers were presented herewith. The basic questionnaires after the lecture are effective for radiation safety trainings. (author)

  1. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong [Korea atomic Energy Resarch Inst., Taejon (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  2. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  3. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  4. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  5. The electron test accelerator safety in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.

    1980-06-01

    The Electron Test Accelerator is being designed as an experiment in accelerator physics and technology. With an electron beam power of up to 200 kW the operation of the accelerator presents a severe radiation hazard as well as rf and electrical hazards. The design of the safety system provides fail-safe protection while permitting flexibility in the mode of operation and minimizing administrative controls. (auth)

  6. The practice of safety culture construction in radiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangshan; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Liu Wei; Hao Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Security is an integral part of the process of business operations. The radiation processing enterprises due to their own particularity, more need to focus on the operation of the safety factors, the construction of corporate safety culture is of great significance in guiding carry out the work of the Radiation Protection. Radiation processing enterprises should proceed from their own characteristics, the common attitude of security systems and security construction, and constantly improved to ensure the personal safety of radiation workers in the area of safety performance. (authors)

  7. Code of practice for safety in laboratory - non ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli Jaya; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Khoo Boo Huat; Khatijah Hashim

    1995-01-01

    The code identifies the non-ionizing radiation encountered in laboratories and the associated hazards. The code is intended as a laboratory standard reference document for general information on safety requirements relating to the usage of non-ionizing radiations in laboratories. The nonionizing radiations cover in this code, namely, are ultraviolet radiation, visible light, radio-frequency radiation, lasers, sound waves and ultrasonic radiation. (author)

  8. Review of radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.W.; Moore, R.J.; Balter, S.

    1992-01-01

    With the increasing use of coronary arteriography and interventional procedures, radiation exposure to patients and personnel working in cardiac catheterization laboratories has increased. Proper technique to minimize both patient and operator exposure is necessary. A practical approach to radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is presented. This discussion should be useful to facilities with well-established radiation safety programs as well as facilities that require restructuring to cope with the radiation environment in a modern cardiac catheterization laboratory

  9. A survey of radiation safety training among South African interventionalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rose

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ionising radiation is increasingly being used in modern medicine for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic purposes. There has been an improvement in technology, resulting in lower doses being emitted. However, an increase in the number of procedures has led to a greater cumulative dose for patients and operators, which places them at increased risk of the effects of ionising radiation. Radiation safety training is key to optimising medical practice.Objective. To present the perceptions of South African interventionalists on the radiation safety training they received and to offer insights into the importance of developing and promoting such training programmes for all interventionalists.Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from interventionalists (N=108 using a structured questionnaire.Results. All groups indicated that radiation exposure in the workplace is important (97.2%. Of the participants, the radiologists received the most training (65.7%. Some participants (44.1% thought that their radiation safety training was adequate. Most participants (95.4% indicated that radiation safety should be part of their training curriculum. Few (34.3% had received instruction on radiation safety when they commenced work. Only 62% had been trained on how to protect patients from ionising radiation exposure.Conclusion. Radiation safety training should be formalised in the curriculum of interventionalists’ training programmes, as this will assist in stimulating a culture of radiation protection, which in turn will improve patient safety and improve quality of care.

  10. Radiation safety actuality in Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharuk, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Radioecological monitoring issues and radiation safety are actual in the Republic of Moldova. Japan events show us the possibility of natural disasters. Republic of Moldova is surrounded by 8 NPPs, the closest being at the distance of 160 km. Moldovas territory is in seismic zone where underground earthquake shocks reaches 7 points or more. Thatis why radiation safety and radioecological monitoring is actual in our republic. Traces of Chernobyl were left in Moldovas soils. The fallouts of radio nuclides formed on the soil surfaces in the Republic of Moldova following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station Accident have been continuously affected by attacks of both natural and technicaly generated agents since the time of fallout. During the past decade a shift in emphasis has taken place regarding the need for more complete and accurate information on reservoir sedimentation. Classical sedimentation surveys involve repeated field measurement and, therefore, this is probably the most costly and time consuming method. The application of radio nuclides, particularly Cs 137, for water erosion and sedimentation studies in Republic of Moldova has not been attempted so far. This paper presents the results obtained on reservoir sedimentation rates in an area subjected to wide range in land degradation dy sheet-rill erosion. The profil characteristics support the assumption that in most undisturbed sites there is a sharp decline in Cs 137 activity with increasing dept. Such an asymmetrical distribution of the Cs 137 would suggest a standard pattern in the form of a cantilever. If the validity of this assamption is accepted it is possible to define two major types of Cs 137 cantilever distribution: shallow and deep buried cantilever. The main criterion in classifying these pattents lies generally in the shape of Cs 137 depth profile and particularly in burial magnitude of Cs 137 peak derived from Chernobyl. Hills area has been impacted by greatest sendimentation. This regional

  11. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    , from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

  12. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  13. The personnel protection system for a Synchrotron Radiation Accelerator Facility: Radiation safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The Personnel Protection System (PPS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed from the radiation safety point of view. The PPS, which is designed to protect people from radiation exposure to beam operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS), The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation level inside the shielding housing (also called a PPS area). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing and a standard entry module at every entrance. The BCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a PPS area due to normal and abnormal beam losses. The BCS consists of the shielding (shielding housing and metal shielding in local areas), beam stoppers, active current limiting devices, and an active radiation monitor system. The system elements for the ACS and BCS and the associated interlock network are described. The policies and practices in setting up the PPS are compared with some requirements in the US Department of Energy draft Order of Safety of Accelerator Facilities

  14. The design of radiation monitor passageway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Chengsheng

    2006-10-01

    The Radiation Monitor Passageway System is designed as four modules, the radiation detection modules, the control modules, the mechanism modules and the optional modules. this system integrate the radiation detection technology and door ban control technology. It is a effective radiation monitor equipment with high detect sensitiveness, it will be hopeful devoted to national nuclear safeguard. (authors)

  15. Regulation on the organizatjon of radiation safety control bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document on matters of structure, organization, objectives, rights, and responsibilities of agencies enforcing compliance with radiation safety standards set up in Bulgaria. Under Public Health Law and Ministerial Council Decree No. 117, the organization and management of radiation safety in Bulgaria is entrusted to the Ministry of Public Health (MPH). Within its agency, the State Sanitary Control, authorities specialized in the area of radiation safety are as follows: the Radiation Hygiene Division (RHD) of the MPH Hygiene-and Epidemiology Bureau (HEB); the Specialized Radiation Safety Inspectorate of the Research Institute of Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene (RIRRH); the Radiation Hygiene Sections of country HEBs; and State sanitary Inspectors assigned to large establishments in the country. (G.G.)

  16. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Operational and safety requirement of radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali

    2007-01-01

    Gamma and electron irradiation facilities are the most common industrial sources of ionizing radiation. They have been used for medical, industrial and research purposes since the 1950s. Currently there are more than 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation worldwide. These facilities are either used for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, or the eradication of insect infestation. Irradiation with electron beam, gamma ray or ultra violet light can also destroy complex organic contaminants in both liquid and gaseous waste. EB systems are replacing traditional chemical sterilization methods in the medical supply industry. The ultra-violet curing facility, however, has found more industrial application in printing and furniture industries. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, and thus there is a potential of accidental exposure in the irradiation chamber which can be lethal within minutes. Although, the safety record of this industry has been relatively very good, there have been fatalities recorded in Italy (1975), Norway (1982), El Salvador (1989) and Israel (1990). Precautions against uncontrolled entry into irradiation chamber must therefore be taken. This is especially so in the case of gamma irradiation facilities those contain large amounts of radioactivity. If the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed. This paper will, to certain extent, describe safety procedure and system being installed at ALURTRON, Nuclear Malaysia to eliminate accidental exposure of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  19. Evaluation of safety, an unavoidable requirement in the applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres

    2013-01-01

    The safety assessments should be conducted as a means to evaluate compliance with safety requirements (and thus the application of fundamental safety principles) for all facilities and activities in order to determine the measures to be taken to ensure safety. It is an essential tool in decision making. For long time we have linked the safety assessment to nuclear facilities and not to all practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in daily life. However, the main purpose of the safety assessment is to determine if it has reached an appropriate level of safety for an installation or activity and if it has fulfilled the objectives of safety and basic safety criteria set by the designer, operating organization and the regulatory body under the protection and safety requirements set out in the International Basic safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. This paper presents some criteria and personal experiences with the new international recommendations on this subject and its practical application in the region and demonstrates the importance of this requirement. Reflects the need to train personnel of the operator and the regulatory body in the proportional application of this requirement in practice with ionizing radiation

  20. The Australian radiation protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, D.; Burn, P.; Rubendra, R.

    1998-01-01

    The author talks about the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), the new regulatory authority which will combine the existing resources of the Australian Radiation Laboratory and the Nuclear Safety Bureau. Most uses of radiation in Australia are regulated by State or Territory authorities, but there is presently no regulatory authority for Commonwealth uses of radiation. To provide for regulation of the radiation practices of the Commonwealth, the Australian Government has decided to establish the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and a Bill has passed through the House of Representatives and will go to the Spring sitting of the Senate. The new agency will subsume the resources and functions of the Nuclear Safety Bureau and the Australian Radiation Laboratory, with additional functions including the regulation of radiation protection and nuclear safety of Commonwealth practices. Another function of ARPANSA will be the promotion of uniform regulatory requirements for radiation protection across Australia. This will be done by developing, in consultation with the States and Territories, radiation health policies and practices for adoption by the Commonwealth, States and Territories. ARPANSA will also provide research and services for radiation health, and in support of the regulatory and uniformity functions. The establishment of ARPANSA will ensure that the proposed replacement research reactor, the future low level radioactive waste repository and other Commonwealth nuclear facilities and radiation practices are subject to a regulatory regime which reflects the accumulated experience of the States and Territories and best international practice, and meets public expectations

  1. Safety design of SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1976-01-01

    The joint German-Belgian-Dutch loop-type 300 MW(e) LMFBR prototype is being constructed at Kalkar on the lower Rhine in Germany. Among the many arguments put forward in defense of SNR-300, that of acquiring licensing exprience has proven to be of major importance to the international breeder scene. The severity of the licensing procedures and of the safety standards imposed are unique in several respects, including timing: generally growing scepticism towards nuclear power increased severity of the licensing practice; organizational features: the procedure and criteria developed for commercial light water reactors have been applied without exemptions. This relates to the commercial-type contract under which SNR-300 is being built for private utilities by a private company; and German nuclear safety standards, known worldwide to be most stringent. The following three important areas are discussed in which SNR-300 decidedly deviates from its forerunners: protection against the hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), protection against external events, and provisions for in-service inspection

  2. Design considerations for the rotating electrostatic liquid-film radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.; Kim, H.; Gwinner, R.

    1994-01-01

    A lightweight, fully modular radiator design for heat rejection in space is proposed, which is estimated to weigh less than 2kg per square meter of the effective radiator area. The feature which makes this thin membrane radiator practical is the internal electrostatic field system, which can stop radiator leaks from punctures, sudden accelerations or accidental tears. Preliminary design calculations are presented for a rotating conical radiator, using liquid lithium at an inlet temperature of 800K. Remarkably low weights of less than 1kgkW -1 may be attained, with safety factors of two or more for stopping leaks. This is almost an order of magnitude less than the values for current heat pipe designs. ((orig.))

  3. Radiation and electrical safety systems for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.; Constant, T.; Crook, K.; Fitch, J.; Taylor, T.

    1981-02-01

    At SLAC, the Personnel Protection System (PPS) protects people from radiation hazards. For PEP, the system has been expanded to include protection against electrical and RF hazards. This paper describes the overall system design, giving particular attention to the novel features not found in similar systems in other areas of SLAC. These include the Restricted Access Mode to allow limited occupancy in the ring while high voltage or RF may be present, the automatic badge reader system for improving the efficiency of entry logging and control, and the solid state lighting control system for switching large lighting loads with minimum electro-magetic interference

  4. Radioactivity in consumer products : radiation safety and regulatory appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, B.K.S.; Venkataraman, G.; Subrahmanym, P.

    1993-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in consumer products is in vogue almost since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been a rapid growth in the use of radioactive material in various consumer products such as Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSD), Static eliminators, etc. In addition, there are certain manufacturing processes wherein the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) get incorporated in the consumer products. Certain phosphatic fertilizers, titanium dioxide pigments, phospho gypsum plaster boards are some examples in this category. The manufacture and use of these products result in radiation dose to the public apart from radiation exposure to the personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Appropriate radiation control measures have to be taken in the design, manufacture and use of consumer products to ensure that the radiation doses to the public and the population at large do not exceed the relevant limits. While appropriate regulatory controls and surveillance are established for manufacture and use of certain products, these are still to be recognised and established in respect of certain other processes and products. The current status of radiation safety and regulatory control and the lack of these in respect of some products are discussed in this paper. (author). 5 refs

  5. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  6. Radiation protection and safety aspects in the use of radiation in medicine, industry and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    While ionizing radiations have significant and indispensable uses in several fields, it must be borne in mind that it may be harmful to the radiation workers and public if used indiscriminately and without due caution. Radiation doses received by these individuals should be kept well within the recommended limits through good work practices. It is therefore necessary to ensure safety of radiation workers, patients undergoing radiation diagnosis and treatment, public and environment so that maximum benefit is derived from the use of radiation with minimum and acceptable risk. General principles of radiation protection and safety in various applications of radiations are discussed

  7. Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In execution of the new Atomic Energy Act the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection was put into force on 1 February 1985. It takes into account all forms of peaceful nuclear energy and ionizing radiation uses in nuclear installations, irradiation facilities and devices in research, industries, and health services, and in radioactive isotope production and laboratories. It covers all aspects of safety and protection and defines atomic safety as nuclear safety and nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, whereas radiation protection includes the total of requirements, measures, means and methods necessary to protect man and the environment from the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. It has been based on ICRP Recommendation No. 26 and the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards and supersedes the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1969

  8. Review on JMTR safety design for LEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Makoto; Saruta, Toru; Inada, Seiji; Sakurai, Fumio; Yamamoto, Katsumune; Oyamada, Rokuro; Saito, Minoru

    1993-12-01

    Safety of the JMTR was fully reviewed for the core conversion to low enriched uranium fuel. Fundamental policies for the JMTR safety design were reconsidered based on the examination guide for safety design of test and research reactors, and safety of the JMTR was confirmed. This report describes the safety design of the JMTR from the viewpoint of major functions for reactor safety. (author)

  9. The main goals and principles of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern radiation technology expands in various fields of human activity. The most advanced approach, methods and technologies and also radiation technologies are of great importance in industrial, medical, agricultural, construction, science, education, and etc. areas of the fastest growing Azerbaijan Republic. Ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety, safety standards, main principles and conception of safety play a crucial role. The following ten principles are taken as a basis to ensure safety measures. 1. Responsible for ensuring safety; 2. The role of government; 3. Leadership and management of security interests; 4. Devices and justification of activity; 5. Optimization of preservation; 6. Limiting of risks for physical persons; 7. The protection of present and future generations; 8. The prevention of accidents; 9. Emergency preparedness and response; 10. Reducing of risks of existing and unregulated radiation protection measures. The safety principles are applied together

  10. Safety design philosophy of Mitsubishi PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.; Kitamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    The basic safety design philosophy of Mitsubishi pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is discussed and compared with the British PWR. PWR plants are designed in accordance with the Japanese regulatory guidelines which are similar to American and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety criteria and are based on defence-in-depth principles. The high reliability of nuclear power plants is especially emphasized in Mitsubishi PWRs, and this has been demonstrated by the good operating experience of PWR plants in Japan. The safety system designs of six key items, which were discussed in the recent review of overseas designs by British utilities, are addressed to show the difference in the design philosophy between the United Kingdom and Japan. (Author)

  11. Safety culture in design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, L.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Liinasuo, M.; Savioja, P.; Reiman, T.; Wahlstroem, M.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this report we approach design from a safety culture approach As this research area is new and understudied, we take a wide scope on the issue. Different theoretical perspectives that can be taken when improving safety of the design process are considered in this report. We suggest that in the design context the concept of safety culture should be expanded from an organizational level to the level of the network of organizations involved in the design activity. The implication of approaching the design process from a safety culture perspective are discussed and the results of the empirical part of the research are presented. In the interview study in Finland and Sweden we identified challenges and opportunities in the design process from safety culture perspective. Also, a small part of the interview study concentrated on state of the art human factors engineering (HFE) practices in Finland and the results relating to that are presented. This report provide a basis for future development of systematic good design practices and for providing guidelines that can lead to safe and robust technical solutions. (Author)

  12. Safety culture in design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, L.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Liinasuo, M.; Savioja, P.; Reiman, T.; Wahlstroem, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Kahlbom, U. [Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Rollenhagen, C. [Vattenfall, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    In this report we approach design from a safety culture approach As this research area is new and understudied, we take a wide scope on the issue. Different theoretical perspectives that can be taken when improving safety of the design process are considered in this report. We suggest that in the design context the concept of safety culture should be expanded from an organizational level to the level of the network of organizations involved in the design activity. The implication of approaching the design process from a safety culture perspective are discussed and the results of the empirical part of the research are presented. In the interview study in Finland and Sweden we identified challenges and opportunities in the design process from safety culture perspective. Also, a small part of the interview study concentrated on state of the art human factors engineering (HFE) practices in Finland and the results relating to that are presented. This report provide a basis for future development of systematic good design practices and for providing guidelines that can lead to safe and robust technical solutions. (Author)

  13. PHWR safety: design, siting and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    In all activities associated with NPPs viz. siting, design, construction, commissioning and operation, safety is given overriding importance. The safety design principles of PHWRs are based on defence-in-depth approach, physical and functional separation between process and safety systems and also among various safety systems, redundancy to meet single failure criteria and postulation of a number of design basis events for which the plant must be designed. Apart from engineered safety systems, PHWRs have inherent characteristics which contribute to safety. In siting of a NPP, it is required to ensure that the given site does not pose undue radiological hazard to public and the environment both during normal operation as well as during and following an accident condition. For this purpose, all site related external events, both natural and man induced, are assessed for their effect on the plant and are considered as part of the design basis. Possible radiological impact of the NPP on environment and surrounding population is assessed and ensured to be within acceptable limits. During construction phase, it is essential that the NPP be built in accordance with design intent and with required quality of workmanship to ensure that the NPP will remain safe during all states of operation. This is achieved through careful execution and QA activities encompassing all aspects of component fabrication at manufacturer works, civil construction, site erection, assembly, and commissioning. Future trends in nuclear safety will continue to be based on existing principles which have proved to be sound. These will be further strengthened by features such as increasing use of passive means of performing safety functions and a more explicit treatment of severe accidents. (author)

  14. Radiation safety interlocks at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1985-07-01

    The function of the NSLS interlock systems is to insure that no one is in an area where there is hazardous radiation, and to turn off the radiation source if a person somehow gains access to such an area. The interlock systems for the high hazard areas meet the following design requirements: (1) The system is redundant, that is no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is done by providing 2 independent systems or circuits; (2) In so far as possible, the two circuits are physically different. This minimizes the possibility of related coincident failures; (3) The design is fail safe. This means that the most likely failure modes leave the system in a safe condition. For example, the following failures are safe: Loss of power in any part of the system, any combination of shorts to ground, and any combination of open circuits; and (4) The interlock system must be testable. Redundancy sometimes makes testing difficult, but testing schemes must be worked out, since an untested interlock is undependable

  15. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Mary; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Amoako, Joseph Kwabena; Akrobortu, Emmanuel; Hasford, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Although the use of radioisotopes in Ghana began in 1952, the Radiation Protection Board of Ghana was established in 1993 and served as the national competent authority for authorization and inspection of practices and activities involving radiation sources until 2015. The law has been superseded by an Act of Parliament, Act 895 of 2015, mandating the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ghana to take charge of the regulation of radiation sources and their applications. The Radiation Protection Institute in Ghana provided technical support to the regulatory authority. Regulatory and service activities that were undertaken by the Institute include issuance of permits for handling of a radiation sources, authorization and inspection of radiation sources, radiation safety assessment, safety assessment of cellular signal towers, and calibration of radiation-emitting equipment. Practices and activities involving application of radiation are brought under regulatory control in the country through supervision by the national competent authority.

  16. Regulation on Radiation Safety of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This regulation includes all the requirements administrative, radiation protection, that licensees must meet in order to obtain authorization from the competent authority to apply and use radiation sources, equipment emiting ionizing radiation in different practices authorized

  17. Safety requirements applicable to the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Wee Kyong; Kim, Hho Jung

    1999-01-01

    The 330 MW thermal power of integral reactor, named SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), is under development at KAERI for seawater desalination application and electricity generation. The final product of nuclear desalination plant (NDP) is electricity and fresh water. Thus, in addition to the protection of the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the fresh water should be prevented from radioactivity contamination. In this study, to ensure the safety of SMART reactor in the early stage of design development, the safety requirements applicable to the SMART design were investigated, based on the current regulatory requirements for the existing NPPs and the advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs. The interface requirements related to the desalination facility were also investigated, based on the recent IAEA research activities pertaining to the NDP. As a result, it was found that the current regulatory requirements and guidance for the existing NPPs and advanced LWR designs are applicable to the SMART design and its safety evaluation. However, the safety requirements related to the SMART-specific design and the desalination plant are needed to develop in the future to assure the safety of the SMART reactor

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.; Scheel, H.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation protection organization in the GDR is outlined laying emphasis on the tasks of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. In addition to the basic tasks, the various forms of radiation protection monitoring, the management of radioactive wastes, and international responsibilities are briefly explained. (author)

  19. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  1. Safety considerations in the design of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, G.; Om Pal Singh; Govindarajan, S.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Shankar Singh, R.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe reactor under design in India. The overall safety approach adopted is based on the defence-in-depth principle. Design features have been incorporated to minimize occurrence of unsafe conditions. A plant protection system comprising reliable core monitoring to detect the off-normal condition, a reliable shutdown system to ensure safe shutdown and a passive decay heat removal system are provided. Containment is provided to prevent any release of radioactivity to the environment in case of failure of the protective devices. This paper provides a brief outline of the safety considerations in the design of PFBR. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  2. Radiation Safety Culture in Medicine AFROSAFE_R_A_D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyabanda, R.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation that include X-rays and Gamma rays Radio waves, infrared and visible light carries sufficient energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules. Becquerel first person to discover evidence of radioactivity, who shared a Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 with Marie and Pierre Curie. Prof Sievert and Louis Harold Gray are the Medical physicists who had major contribution in the study of the biological effects of radiation. Ionizing radiation causes displacement of an electron which can inflict damage on DNA either directly or indirectly. A radiation-safety campaign developed by the radiation health workers in Africa. Radiosensitive organs is highest in cells which are highly mitotic or undifferentiated. E.g basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens cells. Relatively low radiosensitivity in muscle, bones, and nervous system tissues. A radiation-safety campaign developed by the radiation health workers in Africa. AFROSAFE Strategies Strengthen radiation protection of patients, health workers and public, Promote safe and appropriate use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Foster improvement of the benefit-risk dialogue with patients and the public. Enhance the safety and quality of radiological procedures in medicine, Promote safety in radiological equipment and facilities and Promote research in radiation protection and safety

  3. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-01-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  4. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  5. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  6. Towards a radiation safety culture at Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Jairo F.; Munera, Hector A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the 20th century, nuclear and radiation techniques for research, teaching, and medical and engineering practice slowly appeared at the National University of Colombia, mainly at the Bogota, Medellin and Manizales branches. Each individual laboratory or researcher obtained the license for the use of the radioactive source, or radiation emitting apparatus. However, the University as a whole does not have as yet a Radiation Safety Manual, nor an inventory of laboratories using radiation. From the viewpoint of radiation safety and culture, this situation is undesirable, and may easily lead to inappropriate waste management practices, including the possibility of orphan sources (one such source has been already found). As part of the program of environmental management of dangerous wastes promoted by the National Division of Laboratories of our University, an office of radiation safety was created in the year 2006. This paper describes the situation that was found, the activities that have been carried out, some of the difficulties that we have met, and the plans that we have to help shape a safety culture at our institution. Currently we are pursuing an inventory of laboratories using radioactive sources and radiation emitting apparatuses, starting with the branches in Bogota and Manizales which are perceived as the most urgent to deal with. Fortunately, the branch in Medellin has been for about a decade under the care of a former radiation safety officer of our national Institute of Nuclear Affairs, who presently teaches there. During 2006 and 2007, 13 laboratories using radioactive sources were visited in the Bogota branch. Safety procedures and waste handling protocols were checked, safety manuals prepared and/or revised, and recommendations for safety culture provided. During 2008 we will visit Manizales, and will continue visiting a number of X-ray machines used in the Bogota branch for engineering, veterinary, and diagnostic, and surgery medical

  7. Challenges in strengthening radiation safety and security programme in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing steps in strengthening radiation safety and security through certification of radiation safety personnel, which is dedicated to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety and security systems. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important in implementing the radiation safety policy efficiently. Through this effort, we are able to create a basis for adequate protection of workers, the public and the environment and encourage licensees to manage radiation safety and security based on performance, and not on compliance culture, with the final objective of professing a safety culture through self regulation. This will certainly benefit an organisation with ultimate goals are to continuously strive for a healthy, accident free and environmentally sound workplace and community, while providing the technical support needed to meet the national mission. This will strengthen the radiation safety and security programme and could be used to assist in manpower development once Malaysia makes the decision to embark on a nuclear power programme. (author)

  8. 10. Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The 10.Latin American Regional Congress IRPA Protection and Radiation Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the april 12 and 17, 2015. In this event, were presented almost 400 papers about these subjects: radiation protection in medicine and industry; radiological and nuclear emergencies; NORM (Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials); reactors; radiation dosimetry; radiotherapy; non-ionizing radiations; policies and communications; etc.

  9. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyshliaiev, A.; Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in Ukraine. There are about 2500 users in industry, science, education and about 2800 in medicine. About 80,000 sealed radiation sources with total kerma-equivalent of 450 Gy*M 2 /sec are used in Ukraine. The exact information about the radiation sources and their users will be provided in 2001 after the expected completion of the State inventory of radiation sources in Ukraine. In order to ensure radiation source safety in Ukraine, a State System for regulation of activities dealing with radiation sources has been established. The system includes the following elements: establishment of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety; authorization activity, i.e. issuance of permits (including those in the form of licences) for activities dealing with radiation sources; supervisory activity, i.e. control over observance of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety and fulfilment of conditions of licences for activities dealing with radiation sources, and also enforcement. Comprehensive nuclear legislation was developed and implemented from 1991 to 2000. Radiation source safety is regulated by three main nuclear laws in Ukraine: On the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety (passed on 8 February 1995); On Human Protection from Impact of Ionizing Radiation (passed on 14 January 1998); On permissive activity in the area of nuclear energy utilization (passed on 11 January 2000). The regulatory authorities in Ukraine are the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources (Nuclear Regulatory Department) and the Ministry of Health (State sanitary-epidemiology supervision). According to the legislation, activities dealing with radiation sources are forbidden without an officially issued permit in Ukraine. Permitted activities with radiation sources are envisaged: licensing of production, storage and maintenance of radiation sources; licensing of the use of radiation sources; obligatory certification of radiation sources and transport

  10. Radiation safety and regulatory aspects in Medical Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation safety and regulatory aspect of medical facilities are relevant in the context where radiation is used in providing healthcare to human patients. These include facilities, which carry out radiological procedures in diagnostic radiology, including dentistry, image-guided interventional procedures, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The safety regulations provide recommendations and guidance on meeting the requirements for the safe use of radiation in medicine. The different safety aspects which come under its purview are the personnel involved in medical facilities where radiological procedures are performed which include the medical practitioners, radiation technologists, medical physicists, radiopharmacists, radiation protection and over and above all the patients. Regulatory aspects cover the guidelines provided by ethics committees, which regulate the administration of radioactive formulation in human patients. Nuclear medicine is a modality that utilizes radiopharmaceuticals either for diagnosis of physiological disorders related to anatomy, physiology and patho-physiology and for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

  11. A National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of radiation protection within Australia is fragmented on a number of different levels. Each state has its own radiation protection organisation. Within the Commonwealth there is also a large number of bodies which deal with different aspects of radiation protection or nuclear safety. There is also an interest in occupational radiation protection by Departments responsible for Occupational Health and Safety. It is estimated that this fragmentation affects the practice of radiation protection at a State level and also the role which Australia can play internationally. The establishment of a National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety is therefore proposed. Possible structures and organizational arrangements for such an institute are discussed. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this voluminous report describe the different ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority) actions: nuclear activities (ionising radiation and health and environmental risks), principles and stakeholders in nuclear safety regulation, radiation protection and protection of the environment, regulation, regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionizing radiation, radiological emergencies, public information and transparency, international relations. It also gives an overview of nuclear safety and radiation protection activities in the different French regions. The second part addresses activities regulated by the ASN: medical uses of ionizing radiation, non-medical uses of ionizing radiation, transport of radioactive materials, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle installations, nuclear research facilities and various nuclear installations, safe decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, radioactive waste and contaminated sites and soils

  13. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  14. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  15. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  16. Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2010 Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 1st through 3rd of 2010. The sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, shielding design, radioactive waste handling and its effective use, radiation measurement, safety control of radiation source, radioactive waste management (aerosol, liquid), education on radiation, molecular imaging, image analysis, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection. (J.P.N)

  17. Sweden's Cooperation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dassen, Lars; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela

    2011-09-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented in 2010 cooperation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Lithuania and Moldova based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host country as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2010

  18. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  19. Radiation safety aspects pertaining to female patients and staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patni, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations in the world are committed to gender parity. Increasing number of women is working in the fields of radiation medicine and in industries dealing with radiation. Women patients may be exposed to radiation in radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, interventional cardiology, dentistry etc. Radiation safety of women staff and women patients is different from their male counterparts because of conception and pregnancy. So, fetal health is a matter of concern in the above. Also, the excess relative risk of radiation induced cancers in females relates to higher risk of thyroid cancer and high radiosensitivity as compared to males

  20. Environmental, health, and safety by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soklow, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated created a self-directed work team, the Safety and Environmental Awareness (SEA) Team that initiated a company wide effort to raise employee awareness to promote integrating responsible environmental, health, and safety practices into product design, manufacturing, and services. Environmental, health, and safety issues influence how all businesses operate around the world. Companies choose to operate in an environmentally responsible manner because it not only benefits employees and the communities where they live, it also benefits the business when superior performance results in a competitive advantage. Solar surveyed gas turbines users to identify their top environmental and safety concerns and issues. The authors asked about various environmental and safety aspects of their equipment. Results from the survey has helped engineering and design focus efforts so that future products and product improvements assist customers in meeting their regulatory obligations and social responsibilities. Air pollution has historically been one of the most important environmental issues facing customers, because pollutant emissions greatly influence equipment choices and operation flexibility. There are other environmental, health and safety issues: sustainable fire suppression choices, start systems, hazardous materials use and ability to recycle materials, package accessibility, noise and product take back issues

  1. Accelerators: radiation safety and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Tapas

    2013-01-01

    Growth of accelerators, both positive ions and electron, is very high in India. This may be because of the wide acceptance of these machines in the industrial purposes, medical uses, material science studies, upcoming ADSS facility and many other reasons. Most of cases for societal uses, accelerators have to be installed in the dense public domain. Accelerators for basic research and development purposes to be installed may in public domain or in isolated site. These accelerators are to be classified into different categories in terms of regulatory compliance. Radiation shield design, HVAC system required to be in place with design so that the dose and effluent discharge in the public domain is within a limit considering different pathways. INDUS I and II at Indore, K-130 and K500 machine at VECC, Pelletron at TIFR, IUAC, BARC, EBC at Mumbai are in operation. Apart from this accelerators, a series of medical accelerators in operation and yet to be operational which are generally producing PET isotopes for the diagnosis purposes. VECC is aiming to operate 30 MeV proton machine with about 500 μA beam current for the production of PET, SPECT isotopes for diagnosis purposes and also therapeutic use in near future. Detail requirement in terms of choice of sites, source term estimation for achieving optimum shield thickness, ventilation system, site layout and planning , radioactive effluent handling both gaseous and liquid, decommission aspects will be discussed. (author)

  2. INSAG's ongoing work on nuclear, radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) is an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA. It identifies current nuclear safety issues, draws conclusions from its analyses and gives advice on those issues. INSAG is currently working on four documents: a complete revision of INSAG-3, the classical paper on safety principles for nuclear plants, published in 1988; 'Safety Management', the effective system for the management of operational strategy; 'Safe Management of the Life Cycle of Nuclear Power Plants'; and the fourth document in preparation entitled 'The Safe Management of Sources of Radiation: Principles and Strategies'. The fourth document is aimed primarily at political decision makers who have no knowledge of radiation safety or of nuclear matters generally but are called upon to make important decisions in this field. INSAG has attempted to present them with a 'unified doctrine' of the management of all radiation sources, even though, for historical reasons radiation protection and nuclear safety have evolved largely independently of each other. The major conclusion to be drawn from the paper is that a systematic application of protection and safety principles, and of appropriate strategies, goes a long way towards ensuring the safe management of technologies involving radiation. Furthermore, the management of sources of radiation could benefit from the experience accumulated in other industries facing comparable challenges

  3. Safety Design Approach for the Development of Safety Requirements for Design of Commercial HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Yan, Xing; Sakaba, Nariaki; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The research committee on “Safety requirements for HTGR design” was established in 2013 under the Atomic Energy Society of Japan to develop the draft safety requirements for the design of commercial High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), which incorporate the HTGR safety features demonstrated using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), lessons learned from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and requirements for the integration of the hydrogen production plants. The safety design approach for the commercial HTGRs which is a basement of the safety requirements is determined prior to the development of the safety requirements. The safety design approaches for the commercial HTGRs are to confine the radioactive materials within the coated fuel particles not only during normal operation but also during accident conditions, and the integrity of the coated fuel particles and other requiring physical barriers are protected by the inherent and passive safety features. This paper describes the main topics of the research committee, the safety design approaches and the safety functions of the commercial HTGRs determined in the research committee. (author)

  4. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  5. Safety design features of the IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (335 MW(e)), that features an integral reactor vessel containing all the reactor primary system components, including steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and heaters, and control rod drive mechanisms; in addition to the typical core, internals, control rods and neutron reflector. This integral configuration allows for the use of a small, high design pressure, spherical steel containment which results in a significant reduction in the size of the nuclear island. Other IRIS innovations include a simplified passive safety system concept and equipment features that derive from the 'safety-by-design' philosophy. This design approach allows for elimination of certain accident initiators at the design stage, or when outright elimination is not possible, decreases accident consequences and/or their probability of occurrence. Major design characteristics of the IRIS are given. As part of the IRIS pre-application licensing review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the IRIS design team has developed a test plan that will provide the necessary data for safety analysis computer model verification, as well as for verifying the manufacturing feasibility, operability, and durability of new component designs

  6. Systematic approach to training for competence building in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiamah, S.D.; Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.

    2003-01-01

    Competence building involves four main attributes, namely, knowledge, skills, operating experience and attitude to radiation safety. These multi-attribute requirements demand a systematic approach to education and training of regulatory staff, licensees/registrants and service providers to ensure commensurate competence in performance of responsibilities and duties to specified standards. In order to address issues of competencies required in radiation safety a national programme for qualification and certification has been initiated for regulatory staff, operators, radiation safety officers and qualified experts. Since the inception of this programme in 1993, 40 training events have been organized involving 423 individuals. This programme is at various levels of implementation due to financial and human resource constraints. A department for Human Resource Development and Research was established in 2000 to enhance and ensure the sustainability of the effectiveness of capacity building in radiation safety. (author)

  7. An evaluation of the uranium mine radiation safety course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The report evaluates the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course focussing on the following areas: effectivenss of the course; course content; instructional quality; course administration. It notes strengths and weaknesses in these areas and offers preliminary recommendations for future action

  8. Basic elements of a regulatory programme for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the objectives of IAEA TECDOC 1067: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of sources (1999) is presented

  9. Radiation safety status at a bio medical research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes are being used for biomedical research purpose at School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University for the last twenty five years. Present paper analyses the overall status of radiation safety at this Centre

  10. Requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services are established. The norms is applied to activities related to the radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutics and 'in vivo' diagnostics purposes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Radiation safety in nuclear industry in retrospect and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 years have passed since the starting up of nuclear industry in China from the early 1950's. Over the past 30-odd years, nuclear industry has always kept a good record in China thanks to the policy of 'quality first, safety first' clearly put forward for nuclear industry from the outset and a lot of suitable effective measures taken over that period. Internationally, there is rapid progress in radiation protection and nuclear safety (hereafter refereed to as radiation safety) and a number of new concepts in the field of radiation protection have been advanced. Nuclear industry is developing based on the international standardization. To ensure the further development of nuclear utility, radiation safety needs to be further strengthened

  12. The safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the present infrastructure for the safety of radiation sources in China, where applications of radiation sources have become more and more widespread in the past years. In particular, it refers to the main functions of the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), which is acting as the regulatory body for nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear installations, the Ministry of Public Health which issues licences for the use of radiation sources, and the Ministry of Public Security, which deals with the security of radiation sources. The report also refers to the main requirements of the existing regulatory system for radiation safety, i.e. the basic dose limits for radiation workers and the public, the licensing system for nuclear installations and for radioisotope-based and other irradiation devices, and the environmental impact assessment system. Information on the nationwide survey of radiation sources carried out by SEPA in 1991 is provided, and on some accidents that occurred in China due to loss of control of radiation sources and errors in the operation of irradiation facilities. (author)

  13. Advanced gas cooled reactors - Designing for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, Barry A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Power Stations recently completed at Heysham in Lancashire, England, and Torness in East Lothian, Scotland represent the current stage of development of the commercial AGR. Each power station has two reactor turbo-generator units designed for a total station output of 2x660 MW(e) gross although powers in excess of this have been achieved and it is currently intended to uprate this as far as possible. The design of both stations has been based on the successful operating AGRs at Hinkley Point and Hunterston which have now been in-service for almost 15 years, although minor changes were made to meet new safety requirements and to make improvements suggested by operating experience. The construction of these new AGRs has been to programme and within budget. Full commercial load for the first reactor at Torness was achieved in August 1988 with the other three reactors following over the subsequent 15 months. This paper summarises the safety principles and guidelines for the design of the reactors and discusses how some of the main features of the safety case meet these safety requirements. The paper also summarises the design problems which arose during the construction period and explains how these problems were solved with the minimum delay to programme

  14. Advanced gas cooled reactors - Designing for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, Barry A [Engineering Development Unit, NNC Limited, Booths Hall, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Power Stations recently completed at Heysham in Lancashire, England, and Torness in East Lothian, Scotland represent the current stage of development of the commercial AGR. Each power station has two reactor turbo-generator units designed for a total station output of 2x660 MW(e) gross although powers in excess of this have been achieved and it is currently intended to uprate this as far as possible. The design of both stations has been based on the successful operating AGRs at Hinkley Point and Hunterston which have now been in-service for almost 15 years, although minor changes were made to meet new safety requirements and to make improvements suggested by operating experience. The construction of these new AGRs has been to programme and within budget. Full commercial load for the first reactor at Torness was achieved in August 1988 with the other three reactors following over the subsequent 15 months. This paper summarises the safety principles and guidelines for the design of the reactors and discusses how some of the main features of the safety case meet these safety requirements. The paper also summarises the design problems which arose during the construction period and explains how these problems were solved with the minimum delay to programme.

  15. Handbook on radiation safety. Spravochnik po radiatsionnoj bezopasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, V R

    1977-01-01

    The handbook reflects changes, in quotas, providing radiation safety in the Soviet Union, and in state standards. It includes the data, published in the soviet and foreign press up to 1975 on problems of ionizing radiation interaction with a substance, on terminology and units for measuring ionizing radiations and radioactivity, doses of background and admissible personnel irradiation in space, resulting from natural and artificial sources,from medical procedures. Given are the norms and sanitary rules of radiation protection when operating ionizing radiations sources at nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors, critical assemblies, placing and operating charged particle accelerators. Included is ample information on dosimetry of X-ray, gamma-, and neutron radiation, on dosimetry of charged particles, aerosols and gases, on radiometry and spectrometry of internal irradiation and radiation sources. Devices for ionizina radiation registration, model radiation sources, radionuclide solutions and their calibration are described.

  16. Radiation Safety of Accelerator Facility with Regard to Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Sunaryadi; Gloria Doloresa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation safety of accelerator facility and the status of the facilities according to licensee in Indonesia as well as lesson learned from the accidents are described. The atomic energy Act No. 10 of 1997 enacted by the Government of Indonesia which is implemented in Radiation Safety Government Regulation No. 63 and 64 as well as practice-specific model regulation for licensing request are discussed. (author)

  17. A proposal for an international convention on radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1998-01-01

    One century has passed since harmful effects of radiation on living tissues were recognized. Organized efforts to reduce radiation hazards began in early 1920s. Major efforts by the ICRP since 1928, aided by ICRU, greatly helped in formulating principles, policies and guidance for radiation protection. The WHO formally recognized ICRP in 1956 and began implementing ICRP recommendations and guidance throughout the world. The IAEA, after it took office in 1957, began to establish or adopt standards of safety based on ICRP recommendations and provide for application of these standards in the field of atomic energy. Later on, other pertinent international organizations joined IAEA in establishing the Basic Safety Standards on radiation safety. The IAEA has issued, until now, nearly couple of hundred safety related documents on radiation safety and waste management. However, in spite of all such international efforts for three quarter of a century, there has been no effective universal control in radiation safety. Problems exist at the user, national, international and manufacturers and suppliers levels. Other problems are management of spent sources and smuggling of sources across international borders. Although, radiation and radionuclides are used by all countries of the world, regulatory and technical control measures in many countries are either lacking or inadequate. The recommendations and technical guidance provided by the international organizations are only advisory and carry no mandatory force to oblige countries to apply them. Member States approve IAEA safety standards and guides at the technical meetings and General Conference, but many of them do not apply these. An International Convention is, therefore, essential to establish international instrument to ensure universal application of radiation safety. (author)

  18. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  19. ARIES-AT safety design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Fusion Safety Program, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)]. E-mail: David.Petti@inl.gov; Merrill, B.J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Fusion Safety Program, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Moore, R.L. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Fusion Safety Program, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Longhurst, G.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Fusion Safety Program, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); El-Guebaly, L. [Fusion Technology Institute, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Mogahed, E. [Fusion Technology Institute, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Henderson, D. [Fusion Technology Institute, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wilson, P. [Fusion Technology Institute, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, A. [Fusion Technology Institute, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    ARIES-AT is a 1000 MWe conceptual fusion power plant design with a very low projected cost of electricity. The design contains many innovative features to improve both the physics and engineering performance of the system. From the safety and environmental perspective, there is greater depth to the overall analysis than in past ARIES studies. For ARIES-AT, the overall spectrum of off-normal events to be examined has been broadened. They include conventional loss of coolant and loss of flow events, an ex-vessel loss of coolant, and in-vessel off-normal events that mobilize in-vessel inventories (e.g., tritium and tokamak dust) and bypass primary confinement such as a loss of vacuum and an in-vessel loss of coolant with bypass. This broader examination of accidents improves the robustness of the design from the safety perspective and gives additional confidence that the facility can meet the no-evacuation requirement under average weather conditions. We also provide a systematic assessment of the design to address key safety functions such as confinement, decay heat removal, and chemical energy control. In the area of waste management, both the volume of the component and its hazard are used to classify the waste. In comparison to previous ARIES designs, the overall waste volume is less because of the compact design.

  20. Radiation safety of gamma and electron irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    There are currently some 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation throughout virtually all Member States of the IAEA. The most widespread uses of these facilities are for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, and the eradication of insect infestation. The safety record of this industry has been very good. Nevertheless, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, so that a person accidentally present in the irradiation chamber can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds. Precautions against uncontrolled entry must therefore be taken. Furthermore, gamma irradiation facilities contain large amounts of radioactivity and if the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed, inhibiting direct access to carry out remedial work. Contamination can result from corroded or damaged sources, and decontamination can be very expensive. These aspects clearly indicate the need to achieve a high degree of safety and reliability in the facilities. This can be accomplished by effective quality control together with careful design, manufacture, installation, operation and decommissioning. The guidance in this Safety Series publication is intended for competent authorities responsible for regulating the use of radiation sources as well as the manufacturers, suppliers, installers and users of gamma and electron beam facilities. 20 refs, 6 figs

  1. Radiation safety and workers safety: partners instead of rivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambotte, S.; Severitt, S.; Sobetzko, T.; Voelker, T.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how important and paying it is to look upon working systems as a whole with regard to danger and load at the working place, and to use existing synergies. At many places, a change of approach in this direction is still necessary, in order to recognize the connection between the various fields of operational safety as well as the potential that is hidden behind an effective utilization of the instruments for workers safety. (orig.)

  2. Safety of research reactors (Design and Operation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirar, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to conduct a comprehensive up-to-date literature review on the current status of safety of research reactor both in design and operation providing the future trends in safety of research reactors. Data and technical information of variety selected historical research reactors were thoroughly reviewed and evaluated, furthermore illustrations of the material of fuel, control rods, shielding, moderators and coolants used were discussed. Insight study of some historical research reactors was carried with considering sample cases such as Chicago Pile-1, F-1 reactor, Chalk River Laboratories,. The National Research Experimental Reactor and others. The current status of research reactors and their geographical distribution, reactor category and utilization is also covered. Examples of some recent advanced reactors were studied like safety barriers of HANARO of Korea including safety doors of the hall and building entrance and finger print identification which prevent the reactor from sabotage. On the basis of the results of this research, it is apparent that a high quality of safety of nuclear reactors can be attained by achieving enough robust construction, designing components of high levels of efficiency, replacing the compounds of the reactor in order to avoid corrosion and degradation with age, coupled with experienced scientists and technical staffs to operate nuclear research facilities.(Author)

  3. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) - Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of the NEA's Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. MDEP is also interested in how its work can be extended to future reactors, which may use significantly different technology to the almost ubiquitous LWRs used today and in the next generation, building on the close co-operation within MDEP between the regulators who are currently engaged in constructing or carrying out design reviews on new designs. For two designs this work has involved several regulators sharing their safety assessments and in some cases issuing statements on issues that need to be addressed. Work is also progressing towards joint regulatory position statements on specific assessment areas. Harmonisation of safety goals will enhance the cooperation between regulators as further developments in design and technology occur. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel of a specific reactor type. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are often for a specific technology. Therefore a different approach is being investigated, starting with the top-level safety goals and try to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier

  4. New Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The new Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation are a first step in an implementation of the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP into the existing national system of providing a radiation safety of the public. In new System the radiation source is examined as a source of harm and danger for the public. So the System shall include not only the measures for limitation of actual exposures, but also an assessment of efficiency of radiation protection in the practical activity, based on the analysis of a distribution of doses received and on the assessment of actions initiated to restrict the probability of potential exposures. The occupational and public exposure doses are only the indices of the quality of management of the source. In this System a radiation monitoring is a feedback for assessing the stability of the source and how it is controllable. It is a tool for predicting the levels of potential exposure and the relevant danger associated with the source. It is important to underline that the System of Providing a Radiation Safety is an interrelated system. None of its parts may be individually used. In particular, the mere conformity with dose limits is not yet a sufficient evidence of the successful operation of the safety system, because the normal exposure doses reflect only a source-related harm. The problems of implementation of this System of radiation protection and safety into the contemporary practice in the Russia is discussed. (author)

  5. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Chinese Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  6. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  7. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Arabic Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the principles included in the Fundamental Safety Principles, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, this Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants. It covers the design phase and provides input for the safe operation of the power plant. It elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  8. Towards an international regime on radiation and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen the de facto emergence of what might be called an 'international regime on nuclear and radiation safety'. It may be construed to encompass three key elements: legally binding international undertakings among States; globally agreed international safety standards; and provisions for facilitating the application of those standards. While nuclear and radiation safety are national responsibilities, governments have long been interested in formulating harmonised approaches to radiation and nuclear safety. A principal mechanism for achieving harmonisation has been the establishment of internationally agreed safety standards and the promotion of their global application. The development of nuclear and radiation safety standards is a statutory function of the IAEA, which is unique in the United Nations system. The IAEA Statute expressly authorises the Agency 'to establish standards of safety' and 'to provide for the application of these standards'. As the following articles and supplement in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin point out, facilitating international conventions; developing safety standards; and providing mechanisms for their application are high priorities for the IAEA. (author)

  9. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2000-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia in 1999. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  10. Growth of the Female Professional in the Radiation Safety Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently in Korea’s Nuclear Power Plants (KHNP), the number of the female staffs has been increased as planned construction of new NPPs. However the role of the female staffs in NPPs is still limited as before. Because there is the prejudice which the operating and the maintenance work is unsuitable for female owing to the risk of the radiation exposure and the physical weakness. So female staffs mostly belong to the supporting departments. In particular, the proportion of the female staffs is significantly higher in the radiation safety department among those. The ratio is 15% and is twice higher, whereas the total percentage of the female workers in KHNP is 8%. In the past, the women staffs in the radiation safety department were usually charge of the non-technical duties like the radiation exposure dose management and the education for radiation workers. Although the ratio of the women about that is still higher, nowadays, the role of the female workers tends to diversify to technical supports like the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management while increased the proportion of female employees. This trend is expected to continue for many years to come. Thus, in Korea’s NPPs, it is expected that many women will demonstrate their professionalism especially in the radiation safety department than any other departments. This presentation contains the detailed duty and trend about female staffs in the radiation safety department in Korea’s NPPs. (author)

  11. Radiation safety requirements for training of users of diagnostic X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Globally, the aim of requirements regarding the use and ownership of diagnostic medical X-ray equipment is to limit radiation by abiding by the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. The ignorance of radiographers with regard to radiation safety requirements, however, is currently a cause of ...

  12. Radiation and ecological safety of nuclear fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbasheva, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste facilities safety issues are discussed; Chernobyl NPP personnel radiation doses for 1986 are indicated; radiation contamination of environment by Am-241 is investigated; data on radioactive contamination in southern part of Kiev Poles'e are considered

  13. Investigation of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bo; Tu Yu; Zhang Yin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the construction of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Methods: All medical units registered in administration center of Suzhou were included. The above selected medical units were completely investigated, district and county under the same condition of quality control. Results: The radiation safety and safety culture are existing differences among different property and grade hospitals of medicai sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Conclusion: The construction of radiation safety and safety culture is generally occupying in good level in suhzou, but there are obvious differences among different property and grade hospitals. The main reason for the differences in the importance attached to by the hospital decision-making and department management officials as well as the staff personal. (authors)

  14. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    -to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements

  15. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  16. AP1000 Containment Design and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Richard F.; Ofstun, Richard P.; Bachere, Sebastien

    2002-01-01

    The AP1000 is an up-rated version of the AP600 passive plant design that recently received final design certification from the US NRC. Like AP600, the AP1000 is a two-loop, pressurized water reactor featuring passive core cooling and passive containment safety systems. One key safety feature of the AP1000 is the passive containment cooling system which maintains containment integrity in the event of a design basis accident. This system utilizes a high strength, steel containment vessel inside a concrete shield building. In the event of a pipe break inside containment, a high pressure signal actuates valves which allow water to drain from a storage tank atop the shield building. Water is applied to the top of the containment shell, and evaporates, thereby removing heat. An air flow path is formed between the shield building and the containment to aid in the evaporation and is exhausted through a chimney at the top of the shield building. Extensive testing and analysis of this system was performed as part of the AP600 design certification process. The AP1000 containment has been designed to provide increased safety margin despite the increased reactor power. The containment volume was increased to accommodate the larger steam generators, and to provide increased margin for containment pressure response to design basis events. The containment design pressure was increased from AP600 by increasing the shell thickness and by utilizing high strength steel. The passive containment cooling system water capacity has been increased and the water application rate has been scaled to the higher decay heat level. The net result is higher margins to the containment design pressure limit than were calculated for AP600 for all design basis events. (authors)

  17. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  18. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Spanish ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  19. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Arabic ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  20. DOE contractor radiation safety CBT [computer based training] course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company developed a generic Radiation Worker safety CBT course for Department of Energy contractors. Task analysis concentrated on actual and potential tasks and included visits to fourteen different contractor sites. Team Design and Prototype verification formed the major portion of the development phase. Lesson entry was accomplished using the WISE author system from WICAT Systems, Inc. The course features graded task simulations for both Pretest and Final; fourteen Topics in five Lessons, each Topic keyed to ''Critical Acts'' and Questions in the Pretest and Final; Automatic, Intensive, and Manual modes of instruction available for each Lesson; Practical Problems and Sample Questions associated with each Topic; and provisions for local configuration in several areas. The course is deliverable on IBM PC compatible equipment. 2 refs

  1. Nuclear power plant radiation: personnel safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roekmantara, Roestan

    1975-01-01

    Reactor using water as coolant, moderator, and heat transfer can produce a sufficiently great internal and external radiation caused by contamination. The process of contamination and actions that must be taken to avoid radiation workers from receiving more than the maximum permissible dose are presented. (author)

  2. Ordinance on the Finnish Centre of Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr

  3. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of status of safety management in radiation handle works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amauchi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kenji; Izumi, Kokichi

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the investigation in the title concerning the system for safety management and for accident prevention, which was done by a questionnaire in a period of 1.5 months in 2005. The questionnaire including 55 questions for safety management system, 33 for instruments and safety utilization of radiation and 57 for present status of safety management in high-risk radiation works, was performed in 780 hospitals, of which 313 answered. The first 55 questions concerned with the facility, patient identification, information exchange, management of private information, safety management activities, measures to prevent accident, manual preparation, personnel education and safety awareness; the second, with management of instruments, package insert, system for reporting the safety information, management of implants, re-imaging and radiation protection; and the third, with the systems for patients' emergency, in departments of CT/MR, of IVR, of nuclear diagnosis and of radiation therapy. Based on the results obtained, many problems, tasks and advices are presented to various items and further continuation of efforts to improve the present status is mentioned to be necessary. Details are given in the homepage of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. (T.I.)

  5. National training course on radiation safety, Its insertion in the cuban system of education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Netor; Hernadez Saiz, Alejandro; Calli Fernadez, Ernesto; Perez Reyes, Yolanda

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene has been organizing, since more than ten years, the national training course on Radiation Safety, taking into account the particular needs of the Country in this area. The curriculum of the course, after some years of improvements, is showed and some aspects related to its design and insertion in the national system of education and training in Radiation Safety are discussed. The maintenance of an updated database of participants has demonstrated to be a very useful tool for dissemination of knowledge in Radiation Safety and for a continuously improvement of the imparted courses and offered services. The importance of the participation of the Regulatory Authority in the Course, from its organization phase, is also stressed

  6. Radiation safety concerns during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures are on the increase by virtue of the fact that these procedures replace highly invasive surgical and other procedures. Radiation dose to patients and hospital workers are of significance since these procedures tend to impart large dose to them. Moreover, long term risk from radiation absorbed by patients is of concern since the life expectancy of major fraction of patients is long after undergoing the procedure. This study intends to measure radiation dose imparted to patients as well as personnel- radiologists, technologists, nurses, etc. and estimate the risk factor involved

  7. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    -priori evaluate which design is the safest or the most economical one: a punctual analysis of the different aspects and a comparison of the resulting designs is therefore of interest and is presented in this paper with reference to the case study considered.The third approach refers instead to a performance......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... such advanced investigations, which are generally quite complex ones, due to the presence of material degradation and large displacements induced by fire, as well as the possible triggering of local mechanism in the system. An example of advanced investigations for fire design is given in the paper...

  8. International cooperation in the safety and environmental assessment for the ITER engineering design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.; Baker, D.J.; Bartels, H-W.

    1998-01-01

    The ITER Project includes design and assessment activities to ensure the safety and environmental attractiveness of ITER and demonstrate that it can be sited in any of the sponsoring Parties with a minimum of site-specific redesign. This paper highlights some of the efforts to develop an international consensus approach for ITER safety design and assessment, including: development of general safety and environmental design criteria; development of quantitative dose-release assessment criteria; development of a radiation protection program; waste characterization; and development of safety analysis guidelines. The high level of interaction, cooperation and collaboration between the Joint Central Team and the Home Teams, and between the safety team and designers, and the spirit of consensus that has guided them have resulted in a safe design for ITER and a safety design and assessment that can meet the needs of the potential host countries. (author)

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Radiation Analysis and Design Tools (IRADT) Project develops and maintains an integrated tool set that collects the current best practices, databases,...

  11. Safety and design impact of hurricane Andrew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, Ching N.

    2004-01-01

    Turkey Point completed the IPE in June of 1991. Hurricane Andrew landed at Turkey Point on August 24, 1992. Although the safety related systems, components and structures were not damaged by the Hurricane Andrew, certain nonsafety related components and the neighboring fossil plant sustained noticeable damage. Among the major components that were nonsafety related but would affect the PRA of the plant included the service water pumps and the high tower. This paper discusses the safety and design impact of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. The risk of hurricanes on the interim and evolving plant configurations are briefly described. The risk of the plant from internal events as a result of damage incurred during Hurricane Andrew are discussed. The design change as the result of Hurricane Andrew and its impact on the PRA are presented. (author)

  12. [RADIATION SAFETY DURING REMEDIATION OF THE "SEVRAO" FACILITIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Titov, A V; Simakov, A V; Seregin, V A; Kryuchkov, V P; Bogdanova, L S; Grachev, M I

    2015-01-01

    Within a framework of national program on elimination of nuclear legacy, State Corporation "Rosatom" is working on rehabilitation at the temporary waste storage facility at Andreeva Bay (Northwest Center for radioactive waste "SEVRAO"--the branch of "RosRAO"), located in the North-West of Russia. In the article there is presented an analysis of the current state of supervision for radiation safety of personnel and population in the context of readiness of the regulator to the implementation of an effective oversight of radiation safety in the process of radiation-hazardous work. Presented in the article results of radiation-hygienic monitoring are an informative indicator of the effectiveness of realized rehabilitation measures and characterize the radiation environment in the surveillance zone as a normal, without the tendency to its deterioration.

  13. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  15. Regulatory measures of BARC Safety Council to control radiation exposure in BARC Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Jolly, V.M.; Jayarajan, K.

    2018-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is involved in multidisciplinary research and developmental activities, related to peaceful use of nuclear energy including societal benefits. BARC facilities at different parts of India include nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, research reactors, nuclear recycle facilities and various Physics, Chemistry and Biological laboratories. BARC Safety Council (BSC) is the regulatory body for BARC facilities and takes regulatory measures for radiation protection. BSC has many safety committees for radiation protection including Operating Plants Safety Review Committee (OPSRC), Committee to Review Applications for Authorization of Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes (CRAASDRW) and Design Safety Review Committees (DSRC) in 2 nd tier and Unit Level Safety Committees (ULSCs) in 3 rd tier under OPSRC

  16. Criticality safety and facility design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, W.R.

    1991-06-01

    Operations with fissile material introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel. In addition, concerns over criticality safety can result in substantial delays and shutdown of facility operations. For these reasons, it is clear that the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The emphasis of this report will be placed on engineering design considerations in the prevention of criticality. The discussion will not include other important aspects, such as the physics of calculating limits nor criticality alarm systems

  17. Safety in the ARIES Tokamak Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Wong, C.P.-C.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is one of the primary goals of the ARIES Tokamak Design Study. Public safety goals are the achievement passive safety which is demonstrable in tests that could precede operation and the assurance that releases from accidents be passively limited such that no evacuation plan in necessary. Strategies for safety of the plant investment are factory fabrication, short construction times and a design such that no off-normal operational transient results in damage which could not be repaired in routine maintenance. ARIES-I, the first of three 'visions' of potential tokamak reactors, will use He at 5 MPa as a blanket coolant and SiC/composite ceramic for the first wall and blanket materials. Both the coolant and the structural material were chosen for their low activation, both in the short term after accidents and for long term waste management. The breeder, Li 4 SiO 4 , was also chosen for low activation. Contemporary plasma physics and aggressive technology are used in ARIES-I, which results in very high toroidal fields (24 T maximum at the coil). The stored TF energy will be about 130 GJ. A central concern is the safe discharge of this stored energy under electrical fault conditions and prevention of a failure in the magnet set from propagating into systems containing radioactive inventories. The TF coil system consists of 16 coils, each containing two separate windings powered by two independent power supplies. Arcs and shorts between the two power supply systems and across individual windings have been modeled. In addition, delay or failure in circuit breaker opening has been modeled. The safety impacts of LOCA, LOFA and disruptive events have also been evaluated. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Design and operation of radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and operation of Cobalt-60 Radiation Processing Facilities is a well established technology. However, the products requiring radiation processing are constantly increasing. Product and dose variations create different requirements in the irradiator design. Several basic design concepts which have been developed and installed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are discussed. Irradiators are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Requirements for irradiators to process a multitude of different products at different doses leads to a reduction of irradiator efficiency with resultant increase in processing costs

  19. Radiation safety and formation of public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurbanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Team-administrative system of long years has been a reason of environmental pollution and health consequences and still does. This includes soil pollution with pesticides, ecological condition of micro and macro flora of the Caspian Sea, soil pollution with oil, deforestation and etc. Scientists and environmental NGOs have given some information to public and public opinion has already been formed on this issue. But public opinion is not necessarily formed on radiation - the most important and invisible problem. The reason of this is that radiation danger has been hidden as a closed theme from the public. After the soviet collapse this problem is also being revealed. Number of NGOs have held the seminar on this issue and given some information to public. The researches cover the following problems:To hold the public monitoring in the fields polluted with oil and separate it from the other fields by determining the fields polluted with radiation. To take measures in order to prevent public entrance to these fields; To inform about the usage of radiation based equipment in the industrial fields and to hold the regular monitoring; To advertise the differential signs of radiation sources in the city landfill and other polluted zones; To broaden the advocacy on ultraviolet rays and their influence to human health; To disseminate the brochures and advertisement papers on high technical radiation and their influence to human health; To analyze the radio environmental condition around the Gabala Radar Station; To advocate the possible radiation danger in using the x-ray and other medical equipment; Analyze the possible radon danger in shipping materials; To create the idea on possible transition of radioactive gases and elements from neighbor countries; Creation of idea on possible danger around the high voltage. The formation of public opinion on mentioned problem will depend on combining the scientists' and NGOs activities

  20. Design and qualification of HPD based designs for safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kr.; Chavan, Madhavi A.; Sawhney, Pratibha A.; Mohanty, Ashutos; John, Ajith K.; Ganesh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD) are increasingly being used in C and I system of NPPs. The function of such an integrated circuit is not defined by the supplier of the physical component or micro-electronic technology but by the C and I designer. The hardware subsystems implemented in these devices typically use Hardware Description Language (HDL) like VHDL or Verilog to describe the functionality at the design entry level. These circuits are commonly known as 'HDL-Programmed Devices', (HPD). RCnD has developed a set of hardware boards to be used in next generation C and I systems. The boards have been designed based on present day technology and components. The intelligence of these boards has been implemented in HPDs (FPGA/CPLD) using VHDL. Since these boards are used in the safety and safety related systems, they have undergone a rigorous V and V process and qualification tests. This paper discusses the design attributes and qualification of these HPD based designs for nuclear class safety systems. (author)

  1. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  2. Conception and activity directions of journal ''Nuclear and radiation safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olena, M.; Volodymyr, S.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the State Scientific and Technical Centre onr Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRA) and Odessa State Polytechnic University the journal 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' was established in 1998. In Ukraine many people are interested in nuclear energy problems. The accident in Chernobyl NPP unit 4 touches all Ukrainians and brings about strong and regular attention to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations and nuclear technology, on the other side more than 50 per cent of electric power is produced in 5 NPPs and as following national power supply depends on stability of NPPs work. Main goals of the journal are: Support to Nuclear Regulatory Administration (NRA) of MEPNS of Ukraine, creation of information space for effective exchange of results of scientific, scientific and technical, scientific and analytical work in the field of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, assistance in integrated development of research for Nuclear and Radiation Safety by publication in a single issue of scientific articles, involvement of state scientific potential in resolving actual problems, participation in international collaboration in the framework of agreements, programs and plans. (orig.)

  3. The Radiation Safety Interlock System for Top-Up Mode Operation at NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Chien Rong; Kao, Sheau-Ping; Liu, Joseph; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Wang, Jau-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The radiation safety interlock systems of NSRRC have been operated for more than a decade. Some modification actions have been implemented in the past to perfect the safe operation. The machine and its interlock system were originally designed to operate at the decay mode. Recently some improvement programs to make the machine injection from original decay mode to top-up mode at NSRRC has initiated. For users at experimental area the radiation dose resulted from top-up re-fill injections where safety shutters of beam-lines are opened will dominate. In addition to radiation safety action plans such as upgrading the shielding, enlarging the exclusion zones and improving the injection efficiency, the interlock system for top-up operation is the most important to make sure that injection efficiency is acceptable. To ensure the personnel radiation safety during the top-up mode, the safety interlock upgrade and action plans will be implemented. This paper will summarize the original design logic of the safety inter...

  4. EVALUATION OF BRACHYTHERAPY FACILITY SHIELDING STATUS IN KOREA OBTAINED FROM RADIATION SAFETY REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI HYUN KEUM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight radiation safety reports for brachytherapy equipment were evaluated to determine the current status of brachytherapy units in Korea and to assess how radiation oncology departments in Korea complete radiation safety reports. The following data was collected: radiation safety report publication year, brachytherapy unit manufacturer, type and activity of the source that was used, affiliation of the drafter, exposure rate constant, the treatment time used to calculate workload and the HVL values used to calculate shielding design goal values. A significant number of the reports (47.4% included the personal information of the drafter. The treatment time estimates varied widely from 12 to 2,400 min/week. There was acceptable variation in the exposure rate constant values (ranging between 0.469 and 0.592 (R-m2/Ci·hr, as well as in the HVLs of concrete, steel and lead for Iridium-192 sources that were used to calculate shielding design goal values. There is a need for standard guidelines for completing radiation safety reports that realistically reflect the current clinical situation of radiation oncology departments in Korea. The present study may be useful for formulating these guidelines.

  5. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  6. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  7. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis; Rodriquez, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves

  8. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Rodriquez, Mitchell A.

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves.

  9. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  10. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.; Subasic, D.; Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  11. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong

    2015-01-01

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience

  12. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience.

  13. The enhancement of Ignalina NPP in design and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrivoda, G.

    1999-01-01

    Enhancement of Ignalina NPP design include: core design improvements; fuel channel integrity (multiple pressure tube rupture); improvements of shutdown systems; improvements of instrumentation and control devices; containment strength and tightness; design basis accident analysis; improvements of safety and support systems; seismic safety enhancement; Year 2000 project; cracks in pipes. Enhancement of operational safety includes: quality assurance; configuration management; safety management and safety culture; emergency operating procedures; training and full scope simulator; in-service inspection; fire protection and ageing monitoring and management

  14. Economic aspects of radiation safety in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanian, G.; Venkataraman, G.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection procedures to be adhered to while using radiological equipment in hospitals both for the patients and the medical personnel are described in detail. The hazards resulting from careless handling of equipment and the need for adequately trained staff to handle the equipment is stressed. (A.K.)

  15. The role of probabilistic safety assessment in the design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.; Ingham, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for Heysham 2 and Torness marked a major change in the design approach to nuclear safety within the U.K. Design Safety Guidelines incorporating probabilistic safety targets required that design justification would necessitate explicit consideration of the consequence of accidents in relation to their frequency. The paper discusses these safety targets and their implications, the integration of PSA into the design process and an outline of the methodology. The influence of PSA on the design is discussed together with its role in the overall demonstration of reactor safety. (author)

  16. ARIES-RS safety design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Herring, S.; Khater, H.; Mogahed, E.; Thayer, R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The ARIES-RS safety design and analysis focused on achieving two objectives: (1) The avoidance of sheltering or evacuation in the event of an accident; and (2) the generation of only low-level waste, no greater than Class C. The ARIES-RS baseline design employs V-4Cr-4Ti as the blanket structural material and a low activation ferritic steel in the reflector and shield. In the event of a LOCA, the baseline design first wall maximum temperature falls in the range of 1100-1200 C. For this temperature range, the hazard assessment indicates that the dose at the site boundary will be less than 1 rem per year. Thus, no sheltering or evacuation would be required in the event of a LOCA. Although the baseline design satisfies the first safety objective noted above, a first wall maximum temperature of ∝1100-1200 C would likely compromise the integrity of the vanadium blanket structure and would require blanket replacement following such a temperature excursion. To avoid this situation, a modified blanket design incorporating supplemental heat removal is also proposed. Preliminary analysis of this modified design suggests that the first wall maximum temperature can be kept below the temperature range of concern, ∝1000-1100 C, in the event of a LOCA. When the ferritic steel used in the reflector and shield is one reduced in Ir and Ag impurities, all in-vessel components qualify for near-surface shallow land burial as Class C low-level waste. (orig.)

  17. Radiation safety training for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    In November 1992, a working group was formed within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) accelerator facilities to develop a generic safety training program to meet the basic requirements for individuals working in accelerator facilities. This training, by necessity, includes sections for inserting facility-specific information. The resulting course materials were issued by DOE as a handbook under its technical standards in 1996. Because experimenters may be at a facility for only a short time and often at odd times during the day, the working group felt that computer-based training would be useful. To that end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) together have developed a computer-based safety training program for accelerator facilities. This interactive course not only enables trainees to receive facility- specific information, but time the training to their schedule and tailor it to their level of expertise

  18. Safety principles and design management of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Qirui; Cheng Pingdong

    1997-01-01

    The basic safety consideration and detailed design principles in the design of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant is elaborated. The management within the frame setting up by 'safety culture' and 'quality culture'

  19. Report on the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    Since 1981 the Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has administered a semi-annual course on radiation safety in uranium mines under contract to and in consultation with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The course is intended primarily for representatives from mining companies, regulatory agencies, unions, and mine and mill workers. By the terms of its contract with the AECB, CAIRS is required to submit a report on each course it conducts. This is the report on the June 1987 course. It lists the course objectives and the timetable, outlines for each lecture, the lecturers' resumes, and the participants. The students' evaluations of the course are included

  20. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  1. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M. B.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Amoako, J. K.; Hasford, F.; Akrobortu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Board was established in 1993 by PNDC Law 308 as the National Competent Authority for the regulation of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. The mandate and responsibilities of RPB are prescribed in the legislative instrument, LI 1559 issued in 1993. The operational functions of the Board are carried out by the Radiation Protection Institute, which was established to provide technical support for the enforcement of the legislative instrument. The regulatory activities include among others: – Issuance permits for the import/export of any radiation producing device and radioactive materials into/out of the country. It therefore certifies the radioactivity levels in food and the environmental samples. – Authorization and Inspection of practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ghana. – Undertakes safety assessment services and enforcement actions on practices using radiation sources and radioactive materials in line with regulations. – Provides guidance and technical support in fulfilling regulatory requirement to users of radiation producing devices and radioactive materials nationwide by monitoring of monthly radiation absorbed doses for personnel working at radiation facilities. – Provides support to the management of practices in respect of nuclear and radioactive waste programme. – Calibrates radiation emitting equipment and nuclear instrumentation to ensure the safety of patients, workers and the general public. – Establish guidelines for the mounting (non-ionizing) communication masts. – Environmental monitoring (non-ionizing) programmes for communication masts. With the establishment of the national competent authority, facilities using radioactive sources and radiation emitting devices have been brought under regulatory control. Effective regulatory control of radiation emitting devices are achieved through established legal framework, independent Regulatory Authority supported by

  2. The Argentine Approach to Radiation Safety: Its Ethical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ethical bases of Argentina's radiation safety approach are reviewed. The applied principles are those recommended and established internationally, namely: the principle of justification of decisions that alters the radiation exposure situation; the principle of optimization of protection and safety; the principle of individual protection for restricting possible inequitable outcomes of optimized safety; and the implicit principle of inter generational prudence for protection future generations and the habitat. The principles are compared vis-a-vis the prevalent ethical doctrines: justification vis-a-vis teleology; optimization vis-a-vis utilitarianism; individual protection vis-a-vis de ontology; and, inter generational prudence vis-a-vis aretaicism (or virtuosity). The application of the principles and their ethics in Argentina is analysed. These principles are applied to All exposure to radiation harm; namely, to exposures to actual doses and to exposures to actual risk and potential doses, including those related to the safety of nuclear installations, and they are harmonized and applied in conjunction. It is concluded that building a bridge among all available ethical doctrines and applying it to radiation safety against actual doses and actual risk and potential doses is at the roots of the successful nuclear regulatory experience in Argentina.

  3. X-ray and nuclear radiation facilities: personnel safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, W.J.; Pipes, E.W.; Rucker, T.R.; Smith, D.N.; West, C.M.

    1976-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a research and production installation. The nature and versatility of this work require the use of a large number and variety of x-ray and radiographic sources for nondestructive testing and material analyses. Presently, there are over 80 x-ray generators in the plant, which range in size from small, portable units which operate at a less than 50 kilovolts potential and 0.1 milliampere current to an electron linear accelerator which operates at 12-million electron volts and produces a radiation beam of such intensity that it could deliver a lethal dose to man in a fraction of a minute. There are also almost 50 gamma and neutron sources in use in the plant. These units range in size from a few millicuries to several hundred curies. Although the radiation safety at each of these facilities was considered adequate, the administrative and maintenance procedures became unduly complicated. Accordingly, engineering standards and uniform operating procedures were considered necessary to alleviate these complications and, in so doing, provide an improved measure of radiation safety. Development and implementation of these standards are described and the general philosophy and approach to these standards are outlined. Use of a matrix (type of installation versus radiation safety feature) to facilitate equipment classification and personnel safety feature requirements is presented. Included is a set of the standards showing formats, matrices, etc., and the detailed standards for each safety feature

  4. Enhanced safety of radiation workers: a regulatory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, A [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Bombay (India)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation safety should not only be strictly implemented, but also believed and understood by the workers, the unions, the media and the general public as being fairly and adequately enforced. It is not at all sufficient that only those in the operational management levels satisfy themselves that workers` safety is properly taken care of, but it is necessary that the workers and their unions are also convinced about it and share this management view.

  5. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  6. Education and training on radiation safety for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Y.; Sakurai, N.; Kamei, M.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term program for development and Utilization of nuclear energy planned by Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the international corporation with Asian countries in nuclear fields. PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has three programs in radiation safety field. They are STA program, JICA program and IAEA/RCA program. It is necessary to continue international cooperative activities to establish safety culture for development and utilization of nuclear energy in Asian countries

  7. Enhanced safety of radiation workers: a regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation safety should not only be strictly implemented, but also believed and understood by the workers, the unions, the media and the general public as being fairly and adequately enforced. It is not at all sufficient that only those in the operational management levels satisfy themselves that workers' safety is properly taken care of, but it is necessary that the workers and their unions are also convinced about it and share this management view

  8. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. (author)

  9. Radiation protection and safety in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements

  10. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  11. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  12. IAEA safety glossary. Terminology used in nuclear safety and radiation protection. 2007 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAA's safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff - notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national

  13. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  14. Safety instruction for execution tasks involving ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, G.

    1985-01-01

    Basic directives are presented allow operations with ionizing radiations in industrial areas with high levels of safety. Contractual, technical, operational and administrative criteria are established for the safe performance of x-rays and gamographies and the use of fixed radiation based equipment (indicators of level, density, flow, etc) as well as precautions to be taken during project, procurement, transportation, assembly and maintenance of such equipment. Finally procedures are suggested for emergencies involving radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Radiation safety of sealed sources and equipment containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide gives information and requirements concerning the technical construction, installation, use and licensing of devices containing sealed radioactive sources in order to ensure the operational safety. The requirements are in accordance with the international standards ISO 1677, ISO 2919, ISO 7205 and Nordic Recommendations on radiation protection for radionuclide gauges in permanent installation. The guide explains also the practical measures that must be taken into account when a radiation device is repaired, maintained or removed from the use. (8 refs.)

  16. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  17. Radiation safety parameters following prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, Sesalie; Wallner, Kent; Korssjoen, Tammy; Bergsagel, Carl; Hudson, Rick H.; Sutlief, Steven; Blasko, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree and variability of radiation exposure to the general public from patients after I-125 or Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made from 38 consecutive, unselected patients with stage T1 or T2 prostatic carcinoma who had trans perineal I-125 or Pd-103 implants at the University of Washington in 1998. Results: The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface following a I-125 implant ranged from 2.2 to 8.9 mrem/hour (average: 5.0). The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface from a Pd-103 implant ranged from 0.5 to 4.9 mrem/hour (average: 1.7). Based on the current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations the time required to reach the annual limit at the anterior skin surface would be 20 hours for I-125 and 59 hours for Pd-103. For exposure at the lateral skin surface, the times would exceed 500 hours for either isotope. Conclusions: This data suggest that patients need not be concerned about being a radiation risk to the general public following their procedure

  18. Radiation safety for the emergency situation of the power plant accident. Radiation safety in society and its education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2012-01-01

    Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunamis, and following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Accident brought about great impact on society in Japan. Accident analysis of inside reactor was studied by reactor physics or reactor engineering knowledge, while dissipation of a large amount of radioactive materials outside reactor facilities, and radiation and radioactivity effects on people by way of atmosphere, water and soil were dealt with radiation safety or radiation protection. Due to extremely low frequency and experience of an emergency, there occurred a great confusion in the response of electric power company concerned, relevant regulating competent authorities, local government and media, and related scholars and researchers, which caused great anxieties amount affected residents and people. This article described radiation safety in the society and its education. Referring to actual examples, how radiation safety or radiation protection knowledge should be dealt with emergency risk management in the society was discussed as well as problem of education related with nuclear power, radiation and prevention of disaster and fostering of personnel for relevant people. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  20. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications

  1. General design safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides the safety principles and the approach that have been used to implement the Code in the Safety Guides. These safety principles and the approach are tied closely to the safety analyses needed to assist the design process, and are used to verify the adequacy of nuclear power plant designs. This Guide also provides a framework for the use of other design Safety Guides. However, although it explains the principles on which the other Safety Guides are based, the requirements for specific applications of these principles are mostly found in the other Guides

  2. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  3. Radiation protection databases of nuclear safety regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety of nuclear installations have a common objective, protection against ionising radiation. The operational safety of a nuclear power plant is evaluated using performance indicators as for instance collective radiation exposure, unit capability factor, unplanned capability loss factor, etc. As stated by WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) the performance indicators are 'a management tool so each operator can monitor its own performance and progress, set challenging goals for improvement and consistently compare performance with that of other plants or industry'. In order to make the analysis of the performance indicators feasible to an operator as well as to regulatory authorities a suitable database should be created based on the data related to a facility or facilities. Moreover, the international bodies found out that the comparison of radiation protection in nuclear facilities in different countries could be feasible only if the databases with well defined parameters are established. The article will briefly describe the development of international databases regarding radiation protection related to nuclear facilities. The issues related to the possible development of the efficient radiation protection control of a nuclear facility based on experience of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration will be presented. (author)

  4. GT-MHR design, performance, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Shenoy, A.; Silady, F.A.; Dunn, T.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is the result of coupling the evolution of a low power density passively safe modular reactor with key technology developments in the U.S. during the last decade: large industrial gas turbines; large active magnetic bearings; and compact, highly effective plate-fin heat exchangers. This is accomplished through the unique use of the Brayton cycle to produce electricity with the helium as primary coolant from the reactor directly driving the gas turbine electrical generator. This cycle can achieve a high net efficiency in the range of 45% to 48%. In the design of the GT-MHR the desirable inherent characteristics of the inert helium coolant, graphite core, and the coated fuel particles are supplemented with specific design features such as passive heat removal to achieve the safety objective of not disturbing the normal day-to-day activities of the public even for beyond design basis rare accidents. Each GT-MHR plant consists of four modules. The GT-MHR module components are contained within steel pressure vessels: a reactor vessel, a power conversion vessel, and a connecting cross vessel. All vessels are sited underground in a concrete silo, which serves as an independent vented low pressure containment structure. By capitalizing on industrial and aerospace gas turbine development, highly effective heat exchanger designs, and inherent gas cooled reactor temperature characteristics, the passively safe GT-MHR provides a sound technical, monetary, and environmental basis for new nuclear power generating capacity. This paper provides an update on the status of the design, which has been under development on the US-DOE program since February 1993. An assessment of plant performance and safety is also included

  5. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (French Edition); Surete radiologique en radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in Horizontal-Ellipsis shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  6. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition); Seguridad radiologica en la radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  7. Safety design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamaki, Daiju; Katsuta, Hiroji; Moeslang, Anton; Jameson, R.A.; Martone, Marcello; Shannon, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    In the Conceptual Design Activity of the IFMIF, major subsystems, as well as the entire facility is carefully designed to satisfy the safety requirements for any possible construction sites. Each subsystem is qualitatively analyzed to identify possible hazards to the workers, public and environments using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The results are reflected in the design and operation procedure. Shielding of radiation, particularly neutron around the test cell is one of the most important issue in normal operation. Radiation due to beam halo and activation is a hazard for operation personnel in the accelerator system. For the maintenance, remote handling technology is designed to be applied in various facilities of the IFMIF. Lithium loop and target system hold the majority of the radioactive material in the facility. Tritium and beryllium-7 are generated by the nuclear reaction during operation and thus needed to be removed continuously. They are also the potential hazards of airborne source in off-normal events. Minimization of inventory, separation and immobilization, and multiple confinement are considered in the design. Generation of radioactive waste is anticipated to be minor, but waste treatment systems for gas, liquid and solid wastes are designed to minimize the environmental impact. Lithium leak followed by a fire is a major concern, and extensive prevention plan is made in the target design. One of the design option considered is composed of; primary enclosure of the lithium loop, secondary containment filled with positive pressure argon, and an air tight lithium cell made of concrete with a steel lining. This study will report some technical issues considered in the design of IFMIF. It was concluded that the IFMIF can be designed and constructed to meet or exceed current safely standards for workers, public and the environment with existing technology and reasonable construction cost. (J.P.N.)

  8. [Safety culture: definition, models and design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Holger; Hammer, Antje; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Safety culture is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Safety culture of a healthcare organization is high if it has a common stock in knowledge, values and symbols in regard to patients' safety. The article intends to define safety culture in the first step and, in the second step, demonstrate the effects of safety culture. We present the model of safety behaviour and show how safety culture can affect behaviour and produce safe behaviour. In the third step we will look at the causes of safety culture and present the safety-culture-model. The main hypothesis of this model is that the safety culture of a healthcare organization strongly depends on its communication culture and its social capital. Finally, we will investigate how the safety culture of a healthcare organization can be improved. Based on the safety culture model six measures to improve safety culture will be presented.

  9. Use of information technologies to contribute for optimizing the safety radiation management in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Hernandez Saiz, A.; Manzano de Armas, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in Cuba, with the development of a group of information management tools to implement radiation safety systemic and proactive approaches to safety and ICT supported. These tools were designed for different organisms with responsibility for the security at the country level, to the regulatory authority, for user entities, for individual monitoring services and other radiation protection services. It describes the philosophy of information management model used, the characteristics of the developed tools and their integration, the work performed for the homogenization of information available and the ability to capture and deliver data at different levels in decision making. The tools developed are based on the use of variables and indicators of importance to the safety and the systemic approach adopted allows to facilitate the optimization process for supervision of safety practices as well as contribute to the management of knowledge in radiation safety, through a synergistic combination of process data, information, information management systems, and the creative and innovative radiation safety experts

  10. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  11. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 17 chapters. (author)

  12. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 19 chapters.

  13. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  14. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION... Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. The RSO shall ensure that radiation safety activities...

  15. Recommendations to improve radiation safety during invasive cardiovascular procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Patricia; Ubeda, Carlos; Vano, Eliseo; Nocetti, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present guidelines aimed to improve radiation safety during invasive cardiovascular procedures. Unwanted effects upon patients and medical personnel are conventionally classified. A program of Quality Assurance is proposed, an aspect of which is a program for radiologic protection, including operator protection, radiation monitoring, shielding and personnel training. Permanent and specific actions should be taken at every cardiovascular lab, before, during and after interventions. In order to implement these guidelines and actions, a fundamental step is a review of current legislation. Specific programs for quality control and radiologic protection along with a definition of acceptable radiation exposure doses are required

  16. A bioethical perspective on radiation protection and ''safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Three problems of major concern to policymakers whose task it is to protect public health by setting standards for ''safe'' radiation management are reviewed. The first problem is to decide if current conceptual tools for assessing basic harms to valued living systems are ethically adequate. The second is how to set safety standards on the basis of informed consent to scientific evidence presented by experts who disagree in interpreting that evidence. The third problem is how to resolve conflicting philosophies about radiation protection. Principles which might serve as guidance in the formulation of social policies for radiation health protection are suggested. (H.K.)

  17. System design for shaft safety and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, D.; Parsons, R.; Ward, R.

    1988-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process of designing a system to improve safety and productivity in shafts. The objectives and constraints for the design were set out in official reports following a shaft accident at Markham Colliery in 1973. The problems to be solved were: to enable the shaftsmen to transfer the existing statutory code of signals efficiently from, or on top of, a conveyance anywhere in the shaft to the winding engineman and banksman at the surface: to detect the existence of slack rope or to detect that conditions have arisen that slack rope could be created and transmit this information to where action can be taken; and to allow conversations between winding engineman, banksman and shaftsman making allowances for the high level of acoustic noise in shafts. The approach adopted for slack rope monitoring was to monitor the tension in the cage suspension gear, thus measuring a first order effect. The three problems have a common element: information must be transferred through the shaft. This particular problem was solved with guided radio, using the winding rope as the transmission medium. The radio signal is coupled into the winding rope by means of fixed toroid encircling it at the cage and fixed magnetic antennas at the surface. The design of a digital transmission system for signalling and tension data is discussed. The 'top down' modular approach used in the design enabled full advantage to be taken of the opportunities for building a more reliable, safer and flexible system presented by technologies new to the shaft environment. The resultant system, the Safecom Shaft Signalling Communication and Winder Safety Monitoring System type S100, is in regular use at over 20 installations. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yowono, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design

  19. Nuclear and radiation safety of the centralized spent fuel storage facility in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorash, O.V.; Dibach, O.M.; Panchenko, A.V.; Shugajlo, Ol-r P.; Kovbasenko, YU.P.; Vishemyirskij, M.P.; Bogorad, V.I.; Belykh, D.O.; Shendrovich, V.Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety in the management of spent nuclear fuel at the Centralized SFSF and activities planned for Centralized SFSF life cycle stages. There are results of comparing requirements of U.S. regulatory documents used by the HOLTEC Company to design Centralized SFSF equipment staff with relevant requirements of Ukrainian regulations, results based on analysis of the most important factors of Centralized SFSF safety (strength and reliability, nuclear safety, thermal regimes and biological protection) and verified expert calculations of the SSTC NRS. The paper includes issues to be considered in further implementation of Centralized SFSF project.

  20. The micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system for reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, K.; Noguchi, A.; Kumagami, S.; Gotoh, Y.; Kumahara, T.; Arita, S.

    1986-01-01

    Digital computers are soon expected to be applied to various real-time safety and safety-related systems in nuclear power plants. Hitachi is now engaged in the development of a micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system, which operates on digital processing methods employed with a log ratemeter. A newly defined methodology of design and test procedures is being applied as a means of software program verification for these safety systems. Recently implemented micro-processor technology will help to achieve an advanced man-machine interface and highly reliable performance. (author)

  1. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1989-12-01

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, 19-22 September 1989. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an IAEA Technical Document. (author)

  2. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  3. Radiation safety in X-ray diagnostic installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.R.; Ambiger, T.Y.; Viswanathan, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Safety measures to be strictly adhered to in handling X-ray equipment and exposing patients to X-radiation are described in detail. Hazards resulting from ignorance and careless handling are mentioned. Methods of shielding are indicated. (A.K.)

  4. Pakistan nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this act regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan has been explained. A legal and licensing procedure to handle protection of nuclear materials, processing storage of radioactive products has been described under this regulation. In these regulations full explanation of accidental exposure, delegation of powers and record keeping/waste disposal of radioactive has been given. (A.B.)

  5. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  6. Dental radiographic units - radiation safety and patient doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Varadharajan, Geetha

    2001-01-01

    Three models of dental radiographic machines have been examined for radiation safety. Using TL dosemeters, doses received by the patients at chest level and the gonads have been estimated. Care should be taken to shield gonads during dental radiographic examinations. (author)

  7. Nuclear and radiation safety assurance federal target programme management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, O.V.; Vasil'ev, V.A.; Nikishin, D.A.; Linge, I.I.; Obodinskij, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Program Nuclear and Radiation Safety Assurance for 2008-2015 is presented. Specifics of Federal target program management as well as changes to program management are discussed. Data on evaluation of management effectiveness is given. Further efforts to resolve the nuclear legacy problem in Russia are also presented [ru

  8. Research on international cooperation for nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the importance and related requirements of international cooperation on nuclear and radiation safety, analyzes the current status, situation and challenges faced, as well as the existing weakness and needs for improvement, and gives some proposals for reference. (author)

  9. Pakistan nuclear safety and radiation protection ordinance-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An act to provide the regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan has been explained. A legal and licensing procedure to handle production of nuclear materials, processing, storage of radioactive products and wastes has been described under this regulation. (A.B.)

  10. Design safety limits in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Roychowdhury, D.G.; Govindarajan, S.; Chellapandi, P.; Singh, Om Pal; Chetal, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: PFBR is designed to operate at 450 W/cm peak linear heat rating to a peak burn up of 100,000 MWd/t which corresponds to a damage dose of 85 dpa. The targetted reliability is to restrict pin failure to 1 in 10,000. All the design basis events are classified into four categories. Design safety limits imposed for DBE are in terms of temperatures, radiation doses and structural design parameters. Radiation limits are imposed in relation to RCB from the plant personnel and public point of view. Fuel pin integrity is assured with a detailed damage analysis by adopting cumulative damage concept for fixing clad temperature limits. Fuel temperatures are limited to melting point to preclude fuel slumping for events up to category 3. Partial melting is allowed for events in category 4 and the results obtained from transients experiments show that partial melting up to 50% of pellet area does not result in clad failure. Coolant temperatures are limited to boiling point to avoid burnout and reactivity effects

  11. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    Government are part of the reason and will be a feature of the next ten-year period. Furthermore, in new regulations, SKI has introduced more stringent requirements on facility design and construction, based on the experience that has been accumulated since nuclear power was introduced in Sweden. At the same time, the power companies intend to implement power uprating at several of the reactors, which will require extensive safety reviews. Major power uprates require a large amount of analysis work and refurbishment at the facilities in order to take into account increased capacity requirements on safety systems and other factors. During the year, the work on the new regulations for physical protection intensified and a revised draft of regulations and general recommendations has been subjected to a formal review by licensees concerned. During the year, SKI initiated an investigation into how maintenance strategies have developed at Swedish nuclear power plants since the deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in the mid-nineties. The investigation shows that the rate of change over the past five-year period has been faster than during the previous five to ten-year period. Changes have occurred with respect to strategy and organization. Deregulation has been the most important driving force for internal improvements. One conclusion is that the changes have contributed to the learning and development of both individuals and organization. Furthermore, there is no sign of a negative impact on reactor safety. In SKI's opinion, the maintenance activity is extremely important to safety, and supervision will focus on work loads, responsibilities and roles, work satisfaction and motivation, maintenance procedures as well as the possible impact of the combination of financial pressure and a high rate of change. During the year, it was announced that Barsebaeck 2 would be closed down at the end of May 2005. SKI will continue to maintain intensified supervision, which means a

  12. Design of Safety Injection Tanks Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Design can be categorized into two steps: 'synthesis' and 'analysis'. While synthesis is the process of decision-making on design parameters, analysis is the process of optimizing the parameters selected. It is known from experience that the mistakes made in the synthesis process are hardly corrected in the analysis process. 'Systematic synthesis' is, therefore, easy to overlook but an important topic. 'Systematic' is interpreted as 'minimizing' uncertainty and subjectivity. This paper will introduce the design product achieved by using Axiomatic Design (AD) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving romanized acronym for Russian), which is a new design of Safety Injection Tank (SIT). In designing a large-capacity SIT which should play an important role in mitigating the large break loss of coolant accidents, there are three issues: 1) the excessively large plenum for pressurized nitrogen gas; 2) the difficulties maintaining the high initial injection flow rate; and 3) the non-condensable nitrogen gas in the coolant. This study proposes a conceptual idea for SITs that are pressurized by the chemical reaction of solid propellants. The AD theory and the principles of TRIZ enable new approach in problem-solving for those three issues in an innovative way. The paper made an effort to clarify the systematic synthesis process to reach the final design solution. (authors)

  13. Design of Safety Injection Tanks Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyunyoung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Design can be categorized into two steps: 'synthesis' and 'analysis'. While synthesis is the process of decision-making on design parameters, analysis is the process of optimizing the parameters selected. It is known from experience that the mistakes made in the synthesis process are hardly corrected in the analysis process. 'Systematic synthesis' is, therefore, easy to overlook but an important topic. 'Systematic' is interpreted as 'minimizing' uncertainty and subjectivity. This paper will introduce the design product achieved by using Axiomatic Design (AD) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving romanized acronym for Russian), which is a new design of Safety Injection Tank (SIT). In designing a large-capacity SIT which should play an important role in mitigating the large break loss of coolant accidents, there are three issues: 1) the excessively large plenum for pressurized nitrogen gas; 2) the difficulties maintaining the high initial injection flow rate; and 3) the non-condensable nitrogen gas in the coolant. This study proposes a conceptual idea for SITs that are pressurized by the chemical reaction of solid propellants. The AD theory and the principles of TRIZ enable new approach in problem-solving for those three issues in an innovative way. The paper made an effort to clarify the systematic synthesis process to reach the final design solution. (authors)

  14. Improving radiation worker safety at the Chernobyl Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Korneev, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Shelter (i.e. 'sarcophagus') enclosing the remains of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 that was destroyed in the April 1986 accident presents a unique radiological and nuclear safety challenge. The Chomobyl Shelter holds over 190 tons of irradiated nuclear fuel in the form of lava fuel containing masses and dust. Hazards include very high radiation, surface contamination and transient airborne radioactivity concentrations. A state-of-the-art radiation protection program is needed to support international efforts stabilize the Chornobyl Shelter, reduce the potential for major structural failure, minimize the consequences of a such an event, and develop a long-term strategy and study for its conversion into an environmentally safe site. This project consists of the first phase of efforts to transfer health physics technology necessary to support stabilization of the Chornobyl Shelter. Technical specifications for each major system and component were jointly developed by staff from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Chornobyl Shelter. Major elements of this technology transfer include equipment for external dose control (electronic dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system, portable radiation survey instruments, and area radiation monitors), internal dose control (whole body counter, bioassay system design and technical support), health physics training, and other radiological technical support. A work planning system that includes the capability to collect data such as radiological surveys, photographs, video clips, and other data, was developed from a system demonstrated at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. An access control system similar to one used at several commercial nuclear facilities in the U.S. was converted for bilingual support (Russian and English). Technology for improving contamination control includes HEPA-ventilation and vacuum cleaner systems, semi-permanent and portable

  15. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in Europe - a common approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the European Union has adopted directives and implemented other measures which form the basis of a common approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection across all Member States. In particular, there are EU directives setting out radiation protection standards and establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. There are also arrangements in place to provide for an effective response to nuclear emergencies and to facilitate high quality research into nuclear and radiation protection related topics. Inevitably the stage of development in each area is somewhat different, but generally progress is ongoing in each area. From the point of view of a small country like Ireland, the development of common standards and arrangements across Europe is beneficial as they are based on the best available knowledge and expertise; they provide for greater transparency; they facilitate public confidence and make best use of the available resources. However, there are some areas in which common approaches could be further advanced. For example, the medical exposure of patients is increasingly of concern across Europe and the further development of common approaches in this area would be helpful. It would also be useful to develop a more integrated approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation and to better integrate nuclear and radiation issues with other public health and environment concerns. (author)

  16. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  17. Design of a wireless radiation telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H H [Chung Yuan Christian Coll. of Science and Engineering, Chung-Li, Taiwan; Chang, J K

    1976-12-01

    The wireless radiation telemetry system can be operated in all seasons. It is designed for the measurement of radiation intensities up to millicurie order at a distance of 1 Km or less. Its measuring error is +-0.01 percent deviation from the count rate of the typical direct-detecting instrument with the same radiation source. This error indicates that the accuracy is high enough for practical uses. This system is cheaper and more flexible, comparing with the corresponding cable facility. The line-of-sight transmission distance can be longer if the transmitting power is appropriately increased. All pulse type radiation detectors can be used as the input section of this system.

  18. Organization of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretre, S.

    1995-01-01

    In Switzerland an important distinction is made between radiation protection (in charge of the use of ionizing radiations for medical uses or non nuclear industry), and nuclear safety (in charge of nuclear industry, including prevention or limitation of any risk of nuclear accident). In the eighties, it has been decided to make two laws for these two topics. The law for radioprotection, voted in 1991 is enforced since 1994 by OFSP (Office Federal de la Sante Publique). It performs any radiation monitoring outside nuclear industry plants. The law for nuclear safety, that should be enforced by OFEN (Office Federal de l'ENergie), is still not voted. The only existing legislation is the 1959 atomic law. (D.L.). 1 fig., 1 map

  19. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  20. Radiological safety design considerations for fusion research experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crase, K.W.; Singh, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of fusion research experiments are in the planning or construction stages. Two such experiments, the Nova Laser Fusion Facility and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), are currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Although the plasma chamber vault for MFTF and the Nova target room will have thick concrete walls and roofs, the radiation safety problems are made complex by the numerous requirements for shield wall penetrations. This paper addresses radiation safety considerations for the MFTF and Nova experiments, and the need for integrated safety considerations and safety technology development during the planning stages of fusion experiments

  1. Shielding Design and Radiation Shielding Evaluation for LSDS System Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggook; Kim, Jeongdong; Lee, Yongdeok

    2015-01-01

    As the system characteristics, the target in the spectrometer emits approximately 1012 neutrons/s. To efficiently shield the neutron, the shielding door designs are proposed for the LSDS system through a comparison of the direct shield and maze designs. Hence, to guarantee the radiation safety for the facility, the door design is a compulsory course of the development of the LSDS system. To improve the shielding rates, 250x250 covering structure was added as a subsidiary around the spectrometer. In this study, the evaluations of the suggested shielding designs were conducted using MCNP code. The suggested door design and covering structures can shield the neutron efficiently, thus all evaluations of all conditions are satisfied within the public dose limits. From the Monte Carlo code simulation, Resin(Indoor type) and Tungsten(Outdoor type) were selected as the shielding door materials. From a comparative evaluation of the door thickness, In and Out door thickness was selected 50 cm

  2. Safety practices, perceptions, and behaviors in radiation oncology: A national survey of radiation therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Hashemi, David; Betcher, Kathryn; Doucette, Abigail; Weaver, Allison; Monzon, Brian; Rosenthal, Seth A; Vapiwala, Neha

    Radiation therapy is complex and demands high vigilance and precise coordination. Radiation therapists (RTTs) directly deliver radiation and are often the first to discover an error. Yet, few studies have examined the practices of RTTs regarding patient safety. We conducted a national survey to explore the perspectives of RTTs related to quality and safety. In 2016, an electronic survey was sent to a random sample of 1500 RTTs in the United States. The survey assessed department safety, error reporting, safety knowledge, and culture. Questions were multiple choice or recorded on a Likert scale. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 702 RTTs from 49 states (47% response rate) completed the survey. Respondents represented a broad distribution across practice settings. Most RTTs rated department patient safety as excellent (61%) or very good (32%), especially if they had an incident learning system (ILS) (odds ratio, 2.0). Only 21% reported using an ILS despite 58% reporting an accessible ILS in their department. RTTs felt errors were most likely to occur with longer shifts and poor multidisciplinary communication; 40% reported that burnout and anxiety negatively affected their ability to deliver care. Workplace bullying was also reported among 17%. Overall, there was interest (62%) in improving knowledge in patient safety. Although most RTTs reported excellent safety cultures within their facilities, overall, there was limited access to and utilization of ILSs by RTTs. Workplace issues identified may also represent barriers to delivering quality care. RTTs were also interested in additional resources regarding quality and safety. These results will further enhance safety initiatives and inform future innovative educational efforts in radiation oncology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and design on airport safety information management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport safety information management system is the foundation of implementing safety operation, risk control, safety performance monitor, and safety management decision for the airport. The paper puts forward the architecture of airport safety information management system based on B/S model, focuses on safety information processing flow, designs the functional modules and proposes the supporting conditions for system operation. The system construction is helpful to perfecting the long effect mechanism driven by safety information, continually increasing airport safety management level and control proficiency.

  4. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    An essential element of a national infrastructure for radiation protection and safety is the maintenance of an adequate number of competent personnel. This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety, which relate to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. This Safety Guide addresses training in protection and safety aspects in relation to all practices and intervention situations in nuclear and radiation related technologies. This document covers the following aspects: the categories of persons to be trained. The requirements for education, training and experience for each category. The processes of qualification and authorization of persons. A national strategy for building competence

  5. Establishment of database for radiation exposure and safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G. S.; Kim, J. H. [Science Culture Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    The nuclear electric energy in our country plays a major role for the national industrial development as well as for the secure living of the peoples. It is, however, considered as a socially dreadful elements because of the radiation materials exposed into the environment. In effect, the DB is intended to serve for the reference to the epidemical study upon the low-level radiation exposure involving the nuclear facilities, radio-isotope business enterprises, and the related workers at the radiation sites. In connection with the development of nuclear energy, the low-level radiation, associated with the radioisotope materials exposed into our environment out of nuclear facilities, is believed to possibly raise significant hazardous effects toward human persons. Therefor, it is necessary to take a positive counter measures by means of comprehensive quantitative estimates on its possibilities. In consequence, the low-level radiation effects do not bring about the immediate hazard cases, however, appear to possibly pose the lately caused diseases such as cancer cause, life reduction, and creation of mutation, etc. Therefore, it is intended to set up the social security with the secure safety, by conducting an advanced safety study on the low-level radiation.

  6. Establishment of database for radiation exposure and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, G. S.; Kim, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    The nuclear electric energy in our country plays a major role for the national industrial development as well as for the secure living of the peoples. It is, however, considered as a socially dreadful elements because of the radiation materials exposed into the environment. In effect, the DB is intended to serve for the reference to the epidemical study upon the low-level radiation exposure involving the nuclear facilities, radio-isotope business enterprises, and the related workers at the radiation sites. In connection with the development of nuclear energy, the low-level radiation, associated with the radioisotope materials exposed into our environment out of nuclear facilities, is believed to possibly raise significant hazardous effects toward human persons. Therefor, it is necessary to take a positive counter measures by means of comprehensive quantitative estimates on its possibilities. In consequence, the low-level radiation effects do not bring about the immediate hazard cases, however, appear to possibly pose the lately caused diseases such as cancer cause, life reduction, and creation of mutation, etc. Therefore, it is intended to set up the social security with the secure safety, by conducting an advanced safety study on the low-level radiation

  7. Legal and governmental infrastructure for nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements for legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safety of nuclear facilities, the safe use of sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. Thus, it covers development of the legal framework for establishing a regulatory body and other actions to achieve effective regulatory control of facilities and activities. Other responsibilities are also covered, such as those for developing the necessary support for safety, involvement in securing third party liability and emergency preparedness

  8. Legal and governmental infrastructure for nuclear, radiation, radioactive waste and transport safety. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements for legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safety of nuclear facilities, the safe use of sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. Thus, it covers development of the legal framework for establishing a regulatory body and other actions to achieve effective regulatory control of facilities and activities. Other responsibilities are also covered, such as those for developing the necessary support for safety, involvement in securing third party liability and emergency preparedness

  9. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, A.; Lundh, C.

    2015-01-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. (authors)

  10. Medical radiation safety in the angiography room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudou, Tamaki

    2011-01-01

    Author's efforts for angiographic procedure and technique aiming to reduce patient's exposure are described on a case with radiation skin hazard and on considerations of regulations and investigations. The case is a male patient (45 years old at the first intracardiac catheter examination, stature 164 cm, body wt. 116 kg), who, due to the diagnosis of angina pectoris and cardiac infarction, has the 5-year history of 5 coronary angiography (CAG), 6 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 1 off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (CABG). Because of serious skin injury and pain development after later PCI (172.2 min) (Oct. 2006) and their exacerbation after the latest PCI (27.1 min) (Apr. 2007), skin transplantation is conducted (Nov.). The exposure dose at the later PCI above is estimated to be around 12 Gy. Based on the case, consideration is made on regulatory recommendations by FDA, IAEA, ICRP, and investigational results of fluoroscopic mode vs dose by members of Japanese Circulatory Technology. With those references where the fluoroscopy at 20 mGy/min is assumed, the dose 12 Gy estimated above is thought to be resulted from the fluoroscopic dose >50 mGy/min within about 4 hr. To reduce the exposure, the author gives 11 items to be noted in interventional radiology: short fluoroscopic time, low rate pulse, minimal acquisition, use of additional filter, dose optimization, long distance between focus and skin, short distance between image intensifier (I.I.) and/or flat panel detector (FPD), minimal field, to avoid the excess inch-up, continuous maintenance of equipment, and record/preservation of the dose indicated by the machine. (T.T.)

  11. Radiation protection safety in Uganda -- Experience and prospects of the National Radiation Protection Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisolo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Uganda National Radiation Protection Service (NRPS) is a technical body under the Atomic Energy Control Board, established by Law - the Atomic Energy Decree of 1972, Decree No. 12, to oversee and enforce safety of radiation sources, practices and workers; and to protect the patients, members of the public and the environment from the dangers of ionizing radiation and radioactive wastes. The Ionizing Radiation Regulations (Standards) - Statutory Instruments Supplement No. 21 of 1996 -- back up the Law. The Law requires all users, importers and operators of radiation sources and radioactive materials to notify the NRPS for registration and licensing. The NRPS is responsible for licensing and for the regulatory enforcement of compliance to the requirements for the safety of radiation sources and practices. There are about 200 diagnostic X-ray units, two radiotherapy centres, one nuclear medicine unit, several neutron probes, about three level gauges and two non-destructive testing sources and a number of small sealed sources in teaching and research institutions. About 50% of these sources have been entered in our inventory using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. There are about 500 radiation workers and 250 underground miners. The NRPS covers about 50% of the radiation workers. It is planned that by June 2001, all occupational workers will be monitored, bringing coverage to 100%. The Government of Uganda is making the necessary legal, administrative and technical arrangements aimed at establishing the National Radiation Protection Commission as an autonomous regulatory authority. The Atomic Energy Decree of 1972 and Regulations of 1996 are being revised to provide for the National Radiation Protection Commission and to make it comply with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards Safety Series No. 115. (author)

  12. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise. (author)

  13. Radiation safety in industrial applications of nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, E S [Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1981-01-01

    The hazards associated with the use of industrial equipment is one of the undesirable by-products of advanced technology. The use of nuclear techniques is a good example. Due to the usefulness of such techniques, one may accept the risks involved if they can be brought down to manageable levels. Most of the nuclear techniques in use in industries in Malaysia require only minimal safety precautions as they make use of only small amounts of radioactive material. However, some large sources are also being used and safety precautions have to be strictly enforced. The management plays a critical role in these industries. The requirements for radiation safety include the monitoring of workers and work areas, the medical surveillance of workers and the provision of barriers and other safety precautions. The management should also look to the training of the workers and be prepared for any emergencies that may arise.

  14. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design

  15. Regulatory practices of radiation safety of SNF transportation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuryndina, Lidia; Kuryndin, Anton; Stroganov, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    This paper overviews current regulatory practices for the assurance of nuclear and radiation safety during railway transportation of SNF on the territory of Russian Federation from NPPs to longterm-storage of reprocessing sites. The legal and regulatory requirements (mostly compliant with IAEA ST-1), licensing procedure for NM transportation are discussed. The current procedure does not require a regulatory approval for each particular shipment if the SNF fully comply with the Rosatom's branch standard and is transported in approved casks. It has been demonstrated that SNF packages compliant with the branch standard, which is knowingly provide sufficient safety margin, will conform to the federal level regulations. The regulatory approval is required if a particular shipment does not comply with the branch standard. In this case, the shipment can be approved only after regulatory review of Applicant's documents to demonstrate that the shipment still conformant to the higher level (federal) regulations. The regulatory review frequently needs a full calculation test of the radiation safety assurance. This test can take a lot of time. That's why the special calculation tools were created in SEC NRS. These tools aimed for precision calculation of the radiation safety parameters by SNF transportation use preliminary calculated Green's functions. Such approach allows quickly simulate any source distribution and optimize spent fuel assemblies placement in cask due to the transport equation property of linearity relatively the source. The short description of calculation tools are presented. Also, the paper discusses foreseen implications related to transportation of mixed-oxide SNF. (author)

  16. Regulatory aspects of radiation sources safety in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollani, K.; Kushe, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Albania, based in the new Radiological Protection Act and Regulations. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing and regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness which are developed in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. A special attention is paid to the identification and location of lost sources for their finding and secure storage. (author)

  17. Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Schenato, Flavia; Cruz, Paulo R., E-mail: maisahm@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: schenato@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Xavier, Ana M., E-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2011-07-01

    Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. Calculating the cost of research and Development in nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsulevich, N.Je.; Nosovs'ka, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological support assessing the cost of research and development in the area of nuclear and radiation safety regulation is considered. Basic methodological recommendations for determining labor expenditures for research and development in nuclear and radiation safety are provided.

  19. Safety design and evaluation policy for future FBRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kiyoto

    1991-01-01

    The safety policy for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) has gradually matured in accordance with the development of FBRs. The safety assessment of the Japanese prototype FBR, Monju during the licensing process accelerated the maturity and the integration of knowledge and databases. Results are expected to be reflected in the establishment of the safety design and evaluation policy for FBRs. Although the methodologies and safety policies developed for LWRs are applicable in principle to future FBRs, it is neither rational nor realistic to treat safety only with these policies. It is recommended that one should develop the methodologies and safety policies starting from understanding of the inherent safety characteristics of FBR's through safety research, plant operating experience and design work. In the last few years, some technical committees were organized in Japan and have discussed key safety issues which are specific to FBRs in order to provide preparatory reports and to establish safety standards and guidelines for future commercial FBRs. (author)

  20. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  1. Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. Specific Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a revision of Safety Requirements No. NS-R-1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It establishes requirements applicable to the design of nuclear power plants and elaborates on the safety objective, safety principles and concepts that provide the basis for deriving the safety requirements that must be met for the design of a nuclear power plant. It will be useful for organizations involved in the design, manufacture, construction, modification, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as for regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Applying the safety principles and concepts; 3. Management of safety in design; 4. Principal technical requirements; 5. General plant design; 6. Design of specific plant systems.

  2. Basic safety standards for radiation protection. 1982 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have undertaken to provide jointly a world-wide basis for harmonized and up-to-date radiation protection standards. The new Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection are based upon the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which are essentially contained in its Publication No.26. These new Basic Safety Standards have been elaborated by an Advisory Group of Experts which met in Vienna from 10-14 October 1977, from 23-27 October 1978 and from 1-12 December 1980 under the joint auspices of the IAEA, ILO, WHO and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. Comments on the draft Basic Safety Standards received from Member States and relevant organizations were taken into account by the Advisory Group in the process of preparation of the revised Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, which are published by the IAEA on behalf of the four sponsoring organizations. One of the main features of this revision is an increased emphasis on the recommendation to keep all exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; consequently, radiation protection should not only apply the basic dose limits but also comply with this recommendation. Detailed guidance is given to assist those who have to decide on the implementation of this recommendation in particular cases. Another important feature is the recommendation of a more coherent method for achieving consistency in limiting risks to health, irrespective of whether the risk is of uniform or non-uniform exposure of the body.

  3. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 9, Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Instrumentation for Radiation protection existing at the RA reactor is dating mostly from the period 1957-1959 when the reactor has been built. With some minor exception it was produced in USSR. Radiation protection system was constructed based on specific design project, somewhat modified original USSR project which has been indispensable because of some modification of the building design. During the past 27 years no renewal of the instrumentation was done, only maintenance was performed. Instrumentation consists of old electronic devices which caused difficulties and even prevented regular maintenance because of lack of spare parts. Instrumentation for radiation protection at the RA reactor is classified as follows: centralized dosimetry system; stationary dosimetry instrumentation, movable and personal dosimetry systems. Apart from the scheme of dosimetry instrumentation this volume includes description of radiation protection procedures; protection devices; radiation doses and dose limit data; program for environmental radioactivity control; medical control procedures [sr

  4. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  5. Measuring safety culture: Application of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture to radiation therapy departments worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah; O'Donovan, Anita

    Minimizing errors and improving patient safety has gained prominence worldwide in high-risk disciplines such as radiation therapy. Patient safety culture has been identified as an important factor in reducing the incidence of adverse events and improving patient safety in the health care setting. The aim of distributing the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) to radiation therapy departments worldwide was to assess the current status of safety culture, identify areas for improvement and areas that excel, examine factors that influence safety culture, and raise staff awareness. The safety culture in radiation therapy departments worldwide was evaluated by distributing the HSPSC. A total of 266 participants were recruited from radiation therapy departments and included radiation oncologists, radiation therapists, physicists, and dosimetrists. The positive percent scores for the 12 dimensions of the HSPSC varied from 50% to 79%. The highest composite score among the 12 dimensions was teamwork within units; the lowest composite score was handoffs and transitions. The results indicated that health care professionals in radiation therapy departments felt positively toward patient safety. The HSPSC was successfully applied to radiation therapy departments and provided valuable insight into areas of potential improvement such as teamwork across units, staffing, and handoffs and transitions. Managers and policy makers in radiation therapy may use this assessment tool for focused improvement efforts toward patient safety culture. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Education of radiation safety specialists at Faculty of Medicine of Vilnius University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbelis, A.; Surkiene, G.

    2004-01-01

    Vilnius University is the first institution of higher education in Lithuania that began to teach students on radiation safety. The special course of radiation hygiene was delivered to students in 1962-1992. In 1992 it was introduced residency of radiation hygiene and graduated students qualified for title of radiation hygiene specialist. The residency lasted one year and included six cycles: fundamentals of nuclear physics, statistics and noninfectious epidemiology, radiobiology, radiological research methods, controls of radiation safety and hygienic analysis of radiation safety. From 1994 Vilnius University has been educating and training professionals of public health. The specialists of radiation safety aren't been training as isolated branch. All courses is divided into two parts. The first one is included into bachelor, the second part - into master study. The bachelor study consists of 2 credits (16 hours for lectures and 32 hours for practical studies). The future bachelors study introduction of radiation safety, elements of nuclear physics, dose limit values, fundamentals of radiological protection, natural radiation. The master study consists of 2 credits (8 hours for lectures and 48 hours for practical studies). The future masters study specific problems of radiation safety in medicine and industry, the safety problems of nuclear power - stations, the problems of radioactive wastes, radiation biology, radiation risk. Radiation safety study model in Faculty of medicine of Vilnius University differs from study model in most European countries as it makes great play of radiation safety while usual model includes radiation safety as insignificant part of environmental health. (author)

  7. Main results and tasks in studies on radiation safety ensurance when using nuclear power and radiation sources in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.P.; Ivanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The basic problems and the results of work in the field of ensuring radiation safety for personnel engaged in work related to the use of nuclear energy and sources of ionizing radiation are discussed. Long standing observation of labour hygiene and health conditions of people engaged at research nuclear reactors have shown that the irradiation levels under normal operating conditions do not exceed the established standards. Radiation conditions in radiological laboratories have been studied. Much attention is given to studies of internal irradiation due to inhalation of radioactive aerosols. New methods and apparatuses have been developed for analysis of aerosols and control of intake of radioactive substances by man. Work has been done to improve the methods of emergency dosimetry and design of individual emergency dosimeters. Investigations have been performed to determine the safety levels in working with rare-metal ores containing naturally occurring radioactive substances and industrial radiochemical processes. It is of interest to study small load doses. Different documents for providing safety in working with sources of ionizing radiation have been developed

  8. Safety Design Criteria of Indian Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    • Important feedback has been gained through the design and safety review of PFBR. • The safety criteria document prepared by AERB and IGCAR would provide important input to prepare the dedicated document for the Sodium cooled Fast Reactors at the national and international level. • A common approach with regard to safety, among countries pursuing fast reactor program, is desirable. • Sharing knowledge and experimental facilities on collaborative basis. • Evolution of strong safety criteria – fundamental to assure safety

  9. Design of reactor containment systems for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It is a revision of the Safety Guide on Design of the Reactor Containment Systems in Nuclear Power Plants (Safety Series No. 50-Sg-D1) issued in 1985 and supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. The present Safety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of the relevant publications, including the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, the Safety fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, Safety Guides, INSAG Reports, a Technical Report and other publications covering the safety of nuclear power plants. 1.2. The confinement of radioactive material in a nuclear plant, including the control of discharges and the minimization of releases, is a fundamental safety function to be ensured in normal operational modes, for anticipated operational occurrences, in design basis accidents and, to the extent practicable, in selected beyond design basis accidents. In accordance with the concept of defence in depth, this fundamental safety function is achieved by means of several barriers and levels of defence. In most designs, the third and fourth levels of defence are achieved mainly by means of a strong structure enveloping the nuclear reactor. This structure is called the 'containment structure' or simply the 'containment'. This definition also applies to double wall containments. 1.3. The containment structure also protects the reactor against external events and provides radiation shielding in operational states and accident conditions. The containment structure and its associated systems with the functions of isolation, energy management, and control of radionuclides and combustible gases are referred to as the containment systems

  10. Design of reactor containment systems for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It is a revision of the Safety Guide on Design of the Reactor Containment Systems in Nuclear Power Plants (Safety Series No. 50-Sg-D1) issued in 1985 and supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. The present Safety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of the relevant publications, including the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, the Safety fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, Safety Guides, INSAG Reports, a Technical Report and other publications covering the safety of nuclear power plants. 1.2. The confinement of radioactive material in a nuclear plant, including the control of discharges and the minimization of releases, is a fundamental safety function to be ensured in normal operational modes, for anticipated operational occurrences, in design basis accidents and, to the extent practicable, in selected beyond design basis accidents. In accordance with the concept of defence in depth, this fundamental safety function is achieved by means of several barriers and levels of defence. In most designs, the third and fourth levels of defence are achieved mainly by means of a strong structure enveloping the nuclear reactor. This structure is called the 'containment structure' or simply the 'containment'. This definition also applies to double wall containments. 1.3. The containment structure also protects the reactor against external events and provides radiation shielding in operational states and accident conditions. The containment structure and its associated systems with the functions of isolation, energy management, and control of radionuclides and combustible gases are referred to as the containment systems

  11. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  12. Safety aspects and shield design of a Poton irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Nayak, A.R.; Bongirwar, D.R.; Modi, R.K.; Ramkumar, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An irradiation plant, POTON, for irradiation of potatoes and onions is being set up at Nashik. Shield design and safety features of this plant incorporate some novel and innovative features like a compact cell, curved cell boundaries for smooth conveyor movement though the cell labyrinth and conform to ICRP and AERB design safety requirements. The safety features include multiple safety interlocks, audio-visual alarms, scram switches and trip wire for avoiding accidental exposures. (author)

  13. A new radiation safety control system for Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jores, P. De; Luong, T.T.; Martina, L.; Vega, G.

    1991-01-01

    A second generation radiation safety control system has been installed to upgrade the initial system which was not flexible enough to support new ion beams and new experimental conditions required by the accelerator operation. The main reasons which necessitated the improvement of the safety control system are presented. The new system which controls the Ganil accelerator from the first quarter of 1990 is described. It uses a star structured architecture, VME standard processors and front-end modules activated by pDOS operating system and high level language (C and Fortran) tasks, associated with enhanced resolution color displays for real time synoptics. (R.P.) 4 refs., 4 figs

  14. Review of Radiation Safety in Medical X-Ray Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical X-Ray machines have been used for more than a century for non-invasive diagnosis of patients for the benefit of mankind. The safety of operators and patients during such practice has improved with time, but, still cases of detrimental effects to Radiation Workers in Kenya including cancer related deaths have been reported in the recent past. An ongoing study is reviewing the safety status of the worker and patients during medical and dental exposures. The study was initiated following complaint of recurrent headaches by a radiographer working in a busy Kenyan hospital. (author)

  15. Design of concrete structures important to safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    Civil engineering structures in nuclear installations form an important feature having implications to safety performance of these installations. The objective and minimum requirements for the design of civil engineering buildings/structures to be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety of nuclear installations in India (such as pressurised heavy water reactor and related systems) are specified in the Safety standard for civil engineering structures important to safety of nuclear facilities. This standard is written by AERB to specify guidelines for implementation of the above civil engineering safety standard in the design of concrete structures important to safety

  16. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and 238 PuO 2 aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of 238 PuO 2 pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of 238 PuO 2 as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent

  17. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  18. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology. (orig.)

  19. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa

    2015-01-01

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology. (orig.)

  20. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected

  1. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation protection training of radiation safety officers in Finland in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havukainen, R.; Bly, R.; Markkanen, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) carried out a survey on the radiation protection training of radiation safety officers (RSO) in Finland in 2008. The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the conformity and uniformity of the training provided in different training organisations. A previous survey concerning radiation protection training was carried out in 2003. That survey determined the training needs of radiation users and radiation safety officers as well the radiation protection training included in vocational training and supplementary training. This report presents the execution and results of the survey in 2008. According to the responses, the total amount of RSO training fulfilled the requirements presented in Guide ST 1.8 in the most fields of competence. The emphasis of the RSO training differed between organisations, even for training in the same field of competence. Certain issues in Guide ST 1.8 were dealt quite superficially or even not at all in some training programmes. In some fields of competence, certain matters were entirely left to individual study. No practical training with radiation equipment or sources was included in the RSO training programme of some organisations. Practical training also varied considerably between organisations, even within the same field of competence. The duties in the use of radiation were often considered as practical training with radiation equipment and sources. Practical training from the point of view of a radiation safety officer was brought up in the responses of only one organisation. The number of questions and criteria for passing RSO exams also varied between organisations. Trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in health care sectors had reached a higher vocational training level and received more supplementary training in radiation protection in the previous 5 years than trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in industry, research, and

  3. Relevant safety issues in designing the HTR-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuliang; Xu Yuanghui

    2001-01-01

    The HTR-10 is a 10 MWth pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor being constructed as a research facility at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology. This paper discusses design issues of the HTR-10 which are related to safety. It addresses the safety criteria used in the development and assessment of the design, the safety important systems, and the safety classification of components. It also summarises the results of safety analysis, including the approach used for the radioactive source term, as well as the approach to containment design. (author)

  4. Delivering a radiation protection dividend: systemic capacity-building for the radiation safety profession in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hilton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many African countries planning to enter the nuclear energy “family” have little or no experience of meeting associated radiation safety demands, whether operational or regulatory. Uses of radiation in medicine in the continent, whether for diagnostic or clinical purposes, are rapidly growing while the costs of equipment, and hence of access to services, are falling fast. In consequence, many patients and healthcare workers are facing a wide array of unfamiliar challenges, both operational and ethical, without any formal regulatory or professional framework for managing them safely. This, combined with heighted awareness of safety issues post Fukushima, means the already intense pressure on radiation safety professionals in such domains as NORM industries and security threatens to reach breaking point. A systematic competency-based capacity-building programme for RP professionals in Africa is required (Resolution of the Third AFRIRPA13 Regional Conference, Nairobi, September 2010. The goal is to meet recruitment and HR needs in the rapidly emerging radiation safety sector, while also addressing stakeholder concerns in respect of promoting and meeting professional and ethical standards. The desired outcome is an RP “dividend” to society as a whole. A curriculum model is presented, aligned to safety procedures and best practices such as Safety Integrity Level and Layer of Protection analysis; it emphasizes proactive risk communication both with direct and indirect stakeholders; and it outlines disciplinary options and procedures for managers and responsible persons for dealing with unsafe or dangerous behavior at work. This paper reports on progress to date. It presents a five-tier development pathway starting from a generic foundation course, suitable for all RP professionals, accompanied by specialist courses by domain, activity or industry. Delivery options are discussed. Part of the content has already been developed and delivered as

  5. Radiation Safety Management Guidelines for PET-CT: Focus on Behavior and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Wook; Han, Eun Ok

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose is to specify behavior and environmental factors aimed at reducing the exposed dosage caused by PET-CT and to develop radiation safety management guidelines adequate for domestic circumstances. We have used a multistep-multimethod as the methodological approach to design and to carry out the research both in quality and quantity, including an analysis on previous studies, professional consultations and a survey. The survey includes responses from 139 practitioners in charged of 109 PET-CTs installed throughout Korea(reported by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2010). The research use 156 questions using Cronbach's α (alpha) coefficients which were: 0.818 for 'the necessity of setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; 0.916 for 'the necessity of radiation protection', 'setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; and 0.885 for 'radiation protection'. The check list, derived from the radiation safety management guidelines focused on behavior and environment, was composed of 20 items for the radiation protective environment: including 5 items for the patient; 4 items for the guardian; 3 items for the radiologist; and 8 items applied to everyone involved; for a total of 26 items for the radiation protective behavior including: 12 items for the patient; 1 item for the guardian, 7 items for the radiologist; and 6 items applied to everyone involved. The specific check list is shown in (Table 5-6). Since our country has no safety management guidelines of its own to reduce the exposed dosage caused by PET-CTs, we believe the guidelines developed through this study means great deal to the field as it is not only appropriate for domestic circumstances, but also contains specific check lists for each target who may be exposed to radiation in regards to behavior and environment.

  6. Educational and experiential effects on radiographers' radiation safety behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilson, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Forty-four radiographers from 11 hospitals in Northern California were observed for radiation safety behaviors in six categories. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the six radiation safety behaviors and the radiographer's age, sex, type of professional training, years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, time of day, and exposure frequency. The multiple regression analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between use of gonadal shielding and years since completion of professional training, years of professional practice, type of training, and age. The multiple regression analysis also showed that the number of repeated films due to technical error was significantly related to the type of professional training a radiographer received

  7. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Yanagi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  8. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  9. to control the nuclear safety and the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Bordarier, Ph.; Saint-Raymond, Ph.; Repussard, J.; Gouze, J.R.; Degos, L.; Massart, S.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G.; Cahen, B.; Hubert, I.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G.; Kaufer, B.; Taniguchi, T.; Revol, H.

    2005-01-01

    Publishing this dossier, the aim is to present the principles and the variety of issues linked to nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision, and the main strategic choices made to use efficiently and effectively A.S.N. supervision means. A.S.N. is responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision. A.S.N. has to be itself evaluated and supervised by external bodies. The Parliament Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options (O.P.E.C.S.T.) supervises it; the foreign peers watch and A.S.N. has to be the object of an international audit conducted by its peers under the leadership of I.A.E.A. by the beginning of 2007. (N.C.)

  10. Introduction of the activity of the radiation safety for KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Yi Sub; Park, Sung Kyun; Park, Jeong Min; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The 100 MeV linear proton accelerator as well as the various types of the ion accelerator have been operated and developed in KOMAC. These accelerators are classified as a radiation generator by the nuclear law of Korea. The operation of these accelerators included in the KOMAC site should be approved by Nuclear Safety and Security Committee (NSSC). This paper introduces the activity in terms of the radiation safety for these accelerator operations and their future plan. The model of the ion beam accelerator for analysis installed in KOMAC is a 5SDH-2, produced by National Electrostatics Corporation. This ion beam accelerator, devolved from Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), consists of two ion source, accelerating tanks and four beamlines. Ions in the ion beam accelerator are accelerated using a tandem method, that is, ions accelerated have been drawn out by the negative ions from the ion source and then changed into positive ions in the acceleration tube intermediate.

  11. EUMENES, a computer software for managing the radiation safety program information at an institutional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Valdes Ramos, Maryzury; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Vergara Gil, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The correct application of national and international regulations in the field of Radiological Safety requires the implementation of Radiation Safety Programs appropriate to the developed practice. These Programs demand the preparation and keeping of an important number of records and data, the compliance with working schedules, systematic quality controls, audits, delivery of information to the Regulatory Authority, the execution of radiological assessments, etc. Therefore, it is unquestionable the necessity and importance of having a computer tool to support the management of the information related to the Radiation Safety Program in any institution. The present work describes a computer program that allows the efficient management of these data. Its design was based on the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards recommendations and on the requirements of the Cuban national standards, with the objective of being flexible enough to be applied in most of the institutions using ionizing radiations. The most important records of Radiation Safety Programs were incorporated and reports can be generated by the users. An additional tools-module allows the user to access to a radionuclide data library, and to carry out different calculations of interest in radiological protection. The program has been developed in Borland Delphi and manages Microsoft Access databases. It is a user friendly code that aims to support the optimization of Radiation Safety Programs. The program contributes to save resources and time, as the generated information is electronically kept and transmitted. The code has different security access levels according to the user responsibility at the institution and also provides for the analysis of the introduced data, in a quick and efficient way, as well as to notice deadlines, the exceeding of reference levels and situations that require attention. (author)

  12. Radiation safety procedures in radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekharrao, B.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    During any administration of radioactive materials, it is imperative to always be conversant with any forbidden radiation health safety practices. This need is amplified when dealing with therapeutic amount of radionuclides. Among all the procedures dealing with the use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is easiest to think of 131 I, since this is the most widely used unsealed source of a radiopharmaceutical for treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism and carries with it most of the problems associated with therapy applications

  13. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur.

  14. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  15. Radiation Safety Act 1975 - No 44 of 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus, including particle accelerators as well as certain specified electronic products. The Act lays down a licensing and registration system for such substances and apparatus; it sets up a Radiological Council to administer the Act and to advise the Minister responsible for public health on matters of radiation safety. The radioactive Substances Act 1954 and the Amending Acts of 1960 and 1964 are repealed. (NEA) [fr

  16. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P; Marsh, A; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration. In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses. The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures. The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants. Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur. (memorandum)

  17. Development of ABWR-2 and its safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takafumi, Anegawa; Kenji, Tateiwa

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of development project on ABWR-II, a next generation reactor design based on ABWR, and its safety design. This project was initiated over a decade ago and has completed three phases to date. In Phase I (1991-92), basic design requirements were discussed and several plant concepts were studied. In Phase II (1993-95), key design features were selected in order to establish a reference reactor concept. In Phase III (1996-2000), based on the reference reactor concept, modifications and improvements were made to fulfill the design requirements. By adopting large electric output (1 700 MW), large fuel bundle, modified ECCS, and passive heat removal systems, among other design features, we achieved a design concept capable of increasing both economic competitiveness and safety performance. Main focus of this paper will be on the safety design, safety performance, and further research needs related to safety. (authors)

  18. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RYAN GW

    2007-01-01

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents

  19. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RYAN GW

    2007-09-24

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents.

  20. Incorporation of Safety into Design Process : A Systems Engineering Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process. This integration enriches the exploration experience for designers and adds extra values and competitor advantages for customers. The paper introduces the safety cube for combining common blocks for design, hazard

  1. Design trade-offs in view of safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, G.; Kishida, K.; Inoue, T.

    1978-01-01

    In view of resolving conflicting demands of cost, safety, flexibility of operation and design margins, safety design of various plant systems is discussed referring to their weight on construction costs. An influence of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) and loss of piping integrity (LOPI) on plant design and thus on construction materials is discussed, in optimising future commercial FBR plants. (author)

  2. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  3. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  4. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The safety level of the plants is maintained at an acceptable level. SKI has in its regulatory supervision not found any known deficiencies in the barriers which could result in release of radioactive substances in excess of the permitted levels. SKI considers that improvements have been implemented during the year in the management, control and following up of safety work at the plants. In some cases, SKI has imposed requirements that improvements be made. Extensive measures are under way at the nuclear power plants to comply with the safety requirements in SKI's regulations, SKIFS 2004:2 concerning the design and construction of nuclear power reactors, and the stricter requirements regarding physical protection. Concurrently preparations are underway at eight of the ten units for thermal power increases. At the Forsmark plant considerable efforts have been during the year to correct the deficiencies in the safety culture and quality assurance system that became apparent in 2006. A programme to improve the execution of activities has been established in accordance with SKI's decision. SKI considers that the plant has developed in a positive direction but that there are further possibilities for improvement with regard to internal control. This is amongst other things concerns the areas internal auditing, independent safety review function, and working methods. SKI has had special supervision of the plant since 28 September, 2006. At the Oskarshamn plant work has been carried out to improve the organisation and routines in several areas. The plant has established routines which provide the basis to ensure that decisions are taken in a stringent manner. The quality assurance system has a clearer structure and there is a better defined division of work. Some measures remain to be dealt with in 2008. The Ringhals plant has also worked with attitudes to routines and internal control. SKI considers that the measures have good prerequisites to provide a

  5. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The safety level of the plants is maintained at an acceptable level. SKI has in its regulatory supervision not found any known deficiencies in the barriers which could result in release of radioactive substances in excess of the permitted levels. SKI considers that improvements have been implemented during the year in the management, control and following up of safety work at the plants. In some cases, however, SKI has imposed requirements that improvements be made. Extensive measures are under way at the nuclear power plants to comply with the safety requirements in SKI's regulations, SKIFS 2004:2 concerning the design and construction of nuclear power reactors, and the stricter requirements regarding physical protection. Concurrently preparations are underway at eight of the ten units for thermal power increases. At the Forsmark plant considerable efforts have been during the year to correct the deficiencies in the safety culture and quality assurance system that became apparent in 2006. A programme to improve the execution of activities has been established in accordance with SKI's decision. SKI considers that the plant has developed in a positive direction but that there are further possibilities for improvement with regard to internal control. This is amongst other things concerns the areas internal auditing, independent safety review function, and working methods. SKI has had special supervision of the plant since 28 September, 2006. At the Oskarshamn plant work has been carried out to improve the organisation and routines in several areas. The plant has established routines which provide the basis to ensure that decisions are taken in a stringent manner. The quality assurance system has a clearer structure and there is a better defined division of work. Some measures remain however to be dealt with in 2008. The Ringhals plant has also worked with attitudes to routines and internal control. SKI considers that the measures have good prerequisites to provide a

  6. Radiation safety aspects of new X-ray free electron laser facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the safety point of view, X-ray free electron laser facilities have some characteristics in comparison with 3 rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities. One is that the high energy electrons are always injected into the beam dump and the beamlines must be constructed in the direction of the movements of electrons, and another is that the total number of accelerated electrons of X-ray free electron laser facilities is much larger than that of synchrotron radiation facilities. In addition to the importance of safety interlock systems, therefore, it is important that high energy electrons never invade into X-ray free electron laser beamlines and the amount of accelerated electron beam losses must be reduced as much as possible. At SACLA, a safety permanent magnet was installed into the X-ray light beam axis, and a beam halo monitor and beam loss monitors were installed within and around the electron transport pipes, respectively. In comparison with the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, shielding design of SACLA, outline of the radiation safety systems including the monitors will be presented

  7. Radiation safety study for conventional facility and siting pre project phase of International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Sasaki, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed high-energy collider consisting of two linear accelerators, two dumping rings, electron and positron sources, and a single colliding hall with two detectors. The total length and CMS energy of the ILC will be 31 km and 500 GeV, respectively (and 50 km and 1 TeV after future upgrade). The design of the ILC has entered the pre-project phase, which includes site-dependent design. Radiation safety design for the ILC is on-going as a part of conventional facility and siting activities of the pre-project phase. The thickness of a central wall of normal concrete is designed to be 3.5 m under a pessimistic assumption of beam loss. The beam loss scenario is under discussion. Experience and knowledge relating to shielding design and radiation control operational work at other laboratories are required. (authors)

  8. Quality assurance and radiation safety in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyuk, Ya.V.; Radosh, H.V.; Bezshyyko, O.A.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.O.; Kadenko, I.M.; Kazinova, O.A.; Nagai, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific studies, clinical experience and economic analysis have shown that the positron emission tomography (PET) is clinically and cost effective cancer diagnostics method. Combined PET and computed tomography (PET/CT) has proven clinical utility, particularly in the diagnosis, staging or restaging malignant disease and metastases, surgical planning, radiation therapy planning and evaluation of treatment response. The use of PET/CT has grown substantially in the past few years, with an increasing number of hospitals and installations of PET/CT imaging centers each year. In the same time combination of 2 procedures, each of which impart a radiation dose and, as a result, increases the deleterious influence for health, creates additional radiation safety issues. In these conditions the role of quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programs is getting more and more important. We considered main QA and radiation safety requirements for whole PET technology chain from radio-pharmacy facilities to PET/CT scanning and patient release criteria. All these issues were considered and assessed having the example of PET facilities and technology chain of All-Ukrainian Center for Radiosurgery of the Clinical Hospital 'Feofania'

  9. Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, A.G.; Hunter, N.; Grammer, S.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

  10. A bioethical perspective on radiation protection and 'safety'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Three problems of concern to radiation protection policy makers are analysed: 1) How to decide if current conceptual tools for assessing basic harm to valued living systems are adequate. Misconceptions confusing hazards and risks, problems arising from the use of the concepts 'risk-benefit' and 'harm-benefit' analysis, and value-conflicts are discussed. 2) How to set safety standards on the basis of informed consent to scientific evidence presented by experts who disagree in interpreting that evidence. 3) How to resolve value conflicts underlying disagreement, i.e. conflicting philosophies about radiation protection. It is concluded that any involuntary risks imposed by social policies for radiation protection must be congruent with, must not be in excess of, and may be reasonably less than, those involuntary risks imposed by the wide variations in naturally occurring toxic elements and harmful effects from our natural environment. (U.K.)

  11. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  12. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

  13. Journey Toward High Reliability: A Comprehensive Safety Program to Improve Quality of Care and Safety Culture in a Large, Multisite Radiation Oncology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Volz, Edna; Maity, Amit; Gabriel, Peter E; Solberg, Timothy D; Bergendahl, Howard W; Hahn, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    High-reliability organizations (HROs) focus on continuous identification and improvement of safety issues. We sought to advance a large, multisite radiation oncology department toward high reliability through the implementation of a comprehensive safety culture (SC) program at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Radiation Oncology. In 2011, with guidance from safety literature and experts in HROs, we designed an SC framework to reduce radiation errors. All state-reported medical events (SRMEs) from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a control chart. Changes in SC grade were assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey. Outcomes measured included the number of radiation treatment fractions and days between SRMEs, as well as SC grade. Multifaceted safety initiatives were implemented at our main academic center and across all network sites. Postintervention results demonstrate increased staff fundamental safety knowledge, enhanced peer review with an electronic system, and special cause variation of SRMEs on control chart analysis. From 2009 to 2016, the number of days and fractions between SRMEs significantly increased, from a mean of 174 to 541 days (P safety framework. Our multifaceted initiatives, focusing on culture and system changes, can be successfully implemented in a large academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in SC and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  15. Reduction of adult fingers visualized on pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs after radiation technologist and PICU staff radiation safety education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, J.R.; Duncan, M.D.; Burbridge, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    A recent publication from our centre revealed a disturbing finding of a significant incidence of adult fingers seen on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs. This is inappropriate occupational exposure to diagnostic radiation. We hypothesized that the incidence of adult fingers on PICU chest radiographs would decline after radiation safety educational seminars were given to the medical radiation technologists and PICU staff. The present study's objectives were addressed by using a pretest-posttest design. Two cross-sectional PICU chest radiograph samples, taken before and after the administration of radiation safety education for our medical radiation technologists and PICU staff, were compared by using a χ 2 test. There was a 61.2% and 76.9% reduction in extraneous adult fingers, directly exposed to the x-ray beam and those seen in the coned regions of the film, respectively, on PICU chest radiographs (66.7% reduction overall). This reduction was statistically significant (χ2 = 20.613, P < .001). Limiting unnecessary occupational radiation exposure is a critical issue in radiology. There was a statistically and clinically significant association between radiation safety education and the decreased number of adult fingers seen on PICU chest radiographs. This study provides preliminary evidence in favour of the benefit of radiation safety seminars. (author)

  16. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2014-01-01

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations

  17. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations.

  18. WE-F-209-02: Radiation Safety Surveys of Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, numerous Accreditation Bodies, Regulatory Agencies, and State Regulations have implemented requirements for Radiation Safety Surveys following installation or modification to x-ray rooms. The objective of this session is to review best practices in performing radiation safety surveys for both Therapy and Diagnostic installations, as well as a review of appropriate survey instruments. This session will be appropriate for both therapy and imaging physicists who are looking to increase their working knowledge of radiation safety surveys. Learning Objectives: Identify Appropriate Survey Meters for Radiation Safety Surveys Develop best practices for Radiation Safety Surveys for Therapy units that include common areas of concern. Develop best practices for Radiation Safety Surveys of Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine rooms. Identify acceptable dose levels and the factors that affect the calculations associated with performing Radiation Safety Surveys.

  19. A person having ability in radiation protection: an original measure in comparison with the common rights for work safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the regulations, any factory using ionising radiations is obliged to designate a person having having ability in radiation protection and entrusted with specific missions regarding safety for professional risks. This represents an original measure in comparison with the common rights for work safety. The decree whose became operative on 2 october 1986, about ten years ago and just before the reform of radiation protection standards, it seems important to store in memory the genesis and the goals of this prescription and to present the results. (authors)

  20. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is involved in the development of new uranium mines from the early planning stages through the development of the mine-mill facility. As a result, new facilities are designed and developed to a much higher standard of both conventional and radiation health and safety than previously. Radiation is not the most significant cause of injury to the uranium miner, and public attitudes toward radiation may result in overemphasizing these aspects to the detriment of conventional health and safety conditions in the mines. The AECB believes that one dead miner is one too many and bases its regulatory efforts on this belief

  1. Assessment of radiation safety awareness and attitude toward biological effect of radiation for employees in nuclear workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngchuay, U.; Jetawattana, S.; Toeypho, V.; Eso, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated a potential relevance of data pertaining to the interaction of awareness in radiation biology and their attitude towards radiation hazards. The obtained information is useful in ascertaining the effectiveness of the ongoing radiation safety program and will be further used to determine the relationships between the radiation effective dose and cytogenetic approach in these groups of workers. (author)

  2. Guidelines for radiation safety in interventional cardiology (JCS 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ryozo; Awai, Kazuo; Iesaka, Yoshihito

    2006-01-01

    The guidelines are made for physicians in cardiovascular field who may be unfamiliar to radiation safety, to understand and know it easily. The introductory chapter describes the basic knowledge for management of radiation exposure and clinical feature of radiation-induced dermal damages like classification, clinical progress and case presentation. Following chapter is itemized, explained in a style of Q and A, and contains sections of; the fundamental knowledge's of radiation exposure management and of radiation skin damage, informed consent and measures for excessive exposure and skin damage crisis, factors influencing the exposure dose, contrivances to reduce the dose in patients, additional factors affecting the crisis of skin damage, contrivances to reduce the dose in medical personnel exposure, management of imaging instruments, methods to measure the exposure dose in patients, intervention in vessels other than the coronary artery, electro-physiological examinations and treatments, nuclear medical diagnoses, CT examinations, diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women, and present states in other countries. (T.I.)

  3. Recent advances in MEMS radiation detectors for improving radiation safety in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhisikar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) is a core technology that leverages integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology, builds ultra-miniaturized components and, enables radical new system applications. When considering MEMS radiation detectors; they are the specific micromechanical structures which are designed to sense doses of radiations. The present article reviews the most recent progress made in the domain of MEMS ionizing radiation sensors at international level for nuclear reactors which can be relevant to Indian context. (author)

  4. Radiation safety assessment of mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Anuar Majid; Mohd Amirul Nizam

    2002-01-01

    Mobile telephone is fast getting popular among users and in fact it has become one of the fastest selling electronic products in the world. More base stations are expected to be built to meet such high demands and this has caused great concerned among members of the public, especially those living close to the stations, about the potential harmful health effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by such facilities. A project was initiated by MINT in early 2000 with aims to assess the radiation levels present in the areas around the base stations and to establish baseline data on the pattern and trend of the radiation emission from each different set up of the facilities. This paper highlights some basics facts about mobile telephones and preliminary findings of the project. The assessment has been carried out at 16 base station sites and the results indicate that the radiation levels present around these sites are very low. Their broadband readings vary between below the detection limit of 0.3μWatts/cm 2 to 11 μWatts/cm 2 and they are comparable to normal background radiation present in places away from any base stations. The highest level observed was 1.5% of the exposure limit recommended for members of the public. However, locations at close distance in front of the the antenna can be very serious in term of radiation exposure since the radiation level here can easily exceed the permissible exposure limit for public. Safety precaution needs to be taken when entering these areas and they should be out of bound for members of the public. (Author)

  5. Radiation safety, protection and recommendations in dentistry - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, Renita

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. Diagnostic radiology uses ionizing radiations which have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules in biological and other systems. X-rays used in diagnostic radiology are a potent mutagenic agent, capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. X-rays are extensively used in medical and dental practice for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. X-rays provide useful information and aid in diagnosis but at the same time they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry X-rays are used mainly for diagnosis. Radiation in doses required for dentistry may not present any major risks, however these small doses are not necessarily risk free. Hence, no exposure to X-rays can be considered completely free of risk, so the use of radiation by dentists is accompanied by a responsibility to ensure appropriate protection. Several radiation safety measures have been recommended and advocated to reduce harmful effects. Dental professionals are the only practitioners who perform radiographical examination of their patients themselves. Although the exposure used in dentistry is low every effort should be made to reduce radiation in order to prevent the accumulated dose to the dentist in their lifetime. The dose reduction can be achieved in three main steps. They are decision making, optimising radiologic procedures and patient protection. The potential for undesirable effects must be balanced against the benefits obtained from radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel. (author)

  6. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yongjian; Waedt, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  7. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Waedt, Karl [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PEAS-G

    2016-05-15

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  8. Overview of physical safety of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The threat of 'radiological terrorism' has been recognized worldwide after the event of September 11, 2001. Radioactive sources can be used for the development of DDR ('dirty bomb') devices. Studies show that the use of a DDR could cause health damage, psychosocial and economic and environmental damage. Brazil follows this worldwide concern, since it has a large medical-industrial park that uses radioactive sources. This paper presents an overview of the physical safety of radioactive sources in Brazil, based on the inventory of radiative facilities, regulatory aspects and international recommendations. For the preparation of the study, the database of radioactive sources of the regulatory body, the current normative status and the international recommendations were used. In Brazil there are approximately 2,500 radiative installations, with about 400 radioactive sources Category 1 and 2, which are the biggest concern in terms of physical safety. The Brazilian licensing standard addresses only some aspects of physical protection, not providing a clear orientation for the elaboration and implementation of physical protection systems, in accordance with international recommendations. For Brazil to be included in the world scenario of physical safety of radioactive sources, it is urgent to elaborate specific legislation with well-defined regulatory criteria. The lack of more detailed requirements makes it difficult to make a more careful regulatory assessment of the physical protection conditions of the facilities, either through the evaluation of plans and other physical protection documents or through regulatory inspections

  9. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs.

  10. Hardware, software and strategies for radiation safety awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The various components to be in place for a successful radiation safety awareness program calls for an in depth multi disciplinary R and D which is not often appreciated. Yes, there has been public suspicion about the safety of radiation and nuclear power. And a lot of ground is covered by nuclear agencies to remove those suspicions. The reasons for this are not far off to see. The concepts of LNT (Linear No-Threshold) and the resulting ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) used for radiological protection have been stumbling blocks for public acceptability of nuclear power. We cannot blame the public if often people get confused and easily get exploited by interested people. The lack of clear cut definition of what is safe and what is not is something that need to be removed from public mind and the message need to be forcibly conveyed to the public. The nomenclature for radiation protection is beset with some quibbling factors hinging on some basic scientific findings which has definitely not been proved in the last half a century or so is responsible for this. A format language, software based communication medium that is easily discernible to the public need to be developed

  11. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs

  12. Organizing of public movement for radiation safety of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The possibilities of organizing of public anti nuclear movement in the Caspian region are discussed. The potential of public organizations in the regional countries and international programs and projects supporting this movement is considered. The activity of the following organizations is mentioned: Public movement Semipalatinsk-Nevada (Kazakhstan); Antinuclear movement 'Narin'(Kazakhstan); 'Social - ecological union'(Russia); Association 'Fovgal', scientific-ecological society 'Ekoil'; 'Radioecological society (Azerbaijan); 'Anti-Radiation Movement'(Georgia); 'Radioecology-21'(Georgia). International organizations - Caspian Program ISAR, Scientific Program NATO, IAEA and others play an important role in maintenance of radiation safety of the region. Especially it is necessary to mention the project on Export control of the nuclear materials of double destination (USA). The necessity of support of this movement from public of region is mentioned and an important role in this plays public organizations. The contribution of 'Ruzgar'in organizing of public anti-nuclear movement during the implementation of joint projects 'Along the Caspian', creation of the movement 'For clean Caspian', 'The impact of Gabala radiolocation station on the environment'and others. The following issues are stressed: 1.Lobbying the adoption of legislative and normative acts and their harmonization in a scale of the Caspian region; 2.Creating the cooperation between regional countries for joint solution of regional problems of radiation safety; 3.Increasing of a level of public awareness about this issue and providing public participation in decision-making; 4.Organizing a struggle against 'radiophobia'

  13. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  14. Health and Safety Audit Design Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Accawi, Gina K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Malhotra, Mini [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Health and Safety Audit is an electronic audit tool developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in the identification and selection of health and safety measures when a home is being weatherized (i.e., receiving home energy upgrades), especially as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program, or during home energy-efficiency retrofit or remodeling jobs. The audit is specifically applicable to existing single-family homes (including mobile homes), and is generally applicable to individual dwelling units in low-rise multifamily buildings. The health and safety issues covered in the audit are grouped in nine categories: mold and moisture, lead, radon, asbestos, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), combustion, pest infestation, safety, and ventilation. Development of the audit was supported by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control and the DOE Weatherization Assistance Program.

  15. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  16. Defining Design Limits of a Portable Radiation Dispersion Prevention System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Seong Woo; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To the eyes of the general public, however, reducing the chance of such accident is not enough. A typical engineer views a risk as a combination of both consequences and likelihoods, whereas an ordinary person may only consider consequences. The implementations of better regulations, improved human operator actions, and installations of extra safety systems may reduce the chance of having uncontrolled accident practically to zero, yet the public still fears having nuclear reactors. One such barrier system is a portable suction-based radiation dispersion prevention system, called Integrated Portable Suction-Centrifugal Filtration System (IPS-CFS). To design such systems, detailed information about the radioactive source term at the release point to the environment must be available to draw design limits. The preliminary design limits of the IPS-CFS are presented in this paper. It may seem challenging to design a comprehensive radioactive dispersion system that can successfully prevent such extreme accident conditions, especially due to the releases from high pressure. However, as more technologies develop and more realistic source term analyses are performed, it may be possible to develop such a public relief technology. With the development of such technology that can effectively prevent the dispersion of the uncontrolled radioactive releases in case of another Fukushima-like accident, it will result in increased safety of the nuclear power plants for both the public and the workers and may contribute to the increase in the public acceptance of nuclear energy.

  17. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  18. Design of a cylindrical LED substrate without radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Guo, Zhenning

    2017-12-01

    To reduce the weight and production costs of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, we applied the principle of the chimney effect to design a cylindrical LED substrate without a radiator. We built a 3D model by using Solidworks software and applied the flow simulation plug-in to conduct model simulation, thereby optimizing the heat source distribution and substrate thickness. The results indicate that the design achieved optimal cooling with a substrate with an upper extension length of 35 mm, a lower extension length of 8 mm, and a thickness of 1 mm. For a substrate of those dimensions, the highest LED chip temperature was 64.78 °C, the weight of the substrate was 35.09 g, and R jb = 7.00 K/W. If the substrate is powered at 8, 10, and 12 W, its temperature meets LED safety requirements. In physical tests, the highest temperature for a physical 8 W cylindrical LED substrate was 66 °C, which differed by only 1.22 °C from the simulation results, verifying the validity of the simulation. The designed cylindrical LED substrate can be used in high-power LED lamps that do not require radiators. This design is not only excellent for heat dissipation, but also for its low weight, low cost, and simplicity of manufacture.

  19. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  20. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Abobaker Mohammed Rahmtalla

    2014-09-01

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)