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Sample records for radiation lumbo-sacral plexopathy

  1. Surgical techniques for lumbo-sacral fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropiano, P; Giorgi, H; Faure, A; Blondel, B

    2017-02-01

    Lumbo-sacral (L5-S1) fusion is a widely performed procedure that has become the reference standard treatment for refractory low back pain. L5-S1 is a complex transition zone between the mobile lordotic distal lumbar spine and the fixed sacral region. The goal is to immobilise the lumbo-sacral junction in order to relieve pain originating from this site. Apart from achieving inter-vertebral fusion, the main challenge lies in the preoperative determination of the fixed L5-S1 position that will be optimal for the patient. Many lumbo-sacral fusion techniques are available. Stabilisation can be achieved using various methods. An anterior, posterior, or combined approach may be used. Recently developed minimally invasive techniques are gaining in popularity based on their good clinical outcomes and high fusion rates. The objective of this conference is to resolve the main issues faced by spinal surgeons in their everyday practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Jogger's fracture and other stress fractures of the lumbo-sacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The posterior rings of the lower lumbo-sacral vertebrae are subject to stress fractures at any part - pedicle, pars, or lamina. The site of fracture is apparently determined by the axis of weight bearing. The three illustrative clinical examples cited include a jogger with a laminar fracture, a ballet dancer with pedicle fractures, and a nine-year-old boy with fractures of pars and lamina. Chronic low back pain is the typical complaint with stress fractures of the lower lumbo-sacral spine. Special imaging techniques are usually needed to demonstrate these lesions, including vertebral arch views, multi-directional tomography, and computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  3. [An adult case of intradural lumbo-sacral lipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, T; Sakoda, K; Tokuda, Y; Uozumi, T

    1992-10-01

    A rare case of lumbo-sacral lipoma in an adult case is reported. A 55-year-old male was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Mazda Hospital, after a history of one year of urinary incontinence. Neurologically, no motor or sensory disturbance of the lower extremities was found in this patient. MRI showed a mass with high signal intensity on T2-weighted image, located between L3 to S2 vertebral segments. Metrizamide-CT scan demonstrated the outline of this hypodense mass at the same location as shown on MRI image. A L3 through L5 laminectomy was performed and the tumor was subtotally removed. Microscopic examination revealed that the tumor mass was made up of mature lipoma cells. Postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The urinary incontinence was improved slightly. No motor or sensory deficit was found. We thought that MRI was useful for the correct diagnosis of lumbosacral lipoma. And it is best managed by operative removal of the tumor as early as possible after it is diagnosed.

  4. Brachial plexopathy: recurrent cancer or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, R.J.; Wilbourn, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed clinical and electrodiagnostic features of 16 patients with neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) and 17 patients with radiation-induced plexopathy (RBP). The groups were similar in symptom-free interval after cancer diagnosis and location of the plexus lesions. NBP patients had pain and Horner's syndrome; RBP patients had paresthesias, but rarely Horner's. NBP patients presented earlier after symptom onset and had a shorter course. RBP patients more frequently had abnormal sensory and normal motor nerve conduction studies and characteristically had fasciculations or myokymia on EMG

  5. Three cases of lumbo-sacral neuropathy due to radiation for uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Hokezu, Yoichi; Kanehisa, Yoshihide; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Onishi, Akio

    1985-01-01

    Case 1: The 61-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 50. Radiation therapy was initiated to the pelvic lumen from both anterior and posterior sides with a total dose of 21,000 rads. Radiation ulcerative enterocolitis and dermatitis revealed at the end of the therapy. At age 52 (2 years after radiation), she noticed muscle weakness and dysesthesia of the lower legs. These symptoms progressed and amyotrophy of the legs appeared. At age 54 (4 years after radiation), she became unable to walk. Case 2: The 51-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 40. Postoperative radiation was initiated by the same dose and the same way as in Case 1 and she suffered from radiation dermatitis. At age 49 (9 years after radiation), she noticed dysesthesia of the right toe, which gradually spread to another side. Ten years after radiation, she began to note weakness in dorsiflexion of feet. Case 3: The 69-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 67. Radiation (Linac 4,000 rads, Ralstron 2,000 rads) was performed for 3 months into the pelvic lumen. Two years later, she noted dysesthesia and weakness of her legs. These symptoms progressed gradually. In these 3 cases, EMG showed neurogenic changes, suggesting peripheral nerve lesions. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased. Nerve and muscle biopsies revealed neurogenic changes. No abnormal findings were detected by spinal X-rays and myelography. The neurological findings of these patients were compatible with the lumbo-sacrol plexus injuries apparently due to late radiation effect. (J.P.N.).

  6. Three cases of lumbo-sacral neuropathy due to radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Hokezu, Yoichi; Kanehisa, Yoshihide; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Onishi, Akio.

    1985-01-01

    Case 1: The 61-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 50. Radiation therapy was initiated to the pelvic lumen from both anterior and posterior sides with a total dose of 21,000 rads. Radiation ulcerative neterocolitis and dermatitis revealed at the end of the therapy. At age 52 (2 years after radiation), she noticed muscle weakness and dysesthesia of the lower legs. These symptoms progressed and amyotrophy of the legs appeared. At age 54 (4 years after radiation), she became unable to walk. Case 2: The 51-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 40. Postoperative radiation was initiated by the same dose and the same way as in Case 1 and she suffered from radiation dermatitis. At age 49 (9 years after radiation), she noticed dysesthesia of the right toe, which gradually spread to another side. Ten years after radiation, she began to note weakness in dorsiflexion of feet. Case 3: The 69-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 67. Radiation (Linac 4,000 rads, Ralstron 2,000 rads) was performed for 3 months into the pelvic lumen. Two years later, she noted dysesthesia and weakness of her legs. These symptoms progressed gradually. In these 3 cases, EMG showed neurogenic changes, suggesting peripheral nerve lesions. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased. Nerve and muscle biopsies revealed neurogenic changes. No abnormal findings were detected by spinal X-rays and myelography. The neurological findings of these patients were compatible with the lumbo-sacrol plexus injuries apparently due to late radiation effect. (J.P.N.)

  7. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  8. Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Arya; Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan; McBurney, Michelle L.; Erasmus, Jeremy; Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James; Dong, Lei; Welsh, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56–87.5 Gy; 1.5–2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade ≥2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4–37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512–67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm 3 of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966–24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267–17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future

  9. Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu; Ito, Yoshiyasu.

    1990-01-01

    A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author)

  10. Brachial Plexopathy in Apical Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation: Dosimetric Analysis and Clinical Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eblan, Michael J.; Corradetti, Michael N.; Lukens, J. Nicholas; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Mitra, Nandita; Christodouleas, John P.; Grover, Surbhi; Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey L.; Stevenson, James; Rengan, Ramesh; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Data are limited on the clinical significance of brachial plexopathy in patients with apical non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy. We report the rates of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RIBP) and tumor-related brachial plexopathy (TRBP) and associated dosimetric parameters in apical NSCLC patients. Methods and Materials: Charts of NSCLC patients with primary upper lobe or superiorly located nodal disease who received ≥50 Gy of definitive conventionally fractionated radiation or chemoradiation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of brachial plexopathy and categorized as RIBP, TRBP, or trauma-related. Dosimetric data were gathered on ipsilateral brachial plexuses (IBP) contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group atlas guidelines. Results: Eighty patients were identified with a median follow-up and survival time of 17.2 and 17.7 months, respectively. The median prescribed dose was 66.6 Gy (range, 50.4-84.0), and 71% of patients received concurrent chemotherapy. RIBP occurred in 5 patients with an estimated 3-year rate of 12% when accounting for competing risk of death. Seven patients developed TRBP (estimated 3-year rate of 13%), comprising 24% of patients who developed locoregional failures. Grade 3 brachial plexopathy was more common in patients who experienced TRBP than RIBP (57% vs 20%). No patient who received ≤78 Gy to the IBP developed RIBP. On multivariable competing risk analysis, IBP V76 receiving ≥1 cc, and primary tumor failure had the highest hazard ratios for developing RIBP and TRBP, respectively. Conclusions: RIBP is a relatively uncommon complication in patients with apical NSCLC tumors receiving definitive doses of radiation, while patients who develop primary tumor failures are at high risk for developing morbid TRBP. These findings suggest that the importance of primary tumor control with adequate doses of radiation outweigh the risk of RIBP in this population of

  11. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen

  12. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Khoi D; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. A retrospective case-series study of 12 903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy. A literature review of the US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (PubMed) database was conducted to identify articles pertaining to brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery. In our total population of 12 903 patients, only 1 suffered from postoperative brachial plexopathy. The overall prevalence rate was thus 0.01%, but the prevalence rate at the site where this complication occurred was 0.07%. Previously reported risk factors for postoperative brachial plexopathy include age, anterior surgical procedures, and a diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The condition can also be due to patient positioning during surgery, which can generally be detected via the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring. Brachial plexopathy following cervical spine surgery is rare and merits further study.

  13. Brachial Plexopathy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Than, Khoi D.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, multicenter case-series study and literature review. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery and to review the literature to better understand the etiology and risk factors of brachial plexopathy after cervical spine surgery. Methods: A retrospective case-series study of 12?903 patients at 21 different sites was performed to analyze the prevalence of several different complications, including brachial plexopathy....

  14. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies, clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings from a tertiary centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical characteristics, aetiology, neuro-physiological characteristics, imaging findings and other investigations in a cohort of patients with non-traumatic brachial plexopathy (BP). METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study of patients with non-traumatic BP identified by electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Clinical information was retrieved from patients\\' medical charts. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified. Causes of BP included neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) (48%), neoplastic (16%), radiation (8%), post infectious (12%), obstetric (4%), rucksack injury (4%), thoracic outlet syndrome (4%) and iatrogenic (4%). Patients with NA presented acutely in 50%. The onset was subacute in all others. Outcome was better for patients with NA. All patients with neoplastic disease had a previous history of cancer. MRI was abnormal in 3\\/16 patients (18.8%). PET scanning diagnosed metastatic plexopathy in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: NA was the most common cause of BP in our cohort and was associated with a more favourable outcome. The authors note potentially discriminating clinical characteristics in our population that aid in the assessment of patients with brachial plexopathies. We advise NCS and EMG be performed in all patients with suspected plexopathy. Imaging studies are useful in selected patients.

  15. Lumbosacral plexus delineation, dose distribution, and its correlation with radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy in cervical cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunio M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutahir Tunio,1 Mushabbab Al Asiri,1 Yasser Bayoumi,2 Ali Abdullah O Balbaid,1 Majed AlHameed,3 Stanciu Laura Gabriela,1 Ahmad Amir O Ali1 1Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: To evaluate the dose distribution to the lumbosacral plexus (LSP and its correlation with radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy (RILSP in patients with cervical cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and high-dose-rate brachytherapy.Materials and methods: After meeting eligibility criteria, 50 patients with cervical cancer were selected who were treated with IMRT and high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and the LSP was contoured. Mean volume; percentages of LSP volume absorbing 40, 50, 55, and 60 Gy (V30, V40, V50, V55, and V60 and point doses (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, and P10; and RILSP incidence were calculated.Results: At 60 months of follow-up, four patients (8% were found to have grade 2/3 RILSP. The mean maximal LSP dose in patients with RILSP was 59.6 Gy compared with 53.9 Gy in patients without RILSP (control; P=0.04. The mean values of V40, V50, V55, and V60 in patients with RILSP versus control were 61.8% versus 52.8%, 44.4% versus 27.7%, 8.0% versus 0.3% and 1.8% versus 0%, respectively (P=0.01, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: The delineation of the LSP during IMRT planning may reduce the risk for RILSP. The mean values of V40, V50, V55, and V60 for LSP should be less than 55%, 30%, 5%, and 0.5%, respectively; however, further studies are warranted.Keywords: cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, lumbosacral plexus delineation, radiation-induced lumbosacral plexopathy, dosimetric analysis

  16. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Susan C.; Geannette, Christian; Sneag, Darryl B.; Wolfe, Scott W.; Feinberg, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed - and consequently scar tethered - the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy. (orig.)

  17. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan C; Geannette, Christian; Wolfe, Scott W; Feinberg, Joseph H; Sneag, Darryl B

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed-and consequently scar tethered-the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy.

  18. Lumbosacral plexopathies associated with acetabular fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral plexopathies are of considerably less epidemiologic common prevalence than brachial plexus. The most common form of trauma resulting in lesions affecting the lumbosacral plexus is injuries to sacroiliac region. The symptoms which are caused by compressing lumbosacral plexus are sensory disturbance and weakness in an affected leg. The author reports a case of a 65-year-old male with a history of right acetabular fracture status post open reduction and internal fixation by plate and screw who complained weakness and numbness in the right leg. Four months later, he still had difficulty in walking and felt paresthesia at the right lateral thigh and entire of the right foot. His further investigation which was electrodiagnostic study was diagnosed as right lumbosacral plexopathies.

  19. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  20. Rhabdomyolysis resulting in concurrent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Susan C.; Geannette, Christian; Sneag, Darryl B. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Wolfe, Scott W. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity, Department of Orthopedics, New York, NY (United States); Feinberg, Joseph H. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This case report describes a 29-year-old male who presented with immediate onset of Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy after sleeping with his arm dangling outside a car window for 8 h. Outside workup and imaging revealed rhabdomyolysis of the left neck musculature. Subsequent electrodiagnostic testing and high-resolution brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging at the authors' institution attributed the Horner's syndrome and concurrent brachial plexopathy to rhabdomyolysis of the longus colli and scalene musculature, which had compressed - and consequently scar tethered - the cervical sympathetic trunk and brachial plexus. This case of co-existent Horner's syndrome and brachial plexopathy demonstrates the role of high-resolution brachial plexus MRI in diagnosing plexopathy and the importance of being familiar with plexus and paravertebral muscle anatomy. (orig.)

  1. Computed tomography in the evaluation of plexopathies and proximal neuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The article describes nine patients with plexopathies or proximal mononeuropathies due to mass lesions. In four, computed tomography (CT) was the only radiological technique to show the cause of the neuropathy. In five patients, CT either unequivocally confirmed the presence of an abnormality or was superior to other imaging techniques in showing its full anatomical extent. CT scanning is a valuable aid in the assessment of lesions of the peripheral nervous system, particularly plexopathies and mononeuropathies caused by retroperitoneal, pelvic or superior pulmonary sulcus tumors

  2. Computed tomography in the evaluation of plexopathies and proximal neuropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.D. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery); Schmidt, B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Radiology); Wee, R. (Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada))

    1983-11-01

    The article describes nine patients with plexopathies or proximal mononeuropathies due to mass lesions. In four, computed tomography (CT) was the only radiological technique to show the cause of the neuropathy. In five patients, CT either unequivocally confirmed the presence of an abnormality or was superior to other imaging techniques in showing its full anatomical extent. CT scanning is a valuable aid in the assessment of lesions of the peripheral nervous system, particularly plexopathies and mononeuropathies caused by retroperitoneal, pelvic or superior pulmonary sulcus tumors.

  3. Bilateral Symmetrical Brachial Plexopathy in Association with Scrub Typhus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a commonly encountered rickettsial disease of the Indian subcontinent caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It can be associated with various neurological manifestations. We report a case of 50 year old man with bilateral symmetrical brachial plexopathy associated with scrub typhus from the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state. The initial manifestations were fever, bodyaches and weakness in both upper limbs. Laboratory reports confirmed the diagnosis of scrub typhus. EMG and NCV were strongly suggestive of upper brachial plexopathy. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition

  4. Lumbosacral transitional anatomy types and disc degenerative changes

    OpenAIRE

    Chabukovska-Radulovska Jasminka; Matveeva Niki; Poposka Anastasika

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The relationship between presence of lumbo sacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) and disc degenerative changes is unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between different types of LSTV and disc degenerative changes at the transitional and the adjacent cephalad segment. Material and methods: Sixty-three patients (mean age 51.48 ± 13.51) out of 200 adults with low back pain who performed MRI examination of the lumbo sacral spine, classified as po...

  5. Osteonecrosis due to radiation given for uterus cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Ugai, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Hirota, Saeko [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    During a period 1984-1991, 18 patients were diagnosed as developing osteonecrosis after radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer. The patients had Stage I-III. Acute pain occurred in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and/or limbs. There was no correlation between osteonecrosis and either clinical staging or the associated surgery. The most common site of osteonecrosis was lumbar spine (n=13), followed by sacroiliacal joint and head and neck of femur (5 each) and pubic bone (3). The duration from radiation therapy to occurrence of osteonecrosis varied from one to 8 years: the latency period tended to be longer for younger patients. There was correlation between radiation doses and site of osteonecrosis: 60 Gy caused more extensive osteonecrosis, involving the pelvis and head of femur, although 40 Gy confined it to the lumbo-sacral region. Osteonecrosis was sometimes difficult to diagnose: needle biopsy, in addition to imaging modalities, was necessary in 4 patients. It is recommended that patients with uterus cervical cancer treated with radiation be followed up carefully. (N.K.).

  6. Effects of Pilates Training on Lumbo-Pelvic Stability and Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrompaet, Sureeporn; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Sitilertpisan, Patraporn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess and compare the effects of Pilates exercise on flexibility and lumbo-pelvic movement control between the Pilates training and control groups. Methods A randomized single-blinded controlled design was utilized in the study. Forty healthy male and female volunteers (mean age 31.65±6.21 years) were randomly divided into Pilates-based training (20 subjects) and the control groups (20 subjects). The Pilates group attended 45-minute training sessions, 2 times per week, for a period of 8 weeks. Flexibility and lumbo-pelvic stability tests were determined as outcome measures using a standard “sit and reach test” and “pressure biofeedback” respectively at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Results The results showed that the Pilates training group improved flexibility significantly (PPilates group passing the lumbo-pelvic stability test at 4 and 8 weeks of training periods respectively. No subjects from the control group passed the test at any stages. Conclusions Pilates can be used as an adjunctive exercise program to improve flexibility, enhance control-mobility of trunk and pelvic segments. It may also prevent and attenuate the predisposition to axial musculoskeletal injury. PMID:22375213

  7. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. 18 F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the 18 F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case, DWIBS was used to demonstrate

  8. L5 radiculopathy due to sacral stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylwin, Anthony; Saifuddin, Asif; Tucker, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a history of left buttock pain with radiation into the left leg in an L5 distribution. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed a left sacral stress fracture with periosteal reaction involving the left L5 nerve root anterior to the sacral ala. With spontaneous healing of the fracture, the patient's symptoms resolved completely. (orig.)

  9. Sacral chordomas: Impact of high-dose proton/photon-beam radiation therapy combined with or without surgery for primary versus recurrent tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Lily; De Laney, Thomas F.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Goldberg, Saveli; Mankin, Henry; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Suit, Herman D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of definitive treatment of sacral chordoma by high-dose proton/photon-beam radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery. Methods and Materials: The records of 16 primary and 11 recurrent sacral chordoma patients treated from November 1982 to November 2002 by proton/photon radiation therapy alone (6 patients) or combined with surgery (21 patients) have been analyzed for local control, survival, and treatment-related morbidity. The outcome analysis is based on follow-up information as of 2005. Results: Outcome results show a large difference in local failure rate between patients treated for primary and recurrent chordomas. Local control results by surgery and radiation were 12/14 vs. 1/7 for primary and recurrent lesions. For margin-positive patients, local control results were 10 of 11 and 0 of 5 in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively; the mean follow-up on these locally controlled patients was 8.8 years (4 at 10.3, 12.8, 17, and 21 years). Radiation alone was used in 6 patients, 4 of whom received ≥73.0 Gy (E); local control was observed in 3 of these 4 patients for 2.9, 4.9, and 7.6 years. Conclusion: These data indicate a high local control rate for surgical and radiation treatment of primary (12 of 14) as distinct from recurrent (1 of 7) sacral chordomas. Three of 4 chordomas treated by ≥73.0 Gy (E) of radiation alone had local control; 1 is at 91 months. This indicates that high-dose proton/photon therapy offers an effective treatment option

  10. Effect of modified lumbosacral orthoses on treatment of patients with spondylolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahramizadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, the effect of modified lumbo sacral orthoses on lordosis andlumbosacral angle and reliving pain and functional disability was investigated.Materials and Methods: 30 patients (19 females, 11 males with spondylolysis (aged between 22-57 years were sampled in a simple randomized manner. They had a history of low back pain for 30.7(in average months. Modified lumbo sacral orthoses was prescribed for 3 months (23 hours daily.The brace was unique, bridged between xyphoid process to pubic symphysis anteriorly and seventhlumbar vertebrae to gluteal prminency posteriorly.Results: Our results show that 3-months using the modified lumbo sacral orthoses resulted insignificant decrement in pain and improvement in functional ability of patients. Although lordosis andlumbosacral angles decreased to 2.21 and 0.92 degrees, respectively, but these changes were notsignificant. Finally, patients with the lower duration of low back pain showed better results.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the modified lumbosacral orthoses, as a non-invasiveprocedure, can be used for conservative treatments in spondylolysis patients.

  11. Landmarks for Sacral Debridement in Sacral Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Joshua H; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2016-03-01

    Most cases of sacral osteomyelitis arising in the setting of sacral pressure ulcers require minimal cortical debridement. When faced with advanced bony involvement, the surgeon is often unclear about how much can safely be resected. Unfamiliarity with sacral anatomy can lead to concerns of inadvertent entry into the dural space and compromise of future flap options. A cadaveric study (n = 6), in which a wide posterior dissection of the sacrum, was performed. Relationships of the dural sac to bony landmarks of the posterior pelvis were noted. The termination of the dural sac was found in our study to occur at the junction of S2/S3 vertebral bodies, which was located at a mean distance of 0.38 ± 0.16 cm distal to the inferior-most extent of the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). The mean thickness of the posterior table of sacrum at this level was 1.7 cm at the midline and 0.5 cm at the sacral foramina. The PSIS is a reliable landmark for localizing the S2/S3 junction and the termination of the dural sac. Sacral debridement medial to the sacral foramina above the level of PSIS must be conservative whenever possible. If aggressive debridement is necessary above this level, the surgeon must be alert to the possibility of dural involvement.

  12. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio

    2005-01-01

    total of 38 centering. Eight patients underwent the PNE procedure on both the S3 foramina. The sacral foramen was centred at the first attempt in 36 out of 38 cases. Two cases required several attempts to centre correctly the foramen. In 4 patients out of 30 a second electrode was implanted. In one patient who had a non consolidated sacral fracture, CT guidance enabled insertion of the electrode inside the only practicable foramen, a manoeuvre that would have been impossible with fluoroscopic guidance. Only once was repositioned after a CT control. During the whole trial period we had a positive response to the PNE test in 18 out of 30 patients (60%), a partial response in 4 out of 30 patients and a negative response in the remaining 8 patients. None of the patients who underwent the PNE test had infectious complications and the procedure was well tolerated by all. The procedure lasted about 45 minutes. Conclusions: The PNE test under Ct guidance proved to be more efficient compared with the traditional technique as the direct view of the electrode position helped to define with greater reliability the patients who were non-responsive to sacral stimulation. Moreover, this method was particularly efficient in patients with sacral anomalies where the traditional guide might fail. The operators' reduced exposure to radiation is an advantage to be taken into consideration. Finally, the usage of mobile CT apparatus in an operating theatre can improve the technique for permanent implantations [it

  13. Sacral Neuromodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzel, Klaus E; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Knowles, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) (sacral nerve stimulation SNS) has become an established therapy for functional disorders of the pelvic organs. Despite its overall success, the therapy fails in a proportion of patients. This may be partially due to inadequate electrode placement...... with suboptimal coupling of the electrode and nerve. Based on these assumptions the technique of sacral spinal neuromodulation has been redefined. All descriptions relate to the only currently available system licensed for all pelvic indications (Medtronic Interstim(®) ). METHOD: An international...

  14. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2014-03-15

    referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case

  15. The effects of bending speed on the lumbo-pelvic kinematics and movement pattern during forward bending in people with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Li, Linda M K; Wong, Dim C M; Yip, Millie M P; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2017-04-17

    Impaired lumbo-pelvic movement in people with low back pain during bending task has been reported previously. However, the regional mobility and the pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement were found to vary across studies. The inconsistency of the findings may partly be related to variations in the speed at which the task was executed. This study examined the effects of bending speeds on the kinematics and the coordination lumbo-pelvic movement during forward bending, and to compare the performance of individuals with and without low back pain. The angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of the lumbo-pelvic movement during the repeated forward bending executed at five selected speeds were acquired using the three dimensional motion tracking system in seventeen males with low back pain and eighteen males who were asymptomatic. The regional kinematics and the degree of coordination of the lumbo-pelvic movement during bending was compared and analysed between two groups. Significantly compromised performance in velocity and acceleration of the lumbar spine and hip joint during bending task at various speed levels was shown in back pain group (p back pain group adopted a uniform lumbo-pelvic pattern across all the speed levels examined. The present findings show that bending speed imposes different levels of demand on the kinematics and pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement. The ability to regulate the lumbo-pelvic movement pattern during the bending task that executed at various speed levels was shown only in pain-free individuals but not in those with low back pain. Individuals with low back pain moved with a stereotyped strategy at their lumbar spine and hip joints. This specific aberrant lumbo-pelvic movement pattern may have a crucial role in the maintenance of the chronicity in back pain.

  16. The surgical treatment of sacral radiation ulcer-report of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Satoshi; Ootaka, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Fumio; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Hayashi, Satoru; Fujioka, Toshio; Minabe, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    We have treated 5 cases of sacral radiation ulcer surgically. All patients with cervical or vulval cancer were treated with external radiotherapy more than 20 years ago. Three patients have rectovaginal fistulas and four patients have osteoradionecrosis of the sacrum. Fecal and/or urinary diversion were accomplished preoperatively in four patients. After debridement of ulcers, these defects were covered by pedicled musculocutaneous flaps. In two of five, marginal necrosis was seen in a great saphenous veno-neuro accompanying artery fasciocutaneous flap and an inferior gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flap. In two of five, seroma was seen. One patient died of the sepsis from pelvic infection with rectal fistula. Among the other four patients, there was no recurrence during the follow up period. The principle for surgically treating radiation ulcer is to completely resect all radionecrotic tissues and cover these defects with well vascularized tissues. It is useful to distinguish damaged tissue from health tissue by MRI. In a case having a rectovaginal fistula, it is recommended that fecal and urinary diversion will be done at first and debridement of ulcer and reconstructive surgery will be done later. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fractures, strains, or sprains of the neck or trunk of the body. Examples of truncal orthoses are the following: Abdominal, cervical, cervical-thoracic, lumbar, lumbo-sacral, rib fracture, sacroiliac, and...

  18. Two cases of sacral agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J Y; Bae, Y K; Hahm, C K; Kang, S R [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Sacral agenesis is a central component in the spectrum of anomalies comprising the caudal regression syndrome. Sacral agenesis occurs more frequently in an infant born to mother of diabetes, rubella infection in first trimester than normal mothers. In a patient of sacral agenesis, it is important to recognize the neurologic deficit, neurogenic bladder dysfunction and other congenital anomalies. A case of partial sacral agenesis of 10 years old girl and another case of complete total agenesis associated with multiple anomalies in autopsied newborn are reported.

  19. Two cases of sacral agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Bae, Y. K.; Hahm, C. K.; Kang, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sacral agenesis is a central component in the spectrum of anomalies comprising the caudal regression syndrome. Sacral agenesis occurs more frequently in an infant born to mother of diabetes, rubella infection in first trimester than normal mothers. In a patient of sacral agenesis, it is important to recognize the neurologic deficit, neurogenic bladder dysfunction and other congenital anomalies. A case of partial sacral agenesis of 10 years old girl and another case of complete total agenesis associated with multiple anomalies in autopsied newborn are reported.

  20. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  1. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided; Nuova tecnica di centraggio TC-assistista nella neuromodulazione sacrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di radiologia e medicina nucleare; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiologia; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    total of 38 centering. Eight patients underwent the PNE procedure on both the S3 foramina. The sacral foramen was centred at the first attempt in 36 out of 38 cases. Two cases required several attempts to centre correctly the foramen. In 4 patients out of 30 a second electrode was implanted. In one patient who had a non consolidated sacral fracture, CT guidance enabled insertion of the electrode inside the only practicable foramen, a manoeuvre that would have been impossible with fluoroscopic guidance. Only once was repositioned after a CT control. During the whole trial period we had a positive response to the PNE test in 18 out of 30 patients (60%), a partial response in 4 out of 30 patients and a negative response in the remaining 8 patients. None of the patients who underwent the PNE test had infectious complications and the procedure was well tolerated by all. The procedure lasted about 45 minutes. Conclusions: The PNE test under Ct guidance proved to be more efficient compared with the traditional technique as the direct view of the electrode position helped to define with greater reliability the patients who were non-responsive to sacral stimulation. Moreover, this method was particularly efficient in patients with sacral anomalies where the traditional guide might fail. The operators' reduced exposure to radiation is an advantage to be taken into consideration. Finally, the usage of mobile CT apparatus in an operating theatre can improve the technique for permanent implantations. [Italian] Scopo: La neuromodulazione sacrale ? una nuova procedura diagnostico-terapeutica pe ri disturbi funzionali del basso tratto urinario come l'incontinenza urinaria da urgenza, la ritenzione urinaria non ostruttiva, la sindrome urgenza/frequenza, il dolore pelvico cronico intrattabile e, di recente, anche per il trattamento della stipsi e dell'incontinemza fecale. Il trattamento prevede una prima fase definita PNE test (Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation) che consiste

  2. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with congenital lumbar hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lucky; Mala, Tariq Ahmed; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done.

  3. Radiation therapy for pre-sacral recurrence of rectal carcinoma following primary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Shunji; Yokoyama, Suguru; Kirita, Maruyuki; Katou, Yasuharu; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Between April 2002 and December 2005, we treated 15 patients who were suffering from pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer with or without liver metastases, using multi-portal irradiation and oral intake of tegafur-uracil (UFT) (300 mg/day), to assess pain relief and local control. Radiation therapy was given 2.1 to 2.4 Gy daily fractions, and total tumor dose was set up at a landmark of 66 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks (time-dose-fractionation (TDF)=115, corresponding to 70 Gy), varying by recurrent tumor volume. The follow-up time was ranged from 3 to 37 months (median=14.7 months), and median survival was 14.8 months. Pain remission time was 3 to 36 months (median=10.4 months). No severe morbidity which induced by radiation therapy was observed in follow-up duration. The median survival has become unfavorite, but the multi-portal irradiation of high dose delivery is useful for improvement of quality of life (QOL) and beneficial as a palliative therapy. To improvement of local control and prognosis, combined modality with more effective regimen of chemotherapy is expected. (author)

  4. Static and dynamic balance ability, lumbo-pelvic movement control and injury incidence in cricket pace bowlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, B; Stewart, A V; Olorunju, S A S; McKinon, W

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the difference in lumbo-pelvic movement control, static and dynamic balance at the start and at the end of a cricket season in pace bowlers who sustained an injury during the season and those who did not. This is a longitudinal, observational study. Thirty-two, healthy, injury free, male premier league fast, fast-medium and medium pace bowlers between the ages of 18 and 26 years (mean age 21.8 years, standard deviation 1.8 years) participated in the study. The main outcome measures were injury incidence, lumbo-pelvic movement control, static and dynamic balance ability. Fifty-three percent of the bowlers (n=17) sustained injuries during the reviewed cricket season. Lumbo-pelvic movement control tests could not discriminate between bowlers who sustained an injury during the cricket season and bowlers who did not. However, performance in the single leg balance test (p=0.03; confidence interval 4.74-29.24) and the star excursion balance test (p=0.02; confidence interval 1.28-11.93) as measured at the start of the season was better in bowlers who did not sustain an injury during the season. The improvement in the lumbo-pelvic movement control and balance tests suggests that the intensity and type of physical conditioning that happens throughout the season may have been responsible for this improvement. Poor performance in the single leg balance test and the star excursion balance test at the start of the cricket season may be an indication that a bowler is at heightened risk of injury. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early prenatal diagnosis of a lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai

    2018-04-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.

  6. Localized plexiform neurofibromatosis of the lumbar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhang W

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy had a localized plexiform neurofibroma situated on a large cafe-au-lait spot in the lumbo-sacral region. Histopathology was characteristic, The result of surgical excision was satisfactory.

  7. Recurrent meningitis in a case of congenital anterior sacral meningocele and agenesis of sacral and coccygeal vertebrae Meningite recorrente em um paciente com meningocele sacral anterior e agenesia sacral e coccigea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. R. Funayama

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of recurrent meningitis due to congenital anterior sacral meningocele and agenesis of the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae is described. An autosomal dominant inheritance is demonstrated for lower cord malformation, and environmental factors (chromic acid or fumes are discussed.Um caso raro de meningite recorrente devido a meningocele sacral anterior e agenesia das vértebras sacras coccígeas é descrito. Herança autossômica dominante para malformação medular caudal é demonstrada e, possíveis fatores ambientais (ligados ao cromo, são discutidos.

  8. Osteolytic extra-axial sacral myxopapillary ependymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Bibiloni, J; Briccoli, A; Bertoni, F

    1999-10-01

    The authors report an unusual case of sacral osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma treated with curettage and radiotherapy. There is no evidence of recurrence 8 years after treatment. A review of the literature is presented on sacral ependymomas presenting with an osteolytic radiographic appearance (24 cases in 18 reports). The differential diagnosis with other sacral neoplasms is discussed.

  9. Osteolytic extra-axial sacral myxopapillary ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagini, R.; Demitri, S.; Orsini, U. [Clinica Ortopedica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bibiloni, J. [Medical Sciences Campus San Juan, University of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico); Briccoli, A. [Istituto di Patologia Chirurgica, University of Modena (Italy); Bertoni, F. [Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Bologna (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    The authors report an unusual case of sacral osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma treated with curettage and radiotherapy. There is no evidence of recurrence 8 years after treatment. A review of the literature is presented on sacral ependymomas presenting with an osteolytic radiographic appearance (24 cases in 18 reports). The differential diagnosis with other sacral neoplasms is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Osteolytic extra-axial sacral myxopapillary ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, R.; Demitri, S.; Orsini, U.; Bibiloni, J.; Briccoli, A.; Bertoni, F.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of sacral osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma treated with curettage and radiotherapy. There is no evidence of recurrence 8 years after treatment. A review of the literature is presented on sacral ependymomas presenting with an osteolytic radiographic appearance (24 cases in 18 reports). The differential diagnosis with other sacral neoplasms is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien, Abdalla BowirratDepartment of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, IsraelAbstract: We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24-year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy.Keywords: facial nerve paralysis, partial brachial plexopathy, epidural blood patch

  12. Laparoscopic mesh explantation and drainage of sacral abscess remote from transvaginal excision of exposed sacral colpopexy mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ted M; Reight, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Sacral colpopexy may be complicated by mesh exposure, and the surgical treatment of mesh exposure typically results in minor postoperative morbidity and few delayed complications. A 75-year-old woman presented 7 years after a laparoscopic sacral colpopexy, with Mersilene mesh, with an apical mesh exposure. She underwent an uncomplicated transvaginal excision and was asymptomatic until 8 months later when she presented with vaginal drainage and a sacral abscess. This was successfully treated with laparoscopic enterolysis, drainage of the abscess, and explantation of the remaining mesh. Incomplete excision of exposed colpopexy mesh can lead to ascending infection and sacral abscess. Laparoscopic drainage and mesh removal may be considered in these patients.

  13. How consistent are lordosis, range of movement and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in people with and without back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    with and without chronic LBP (>12 week's duration). METHODS: Wireless, wearable, inertial measurement units measured lumbar lordosis angle, range of movement (ROM) and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in adults (n = 63). Measurements were taken on three separate occasions: two tests on the same day with different raters...... participants with and without LBP for lordosis angle. There were significant differences for pelvic flexion ROM (LBP 60.8°, NoLBP 54.8°, F(1,63) = 4.31, p = 0.04), lumbar right lateral flexion ROM (LBP 22.2°, NoLBP 24.6° F(1,63) = 4.48, p = .04), trunk right lateral flexion ROM (LBP 28.4°, NoLBP 31.7°, F(1......,63) = 5.9, p = .02) and lumbar contribution to lumbo-pelvic rhythm in the LBP group (LBP 45.8 %, F(1,63) = 4.20, NoLBP 51.3 % p = .044). MDC90 estimates for intra and inter-rater comparisons were 10°-15° for lumbar lordosis, and 5°-15° for most ROM. For lumbo-pelvic rhythm, we found 8-15 % variation...

  14. Incidence, treatment, and survival patterns for sacral chordoma in the United States, 1974-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSacral chordomas represent one half of all chordomas, a rare neoplasm of notochordal remnants. Current NCCN guidelines recommend surgical resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, or definitive radiation for unresectable cases. Recent advances in radiation for chordomas include conformal photon and proton beam radiation. We investigated incidence, treatment, and survival outcomes to observe any trends in response to improvements in surgical and radiation techniques over a near 40 year time period.Materials and Methods345 microscopically confirmed cases of sacral chordoma were identified between 1974 and 2011 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program of the National Cancer Institute. Cases were divided into three cohorts by calendar year, 1974-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2011, as well as into two groups by age less than or equal to 65 versus greater than 65 to investigate trends over time and age via Chi-square analysis. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to determine effects of treatment on survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of overall survival.Results5-year overall survival for the entire cohort was 60.0%. Overall survival correlated significantly with treatment modality, with 44% surviving at 5 years with no treatment, 52% with radiation alone, 82% surgery alone, and 78% surgery and radiation (p<.001. Age greater than 65 was significantly associated with non-surgical management with radiation alone or no treatment (p<.001. Relatively fewer patients received radiation between 2000 and 2011 compared to prior time periods (p=.03 versus surgery, for which rates which did not vary significantly over time (p=.55. However, 5-year overall survival was not significantly different by time period. Age group and treatment modality were predictive for overall survival on multivariate analysis (p<.001. ConclusionSurgery remains an important component in the

  15. Storytelling: Performance, Presentations and Sacral Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bódis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Various schools of tale research manifested the relationship of tales of the sacred based on their ideological preconceptions: the relationship between tales and the sacred is refused or accepted. In this article tales are investigated not from the perspective of the possible sacral referent(s but rather it looks at them as a kind of communicational subsystem that is part of human culture. The focus is on revealing the specific features of sacral communication in the communication system of tales. Sacral communication is a special form of communication in which the elements of the communication model are transformed. The goal of sacral communication is exactly this kind of identity creation. This may be oriented towards creating a personal or a communal self-identity. Among its characteristics we may find the special type of language forms in which the predominance of linguistic elements pushes the sense conveying possibilities more into the background than usual, and those linguistic forms that restructure consciousness become emphasized. In this communication the tale telling is transformed by a language use characteristic of sacral communication (rhythm, repetition and rhetorical forms. Various examples explain that traditional tale telling creates a complex effect related to the visual, auditory, and kinetic senses: a modification and transformation of the self-understanding and self-identity that connect the world of tale telling to sacral communication.

  16. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Sacral Chordoma: An Analysis of 188 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Reiko, E-mail: r_imai@nirs.go.jp [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Araki, Nobuhito [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Abe, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Kanehira, Chihiro; Kaya, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Chuman, Hirokazu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Hiraga, Hiroaki; Hiruma, Toru; Machinami, Rikuo; Matsumine, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Morioka, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Takehiko; and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of carbon ion radiation therapy administered to 188 patients with unresectable primary sacral chordomas. Patients and Methods: One hundred eighty-eight patients were treated with carbon ion radiation therapy at a single institute between 1996 and 2013 and retrospectively analyzed. The median age was 66 years. The highest proximal invasion reached past S2 level in 137 patients. The median clinical target volume was 345 cm{sup 3}. One hundred six patients received 67.2 gray equivalents (GyE)/16 fractions (fr), 74 patients received 70.4 GyE/16 fr, 7 patients received 73.6 GyE/16 fr, and 1 patient received 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The median follow-up period was 62 months (range, 6.8-147.5 months). Seventy percent of patients were followed for 5 years or until death. The 5-year local control, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 77.2%, 81.1%, and 50.3%, respectively. Forty-one patients had a local recurrence. Sex, tumor volume, level of proximal invasion, and irradiated dose were unrelated to local control. There was grade 3 toxicity of the peripheral nerves in 6 patients and grade 4 toxicity of the skin in 2 patients. Ambulation remained in 97% of patients. Conclusions: Carbon ion radiation therapy was safe and effective for unresectable chordoma and provided good local control and survival while preserving ambulation.

  17. Herpes zoster-associated voiding dysfunction in hematopoietic malignancy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imafuku, Shinichi; Takahara, Masakazu; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Iwato, Koji; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction is a rare but important complication of lumbo-sacral herpes zoster. Although the symptoms are transient, the clinical impact on immunocompromised patients cannot be overlooked. To clarify the time course of voiding dysfunction in herpes zoster, 13 herpes zoster patients with voiding dysfunction were retrospectively analyzed. Of 13 patients, 12 had background disease, and six of these were hematopoietic malignancies; four of these patients were hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Ten patients had sacral lesions, two had lumbar, and one had thoracic lesions. Interestingly, patients with severe rash, or with hematopoietic malignancy had later onset of urinary retention than did patients with mild skin symptoms (Mann-Whitney U analysis, P = 0.053) or with other background disease (P = 0.0082). Patients with severe skin rash also had longer durations (P = 0.035). In one case, acute urinary retention occurred as late as 19 days after the onset of skin rash. In immune compromised subjects, attention should be paid to patients with herpes zoster in the lumbo-sacral area for late onset of acute urinary retention even after the resolution of skin symptoms.

  18. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...

  19. Updated Outcome and Analysis of Tumor Response in Mobile Spine and Sacral Chordoma Treated With Definitive High-Dose Photon/Proton Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman, E-mail: peyman.kabolizadeh@beaumont.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin; Liebsch, Norbert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hornicek, Francis J.; Schwab, Joseph H. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Choy, Edwin [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rosenthal, Daniel I. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej; DeLaney, Thomas F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: Treatment of spine and sacral chordoma generally involves surgical resection, usually in conjunction with radiation therapy. In certain circumstances where resection may result in significant neurologic or organ dysfunction, patients can be treated definitively with radiation therapy alone. Herein, we report the outcome and the assessment of tumor response to definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients with unresected chordoma treated with photon/proton radiation therapy. Nineteen patients had complete sets of imaging scans. The soft tissue and bone compartments of the tumor were defined separately. Tumor response was evaluated by the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and volumetric analysis. Results: With a median follow-up time of 50.3 months, the rates of 5-year local control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, and distant failure were 85.4%, 81.9%, 89.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. Eighty-four computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed. Among the 19 patients, only 4 local failures occurred, and the median tumor dose was 77.4 GyRBE. Analysis at a median follow-up time of 18 months showed significant volumetric reduction of the total target volume (TTV) and the soft tissue target volume (STTV) within the first 24 months after treatment initiation, followed by further gradual reduction throughout the rest of the follow-up period. The median maximum percentage volumetric regressions of TTV and STTV were 43.2% and 70.4%, respectively. There was only a small reduction in bone target volume over time. In comparison with the modified RECIST, volumetric analysis was more reliable, more reproducible, and could help in measuring minimal changes in the tumor volume. Conclusion: These results continue to support the use of high-dose definitive radiation therapy for selected patients with unresected spine and sacral chordomas

  20. Updated Outcome and Analysis of Tumor Response in Mobile Spine and Sacral Chordoma Treated With Definitive High-Dose Photon/Proton Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Chen, Yen-Lin; Liebsch, Norbert; Hornicek, Francis J.; Schwab, Joseph H.; Choy, Edwin; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Niemierko, Andrzej; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of spine and sacral chordoma generally involves surgical resection, usually in conjunction with radiation therapy. In certain circumstances where resection may result in significant neurologic or organ dysfunction, patients can be treated definitively with radiation therapy alone. Herein, we report the outcome and the assessment of tumor response to definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients with unresected chordoma treated with photon/proton radiation therapy. Nineteen patients had complete sets of imaging scans. The soft tissue and bone compartments of the tumor were defined separately. Tumor response was evaluated by the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and volumetric analysis. Results: With a median follow-up time of 50.3 months, the rates of 5-year local control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, and distant failure were 85.4%, 81.9%, 89.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. Eighty-four computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed. Among the 19 patients, only 4 local failures occurred, and the median tumor dose was 77.4 GyRBE. Analysis at a median follow-up time of 18 months showed significant volumetric reduction of the total target volume (TTV) and the soft tissue target volume (STTV) within the first 24 months after treatment initiation, followed by further gradual reduction throughout the rest of the follow-up period. The median maximum percentage volumetric regressions of TTV and STTV were 43.2% and 70.4%, respectively. There was only a small reduction in bone target volume over time. In comparison with the modified RECIST, volumetric analysis was more reliable, more reproducible, and could help in measuring minimal changes in the tumor volume. Conclusion: These results continue to support the use of high-dose definitive radiation therapy for selected patients with unresected spine and sacral chordomas

  1. Organization of the motoneurons innervating the pelvic muscles of the male rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1980-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the motoneuron pool of the male rat was studied at the lumbo-sacral transition area, particularly in L6. In the latter segment a dorso-medial (DM), ventral (V), dorso-lateral (DL), and retrodorso-lateral group (RDL) could be defined. The DL group was associated...

  2. Contralateral lumbo-umbilical flap: A versatile technique for volar finger coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hussain Bijli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While contemplating any difficult soft tissue reconstruction, patient comfort and compliance is of paramount importance. Reconstruction of the volar aspect of fingers and hand by the ipsilateral pedicled flaps (groin flap, abdominal flaps is demanding as the flap inset is difficult for the surgeon and very uncomfortable for the patient. This often leads to flap complications. For the comfort of the patient, better compliance and ease of complete inset, we planned to manage soft tissue defects of the volar aspect of fingers and hand by a new contralateral pedicled lumbo-umbilical flap. This flap is based on the paraumbilical perforators of deep inferior epigastric artery. Materials and Methods: The contralateral pedicled lumbo-umbilical flap was used in eight patients with high-tension electrical burn injuries involving the volar aspect of fingers and hand. The patients were closely observed for first 6 weeks for any flap or donor site complications and then followed monthly to assess donor and recipient site characteristics for 6 months to 2 years. Results and Conclusion: Large flaps up to 8 cm × 16 cm were raised. All but one flaps survived completely. All patients were mobilised within 48 h and five were discharged in less than a week after initial inset. The flap is reliable, easy to harvest and easy to inset on the volar aspect of fingers. The arm is positioned in a very comfortable position. The main disadvantage, however, is a conspicuous abdominal scar.

  3. Postpartum Sacral Stress Fracture: An Atypical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Speziali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral stress fractures are common in elderly people. However, sacral stress fracture should be always screened in the differential diagnoses of low back pain during the postpartum period. We present a case of sacral fracture in a thirty-six-year-old woman with low back pain and severe right buttock pain two days after cesarean section delivery of a 3.9 Kg baby. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI and CT scan, while X-ray was unable to detect the fracture. Contribution of mechanical factors during the cesarean section is not a reasonable cause of sacral fracture. Pregnancy and lactation could be risk factors for sacral stress fracture even in atraumatic delivery such as cesarean section. Our patient had no risk factors for osteoporosis except for pregnancy and lactation. Transient or focal osteoporosis is challenging to assess and it cannot be ruled out even if serum test and mineral density are within the normal range.

  4. Somatosensory-evoked potentials as an add-on diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lumbo-sacral spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent cause for chronic low back pain. The diagnosis is primarily radiological. Neural insult is not frequent in every case. Although the degree and type of LSS can exactly be described with the current imaging studies, the extent of neural impairment cannot be ...

  5. MRI of occult sacral insufficiency fractures following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammone, J.F.; Schweitzer, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Following radiation therapy, marrow abnormalities noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are frequent and may mimic metastases. Specific radiotherapy changes are usually easily identifiable; however, traumatic lesions cause more interpretive difficulties. We assessed the incidence and MRI characteristics of insufficiency fractures in this population. During a 5-year span (1987-1991), 546 patients received pelvic radiotherapy for primary malignancies. MRI was performed in 25 of these patients at least 3 months after treatment. The mean dose in this group was 53 Gy. These MRI scans were retrospectively reviewed for the appearance of the sacrum with particular attention to the presence of insufficiency fractures. This was correlated with clinical course and scintigraphic findings. Presumed insufficiency fractures on MRI paralleled the sacral side of the sacroiliac joint, enhanced with Gd-DTPA, were most prominent or initially seen anteriorly, and had ill-defined margins on all imaging sequences. The incidence of occult sacral insufficiency fractures was at least 20%. Insufficiency fractures of the sacrum in the post-radiotherapy patient are a relatively frequent occurrence which can mimic metastases. Consideration of this phenomenon and knowledge of differential features may avoid overdiagnosis of osseous metastases. (orig.)

  6. Lumbosacral osteomyelitis after robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Tyler M; Diwadkar, Gouri B; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

    2010-12-01

    We report on the transabdominal resection of infected lumbosacral bone, synthetic mesh, and sinus tract following sacral colpopexy. A 45-year-old nulliparous patient who had undergone transvaginal mesh followed by robot-assisted sacral colpopexy presented with increasing back pain and foul-smelling vaginal drainage. An epidural abscess required surgical intervention, including diskectomy, sacral debridement, and mesh removal to drain the abscess and vaginal sinus tract. Recognized complications of open prolapse procedures also manifest following minimally invasive approaches. Osteomyelitis of the sacral promontory following sacral colpopexy may require gynecologic and neurosurgical management.

  7. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  8. Parasacral Perforator Flaps for Reconstruction of Sacral Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Ta; Chen, Shih-Yi; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, pressure sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The parasacral perforator flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. We present our experience of using parasacral perforator flaps in reconstructing sacral defects. Between August 2004 and January 2013, 19 patients with sacral defects were included in this study. All the patients had undergone surgical reconstruction of sacral defects with a parasacral perforator flap. The patients' sex, age, cause of sacral defect, flap size, flap type, numbers of perforators used, rotation angle, postoperative complications, and hospital stay were recorded. There were 19 parasacral perforator flaps in this series. All flaps survived uneventfully except for 1 parasacral perforator flap, which failed because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The overall flap survival rate was 95% (18/19). The mean follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 2-24 months). The average length of hospital stay was 20.7 days (range, 9-48 days). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Also, there was no recurrence of sacral pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts during the follow-up period. Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor-site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Parasacral perforator flaps are durable and reliable in reconstructing sacral defects. We recommend the parasacral perforator flap as a good choice for reconstructing sacral defects.

  9. Adult polyglucosan body disease presenting as a unilateral progressive plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Elie; Kassardjian, Charles D; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Akman, Hasan Orhan; Windebank, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) usually presents with progressive spastic paraparesis, neurogenic bladder, and distal lower limb sensory abnormalities. It is caused by mutations in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1). We describe a woman with an unusual phenotype manifesting as progressive left brachial more than lumbosacral plexopathies, with central sensory and corticospinal tract involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine showed abnormal T2 signal within the ventral pons and medulla bilaterally, involving the pyramidal tracts and the medial leminisci. There was also medullary and cervical spine atrophy. On nerve biopsy, large polyglucosan bodies were noted in the endoneurium. The patient was found to be compound heterozygous for 2 novel mutations in GBE1. Peripheral blood leukocyte GBE activity was markedly reduced to 7% of normal, confirming the diagnosis of APBD. In this report we describe a new phenotype of APBD associated with 2 novel mutations. Muscle Nerve 53: 976-981, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sacral Variability in Tailless Species: Homo sapiens and Ochotona princeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Homo sapiens is variable in number of sacral vertebrae, and this variability can lead to obstetrical complication. This study uses the comparative method to test the hypothesis that sacral variability in H. sapiens is associated with absence of a tail. Three species of lagomorphs are studied: Ochotona princeps (N = 271), which is tailless, and Lepus californicus (N = 212) and Sylvilagus audubonii (N = 206), which have tails. Results show that O. princeps has (1) higher diversity index for number of sacral vertebrae (0.49) compared to L. californicus (0.25) and S. audubonii (0.26) and (2) significantly higher percentage of individuals with the species-specific nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (43.9%) compared to L. californicus (14.2%) and S. audubonii (15.5%). Comparison of H. sapiens (N = 1,030; individuals of age 20-39 years) with O. princeps shows similarities between the species in diversity index (also 0.49 in H. sapiens) and percentage of individuals with nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (37.3% in H. sapiens). Homeotic transformation best explains the results. H. sapiens and O. princeps show propensity for caudal shift at the sacral-caudal border (i.e., homeotic transformation of the first caudal vertebra to a sacral vertebra). Caudal and cranial shift among presacral vertebrae increases or decreases this propensity, respectively. Increase in number of sacral vertebrae in H. sapiens by homeotic transformation reduces pelvic outlet capacity and can be obstetrically hazardous. Anat Rec, 300:798-809, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bilateral chronic sacral neuromodulation for treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenfellner, M; Schultz-Lampel, D; Dahms, S; Matzel, K; Thüroff, J W

    1998-09-01

    Chronic sacral neuromodulation aims at functional restoration of selected forms of nonneurogenic and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The original technique, as described by Tanagho and Schmidt, provides unilateral sacral nerve stimulation via an implanted stimulator powering an electrode inserted into a sacral foramen. Its drawback was that the implant failed unpredictably in some patients despite previous successful percutaneous test stimulation. Therefore, we modified the stimulation technique to improve the efficacy of chronic sacral neuromodulation. Guarded bipolar electrodes powered by an implantable neurostimulator were attached bilaterally directly to the S3 nerves through a sacral laminectomy in 9 women and 2 men (mean age 43.4 years). Of the patients 5 had urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperactivity and 6 had urinary retention from detrusor hypocontractility. Mean followup with repeated urodynamics was 13 months (range 9 to 28). Four significant complications were encountered in 4 patients. In 10 patients the urological sequelae of the neurological disorder were alleviated significantly (50% or more), including 5 who experienced complete relief of symptoms. The efficacy of chronic sacral neuromodulation can be improved by bilateral attachment of electrodes directly to the sacral nerves.

  12. Descrição do esqueleto axial de Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho (Iguania, Liolaemidae: regiões pré-sacral e sacral Description of the axial skeleton of Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro et al. (Iguania, Liolaemidae: pre-sacral and sacral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho, 2003 (Iguania, Liolaemidae é um pequeno lagarto de areia, que vive nos ambientes de restingas da Laguna dos Patos. A descrição do esqueleto desta espécie pode elucidar algumas relações filogenéticas em relação a outras espécies do gênero. Tendo por objetivo a descrição das regiões pré-sacral e sacral do esqueleto axial de L. arambarensis, foram analisados sete exemplares da espécie. Observou-se que a maior estrutura axial é a coluna vertebral, que é dividida nas regiões: cervical, dorsal, sacral e caudal. A região cervical possui oito vértebras, e as costelas aparecem a partir da quarta vértebra. A região dorsal é dividida em: torácica, com cinco vértebras portando costelas unidas ao esterno; e pós-torácica, com 11 vértebras portando costelas livres. Segue-se a região sacral com duas vértebras fusionadas, que portam processos transversos fortemente expandidos lateralmente. O esterno de L. arambarensis constitui-se de uma placa cartilaginosa calcificada que se comunica com a região torácica da coluna vertebral e com a cintura escapular. Em vista do descrito anteriormente, pode-se dizer que L. arambarensis apresenta os padrões de esqueleto axial descritos para espécies de sua família e gênero.Liolaemus arambarensis Verrastro, Veronese, Bujes & Dias Filho, 2003 (Iguania: Liolaemidae is a small sand lizard that inhabits restingas in the Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. The description of the skeleton in this species could give some insights about the phylogenetic relationships with other species of the genus. With the main goal of describing the pre-sacral and sacral regions of the axial skeleton of L. arambarensis, a total of seven individuals were analyzed. It was observed that the largest axial structure is the vertebral column that is divided into four regions: cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal. The cervical region presents eight vertebra and the

  13. Developmental identity versus typology: Lucy has only four sacral segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnicki, Allison L; Lovejoy, C Owen; Reno, Philip L

    2016-08-01

    Both interspecific and intraspecific variation in vertebral counts reflect the action of patterning control mechanisms such as Hox. The preserved A.L. 288-1 ("Lucy") sacrum contains five fused elements. However, the transverse processes of the most caudal element do not contact those of the segment immediately craniad to it, leaving incomplete sacral foramina on both sides. This conforms to the traditional definition of four-segmented sacra, which are very rare in humans and African apes. It was recently suggested that fossilization damage precludes interpretation of this specimen and that additional sacral-like features of its last segment (e.g., the extent of the sacral hiatus) suggest a general Australopithecus pattern of five sacral vertebrae. We provide updated descriptions of the original Lucy sacrum. We evaluate sacral/coccygeal variation in a large sample of extant hominoids and place it within the context of developmental variation in the mammalian vertebral column. We report that fossilization damage did not shorten the transverse processes of the fifth segment of Lucy's sacrum. In addition, we find that the extent of the sacral hiatus is too variable in apes and hominids to provide meaningful information on segment identity. Most importantly, a combination of sacral and coccygeal features is to be expected in vertebrae at regional boundaries. The sacral/caudal boundary appears to be displaced cranially in early hominids relative to extant African apes and humans, a condition consistent with the likely ancestral condition for Miocene hominoids. While not definitive in itself, a four-segmented sacrum accords well with the "long-back" model for the Pan/Homo last common ancestor. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:729-739, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sacral Stress Fracture following the Bone Union of Lumbar Spondylolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Sasaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While 22 articles have reported on sacral stress fractures, it is a rare injury and its etiology is not well known. We present the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with low back pain in 2015. He was a high school soccer player with a previous history of a bilateral L5 lumbar spondylolysis in 2014. The patient refrained from soccer and wore a brace for six months. Two months after restarting soccer, he again complained of low back pain. After 1 year, a lumbar spine computed tomography revealed the bone union of the spondylolysis. At his first visit to our hospital, his general and neurological conditions were normal and laboratory data were within the normal range. Sacral coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the left sacral ala revealed an oblique lineal signal void surrounding bone marrow edema. Based on his symptoms, sports history, and MRI, he was diagnosed with a sacral stress fracture. He again refrained from soccer; his low back pain soon improved, and, after 1 year, the abnormal signal change had disappeared on sacral MRI. Recurrent low back pain case caused by a sacral stress fracture occurring after the bone union of lumbar spondylolysis is uncommon.

  15. Levels of Bifurcation of the Sciatic Nerve among Ugandans at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sciatic nerve is derived from the lumbo-sacral plexus, It is the thickest nerve in the whole body, it exits the gluteal region through the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, it is the main innervator of the posterior thigh, the leg and foot, it usually ends halfway down the back of the thigh by dividing into the ...

  16. Bladder compliance after posterior sacral root rhizotomies and anterior sacral root stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Rosier, P. F.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of central detrusor denervation on bladder compliance, we studied 27 patients with complete suprasacral spinal cord injury in whom intradural posterior sacral root rhizotomies from S2 to S5 in combination with implantation of an intradural Finetech-Brindley bladder stimulator

  17. The sacral foramina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, H.; Burke, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The sacral foramina, particularly the first three, are not simple fenestrations. Each foramen is a Y-shaped complex of canals, all with indefinite margins. The complexes lie obliquely at approximately 45 0 to the coronal plane. An appreciation of these facts facilitates the recognition of the anatomy of plain films, tomographs, and computerized scans. (orig.)

  18. Four Cases of Urinary Dysfunction Associated with Sacral Herpes Zoster

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 朋博; 大庭, 康司郎; 宮田, 康好; 井川, 掌; 酒井, 英樹

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were adminis...

  19. Introduction of laparoscopic sacral colpopexy to a fellowship training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly; Sutkin, Gary; Winger, Dan; Wang, Li; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Minimally invasive sacral colpopexy has increased over the past decade, with many senior physicians adopting this new skill set. However, skill acquisition at an academic institution in the presence of postgraduate learners is not well described. This manuscript outlines the introduction of laparoscopic sacral colpopexy to an academic urogynecology service that was not performing minimally invasive sacral colpopexies, and it also defines a surgical learning curve. The first 180 laparoscopic sacral colpopexies done by four attending urogynecologists from January 2009 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was operative time. Secondary outcomes included conversion to laparotomy, estimated blood loss, and intra- and postoperative complications. Linear regression was used to analyze trends in operative times. Fisher's exact test compared surgical complications and counts of categorical variables. Mean total operative time was 250 ± 52 min (range 146-452) with hysterectomy and 222 ± 45 (range 146-353) for sacral colpopexy alone. When compared with the first ten cases performed by each surgeon, operative times in subsequent groups decreased significantly, with a 6-16.3% reduction in overall times. There was no significant difference in the rate of overall complications regardless of the number of prior procedures performed (p = 0.262). Introduction of laparoscopic sacral colpopexy in a training program is safe and efficient. Reduction in operative time is similar to published learning curves in teaching and nonteaching settings. Introducing this technique does not add additional surgical risk as these skills are acquired.

  20. CT-guided fixation of sacral fractures and sacrolilac joint disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.W.; Duwelius, P.

    1990-01-01

    Placement of sacral fixation screws at surgery is performed blindly (ie, by palpation). The authors of this paper employed CT to localize the screw between the neutral foramina and anterior sacral cortex and to decrease the morbidity associated with general anesthesia and surgery. Six patients underwent CT-guided sacral fixation performed by means of the 7.0 mm A0 cannulated screw system. All patients had reducible vertical sacral fractures or sacroiliac joint disruptions. Following placement of an epidural catheter for anesthesia, patients were scanned in the prone or decubitus position. Measurements for placement of the guide pin were made from the preliminary scans. Following CT confirmation of satisfactory guide pin placement across the fracture, the screw track was drilled, the screw length was determined, and the fixation screw was placed in position. A CT scan was obtained to evaluate the final position of the screw

  1. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the sacral nerve plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, MK; Gupta, Nishant; Anand, Rama; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Ewing's sarcoma / primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the sacral nerve plexus in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a soft tissue swelling and severe piercing pain in the lower back region. MRI of the lumbosacral spine showed a lobulated soft tissue mass with clubbed finger-like projections along the path of the sacral nerves, which had caused widening of the spinal canal and the sacral foramina (S2–S4 level). There was presacral extension and posterior scalloping of the sacral vertebrae. Histopathology of the lesion confirmed Ewing's sarcoma / PNET of the sacral spinal nerve plexus. The patient responded favorably to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, showing clinical and radiological improvement

  2. MR imaging of sacral and perisacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.H.; Levine, E.; Murphey, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit demonstrates the utility of MR imaging in evaluating sacral and perisacral lesions. Thirty-two lesions were studied using a superconducting 1.0-T MR imager. Eleven primary and 13 metastatic tumors, four congenital lesions, and four arachnoid cysts were evaluated. MR did not usually enable a more specific histologic diagnosis than other imaging techniques. However, extraosseous and proximal spinal extent of tumors was well defined without use of oral or intravenous contrast material. MR imaging is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating most sacral and perisacral lesions and is particularly helpful when precise tumor extent must be determined for treatment planning

  3. Reduction of Risk for Low Back Injury in Theater of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    trunk extension.4,11 From a position of full trunk flexion, the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring muscles work together to actively rotate the...erector spinae and multifidus, extend the lumbo-sacral spine, while the gluteals and hamstrings de-rotate the pelvis and extend the hip. The relative...and more powerful gluteals and hamstrings generate the majority of force.4,11 Therefore, to accurately assess the function of and apply progressive

  4. The application of sacral block anesthesia in pediatric interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Liang; Qin Zenghui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the management and feasibility of sacral block anesthesia in pediatric interventional therapy. Methods: A total of 80 pediatric patients were randomly and equally divided into two groups. Patients in group A received sacral block anesthesia together with basic anesthesia with propofol, while patients in group B received intravenous anesthesia with propofol. Small amount of ketamine as maintaining dose was used in both groups when needed. Results: The interventional management was successfully completed in all patients. A marked decrease in blood pressure occurred in three patients of group A receiving sacral block anesthesia. In group B receiving intravenous anesthesia, a decrease of SpO 2 to below 90 percent was seen in 8 cases, and obvious bradycardia developed in 12 cases. All these patients were treated with intravenous medication or by reducing the dose of propofol. Additional small dose of ketamine was needed in 4 patients during the procedure. Conclusion: Sacral block anesthesia combined with intravenous anesthesia is one of the effective anesthesia management schemes for pediatric interventional therapy. (authors)

  5. Presacral abscess as a rare complication of sacral nerve stimulator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, A; Ayyar, S; Varia, H; Pettit, S

    2017-03-01

    A 50-year-old man with intractable anal pain attributed to proctalgia fugax underwent insertion of a sacral nerve stimulator via the right S3 vertebral foramen for pain control with good symptomatic relief. Thirteen months later, he presented with signs of sepsis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large presacral abscess. MRI demonstrated increased enhancement along the pathway of the stimulator electrode, indicating that the abscess was caused by infection introduced at the time of sacral nerve stimulator placement. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, and the sacral nerve stimulator and electrode were removed. Attempts were made to drain the abscess transrectally using minimally invasive techniques but these were unsuccessful and CT guided transperineal drainage was then performed. Despite this, the presacral abscess progressed, developing enlarging gas locules and extending to the pelvic brim to involve the aortic bifurcation, causing hydronephrosis and radiological signs of impending sacral osteomyelitis. MRI showed communication between the rectum and abscess resulting from transrectal drainage. In view of the progressive presacral sepsis, a laparotomy was performed with drainage of the abscess, closure of the upper rectum and formation of a defunctioning end sigmoid colostomy. Following this, the presacral infection resolved. Presacral abscess formation secondary to an infected sacral nerve stimulator electrode has not been reported previously. Our experience suggests that in a similar situation, the optimal management is to perform laparotomy with drainage of the presacral abscess together with simultaneous removal of the sacral nerve stimulator and electrode.

  6. [Sacral pressure sores and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Marek; Skowroński, Rafał; Skowroński, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Sacral bed sores still present a serious problem in most surgery departments. They occur mainly in elderly patients of limited mobility. The treatment of such sores extends over long periods of time and therefore involves considerable costs. The material consisted of 11 sacral pressure ulcers treated surgically. The sores occurred in 4 severely disabled patients suffering from proximal third femur fractures, 4 patients with traumatic brain injury (treated in the Intensive Care Unit), and 3 patients suffering from bed sores after spinal cord injury. In 6 patients a fasciocutaneous flap was applied to the sores and in 5 cases a pedicled musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flap. The end results were assessed using Seiler's criteria. Complications of the "seroma" type were observed in 3 patients, and in 2 marginal necrosis. In all our patients complete healing was achieved within 2-4 weeks. On analysing our experience to date in surgical treatment of bed sores we are of the opinion that even extensive sacral sores can be covered with unilateral pedicled flaps provided that they are appropriately planned. Deep sores of the 4th degree sometimes with concomitant osteomyelitis require pedicled muscle flaps or in some cases musculocutaneous flaps to improve local circulation. The preparation of the patient for reconstruction surgery is just as important as the operation itself and therefore such preparation should never be neglected.

  7. Cost of dressings for prevention of sacral pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kelly Cristina; Matsuda, Laura Misue

    2016-01-01

    to identify costs of dressings to prevent sacral pressure ulcers in an adult intensive care unit in Paraná, Brazil. secondary analysis study with 25 patients admitted between October 2013 and March 2014, using transparent polyurethane film (n=15) or hydrocolloid dressing (n=10) on the sacral region. The cost of each intervention was based on the unit amount used in each type of dressing, and its purchase price (transparent film = R$15.80, hydrocolloid dressing = R$68.00). the mean cost/patient was R$23.17 for use of transparent film and R$190.40 for use of hydrocolloid dressing. The main reason for changing the dressing was detachment. the transparent film was the most economically advantageous alternative to prevent sacral pressure ulcers in critical care patients. However, additional studies should be carried out including assessment of the effectiveness of both dressings.

  8. Improving patient knowledge about sacral nerve stimulation using a patient based educational video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppson, Peter Clegg; Clark, Melissa A; Hampton, Brittany Star; Raker, Christina A; Sung, Vivian W

    2013-10-01

    We developed a patient based educational video to address the information needs of women considering sacral nerve stimulation for overactive bladder. Five semistructured focus groups were used to identify patient knowledge gaps, information needs, patient acceptable terminology and video content preferences for a patient based sacral nerve stimulation educational video. Each session was transcribed, independently coded by 2 coders and examined using an iterative method. A 16-minute educational video was created to address previously identified knowledge gaps and information needs using patient footage, 3-dimensional animation and peer reviewed literature. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate participant sacral nerve stimulation knowledge and therapy attitudes. We then performed a randomized trial to assess the effect of the educational video vs the manufacturer video on patient knowledge and attitudes using our questionnaire. We identified 10 patient important domains, including 1) anatomy, 2) expectations, 3) sacral nerve stimulation device efficacy, 4) surgical procedure, 5) surgical/device complications, 6) post-procedure recovery, 7) sacral nerve stimulation side effects, 8) postoperative restrictions, 9) device maintenance and 10) general sacral nerve stimulation information. A total of 40 women with overactive bladder were randomized to watch the educational (20) or manufacturer (20) video. Knowledge scores improved in each group but the educational video group had a greater score improvement (76.6 vs 24.2 points, p <0.0001). Women who watched the educational video reported more favorable attitudes and expectations about sacral nerve stimulation therapy. Women with overactive bladder considering sacral nerve stimulation therapy have specific information needs. The video that we developed to address these needs was associated with improved short-term patient knowledge. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  9. [Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction.

  10. Detection of neurological deficits by computed tomography in sacral fracture patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Daisuke; Numazaki, Shin; Katsumura, Tetsu; Tamaru, Tomohiko; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Nakamura, Jun-ichiro; Saitoh, Tomoyuki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between sacral fractures and neurological deficits as complications. From November 2002 to February 2005, 12 patients (15 fractures) were found to have sacral fractures without other spinal injuries or brain injuries and were evaluated by plain CT scans immediately after trauma. This group included 6 males and 6 females, whose age ranged from 17 to 67 years with mean of 39.9±17.4. All patients were classified according to AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Osteosynthesefragen) classification (pelvic ring fracture) and Denis's classification. Displacements of sacral fractures were evaluated by plain CT scans for all patients. We defined displacements using the key slice in CT scans that included the first foramen in the sacrum. Five cases, including 2 with bi-lateral sacral fractures, were complicated with neurological deficits. There was one case with a neurological deficit of 7 Type B fractures (14%) and 4 cases with neurological deficits of 5 Type C fractures (80%) in the AO classification. There were 6 fractures with neurological deficits of 12 Zone II fractures (50%) and one fracture with neurological deficits of one Zone III fractures (100%) in Denis's classification. There was a significant correlation between the extent in the displacement of the sacral fractures and neurological deficits. For more than 3 mm displacements in the medial or lateral or anterior directions, neurological deficits increased significantly. In emergency medicine, it is difficult to evaluate the neurological findings of patients with impaired consciousness. Our evaluation using CT scan is valuable as a predictor of neurological deficits and for an optimal reduction in sacral fractures in patients with in impaired consciousness. (author)

  11. Computer Navigation-aided Resection of Sacral Chordomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Kun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35-84 years old. Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18-84 months. Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7% exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19-30. Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill.

  12. Transcutaneous sacral neurostimulation for irritative voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, I K; Johnston, R S; Keane, P F

    1999-01-01

    Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the third sacral dermatomes for 1 week. Symptoms of frequency, nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain were scored by each patient throughout and up to 6 months following treatment. The mean daytime frequency was reduced from 11.3 to 7.96 (p = 0.01). Nocturia episodes were reduced from a mean of 2.6 to 1.8 (p = 0.01). Urgency and bladder pain mean symptom scores were reduced from 5.97 to 4.89 and from 1.48 to 0.64, respectively. After stopping therapy, symptoms returned to pretreatment levels within 2 weeks in 40% of the patients and within 6 months in 100%. Three patients who continued with neurostimulation remained satisfied with this treatment modality at 6 months. Transcutaneous third sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective and noninvasive ambulatory technique for the treatment of patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction. Following an initial response, patients may successfully apply this treatment themselves to ensure long-term relief.

  13. Intrapartum sacral stress fracture due to pregnancy-related osteoporosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Aydoğ, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and hip pain frequently occur during pregnancy and postpartum period. Although pelvic and mechanic lesions of the soft tissues are most responsible for the etiology, sacral fracture is also one of the rare causes. A 32-year-old primigravid patient presented with LBP and right hip pain which started 3 days after vaginal delivery. Although direct radiographic examination was normal, magnetic resonance imaging of the sacrum revealed sacral stress fracture. Lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral density showed osteoporosis as a risk factor. There were no other risk factors such as trauma, excessive weight gain, and strenuous physical activity. It is considered that the patient had sacral fatigue and insufficiency fracture in intrapartum period. The patient's symptoms subsided in 3 months after physical therapy and rest. In conclusion, sacral fractures during pregnancy and postpartum period, especially resulting from childbirth, are very rare. To date, there are two cases in the literature. In cases who even do not have risk factors related to vaginal delivery such as high birth weight infant and the use of forceps, exc., sacral fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of LBP and hip pain started soon after child birth. Pregnancy-related osteoporosis may lead to fracture during vaginal delivery.

  14. Sacral root neuromodulation in the treatment of various voiding and storage problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H; Hassouna, M M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of sacral neuromodulation as a treatment modality for patients with bladder dysfunction. The dual functions of the urinary bladder are to act as a reservoir and to evacuate under voluntary control. Bladder dysfunction is a descriptive term describing the loss or the impairment of one or both of these functions. In the first part of the manuscript we describe the different components of sacral neuromodulation: the screening test known as percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE), which involves screening patients who could potentially benefit from the therapy. Those who show a satisfactory response will have a permanent neuroprosthesis implanted. The technical aspects of both components of neuromodulation are described in detail, as well as the technical difficulties encountered. In the second part we present our long-term results in patients with sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation is a safe and efficient therapeutic modality that helps patients with refractory voiding dysfunction restore their bladder function.

  15. Reduction and temporary stabilization of Tile C pelvic ring injuries using a posteriorly based external fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Murphy P; Rojas, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2017-12-05

    Tile C pelvic ring injuries are challenging to manage even in the most experienced hands. The majority of such injuries can be managed using percutaneous reduction techniques, and the posterior ring can be stabilized using percutaneous transiliac-transsacral screw fixation. However, a subgroup of patients present with inadequate bony corridors, significant sacral zone 2 comminution or significant lateral/vertical displacement of the hemipelvis through a complete sacral fracture. Percutaneous strategies in such circumstances can be dangerous. Those patients may benefit from prone positioning and open reduction of the sacral fracture with fixation through tension band plating or lumbo-pelvic fixation. Soft tissue handling is critical, and direct reduction techniques around the sacrum can be difficult due to the complex anatomy and the fragile nature of the sacrum making clamp placement and tightening a challenge. In this paper, we propose a mini-invasive technique of indirect reduction and temporary stabilization, which is soft tissue friendly and permits maintenance of reduction during definitive fixation surgical.

  16. MRI findings of type II sacral agenesis: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang A; Kim, Myung Soon; Kwon, Woo Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sacral agenesis (or caudal regression syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly involving various levels of coccygeal, sacral, and even lumbar or lower thoracic vertebral dysgenesis, as well as spinal cord abnormalities. A few cases have been previously reported in Korea, especially based upon MRI findings. We describe a case of a 4-year-old girl with partially bilateral agenesis of the sacrum (type II), and club-shaped (chisel-shaped) spinal cord disruption. We also review MRI findings of sacral agenesis, focused on classification and radiological findings.

  17. MR myelography of sacral meningeal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Katase, S.; Hachiya, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the findings of sacral meningeal cysts (SMCs) on MR myelography and assess its value for the diagnosis of SMCs. Material and Methods: We evaluated the MR images and MR myelograms obtained from 10 patients with SMC. MR myelograms were obtained using a 2D or 3D single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In 5 patients, X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images were compared with the MR myelograms. Results: A total of 33 SMCs were diagnosed within the spinal canal and/or sacral foramen. MR myelograms clearly revealed each cyst as a well-defined mass showing hyperintensity (10 cysts) or isointensity (23 cysts) compared to cerebrospinal fluid. MR myelograms demonstrated SMCs better than X-ray myelograms and postmyelographic CT images in 3 of the 5 patients. Conclusion: MR myelography can be an adjunct to conventional imaging techniques when surgical treatment is indicated, because it can precisely delineate the extent of SMCs. (orig.)

  18. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  19. Sacral root neuromodulation in idiopathic nonobstructive chronic urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H S; Hassouna, M

    1998-05-01

    Sacral root neuromodulation is becoming a superior alternative to the standard treatment of idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention. We report results in 20 successive patients who underwent sacral foramen implantation to restore bladder function. After an initial, thorough baseline assessment 20 patients 19.43 to 55.66 years old with idiopathic nonobstructive urinary retention underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation. Response was assessed by a detailed voiding diary. Responders underwent implantation with an S3 foramen implant, and were followed 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively, and every 6 months thereafter. Sacral root neuromodulation restored voiding capability in these patients. Bladders were emptied with minimal post-void residual urine, which decreased from 78.3 to 5.5 to 10.2% of the total voided volume from baseline to postoperative followup. These results were reflected in uroflowmetry and pressure-flow studies, which were almost normal after implantation. Furthermore, the urinary tract infection rate decreased significantly and associated pelvic pain improved substantially. The Beck depression inventory and SF-36 quality of life questionnaire indicated some improvement but reached significance in only 1 item. In addition, cystometrography showed no significant difference after 6 months of implantation compared with baseline values. Complications were minimal and within expectations. Sacral root neuromodulation is an appealing, successful modality for nonobstructive urinary retention. Only patients who have a good response to percutaneous nerve evaluation are candidates for implantation. The high efficacy in patients who undergo implantation, relative simplicity of the procedure and low complication rate make this a treatment breakthrough in this difficult group.

  20. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  1. Sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of the unstable bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J L

    1998-07-01

    Sacral neuromodulation as a treatment for urge incontinence in patients with an unstable bladder is the subject of ongoing clinical studies. Although approximately 75% of the patients treated with a permanent sacral foramen electrode implant have experienced significant improvements, it is now also clear that there is an initial failure rate of about 25%. Recent studies have pointed out the importance of improved patient selection on the basis of sex differences, urodynamic parameters and psychological factors. Also, newer forms of test stimulation and permanent electrode implantation are being explored in an effort to improve on the present results.

  2. Sacral Neuromodulation in Patients With a Cardiac Pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Gahzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe our experience using sacral neuromodulation to treat urinary urgency, frequency, urge incontinence, and chronic urinary retention in patients with cardiac pacemakers. With the increasingly widespread use of InterStim for bladder function restoration, we are seeing more complex patients with multiple comorbidities, including cardiac conditions. Herein, we report 3 cases of individuals with cardiac pacemakers who underwent InterStim implantation to treat urinary conditions. This study is a case series of 3 patients with cardiac pacemakers who underwent sacral neuromodulation to treat refractory voiding dysfunction. The initial patient screening for InterStim therapy involved percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE, in which a temporary untined lead wire was placed through the S3 foramen. Patients who did not respond to PNE proceeded to a staged implant. All patients in this study had a greater than 50% improvement of their urinary symptoms during the initial trial and underwent placement of the InterStim implantable pulse generator (IPG. Postoperative programming was done under electrocardiogram monitoring by a cardiologist. No interference was observed between the Inter-Stim IPG and the cardiac pacemaker. In this group of patients, sacral neuromodulation in the presence of a cardiac pacemaker appears to have been safe.

  3. The predictive value of the sacral base pressure test in detecting specific types of sacroiliac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Travis D.; Urli, Kristina E.; Breitenbach, Jacques; Yelverton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the sacral base pressure test in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It also determined the predictive powers of the test in determining which type of sacroiliac joint dysfunction was present. Methods This was a double-blind experimental study with 62 participants. The results from the sacral base pressure test were compared against a cluster of previously validated tests of sacroiliac joint dysfunction to determine its validity and predictive powers. The external rotation of the feet, occurring during the sacral base pressure test, was measured using a digital inclinometer. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the results of the sacral base pressure test between the types of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. In terms of the results of validity, the sacral base pressure test was useful in identifying positive values of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It was fairly helpful in correctly diagnosing patients with negative test results; however, it had only a “slight” agreement with the diagnosis for κ interpretation. Conclusions In this study, the sacral base pressure test was not a valid test for determining the presence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction or the type of dysfunction present. Further research comparing the agreement of the sacral base pressure test or other sacroiliac joint dysfunction tests with a criterion standard of diagnosis is necessary. PMID:19674694

  4. Comparison of Aorta-sacral Promontory Distance with Age and BMI in Female Patients Undergoing CT

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha Mary Varghese; Suresh Sukumar; Abhimanyu Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sacral colpopexy is the gold standard procedure for pelvic organ prolapse. During sacral colpopexy, various complications such as haemorrhage can occur. Careful dissection of presacral space is essential to minimize complications. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare patient age and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Computed Tomography (CT) measured aorta-sacral promontory distance. Materials and Methods: From 172 samples data such as age and BMI of female patients aged 18 ye...

  5. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  6. Sacral Stress Fracture in an Amateur Badminton Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yuasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral stress fractures are rare among athletes but have been reported most frequently in long distance runners. We report herein the first case of a sacral stress fracture in an amateur badminton player. A 16-year-old, left-handed adolescent girl, who had just started to play badminton 3 months previously, complained of acute left buttock pain when she received a shuttlecock. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a linear lesion of the left sacrum with low signal intensity on T1- and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which was consistent with a stress fracture. Conservative treatment with rest relieved her symptoms. Her fracture was considered to have occurred due to repetition of an exercise that caused excessive vertical power.

  7. Restoration of bladder function in spastic neuropathic bladder using sacral deafferentation and different techniques of neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Bross, S; Scheepe, J R; Alken, P; Jünemann, K P

    1999-01-01

    Conventional sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) results in simultaneous activation of both the detrusor muscle and the external urethral sphincter. We evaluated the possibilities of different neurostimulation techniques to overcome stimulation induced detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and to achieve a physiological voiding. The literature was reviewed on different techniques of sacral anterior root stimulation of the bladder and the significance of posterior rhizotomy in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury suffering from the loss of voluntary bladder control, detrusor hyperreflexia and sphincter spasm. The achievement of selective detrusor activation would improve current sacral neurostimulation of the bladder, including the principle of "poststimulus voiding". This is possible with the application of selective neurostimulation in techniques of anodal block, high frequency block, depolarizing prepulses and cold block. Nowadays, sacral deafferentation is a standard therapy in combination with neurostimulation of the bladder because in conclusion advantages of complete rhizotomy predominate. The combination of sacral anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation is a successful procedure for restoration of bladder function in patients with supraconal spinal cord injury. Anodal block technique and cryotechnique are excellent methods for selective bladder activation to avoid detrusor-sphincter-dyssynergia and thus improve stimulation induced voiding.

  8. Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Constipation: Suboptimal Outcome and Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Lundby, Lilli; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events.......Sacral nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment for patients with severe constipation. There has been no substantial report to date on suboptimal outcomes and complications. We report our experience of more than 6 years by focusing on incidents and the management of reportable events....

  9. Cytodiagnosis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Shukla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the cytological findings of a sacro-coccygeal chordoma in a 53 year male diagnosed preoperatively by guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears shows characteristic Physalliphorous cells in a metachromatic background of myxoid material entrapping cords of cuboidal cells. Differential diagnosis in cytology include conventional and myxoid chondrosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma, metastatic mucinous carcinoma and myxo-papillary ependymoma. The distinguishing features between these neoplasms are discussed. Preoperative diagnosis of chordoma permits optimum planned surgery. Keywords: chordoma; myxoid; sacral.

  10. Sacral nerve stimulation can be an effective treatment for low anterior resection syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftaiha, S M; Balachandran, B; Marecik, S J; Mellgren, A; Nordenstam, J; Melich, G; Prasad, L M; Park, J J

    2017-10-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation has become a preferred method for the treatment of faecal incontinence in patients who fail conservative (non-operative) therapy. In previous small studies, sacral nerve stimulation has demonstrated improvement of faecal incontinence and quality of life in a majority of patients with low anterior resection syndrome. We evaluated the efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome using a recently developed and validated low anterior resection syndrome instrument to quantify symptoms. A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome was performed. Procedures took place in the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery at two academic tertiary medical centres. Pre- and post-treatment Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores and Low Anterior Resection Syndrome scores were assessed. Twelve patients (50% men) suffering from low anterior resection syndrome with a mean age of 67.8 (±10.8) years underwent sacral nerve test stimulation. Ten patients (83%) proceeded to permanent implantation. Median time from anterior resection to stimulator implant was 16 (range 5-108) months. At a median follow-up of 19.5 (range 4-42) months, there were significant improvements in Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Scores and Low Anterior Resection Syndrome scores (P syndrome and may therefore be a viable treatment option. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Safe Zone Quantification of the Third Sacral Segment in Normal and Dysmorphic Sacra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, John S; Reilly, Mark C; Shaath, Mohammad K; Changoor, Stuart; Eastman, Jonathan; Routt, Milton Lee Chip; Sirkin, Michael S; Adams, Mark R

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the osseous anatomy of the dysmorphic third sacral segment and assess its ability to accommodate internal fixation. Retrospective chart review of a trauma database. University Level 1 Trauma Center. Fifty-nine patients over the age of 18 with computed tomography scans of the pelvis separated into 2 groups: a group with normal pelvic anatomy and a group with sacral dysmorphism. The sacral osseous area was measured on computed tomography scans in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes in normal and dysmorphic pelves. These measurements were used to determine the possibility of accommodating a transiliac transsacral screw in the third sacral segment. In the normal group, the S3 coronal transverse width averaged 7.71 mm and the S3 axial transverse width averaged 7.12 mm. The mean S3 cross-sectional area of the normal group was 55.8 mm. The dysmorphic group was found to have a mean S3 coronal transverse width of 9.49 mm, an average S3 axial transverse width of 9.14 mm, and an S3 cross-sectional area of 77.9 mm. The third sacral segment of dysmorphic sacra has a larger osseous pathway available to safely accommodate a transiliac transsacral screw when compared with normal sacra. The S3 segment of dysmorphic sacra can serve as an additional site for screw placement when treating unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures.

  12. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  13. Retention of urine and sacral paraesthesia in anogenital herpes simplex infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edis, R H

    1981-01-01

    Two definite and 2 probable cases of anogenital herpes simplex and sacral radiculitis are described. Symptoms were typical and consisted of paraesthesia and neuralgic pain in the perineum and legs, urinary retention and constipation occurring within several days to a week after an anogenital herpetic eruption. However, at presentation only 1 case had an obvious history of anogenital herpes simplex. Neurological signs were not striking and consisted of a reduced appreciation of light touch and pin prick over the sacral dermatomes and in 2 cases reduced anal sphincter tone. CSF examination in 3 patients showed a lymphocytosis. Bladder catheterisation was required for up to 2 weeks in 2 patients. The paraesthesia persisted for weeks to months. It should be more widely recognised that anogenital herpes simplex, with sacral radiculitis, is probably the commonest cause of acute retention of urine in young sexually active people.

  14. Surgically Treated Symptomatic Prolapsed Lumbar and Sacral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: There are various postulated possible causes of surgically symptomatic prolapsed intervertebral discs in the lumbar and sacral regions. They may be acting singularly or collectively. Yet, these factors, which could vary in different environments, have not been satisfactorily confirmed. The intention ...

  15. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  16. Spinal CT scan, 2. Lumbar and sacral spines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi (Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan))

    1982-08-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival.

  17. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools

    OpenAIRE

    W?jcik, Ma?gorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.24?0.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.14?0.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.01?0.84, mean of years of ...

  18. CT-guided screw fixation of vertical sacral fractures in local anaesthesia using a standard CT; CT-kontrollierte Schraubenosteosynthese von vertikalen Frakturen des hinteren Beckenringes in Lokalanaesthesie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuther, G.; Dehne, I. [Thueringen-Klinik, Saalfeld (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Roehner, U.; Will, T.; Petereit, U. [Thueringen-Klinik, Saalfeld (Germany). Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate time efficiency, radiation dose, precision and complications of percutaneous iliosacral screw placement under CT-guidance in local anaesthesia. Retrospective analysis of 143 interventions in 135 patients during a period of 42 months. Implant failures could be evaluated in 85/182 screws and bony healing or refracturing in 46/182 screws. A total of 182 iliosacral screw placements in 179 vertical sacral fractures (105 unilateral, 37 bilateral) took place in 135 patients. 166/179 of the sacral fractures were detected in Denis zone 1, 10 in Denis zone 2 and 3 in Denis zone 3. No screw misplacements including the simultaneous bilateral procedures were noted. The average time for a unilateral screw placement was 23 minutes (range: 14-52 minutes) and 35 minutes (range: 21-60 minutes) for simultaneous bilateral screwing. The dose length product was 365 mGy x cm (range: 162-1014 mGy x cm) for the unilateral and 470 mGy x cm (range: 270-1271 mGy x cm) for the bilateral procedure. 1 gluteal bleeding occurred as the only acute minor complication (0.7%). Fracture healing was verified with follow-up CTs in 42/46 sacral fractures after screw placement. Backing out occurred in 12/85 screws between 6 and 69 days after intervention. In 8 patients contralateral stress fractures were detected after unilateral screw placement between day 10 and 127 (average: 48 days). CT-guided iliosacral screw placement in sacral fractures is a safe tool providing a very high precision. The radiation dose is in the order of a diagnostic CT of the pelvis for both unilateral and bilateral screws. Contralateral stress fractures in unilateral screw placements have to be considered during the first weeks after intervention.

  19. Clinical results of a brindley procedure: sacral anterior root stimulation in combination with a rhizotomy of the dorsal roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Brindley procedure consists of a stimulator for sacral anterior-root stimulation and a rhizotomy of the dorsal sacral roots to abolish neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Stimulation of the sacral anterior roots enables micturition, defecation, and erections. This overview discusses the technique,

  20. The analysis of the effective of preserving sacral nerve root during surgical treatment of chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yiming; Chen Kangwu; Yang Huilin; Zhu Lifan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effective of preserving sacral nerve root during surgical treatment of sacral chordoma. Methods: This retrospective study included 30 cases of sacral chordomas. All the cases were operated with posterior approach. The blood loss and blood transfusion during operation, the drainged blood after operation were reviewed. The sphincter muscle function of bladder and bowl were observed. Results: Tremendous reduction of blood loss during surgery was found in all cases, the blood loss was 1280 ml in average, the blood transfusion was 1080 ml in average, the drainged blood after ope-ration was 650 ml. Nine patients whose sacral nerve roots had been reserved bilaterally at and above S 3 level, the sphincter muscle function of bladder and bowl was good, whereas the function of sphincter muscle impaired in the other 21 patients and in one case colostomy and ureterocutaneostomy were used. Conclusion: Preoperative arterial embolization is effective method and can lead to excellent results. Even if the tumor is relatively huge and the upper resection margin is as high as at S 1 or S 2 level, the tumor can be removed successfully by posterior approach. Sacral nerve should be preserved as possible. (authors)

  1. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  2. Giant Sacral Chondrosarcoma in an Elderly Male : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HZ Chan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary sacral tumours are rare, therefore experience of managing their associated complications are very limited. Effective surgical treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma remains a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, due to the complex anatomic structure of the pelvis, the lack of defined compartment borders, the close vicinity to vital structures, and the risk of jeopardizing pelvic structural stability. We report a rare case of a giant sacral chondrosarcoma (100cm x 80cm in an elderly male who successfully underwent tumour resection with good functional outcome and recovery. Long term follow up is essential in view of the possibility of local tumour recurrence.

  3. Sacral Ewing's Sarcoma and Challenges in it's Diagnosis on MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D'Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-yr old boy presented with low backache for 4 months associated with weakness of left lower limb. MRI of lumbosacral spine showed a sacral lesion with intraspinal and presacral soft tissue extension with neural compression. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was considered in the view of high prevalence in this part of the world, however biopsy revealed Ewing's sarcoma. Ewing's tumor of sacrum is rare, but should be suspected in low backache in children. Differential diagnosis for a sacral lesion includes tuberculosis, pyogenic osteomyelitis, lymphoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. MRI is sensitive in detecting these lesions but is nonspecific requiring histopathological examination for confirmation.

  4. Ligament-induced sacral fractures of the pelvis are possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Hammer, Niels; Lingslebe, Uwe; Höch, Andreas; Klink, Thomas; Böhme, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    Pelvic ring stability is maintained passively by both the osseous and the ligamentous apparatus. Therapeutic approaches focus mainly on fracture patterns, so ligaments are often neglected. When they rupture along with the bone after pelvic ring fractures, disrupting stability, ligaments need to be considered during reconstruction and rehabilitation. Our aim was to determine the influence of ligaments on open-book injury using two experimental models with body donors. Mechanisms of bone avulsion related to open-book injury were investigated. Open-book injuries were induced in human pelves and subsequently investigated by anatomical dissection and endoscopy. The findings were compared to CT and MRI scans of open-book injuries. Relevant structures were further analyzed using plastinated cross-sections of the posterior pelvic ring. A fragment of the distal sacrum was observed, related to open-book injury. Two ligaments were found to be responsible for this avulsion phenomenon: the caudal portion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament and another ligament running along the ventral surface of the third sacral vertebra. The sacral fragment remained attached to the coxal bone by this second ligament after open-book injury. These results were validated using plastination and the structures were identified. Pelvic ligaments are probably involved in sacral avulsion caused by lateral traction. Therefore, ligaments should to be taken into account in diagnosis of open-book injury and subsequent therapy. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: Myelo-CT and MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visciani, A.; Balestrini, M.R.; Solero, C.L.; Savoiardo, M.

    1989-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy, treated for acute lymphatic leukemia at the age of 2 with intrathecal injections of Methotrexate, presented with a two year history of pain and signs of lumbo-sacral lesion. MRI, myelography and myelo-CT demonstrated an intradural L4-L5 epidermoid tumor which was removed. Iatrogenic implantation of epithelial cells at the age of two with lumbar punctures is most likely. Decline in incidence of lumbar iatrogenic epidermoid cysts, now an exceedingly rare event, is probably related to improved needles for lumbar punctures. (orig.).

  6. Iatrogenic intraspinal epidermoid tumor: Myelo-CT and MRI diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visciani, A.; Balestrini, M.R.; Solero, C.L.; Savoiardo, M.

    1989-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy, treated for acute lymphatic leukemia at the age of 2 with intrathecal injections of Methotrexate, presented with a two year history of pain and signs of lumbo-sacral lesion. MRI, myelography and myelo-CT demonstrated an intradural L4-L5 epidermoid tumor which was removed. Iatrogenic implantation of epithelial cells at the age of two with lumbar punctures is most likely. Decline in incidence of lumbar iatrogenic epidermoid cysts, now an exceedingly rare event, is probably related to improved needles for lumbar punctures. (orig.)

  7. Specific Changes in Brain Activity During Urgency in Women with Overactive Bladder after Successful Sacral Neuromodulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Bhavsar, Rupal; Rao, Hengyi; Wein, Alan J; Detre, John A; Arya, Lily A; Smith, Ariana L

    2018-04-06

    The mechanism of sacral neuromodulation is poorly understood. We compared brain activity during urgency before and after sacral neuromodulation in women with overactive bladder and according to response to treatment. Women with refractory overactive bladder who elected for sacral neuromodulation were invited to undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging exam before and after treatment. During the imaging exams, the bladder was filled until urgency was experienced. Regions of interest were identified a priori, and brain activity in these regions of interest was compared before and after treatment as well as according to treatment response. A whole brain exploratory analysis with an uncorrected voxel level threshold of pbrain regions that changed after sacral neuromodulation. Among 12 women who underwent a pretreatment functional magnetic resonance imaging exam, seven were successfully treated with sacral neuromodulation and underwent a posttreatment exam. After sacral neuromodulation, brain activity decreased in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (all pbrain regions with increased activity after sacral neuromodulation. Pretreatment brain activity levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, and right sensorimotor cortex were higher in women who underwent successful treatment (all pBrain activity during urgency changes after successful sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation may be more effective in women with higher levels of pretreatment brain activity during urgency. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome with livedoid haemangioma and amniotic band].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrat, E; Lemarchand-Venencie, F; Jacquemont, M-L; El Ghoneimi, A; Wassef, M; Leger, J; Morel, P

    2008-12-01

    PELVIS or SACRAL syndrome denotes the association of local haemangioma and malformation in the pelvic region. In this paper, we report a case noteworthy on account of the initially livedoid appearance of the haemangioma as well as associated amniotic banding of an upper limb. A newborn male infant underwent left colostomy on the day of birth due to anal imperforation and anomalies of the external genital organs with sexual ambiguity. Examination of the skin and appendages revealed poorly delineated hypopigmentation in the sacrolumbar region and a fibrous groove around the right arm characteristic of amniotic band syndrome. Sacrolumbar and pelvic MRI scans revealed deviation towards the left of the last three sacral vertebrae with no medullary anomalies. Retrograde cystography showed a recto-uretral fistula. Progression of the infant's condition was marked by the appearance during the first month of a flat, violaceous, angiomatous, livedoid lesion in the middle of the buttocks and the perineum and a linear lesion on the rear aspect of the right lower limb. The skin biopsy of this lesion revealed a single capillary lobule at the dermal-hypodermal junction of non-specific appearance but with marked Glut1 expression by endothelial cells highly evocative of infantile haemangioma. Segmented haemangiomas are commonly associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. By analogy with PHACE syndrome, defined as association of segmented facial haemangioma with cerebral, ocular and cardio-aortic abnormalities, PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome denotes the association of segmented haemangioma of the loins (sacrolumbar region, buttocks or perineum=napkin haemangioma) with spinal dysraphia affecting the sacrolumbar spine, the terminal medullary cone, the genitourinary organs and the anal region to different degrees. Diagnosis of haemangioma associated with PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome may be delayed or complicated due to the macular, telangiectasic or livedoid appearance commonly seen. To our

  9. Rectal ulcer in a patient with VZV sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Tokushige, Shin-ichi; Mizuno, Hideo; Igeta, Yukifusa; Hashida, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the case of a 55-year-old woman with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) sacral meningoradiculitis (Elsberg syndrome) who presented with herpes zoster in the left S2 dermatome area, urinary retention, and constipation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed the left sacral nerve root swelling with enhancement. Thereafter, she suddenly showed massive hematochezia and hemorrhagic shock because of a rectal ulcer. To elucidate the relation between Elsberg syndrome and rectal ulcer, accumulation of similar cases is necessary. To avoid severe complications, attention must be devoted to the possibility of rectal bleeding in the early stage of Elsberg syndrome.

  10. Surface localization of sacral foramina for neuromodulation of bladder function. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Shanahan, D A; Pridie, A K; Neal, D E

    1996-01-01

    A method is described for percutaneous localization of the sacral foramina, for neuromodulation of bladder function. We carried out an anatomical study of 5 male and 5 female human cadaver pelves. Using the described surface markings, needles were placed percutaneously into all sacral foramina from nine different angles. Paths of needle entry were studied by subsequent dissection. We observed that although it was possible to enter any sacral foramen at a wide range of insertion angles, the incidence of nerve root/vascular penetration increased with increasing angle of needle entry. Also, the incidence of nerve root penetration was higher with the medial approach compared with lateral entry. The insertion of a needle into the S1 foramen was associated with a higher incidence of nerve root penetration and presents a potential for arterial haemorrhage. On the other hand the smaller S3 and S4 nerve roots were surrounded by venous plexuses, presenting a potential source of venous haemorrhage during procedures. Our study suggests a new method for identifying the surface markings of sacral foramina and it describes the paths of inserted needles into the respective foramina. In addition, it has highlighted some potential risk factors secondary to needle insertion.

  11. Sacral electrical neuromodulation as an alternative treatment option for lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Volker; Höfner, Klaus; Thon, Walter F.; Kuczyk, Markus A.; Jonas, Udo

    1999-01-01

    Temporary electrical stimulation using anal or vaginal electrodes and an external pulse generator has been a treatment modality for urinary urge incontinence for nearly three decades. In 1981 Tanagho and Schmidt introduced chronic electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves using a permanently implanted sacral foramen electrode and a battery powered pulse generator for treatment of different kinds of lower urinary tract dysfunction, refractory to conservative treatment. At our department chronic unilateral electrical stimulation of the S3 sacral spinal nerve has been used for treatment of vesi-courethral dysfunction in 43 patients with a mean postoperative follow up of 43,6 months. Lasting symptomatic improvement by more than 50 % could be achieved in 13 of 18 patients with motor urge incontinence (72,2 %) and in 18 of the 21 patients with urinary retention (85,7 %). Implants offer a sustained therapeutic effect to treatment responders, which is not achieved by temporary neuromodulation. Chronic neuromodulation should be predominantly considered in patients with urinary retention. Furthermore in patients with motor urge incontinence, refusing temporary techniques or in those requiring too much effort to achieve a sustained clinical effect. Despite high initial costs chronic sacral neuromodulation is an economically reasonable treatment option in the long run, when comparing it to the more invasive remaining therapeutic alternatives.

  12. Are chiropractic tests for the lumbo-pelvic spine reliable and valid? A systematic critical literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the peer-reviewed literature about the reliability and validity of chiropractic tests used to determine the need for spinal manipulative therapy of the lumbo-pelvic spine, taking into account the quality of the studies. DATA SOURCES: The CHIROLARS database......-pelvic spine were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Data quality were assessed independently by the two reviewers, with a quality score based on predefined methodologic criteria. Results of the studies were then evaluated in relation to quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: None of the tests studied had been sufficiently...... evaluated in relation to reliability and validity. Only tests for palpation for pain had consistently acceptable results. Motion palpation of the lumbar spine might be valid but showed poor reliability, whereas motion palpation of the sacroiliac joints seemed to be slightly reliable but was not shown...

  13. Pneumorrhachis Secondary From Sacral Decubitus Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Moayedi, Siamak; Babin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    An elderly woman with a chronic decubitus sacral ulcer presented to the emergency department with sepsis. A computed tomography of her abdomen showed diffuse gas extending throughout the thoracolumbar spinal canal. Pneumorrhachis is a rare radiographic finding defined as gas within the spinal canal. There are many causes of pneumorrhachis ranging from trauma to infection. In this case the pneumorrhachis was caused by direct spread of gas-forming organisms from vertebral osteomyelitis. Emergen...

  14. Critical Anatomy Relative to the Sacral Suture: A Postoperative Imaging Study After Robotic Sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Herfel, Charles V; Pauls, Rachel N; Westermann, Lauren B; Kleeman, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize pertinent anatomy relative to the sacral suture placed at time of robotic sacrocolpopexy using postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A vascular clip was placed at the base of the sacral suture at the time of robotic sacrocolpopexy. Six weeks postoperatively, subjects returned for a computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Ten subjects completed the study. The middle sacral artery and vein coursed midline or to the left of midline in all the subjects. The left common iliac vein was an average of 26 mm from the sacral suture. To the right of the suture, the right common iliac artery was 18 mm away. Following the right common iliac artery to its bifurcation, the right internal iliac was on average 10 mm from the suture. The bifurcations of the inferior vena cava and the aorta were 33 mm and 54 mm further cephalad, respectively.The right ureter, on average, was 18 mm from the suture. The thickness of the anterior longitudinal ligament was 2 mm.The mean angle of descent of the sacrum was 70 degrees. Lastly, we found that 70% of the time, a vertebral body was directly below the suture; the disc was noted in 30%. We describe critical anatomy surrounding the sacral suture placed during robotic sacrocolpopexy. Proximity of both vascular and urologic structures within 10 to 18 mm, as well as anterior ligament thickness of only 2 mm highlights the importance of adequate exposure, careful dissection, and surgeon expertise.

  15. Sacral orientation and spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Masharawi, Youssef; Been, Ella; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2009-12-01

    A descriptive study (based on skeletal material) was designed to measure sacral anatomic orientation (SAO) in individuals with and without spondylolysis. To test whether a relationship between SAO and spondylolysis exists. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the pars interarticularis (mainly of L5). The natural history of the phenomenon has been debated for years with opinions divided, i.e., is it a developmental condition or a stress fracture phenomenon. There is some evidence to suggest that sacral orientation can be a "key player" in revealing the etiology of spondylolysis. The pelvis was anatomically reconstructed and SAO was measured as the angle created between the intersection of a line running parallel to the superior surface of the sacrum and a line running between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the anterior-superior edge of the symphysis pubis (PUBIS).SAO was measured in 99 adult males with spondylolysis and 125 adult males without spondylolysis. The difference between the groups was tested using an unpaired t test. Spondylolysis prevalence is significantly higher in African-Americans compared to European-Americans: 5.4% versus 2.04% in males (P < 0.001) and 2.31% versus 0.4%, P < 0.001 in females. SAO was significantly lower in the spondylolytic group (44.07 degrees +/- 11.46 degrees) compared to the control group (51.07 degrees +/- 8.46 degrees, P < 0.001). A more horizontally oriented sacrum leads to direct impingement on L5 pars interarticularis by both L4 inferior articular facet superiorly and S1 superior articular facet inferiorly. Repetitive stress due to standing (daily activities) or sitting increases the "pincer effect" on this area, and eventually may lead to incomplete synostosis of the neural arch.

  16. Effect of surgical approach on physical activity and pain control after sacral colpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Tulikangas, Paul K; O'Sullivan, David M

    2012-05-01

    We sought to compare recovery of activity and pain control after robotic (ROB) vs abdominal (ABD) sacral colpopexy. Women undergoing ROB and ABD sacral colpopexy wore accelerometers for 7 days preoperatively and the first 10 days postoperatively. They completed postoperative pain diaries and Short Form-36 questionnaires before and after surgery. At 5 days postoperatively, none of the 14 subjects in the ABD group and 4 of 28 (14.3%) in the ROB group achieved 50% total baseline activity counts (P = .283). At 10 days, 5 of 14 (35.7%) in the ABD group and 8 of 26 (30.8%) in the ROB group (P = .972) achieved 50%. Postoperative pain was similar in both groups. Short Form-36 vitality scores were lower (P = .017) after surgery in the ABD group, but not in the ROB group. Women undergoing ROB vs ABD sacral colpopexy do not recover physical activity faster, and pain control is not improved. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurological presentations, imaging, and associated anomalies in 50 patients with sacral agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Naeini, Parisa; Rahbar, Ziba; Nejat, Farideh; Kajbafzadeh, Abdolmohammad; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2010-10-01

    Sacral agenesis is an uncommon congenital disorder that involves multiple organs. We studied neurological manifestations of the disease, common associated disorders, and their relation with extent of bony malformation. We investigated neurological manifestations of 50 patients with sacral agenesis. Patients were evaluated for previous procedures, ambulation, limb abnormalities, vertebral alignment, recurrent urinary tract infection, urinary incontinence, dribbling, dimple, lower extremities weakness, myelomeningocele (MMC), and lipomyelomenangocele. Weakness of lower extremities was seen in 37 (74%) patients. Concurrent weakness of proximal and distal muscles of the lower limb was statistically associated with a type of bony aplasia (P = .001). However, paraplegia was seen in only 2 of 44 children over the age of 1, and the rest could walk. Myelodysplastic syndromes were seen in 21 patients. Sacral agenesis is diagnosed in children with concomitant MMC at younger ages and reveals more severe symptoms. Progression of neurological disorders was seen in 19 patients, in all of whom MRI showed tethering of the spinal cord. Urinary disorders including diurnal urinary incontinence (in 30 of 35 children over age 4) and recurrent urinary tract infections (in 37) were also common. Imperforate anus was seen in 11 patients. Twelve children over age 4 reported fecal incontinence, a problem that had statistically significant association with imperforate anus (P = .013). Different disorders can concurrently affect patients with sacral agenesis that may have profound impressions on patients and their families. Early diagnosis, thorough evaluation, and proper intervention are of utmost importance as they can prevent or lessen future complications.

  18. National trends in the usage and success of sacral nerve test stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Anger, Jennifer T; Madison, Rodger; Saigal, Christopher S; Clemens, J Quentin

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about outcomes of sacral neuromodulation in the general community, with published reports to date limited to case series or randomized, controlled trials. The goal of this analysis was to identify the national sacral neuromodulation test phase success rate and patient factors that contribute to success. Medical claims data were obtained from a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (1997 to 2007) and from employees of 25 large (Fortune 500) companies (Ingenix®, 2002 to 2007). Using billing codes for the sacral neuromodulation procedure, success was defined as progressing from test phase (percutaneous or staged) to battery implantation. The rate of success was compared based on age, race, gender and diagnosis. In the Medicare sample 358 patients received percutaneous test stimulation and 1,132 underwent 2-stage lead placement, of whom 45.8% and 35.4%, respectively, underwent subsequent battery implantation. In the privately insured sample there were 266 percutaneous procedures and 794, 2-stage procedures. Percutaneous procedures were followed by battery placement in 24.1% of cases, whereas 50.9% of staged procedures resulted in battery implantation. Gender was the only consistent predictor of success, with female patients demonstrating higher success rates in each data set. The sacral neuromodulation success rates in these data sets are inferior to those published in case series and small randomized, controlled trials. Women had significantly better results than men and privately insured individuals had better results than those with Medicare, indicating a potential age effect. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sacral insufficiency fractures: an easily overlooked cause of back pain in the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, John G

    2011-03-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures are an important and treatable cause of severe back pain. Despite publication of several case reports since its original description in 1982, awareness of these injuries remains inadequate in emergency medicine. Most patients are elderly women presenting with intractable lower back pain. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most significant risk factor. Marked sacral tenderness is common. Neurologic impairment is rarely detectable. Routine radiography of the spine and pelvis is usually inconclusive. Computed tomography remains the diagnostic modality of choice. Treatment is usually conservative.

  20. Acute urinary retention attributable to sacral herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, J; Mudd, D

    2004-11-01

    Acute urinary retention in women is uncommon. A 63 year old woman presented with suprapubic pain, a palpable bladder, and multiple grouped vesicles on the right buttock. Catheterisation showed a residual of 2000 ml. A case is reported of acute urinary retention secondary to herpes zoster infection of the sacral nerves (S2-4).

  1. Prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a prospective trauma population: Implications for a "safe" surgical corridor for sacro-iliac screw placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Justin T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI screw fixation represents a widely used technique in the management of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries and sacral fractures. The misplacement of SI-screws under fluoroscopic guidance represents a critical complication for these patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sacral dysmorphia and the radiographic anatomy of surgical S1 and S2 corridors in a representative trauma population. Methods Prospective observational cohort study on a consecutive series of 344 skeletally mature trauma patients of both genders enrolled between January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2007, at a single academic level 1 trauma center. Inclusion criteria included a pelvic CT scan as part of the initial diagnostic trauma work-up. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was determined by plain radiographic pelvic films and CT scan analysis. The anatomy of sacral corridors was analyzed on 3 mm reconstruction sections derived from multislice CT scan, in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. "Safe" potential surgical corridors at S1 and S2 were calculated based on these measurements. Results Radiographic evidence of sacral dysmorphia was detected in 49 patients (14.5%. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069. In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99 having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal, compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P P = 0.06, implying S2 as a safe surgical corridor of choice in patients with sacral dysmorphia. Conclusions These findings emphasize a high prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a representative trauma population and imply a higher risk of SI-screw misplacement in female patients

  2. Subarachnoid and basal cistern navigation through the sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Lauren; Riascos, Roy; Firouzbakht, Farhood; Amole, Adewumi; Von Ritschl, Rudiger; Dipatre, Pier; Cuellar, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    Intraspinal navigation with catheters and fiberscopes has shown feasible results for diagnosis and treatment of intraspinal and intracranial lesions. The most common approach, lumbar puncture, has allowed access to the spinal cord, however, coming with the difficulties of fiberscope damage and decreased torque for guidance. Our objective in this study is to allow an alternate access, the sacral hiatus, with guide wire assistance into the subarachnoid and intracranial structures, while easing the angle of entry and increasing torque. We advanced catheters with guide wire and fluoroscopy assistance into the sacral hiatus of three cadavers. After entry, the thecal sac was punctured and the catheter with guide wire was advanced rostrally until positioned in the basal cisterns of the brain. We confirmed catheter placement with contrast injection, autopsy, and dissection. In our study, the sacral hiatus was easily accessed, but resistance was found when attempting to puncture the thecal sac. The advancement of the catheter with guide wire assistance glided easily rostrally until some mild resistance was discovered at entry into the foramen magnum. With redirection, all catheters passed with ease into the basal cisterns. Positioning was confirmed with contrast injection with fluoroscopy evidence, autopsy, and dissection. There was no macroscopic or microscopic evidence of damage to the spinal roots, spinal cord, or cranial nerves. The sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance is an accessible conduit for uncomplicated entry into the subarachnoid and basal cistern space without damaging surrounding structures.

  3. Postoperative Issues of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence and Constipation: A Systematic Literature Review and Treatment Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Yasuko; Matzel, Klaus; Lundby, Lilli

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge on the incidence and management of suboptimal therapeutic effect and the complications associated with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review current literature on postoperative issues...... and to propose a treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched using the keywords “sacral nerve stimulation,” “sacral neuromodulation,” “fecal incontinence,” and “constipation” for English-language articles published from January 1980 to August 2010. A further search was conducted...

  4. Spinal epidermoid cyst with sudden onset of paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidermoid cysts, whether congenital or iatrogenic, are relatively uncommon in the spinal cord. When they occur, the typical location is in the subdural, extramedullary space of the lumbo-sacral region. We describe an unusual presentation in a 3-year-old male child which mimicked astrocytoma clinicoradiologically. The child developed sudden onset of inability in walking and weakness of both lower limbs after a fall. There was a dramatic reversal of symptoms after surgery. Histopathology revealed an epidermoid cyst of the spine. On the first follow-up visit at 3 months, the child was asymptomatic.

  5. Prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a prospective trauma population: Implications for a "safe" surgical corridor for sacro-iliac screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenboehler, Erik A; Stahel, Philip F; Williams, Allison; Smith, Wade R; Newman, Justin T; Symonds, David L; Morgan, Steven J

    2011-05-10

    Percutaneous sacro-iliac (SI) screw fixation represents a widely used technique in the management of unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries and sacral fractures. The misplacement of SI-screws under fluoroscopic guidance represents a critical complication for these patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sacral dysmorphia and the radiographic anatomy of surgical S1 and S2 corridors in a representative trauma population. Prospective observational cohort study on a consecutive series of 344 skeletally mature trauma patients of both genders enrolled between January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2007, at a single academic level 1 trauma center. Inclusion criteria included a pelvic CT scan as part of the initial diagnostic trauma work-up. The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was determined by plain radiographic pelvic films and CT scan analysis. The anatomy of sacral corridors was analyzed on 3 mm reconstruction sections derived from multislice CT scan, in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. "Safe" potential surgical corridors at S1 and S2 were calculated based on these measurements. Radiographic evidence of sacral dysmorphia was detected in 49 patients (14.5%). The prevalence of sacral dysmorphia was not significantly different between male and female patients (12.2% vs. 19.2%; P = 0.069). In contrast, significant gender-related differences were detected with regard to radiographic analysis of surgical corridors for SI-screw placement, with female trauma patients (n = 99) having significantly narrower corridors at S1 and S2 in all evaluated planes (axial, coronal, sagittal), compared to male counterparts (n = 245; P dysmorphia. These findings emphasize a high prevalence of sacral dysmorphia in a representative trauma population and imply a higher risk of SI-screw misplacement in female patients. Preoperative planning for percutaneous SI-screw fixation for unstable pelvic and sacral fractures must include a detailed CT scan analysis to determine

  6. Imaging of sacral tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Leclere, J.; Vanel, D.; Missenard, G.; Pinieux, G. de

    2008-01-01

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Partial Cut-out of Sacroiliac Screws From the Sacral Ala Slope via Pelvic Inlet and Outlet View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Hamilton, Ryan; Li, Ming; Ebraheim, Nabil A; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Limei

    2015-12-01

    An anatomic and radiographic study of placement of sacroiliac screws. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the sacral ala slope via inlet and outlet view. The partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the superior surface of sacral ala can jeopardize the L5 nerve root, which is difficult to identify on the pelvic inlet and outlet views. Computed tomography images of 60 patients without pelvic ring deformity or injury were used to measure the width (on inlet view) and height (on outlet view) of the sacral ala. The angle of the sacral ala slope was measured on lateral view. According to the measured parameters, the theoretical safe trajectories of screw placement were calculated using inverse trigonometric functions. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a sacroiliac screw was placed close to the midline on both inlet and outlet views, including posterosuperior, posteroinferior, anterosuperior, and anteroinferior regions to the midline. The incidence of screw partial cut-out from the superior surface of sacral ala was identified. The measured widths and heights of the sacral alas were 28.1 ± 2.8 and 29.8 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The average angle between the superior aspect of the S1 vertebral body and the superior aspect of the sacral ala was 37.2 ± 2.5 degrees. The rate of partial cut-out of the screws from the superior surface of sacral ala slope was 12.5% (5/40) in posterosuperior, 0% (0/40) in posteroinferior, 70% (28/40) in anterosuperior, and 20% (8/40) in anteroinferior. To avoid the risk of partial cut-out from sacroiliac screw placement, more precise description should be added to the conventional description: the sacroiliac screws should be placed at the inferior half portion on outlet view and at the posterior half portion on inlet view. 4.

  9. Sacral myeloradiculitis complicating genital herpes in a HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, I; Quereda, C; Navas, E; Pérez-Elias, M J; Jover, F; Moreno, S

    2005-02-01

    Myeloradiculitis is a rare neurological complication of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, frequently associated with a fatal outcome. Among patients with HIV infection, HSV-2 myeloradiculitis has occasionally been reported, always associated with advanced immunosuppression and AIDS. We report a patient with HIV infection but no history of previous opportunistic infections, who developed sacral myeloradiculitis immediately after an episode of genital herpes. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed necrotizing myelitis in the conus medullaris and enhancement of sacral roots. CD4 lymphocyte count was 530/mm3. Other possible causes of myeloradiculitis in HIV-infected patients were appropriately excluded. Acyclovir therapy resulted in partial clinical improvement. This report shows that myeloradiculitis as a complication of genital herpes may occur in the early stages of HIV infection and may have a favourable outcome with antiviral treatment.

  10. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction – the pedicled superior gluteal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pressure sore reconstruction has always been challenging. Immobile patients are prone to develop pressure sores from unre- lieved pressure on tissue over the sacral area, with shear, friction, moisture and malnutrition as contributing factors. Up to one-third of immobilised patients in long-term care facilities will develop.

  11. Transsacral colon fistula: late complication after resection, irradiation and free flap transfer of sacral chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildhauer Thomas A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary sacral tumors are rare and experience related to accompanying effects of these tumors is therefore limited to observations on a small number of patients. Case presentation In this case report we present a patient with a history of primary sacral chondrosarcoma, an infection of an implanted spinal stabilization device and discuss the challenges that resulted from a colonic fistula associated with large, life threatening abscesses as late complications of radiotherapy. Conclusion In patients with sacral tumors enterocutaneous fistulas after free musculotaneous free flaps transfer are rare and can occur in the setting of surgical damage followed by radiotherapy or advanced disease. They are associated with prolonged morbidity and high mortality. Identification of high-risk patients and management of fistulas at an early stage may delay the need for subsequent therapy and decrease morbidity.

  12. Effect of spinal anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation on bladder and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaer, Hamed; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly devastating injury with a variety of complications; among them are neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sacral anterior root stimulation with sacral deafferentation (SARS-SDAF) on neurogenic bladder and sexual d...

  13. First experience using navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, J.H.; Kluge, P.; Sircar, R.; Kogias, E.; Scholz, C.; Krueger, M.T.; Scheiwe, C.; Hubbe, U. [Freiburg Univ. Medical Center, Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. Methods: In this single-center retrospective observational study, four consecutive patients with sacral insufficiency fractures were treated with navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty between April 2010 and May 2012. Symptom characteristics, pain duration and pain intensity were recorded for each patient. Cement extravasation was evaluated in thin-sliced and triplanar reconstructed CT scans of the sacrum. Results: Four female patients with painful sacral insufficiency fractures and extensive osteopenic areas significantly improved from an average pre-treatment VAS score of 8.3 {+-} 0.5 to 2.3 {+-} 1.0 (p < 0.001) on the first postoperative day and to 1.3 {+-} 1.9 (p < 0.004) at follow-up (mean, 20.1 weeks). Slight cement extravasations were observed without evidence of being symptomatic. No major complications or procedure-related morbidity were noted. Conclusion: From the limited experience in four patients, navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for sacral insufficiency fractures even though asymptomatic cement extravasation was noted. The use of navigation based on intraoperative 3 D images simplifies the positioning of the navigated bone needles via the long axis approach. The radiofrequency kyphoplasty system provides the possibility to administer a sufficient amount of bone cement with a well-defined viscosity over the entire period of the procedure leading to high security and low cement extravasation. Sacroplasty provides rapid and enduring pain relief and facilitates prompt mobilization. (orig.)

  14. U-shaped sacral fractures: Surgical treatment and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, A. J. G.; Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Haverlag, R.; Ponsen, K. J.; Been, H. D.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: U-shaped sacral fractures are rare and highly unstable pelvic ring fractures. They are not recognised in the standard classification systems of these fractures. The fracture pattern is associated with significant neurological injury and can lead to progressive deformity and chronic pain

  15. Imperfuração anal associada à agenesia parcial do sacro e lipoma pré-sacral: síndrome de Currarino Imperforate anus associated with partial sacral agenesis and presacral lipoma: Currarino syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo G. Zen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de uma criança com síndrome de Currarino diagnosticada após avaliação por episódios recorrentes de infecção urinária. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menina branca de dois anos, única filha de pais hígidos e sem história familiar de defeitos congênitos. A criança nasceu com imperfuração anal e com fístula retovestibular diagnosticadas no primeiro dia de vida. Por volta dos sete meses, começou a apresentar episódios recorrentes de infecção urinária, estabelecendo-se o diagnóstico de bexiga neurogênica. Na mesma ocasião, foi constatada a presença de agenesia parcial do sacro. A avaliação pela tomografia computadorizada e ressonância nuclear magnética de coluna identificou presença de fístula coincidente com a fosseta da transição lombo-sacral, observada ao exame físico; amputação da porção inferior da medula, com diminuição do número de raízes nervosas da cauda equina e massa pré-sacral de aspecto lipomatoso. Esta foi confirmada durante a cirurgia de correção do ânus imperfurado. A criança não apresentava outras dismorfias e a avaliação radiológica dos pais não identificou anormalidades sacrais. COMENTÁRIOS: A síndrome de Currarino é uma doença genética autossômica, dominante e rara caracterizada pela tríade formada por atresia anal, agenesia parcial do sacro e tumoração pré-sacral. Inclui teratomas, meningoceles, cistos entéricos e lipomas, como observado em nossa paciente. Crianças apresentando anormalidades anorretais deveriam ser sempre cuidadosamente avaliadas quanto à presença da síndrome de Currarino. A agenesia parcial do sacro é um forte indicativo da doença.OBJECTIVE: To report a patient with Currarino syndrome diagnosed after evaluation for recurrent urinary infections. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is a Caucasian two-year-old girl, the only daughter of healthy unrelated parents with no family history of congenital defects. The patient was born with imperforate

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of four-view radiography and conventional computed tomography analysing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger-Vanegas, S M; Senthirajah, S K J; Nemanic, S; Baltzer, W; Warnock, J; Bobe, G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to determine whether four-view radiography of the pelvis is as reliable and accurate as computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures, in addition to coxofemoral and sacroiliac joint subluxation or luxation, and (2) to evaluate the effect of the amount of training in reading diagnostic imaging studies on the accuracy of diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs. Sacral and pelvic fractures were created in 11 canine cadavers using a lateral impactor. In all cadavers, frog-legged ventro-dorsal, lateral, right and left ventro-45°-medial to dorsolateral oblique frog leg ("rollover 45-degree view") radiographs and a CT of the pelvis were obtained. Two radiologists, two surgeons and two veterinary students classified fractures using a confidence scale and noted the duration of evaluation for each imaging modality and case. The imaging results were compared to gross dissection. All evaluators required significantly more time to analyse CT images compared to radiographic images. Sacral and pelvic fractures, specifically those of the sacral body, ischiatic table, and the pubic bone, were more accurately diagnosed using CT compared to radiography. Fractures of the acetabulum and iliac body were diagnosed with similar accuracy (at least 86%) using either modality. Computed tomography is a better method for detecting canine sacral and some pelvic fractures compared to radiography. Computed tomography provided an accuracy of close to 100% in persons trained in evaluating CT images.

  17. The sacral autonomic outflow is parasympathetic: Langley got it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John P

    2018-04-01

    A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance. In reaction to this heated exchange, I now examine both sides to the controversy, together with purported errors by the pioneers in the field. I then explain, once more, why the sacral outflow should remain known as parasympathetic, and outline suggestions for future experimentation to advance the understanding of cellular identity in the autonomic motor system.

  18. Assessment of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex mobility with the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle test: intraobserver reliability and differences in ranges of motion between girls with idiopathic scoliosis and their healthy counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle (TPHA test is used for assessing the mobility of lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. The aim of the research was to assess the intraobserver reliability of the TPHA test in girls with and without idiopathic scoliosis and to compare the test values obtained by the girls in both groups.

  19. The Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbosacroiliac Triangle: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Patel, Apar S; Walter, Christina M; Avila, Mauricio J; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Demitri, Silvio; Baaj, Ali A

    2016-04-01

    The anatomic area delineated medially by the lateral part of the L4-L5 vertebral bodies, distally by the anterior-superior surface of the sacral wing, and laterally by an imaginary line joining the base of the L4 transverse process to the proximal part of the sacroiliac joint, is of particular interest to spine surgeons. We are referring to this area as the lumbo-sacro-iliac triangle (LSIT). Knowledge of LSIT anatomy is necessary during approaches for L5 vertebral and sacral fractures, sacral and iliac tumors, and extraforaminal decompression of the L5 nerve roots. We performed an anatomic dissection of the LSIT in 3 embalmed cadavers (6 triangles), using an anterior and posterior approach. We identified 3 key tissue planes: the neurological plexus plane, constituted by L4 and L5 nerve roots; an intermediate level constituted by the ileosacral tunnel; and posteriorly, by the lumbosacral ligament, and the posterior muscular plane. Improving anatomic knowledge of the LSIT may help surgeons decrease the risk of possible complications. When LSIT pathology is present, a lateral approach corresponding to the tip of the L4 transverse process, medially, is suggested to decrease the risk of vessel and nerve root damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the rostral projection of the sacral lamina as a component of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Harvey; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela

    2018-05-20

    To determine the association between a greater rostral projection of the sacral lamina and clinical signs of cauda equina syndrome (CES) in German shepherd dogs (GSD) with presumptive degenerative lumbosacral disease (DLSS). Retrospective cohort study. One hundred forty-three GSD (125 police dogs and 18 pet dogs) presenting for either CES or prebreeding evaluation. Fifty-five were classified as affected by CES and diagnosed with DLSS, and 88 were classified as unaffected on the basis of clinical and imaging findings. The position of the rostral edge of the sacral lamina was measured from radiographs and/or computed tomography (CT) scans. This position was compared between affected and unaffected dogs. In dogs that underwent both radiography and CT scanning, the agreement between sacral lamina localization using each imaging modality was determined. Owners/handlers were contacted to determine whether dogs subsequently developed clinical signs compatible with CES at a mean of 29 months (unaffected). The sacral lamina did not extend as far rostrally in affected dogs, compared to unaffected dogs (P = .04). Among the 88 dogs unaffected by CES at initial evaluation, 2 developed clinical signs consistent with CES at follow-up. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina, previously proposed as a potential risk factor in dogs with CES due to lumbosacral degeneration, was not associated with a diagnosis of DLSS in this study; the opposite was true. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina may not be a predisposing factor in the development of CES due to DLSS in GSD. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Diffusion tensor MRI and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  2. Sacral nerve root neuromodulation: an effective treatment for refractory urge incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, H S; Hassouna, M

    1998-05-01

    Sacral foramina implants have been recognized recently as a method for treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence. We study the outcome of the procedure with in-depth analysis of the results of 18 implanted cases. Patients with urinary urge incontinence were subjected to percutaneous nerve evaluation of the S3 roots as a temporary screening test to determine response to neuromodulation. Satisfactory responders were implanted with permanent sacral root neuroprosthesis. The study design included comprehensive voiding diaries for 4 consecutive days twice as a baseline, 1 with percutaneous nerve evaluation screening, 1 after the percutaneous nerve evaluation, 1 at the 1, 3 and 6 post-implantation visits, and every 6 months thereafter. Uroflowmetry and quality of life questionnaires were performed at the same intervals. Urodynamic study was done as a baseline and 6 months after implantation of the neuroprosthesis. All 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with refractory urge incontinence received a sacral foramina neuroprosthesis after demonstrating a good response to the percutaneous nerve evaluation. Average patient age at presentation was 42.3+/-3.3 years (range 22 to 67) and duration of urinary symptoms was 6.6+/-1.3 years (range 1.2 to 18.8). Average followup was 18.8 months (range 3 to 83). Neuromodulation in these patients showed a marked reduction in leakage episodes from 6.49 to 1.98 times per 24 hours and in the leakage severity score. Eight patients became completely dry and 4 had average leakage episodes of 1 or less daily. Patients showed as well a decrease in urinary frequency with an increase in functional bladder capacity. Associated pelvic pain improved substantially. Cystometrograms demonstrated increased volume at first sensation by 50% and increased cystometric capacity by 15% with the disappearance of uninhibited contractions in 1 of the 4 patients who presented with it preoperatively. There was also noticeable improvement in the quality of life

  3. Rare location of spondylitis tuberculosis;atlanto-axial, sacral and cervico-thoracic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio; Nasution, M. D.; Ibrahim, S.; Dharmajaya, R.

    2018-03-01

    Three cases of rare location spondylitis tuberculosis are reported, each in atlantoaxial, cervico-thoracic junction,and sacral. The complaints were aweakness of motoric strength and local back pain. Patients’thoracal x-ray was normal, there was no complaint of acough, PCR forTB was early diagnostic and positive in all three cases, HIV negative, intraoperative tissue samplings were sent for histopathology examination and the results showed thespecific inflammatory process. Lesions were evaluated with computer tomography and/or MRI imaging.Preoperative TB regimens therapy were given for 2 weeks and continued for nine months. The surgical procedurewas done in all cases with excellent improvement of symptoms and motoric strength. In our institution,25 cases of total TB spondylitis were performed in 2 years, only 1 case eachwas found in atlanto-axial, cervico-thoracic and sacral.

  4. [Primary genital herpes with sacral meningoradiculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, P-N; Anguenot, J-L; Dubuisson, J-B

    2004-02-01

    Herpetic genital infection is a common sexually transmitted disease, caused in most cases by type 2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV2). This virus is characterized by its neurotropic properties and its ability to establish latency in sacral sensory ganglions. Some cases of genital primo-infection are complicated by viral replication dissemination to neigbhoring nerve structures like meninges and radicular terminations. In such cases muco-cutaneous manifestations are associated with peripheral neurological impairment in the form of meningo-radiculitis. Physicians should be familiar with these neurological symptoms knowing that they always regress completely. The present report illustrates these complications and reviews the potential neurological implications described in the literature.

  5. Clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for high-grade l5-s1 spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Deviren, V; Berven, S; Kleinstueck, F; Bradford, D S

    2001-10-15

    A clinical retrospective study was conducted. To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of reduction followed by trans-sacral interbody fusion for high-grade spondylolisthesis. In situ posterior interbody fusion with fibula allograft has improved the fusion rates for patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. The use of this technique in conjunction with partial reduction has not been reported. Nine consecutive patients underwent treatment of high-grade (Grade 3 or 4) spondylolisthesis with partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion using cortical allograft. The average age at the time of surgery was 27 years (range, 8-51 years), and the average follow-up period was 43 months (range, 24-72 months). Before surgery, eight patients had low back pain, seven patients had radiating leg pain, and five patients had hamstring tightness. The average grade of spondylolisthesis by Meyerding grading was 3.9 (range, 3-5). Charts and radiographs were evaluated, and outcomes were collected by use of the modified SRS outcomes instrument. Radiographic indexes demonstrated significant improvement with partial reduction and fusion. The slip angle, as measured from the inferior endplate of L5, improved from 41.2 degrees (range, 24-82 degrees ) before surgery to 21 degrees (range, 5-40 degrees ) after surgery. All the patients were extremely or somewhat satisfied with surgery. The two patients who underwent this operation without initial instrumentation experienced fractures of their interbody grafts. Both of these patients underwent repair of the pseudarthrosis with placement of trans-sacral pedicle screw instrumentation and subsequent fusion. Partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion is an effective technique for the management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in pediatric and adult patient populations, as assessed by radiographic and clinical criteria. Pedicle screw instrumentation with the sacral screws capturing L5 is recommended when this

  6. SU-E-J-125: A Novel IMRT Planning Technique to Spare Sacral Bone Marrow in Pelvic Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S; Bhatia, S; Sun, W; Menda, Y; Ponto, L; Gross, B; Buatti, J [University Of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop an IMRT planning technique that can preferentially spare sacral bone marrow for pelvic cancer patients. Methods: Six pelvic cancer patients (two each with anal, cervical, and rectal cancer) were enrolled in an IRB approved protocol to obtain FLT PET images at simulation, during, and post chemoradiation therapy. Initially, conventional IMRT plans were created to maintain target coverage and reduce dose to OARs such as bladder, bowel, rectum, and femoral heads. Simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare bone marrow identified as regions with SUV of 2 or greater (IMRT-BMS) within the pelvic bones from top of L3 to 5mm below the greater trochanter without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing when compared to the initial IMRT plan. IMRT-BMS plans used 8–10 beam angles that surrounded the subject. These plans were used for treatment. Retrospectively, the same simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans that spared bone marrow located in the sacral pelvic bone region (IMRT-FAN) also without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. IMRT-FAN plans used 16 beam angles every 12° anteriorly from 90° – 270°. Optimization objectives for the sacral bone marrow avoidance region were weighted to reduce ≥V10. Results: IMRT-FAN reduced dose to the sacral bone marrow for all six subjects. The average V5, V10, V20, and V30 differences from the IMRT-BMS plan were −2.2 ± 1.7%, −11.4 ± 3.6%, −17.6 ± 5.1%, and −19.1 ± 8.1% respectively. Average PTV coverage change was 0.5% ± 0.8% from the conventional IMRT plan. Conclusion: An IMRT planning technique that uses beams from the anterior and lateral directions reduced the volume of sacral bone marrow that receives ≤10Gy while maintaining PTV coverage and OAR sparing. Additionally, the volume of sacral bone marrow that received 20 or 30 Gy was also reduced.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makirov, Serik K.; Jahaf, Mohammed T.; Nikulina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the study This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum. Methods One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively. Results Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the “central angle” and “sacral deviation” parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly. Conclusion Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an

  8. Constraining the brachial plexus does not compromise regional control in oropharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Mutter W; Wolden, Suzanne L; Lee, Nancy Y; Lok, Benjamin H; Dutta, Pinaki R; Riaz, Nadeem; Setton, Jeremy; Berry, Sean L; Goenka, Anuj; Zhang, Zhigang; Rao, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that brachial plexopathy following head and neck cancer radiotherapy may be underreported and that this toxicity is associated with a dose–response. Our purpose was to determine whether the dose to the brachial plexus (BP) can be constrained, without compromising regional control. The radiation plans of 324 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were reviewed. We identified 42 patients (13%) with gross nodal disease <1 cm from the BP. Normal tissue constraints included a maximum dose of 66 Gy and a D 05 of 60 Gy for the BP. These criteria took precedence over planning target volume (PTV) coverage of nodal disease near the BP. There was only one regional failure in the vicinity of the BP, salvaged with neck dissection (ND) and regional re-irradiation. There have been no reported episodes of brachial plexopathy to date. In combined-modality therapy, including ND as salvage, regional control did not appear to be compromised by constraining the dose to the BP. This approach may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the long-term risk of brachial plexopathy

  9. Surgical management of U-shaped sacral fractures: a systematic review of current treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M A; Jehan, S; Boszczyk, A A; Boszczyk, B M

    2012-05-01

    U-shaped sacral fractures usually result from axial loading of the spine with simultaneous sacral pivoting due to a horizontal fracture which leads to a highly unstable spino-pelvic dissociation. Due to the rarity of these fractures, there is lack of an agreed treatment strategy. A thorough literature search was carried out to identify current treatment concepts. The studies were analysed for mechanism of injury, diagnostic imaging, associated injuries, type of surgery, follow-up times, complications, neurological, clinical and radiological outcome. Sixty-three cases were found in 12 articles. No Class I, II or III evidence was found in the literature. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall or jump from height. Pre-operative neurological deficit was noted in 50 (94.3%) out of 53 cases (not available in 10 patients). The most used surgical options were spino-pelvic fixation with or without decompression and ilio-sacral screws. Post-operative complications occurred in 24 (38.1%) patients. Average follow-up time was 18.6 months (range 2-34 months). Full neurological recovery was noted in 20 cases, partial recovery in 14 and 9 patients had no neurological recovery (5 patients were lost in follow-up). Fracture healing was mentioned in 7 articles with only 1 case of fracture reduction loss. From the current available data, an evidence based treatment strategy regarding outcome, neurological recovery or fracture healing could not be identified. Limited access and minimal-invasive surgery focussing on sacral reduction and restoration seems to offer comparable results to large spino-pelvic constructs with fewer complications and should be considered as the method of choice. If the fracture is highly unstable and displaced, spino-pelvic fixation might offer better stability.

  10. Pneumorrhachis Secondary to a Sacral Decubitus Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moayedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman with a chronic decubitus sacral ulcer presented to the emergency department with sepsis. A computed tomography of her abdomen showed diffuse gas extending throughout the thoracolumbar spinal canal. Pneumorrhachis is a rare radiographic finding defined as gas within the spinal canal. There are many causes of pneumorrhachis ranging from trauma to infection. In this case the pneumorrhachis was caused by direct spread of gas-forming organisms from vertebral osteomyelitis. Emergency physicians should know about the implication of gas in the spinal canal in the setting of sepsis. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4:466-468.

  11. Development and validation of a bowel-routine-based self-report questionnaire for sacral sparing after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Xing, H; Zhou, M-W

    2017-01-01

    -report questionnaire was developed based on several events that most patients might experience during bowel routine. 102 participants who sustained SCI within 12 months were asked to complete the questionnaire followed by an anorectal examination. Agreements of answers to the questionnaire and the physical examination......STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-administered tool for assessment of sacral sparing after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to test its validity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. METHODS: A 5-item SCI sacral sparing self......: The validity of this questionnaire for the assessment of sacral sparing in up to 12 months post injury is good except for the motor function when there was increased AST. In some situations it could be considered as an alternative tool for digital rectal examination, especially when repeated examinations...

  12. Perineal colostomy prolapse: a novel application of mesh sacral pexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, S; Ursaru, D; Delugeau, V; Landen, C

    2018-01-01

    Full thickness colonic prolapse following pseudocontinent perineal colostomy has not been previously reported. Possible contributing factors include a large skin aperture at the site of the perineal stoma, the absence of anal sphincters and mesorectal attachments and the presence of a perineal hernia. A novel application of sacral pexy combined with perineal hernia repair using two prosthetic meshes is described.

  13. Comparison between sevoflurane and desflurane on emergence and recovery characteristics of children undergoing surgery for spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Rapid recovery is desirable after neurosurgery as it enables early post-operative neurological evaluation and prompt management of complications. Studies have been rare comparing the recovery characteristics in paediatric neurosurgical patients. Hence, this study was carried out to compare the effect of sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia on emergence and extubation in children undergoing spinal surgery. Methods: Sixty children, aged 1-12 years, undergoing elective surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane using a face mask. The children were then randomised to receive either sevoflurane or desflurane with oxygen and nitrous oxide, fentanyl (1 μg/kg/h and rocuronium. The anaesthetic depth was guided by bispectral index (BIS ® monitoring with a target BIS ® between 45 and 55. Perioperative data with regard to demographic profile, haemodynamics, emergence and extubation times, modified Aldrete score (MAS, pain (objective pain score, agitation (Cole′s agitation score, time to first analgesic and complications, thereof, were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using STATA 11.2 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA and data are presented as median (range or mean ± standard deviation. Results: The demographic profile, haemodynamics, MAS, pain and agitation scores and time to first analgesic were comparable in between the two groups (P > 0.05. The emergence time was shorter in desflurane group (2.75 [0.85-12] min as compared to sevoflurane (8 [2.5-14] min (P < 0.0001. The extubation time was also shorter in desflurane group (3 [0.8-10] min as compared to the sevoflurane group (5.5 [1.2-14] min (P = 0.0003. Conclusion: Desflurane provided earlier tracheal extubation and emergence as compared to sevoflurane in children undergoing surgery for lumbo-sacral spinal dysraphism.

  14. MULTIPLE MYELOMA-LIKE SPINAL MRI FINDINGS IN SKELETAL FLUOROSIS: AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF FLUORIDE TOXICITY IN HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahsan Quadri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endemic fluorosis is a worldwide environmental problem due to excessive fluoride, commonly due to increased drinking water fluoride levels but sometimes due to other sources such food with high fluoride content. In India, 21 of the 35 states are known to have health problems associated with fluoride toxicity. The present report is a case of a 50-year-old female who was seen with progressive spinal complications and a MRI of the spine suggestive of multiple myeloma. The MRI of the lumbo-sacral spine showed a diffuse and heterogeneous marrow signal of the lower dorsal and lumbo-sacral vertebrae. The MRI was also suggestive of coarse trabeculation and appeared predominantly hypointanse on the T1W image and had mixed signal intensity on the T2W image. These findings were suggestive of neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and the presence of a proliferative disorder, with multiple myeloma being the most likely. During the patient workup, it was found that other family members were also having similar complications and, after investigation of these family members, it was found that they are suffering from systemic fluorosis. The patient was then evaluated for skeletal fluorosis and this condition was found to be present. Multiple myeloma was ruled out by the finding of a negative serum protein electrophoresis. The spinal complications appeared to be mainly due to the compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots by protruding osteophytes, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and thickening of the ligamentum flavum resulting in a compressive myeloradiculopathy and compressive myelopathy. The finding of multiple myeloma- like findings on the spinal MRI in association with skeletal fluorosis was considered to be a very rare event. This case report underlines the need to consider the presence of spinal skeletal fluorosis when evaluating spinal complications with unusual pseudo-multiple myeloma-like changes on the spinal MRI.

  15. Brachial plexus dose tolerance in head and neck cancer patients treated with sequential intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Tarita O; Refaat, Tamer; Choi, Mehee; Bacchus, Ian; Sachdev, Sean; Rademaker, Alfred W; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam; Karagianis, Achilles; Mittal, Bharat B

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to study the radiation induced brachial plexopathy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with Sequential Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (S-IMRT). This IRB approved study included 68 patients with HNSCC treated consecutively. Detailed dose volume histogram data was generated for ipsilateral and contralateral brachial plexus (BP) volumes receiving a specified dose (Vds) i.e. V50-V75 and dose in Gray covering specified percent of BP volume (Dvs) i.e. D5-D30 and maximum point doses (Dmax). To assess BP injury all patients’ charts were reviewed in detail for sign and symptoms of BP damage. Post-hoc comparisons were done using Tukey-Kramer method to account for multiple significance testing. The mean and maximum doses to BP were significantly different (p < .05) based on tumor site, nodal status and tumor stage. The mean volume to the ipsilateral BP for V50, V60, V70, and V75 were 7.01 cc, 4.37 cc, 1.47 cc and 0.24 cc, respectively. The mean dose delivered to ≤5% of ipsilateral BP was 68.70 Gy (median 69.5Gy). None of the patients had acute or late brachial plexopathy or any other significant neurological complications, with a minimum follow up of two years (mean 54 months). In this study cohort, at a minimum of two-years follow up, the mean dose of 68.7Gy, a median dose to 69.5Gy to ≤5% of ipsilateral BP, and a median Dmax of 72.96Gy did not result in BP injury when patients were treated with S-IMRT technique. However, longer follow up is needed

  16. Comparison of gluteal perforator flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flaps for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap was considered the workhorse that reconstructed sacral pressure sores, but was gradually replaced by fasciocutaneous flap because of several disadvantages. With the advent of the perforator flap technique, gluteal perforator (GP) flap has gained popularity nowadays. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and outcomes between GP flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation (FR) flaps in the treatment of sacral pressure sores. Between April 2007 and June 2012, 63 patients underwent sacral pressure sore reconstructions, with a GP flap used in 31 cases and an FR flap used in 32 cases. Data collected on the patients included patient age, gender, co-morbidity for being bedridden and follow-up time. Surgical details collected included the defect size, operative time and estimated blood loss. Complications recorded included re-operation, dehiscence, flap necrosis, wound infection, sinus formation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. The complications and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. We found that there was no significant difference in patient demographics, surgical complications and recurrence between these two groups. In gluteal FR flap group, all recurrent cases (five) were treated by reuse of previous flaps. Both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral pressure sores. Gluteal FR flap can be performed without microsurgical dissection, and re-rotation is feasible in recurrent cases. The authors suggest using gluteal FR flaps in patients with a high risk of sore recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sacral neuromodulation in urology - development and current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, T; Stolzenburg, J-U; Kriegel, C; Gonsior, A

    2012-01-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in urology is employed to treat refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction as well as chronic pelvic pain. Electrical stimulation of the sacral afferents (S2 - S4) causes activation and conditioning of higher autonomic and somatic neural structures and thereby influences the efferents controlling the urinary bladder, the rectum and their related sphincter systems. It is therefore possible to treat overactivity as well as hypocontractility and functional bladder neck obstruction. SNM treatment is conducted biphasically. Initially, test electrodes are placed to evaluate changes in micturition and pain parameters. If, in this first phase - called peripheral nerve evaluation (PNE test) - sufficient improvements are observed, the patient progresses to phase two which involves implantation of the permanent electrodes and impulse generator system. In recent years, the "two stage approach" with initial implantation of the permanent electrodes has been favoured as it increases treatment success rates. Long-term success rates of SNM vary significantly in the literature (50 - 80 %) due to heterogeneous patient populations as well as improved surgical approaches. With the introduction of "tined lead electrodes" (2002), tissue damage is reduced to a minimum. Technical innovation, financial feasibility (reimbursed in Germany since 2004) and wider application, especially in otherwise therapy-refractory patients or complex dysfunctions of the pelvis, have established SNM as a potent treatment option in urology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Sciatica caused by lumbar epidural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfquih, Hatim; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Gas production as a part of disc degeneration can occur but rarely causes nerve compression syndromes. The clinical features are similar to those of common sciatica. CT is very useful in the detection of epidural gas accumulation and nerve root compression. We report a case of symptomatic epidural gas accumulation originating from vacuum phenomenon in the intervertebral disc, causing lumbo-sacral radiculopathy. A 45-year-old woman suffered from sciatica for 9 months. The condition worsened in recent days. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, and accumulation of gas in the lumbar epidural space compressing the dural sac and S1 nerve root. After evacuation of the gas, her pain resolved without recurrence.

  19. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Alkaptonuric Ochronosis: the First Case Report in Thailand and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witchuree Wejjakul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochronosis is a musculoskeletal manifestation found in alkaptonuria which is a rare autosomal reces- sive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentistic acid oxidase enzyme. This leads to accumulation and deposition of homogentistic acid (HGA pigments in skin, sclera, tendon, ligament and cartilage. Ochronosis is asymptomatic until ochronotic arthropathy occurs. We reported a case of 64-year female presented with advanced degenerative changes in the knee, hip, shoulder and lumbo-sacral spine. The operative findings during total knee arthroplasty showed bluish-black discoloration of the entire articular surface. Her urine HGA level was extremely high. Histopathological exam confirmed ochronosis. The literature, differential diagnosis and management of this rare condition are reviewed.

  20. Imaging Findings of Pelvic Tumor Thrombosis Extending from Sacral Bone Metastasis of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Ishida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the imaging findings of a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma who showed pelvic tumor thrombosis extending from sacral bone metastasis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated extensive intraluminal filling defects in the pelvic veins. A lytic lesion in the sacrum was also noted and continuity between the sacral lesion and the filling defect in the branch of pelvic veins was indicated. The filling defects showed increased uptake on positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and single-photon emission computed tomography with 131I-iodomethylnorcholesterol, and fusion images with computed tomography aided the localization of the increased uptake areas. Multimodality imaging may be beneficial for the characterization and localization of lesions in patients suspected of having metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

  1. Sacral pseudotumor complicating iliac bone harvest: radiographic, CT and MRI appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, E.; Roth, C.; O' Connell, M.; Eustace, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-12-01

    We present the imaging appearances of a lytic pseudotumor in the right sacral ala presenting with referred pain to the right thigh. Subsequent imaging revealed the presence of a cystic lesion arising at the site of previous bone graft harvest; CT-guided aspiration yielded synovial fluid presumed to arise from the contiguous sacroiliac joint. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  3. Neurostimulation for bladder evacuation: is sacral root stimulation a substitute for microstimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, M; Piechota, H J; Hohenfellner, M; Gleason, C A; Tanagho, E A

    1997-04-01

    To determine by anatomical and functional studies whether stimulation of sacral rootlets might permit selective stimulation of autonomic fibres, thus avoiding the detrusor/sphincter dyssynergia characteristic of current techniques of neurostimulation for bladder evacuation. In 10 male mongrel dogs, the S2 root was isolated and its constituent rootlets followed from their origin in the spinal cord to the point of exit from the dura. The entire root and the individual rootlets were then stimulated, including intra- and extra-dural stimulation and at proximal, mid and distal levels. Neuroanatomical and histological findings showed that rootlets of ventral S2 maintain their identity throughout their intradural course; some carry predominantly autonomic fibres, some predominantly somatic and some a mixture of the two. It appears surgically feasible to identify, isolate and sever the predominantly somatic rootlets intradurally, sparing the predominantly autonomic rootlets for inclusion in extradural electrode placement around the entire sacral root, thus eliminating sphincteric interference with detrusor contraction for voiding at low pressure.

  4. Lumbo-pelvic joint protection against antigravity forces: motor control and segmental stiffness assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C A; Hides, J A; Wilson, S; Stanton, W; Snijders, C J

    2004-07-01

    The antigravity muscles of the lumbo-pelvic region, especially transversus abdominis (TrA), are important for the protection and support of the weightbearing joints. Measures of TrA function (the response to the postural cue of drawing in the abdominal wall) have been developed and quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cross-sections through the trunk allowed muscle contraction as well as the large fascial attachments of the TrA to be visualized. The cross sectional area (CSA) of the deep musculo-fascial system was measured at rest and in the contracted state, using static images as well as a cine sequence. In this developmental study, MRI measures were undertaken on a small sample of low back pain (LBP) and non LBP subjects. Results demonstrated that, in non LBP subjects, the draw in action produced a symmetrical deep musculo-fascial "corset" which encircles the abdomen. This study demonstrated a difference in this "corset" measure between subjects with and without LBP. These measures may also prove useful to quantify the effect of unloading in bedrest and microgravity exposure.

  5. Selective detrusor activation by electrical sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical sacral nerve root stimulation can be used in spinal cord injury patients to induce urinary bladder contraction. However, existing stimulation methods activate simultaneously both the detrusor muscle and the urethral sphincter. Urine evacuation is therefore only possible using poststimulus

  6. Treatment of Recurrent Chordomas by Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Fukukura, Y.; Nandate, T.; Nakajo, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent sacral chordomas that have been successfully controlled by the combination therapy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) and radiation therapy in a 71-year-old man. PEIT may be one of the adjuvant therapies for recurrent chordomas

  7. The Effect of Early Complications on Flap Selection on Sacral Pressure Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Kemal Keleş

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores occur in bedridden patients in intensive care units, clinics, and even at their own places. Care for sick relatives and working with doctors to address treatment options and ensure proper follow-up are some of the problems associated with these types of wounds. Surgical therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers is associated with significant complications. In comparison to non-surgical treatment, surgical treatment has a low complication rate and is more cost-effective. The surgical treatment enables the patients to return to their social life sooner than non-surgical treatment. Patient's ability to early return to their social life is advantageous in terms of reducing morbidity and the need for additional operations. This study is aimed to review the flap choices used to treat sacral pressure sores and the resulting acute complications rates retrospectively. Material and Methods: Patients treated for stage 3 and stage 4 sacral pressure sores in our clinic in the past 5 years were included in the study. Patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Patients' demographic data and surgical treatment they received were documented. Surgical method and surgical outcomes were evaluated and early complication rates were determined. Result: Fifty patients were included in the study; 10 of them were female, 40 of were male cases. The most common causative agent was paraplegia after traffic accident. Conclusion: A significant difference was not observed between the type of flap used in the surgical treatment and the rate of complications. Consequently, the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers in the sacral region depends on the patient's individual situation, the cooperation of the family, and previously applied treatments

  8. The Thoracic Lordosis Correction Improves Sacral Slope and Walking Ability in Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeon; Moon, Eun Su; Park, Jin Oh; Chong, Hyon Su; Lee, Hwan Mo; Moon, Seong Hwan; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hak Sun

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective study. To report on neuromuscular patients with preserved walking ability, but forward bending of the body due to thoracic lordosis, and to suggest thoracic lordosis correction as the surgical treatment. It is an established fact that lumbar lordosis or pelvic parameter is directly related to thoracic sagittal balance. However, the reverse relationship has not been fully defined yet. Loss of thoracic kyphosis results in positive sagittal balance, which causes walking difficulty. Neuromuscular patients with thoracic lordosis have not been reported yet, and there have been no reports on their surgical treatments. This study analyzed 8 patients treated with thoracic lordosis correction surgery. Every patient was diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. In thoracic lordosis correction surgery, anterior release was performed in the first stage and posterior segmental instrumentation was performed in the second stage. Radiographic parameters were compared and walking ability was evaluated with gait analysis. All patients were classified according to the modified Rancho Los Amigos Hospital system preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively to evaluate functional ability. The average follow-up period was 2.9 years. Before surgery, the mean thoracic sagittal alignment was -2.1-degree lordosis, the mean Cobb angle and sacral slope increased to 36.3 and 56.6 degrees, respectively. The anterior pelvic tilt in gait analysis was 29.3 degrees. At last follow-up after surgery, the mean thoracic sagittal alignment changed to 12.6-degree kyphosis, and the Cobb angle and sacral slope decreased to 18.9 and 39.5 degrees, respectively. Lumbar lordosis and the sacral slope showed significant positive correlation (Plordosis showed a significant correlation to the preoperative flexibility of the major curve (P=0.028). The anterior pelvic tilt in gait analysis improved to 15.4 degrees. The functional ability improved in 2 (50%) of 4 patients in class 2 and maintained in remaining 6

  9. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of

  10. Osteoporotic compression fracture of the thoracolumbar spine and sacral insufficiency fracture: incidence and analysis of the relationship according to the clinical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Jeong Hwa; Park, Ji Sun; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of sacral insufficiency fracture in osteoporotic patient with compression fracture of the thoracolumbar (T-L) spine on magnetic resonance image (MRI), and to analyze the correlation of variable clinical factors and the incidence of sacral insufficiency fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients (27 men, 133 women; age range of 50 to 89 years) who underwent spinal MRI and had compression fracture of the T-L spine. Compression fractures due to trauma or tumor were excluded. We evaluated the incidence of sacral insufficiency fracture according to the patients' age, sex, number of compression fractures, and the existence of bone marrow edema pattern of compression fracture. During the same period, we evaluated the incidence of spinal compression fracture in the patients of pelvic insufficiency fracture. Out of the 160 patients who had compression fracture in the T-L spine, 17 (10.6%) had insufficiency fracture of the sacrum. Compression fracture occurred almost 5 times more frequently in women (27:133), but the incidence of sacral insufficiency fracture was 2/27 for men (7.4%) and 15/133 for women (11.3%), with no statistically significant difference (ρ = 0.80). According to age, the ratio of insufficiency fracture to compression fracture was 0% (0/23) in the 50's, 10.6% (7/66) in the 60's, 12.5% (7/56) in the 70's, and 20.0% (3/15) in the 80's. In respect of single and multiple compression fracture, the incidence of sacral insufficiency fracture was 8/65 for men (12.3%) and 9/95 for women (9.5%), showing no significant difference (ρ = 0.37). In the patients with and without compression fracture with bone marrow edema, insufficiency fracture occurred in 5/76 (6.6%) and 12/84 (14.3%), respectively. On the other hand, of the 67 patients who had pelvic insufficiency fracture, 27 (40.3%) also had spinal compression fracture. About 10% of the patients with osteoporotic compression fracture in the T/L spine also had pelvic sacral

  11. CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique for the treatment of sacral cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ganggang; Chen Long; Yang Chao; Ni Caifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique to treat sacral cyst. Methods: Clinical data of 20 cases with 'double-needle' injection of fibrin glue technology to treat sacral cyst were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had varying degrees of sacral nerve root compression symptoms. The treatment for sacral cyst was carried out after clear diagnosis was made. On the basis of CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue, the improved CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue by 'double-needle' technique was used to treat these patients. The average dose of fibrin glue was (5.9 ± 2.4) ml. The clinical results of improvement as to pain and neurological function were evaluated after follow-up of an average of 17 months. The assessment criteria were as follows: excellent, complete resolution of signs and symptoms, with the patient returning to his or her regular employment and no recurrence of cysts during 1 year of follow-up, good, symptoms and signs in the legs and perineal region resolved but with persistent pain in the lumbosacral region, which did not interfere with the patient's regular work (the cysts did not recur for 6 months during follow-up), fair, no improvement in clinical symptoms, but a decrease in cyst size on the imaging study, poor, no improvement in clinical symptoms and no observed changes in cyst size in imaging studies or recurrence. Results: Most patients experienced some degree of pain relief and functional improvement after fibrin glue therapy, with most experiencing complete or marked resolution of clinical symptoms. Nine patients reported excellent recovery, 8 reported good recovery, 2 reported fair recovery, and 1 reported poor recovery. The overall percentage of positive outcomes (excellent and good recovery) was 85%. No serious postoperative complications were discovered. Conclusions: CT guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by

  12. Rectal motility after sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, H B; Worsøe, J; Krogh, K

    2010-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective against faecal incontinence, but the mode of action is obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of SNS on fasting and postprandial rectal motility. Sixteen patients, 14 women age 33-73 (mean 58), with faecal incontinence of various...... contractions, total time with cyclic rectal contractions, the number of aborally and orally propagating contractions, the number of anal sampling reflexes or rectal wall tension during contractions. Postprandial changes in rectal tone were significantly reduced during SNS (P

  13. Evidence to justify retention of transvaginal mesh: comparison between laparoscopic sacral colpopexy and transvaginal Elevate™ mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Valérie; Hengrasmee, Pattaya; Lam, Alan; Luscombe, Georgina; Lawless, Anna; Lam, Justin

    2017-12-01

    To determine if laparoscopic sacral colpopexy (LSC) offers better apical support with a lower exposure rate than transvaginal mesh surgery with Elevate™. This was a retrospective cohort study comparing patients with apical prolapse (POP-Q point C ≥ -1) who underwent Elevate™ mesh repair (n = 146) with patients who underwent laparoscopic sacral colpopexy (n = 267). The sacral colpopexy group had a mean age of 59 years and a BMI of 25.7. Patients in the Elevate™ group were older, with a mean age of 63 and a BMI of 26.3. Most of the patients of both groups presented with pelvic organ prolapse stage III (LSC 73.8% and Elevate™ 87.0%) and their mean POP-Q point C were not significantly different (LSC 1.4 vs Elevate™ 1.2 cm). Operative time was longer in the LSC group (113 vs 91 min, p < 0.001), but estimated blood loss was lower (75 cm 3 vs 137 cm 3 , p < 0.001). No difference in mesh exposure rate could be found between the two groups at one year (Elevate™ 0.7% vs LSC 2.6%, OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.10, p = 0.21). One-year objective cure rate, defined as no descent beyond the hymen, was 97.0% in the LSC group and 96.6% in the Elevate™ group (p = .81). The overall recurrence (objective, subjective recurrence or reoperation) was also not different between the groups (LSC 4.5% vs Elevate 4.8%, p = 0.89). Transvaginal Elevate™ mesh delivers comparable apical support with a low exposure rate similar to that of laparoscopic sacral colpopexy.

  14. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcription in human sacral ganglia and in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, K D; Ostrove, J M; Dragovic, L; Straus, S E

    1991-01-01

    The ability of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to establish latency in and reactivate from sacral dorsal root sensory ganglia is the basis for recurrent genital herpes. The expression of HSV-2 genes in latently infected human sacral ganglia was investigated by in situ hybridization. Hybridizations with a probe from the long repeat region of HSV-2 revealed strong nuclear signals overlying neurons in sacral ganglia from five of nine individuals. The RNA detected overlaps with the transcript for infected cell protein O but in the opposite, or "anti-sense," orientation. These observations mimic those made previously with HSV-1 in human trigeminal ganglia and confirm the recent findings during latency in HSV-2-infected mice and guinea pigs. Northern hybridization of RNA from infected Vero cells showed that an HSV-2 latency-associated transcript was similar in size to the larger (1.85 kb) latency transcript of HSV-1. Thus, HSV-1 and HSV-2 latency in human sensory ganglia are similar, if not identical, in terms of their cellular localization and pattern of transcription.

  15. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  16. Presence of accessory penis, colonic duplication and several other congenital anomalies in a child: a very rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Achar, Arun

    2014-10-01

    An accessory penis is a very rare anomaly. Only five cases have been reported thus far to our knowledge. We present the case of a child aged 2 years and 10 months who had a penis-like structure (containing phallus and glans) attached to the right buttock. Associated anomalies were a non-communicating type of colonic duplication, a paramedian stenosed anal opening, a horse-shoe kidney, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis of the lumbo-sacral spine, polydactyly and equino-varus deformity of the right foot. As far as we can tell, this is the first report of an accessory penis associated with colonic duplication and other congenital anomalies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Comparison of fasciocutaneous V-Y and rotational flaps for defect coverage of sacral pressure sores: a critical single-centre appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Metzler, Julia; Morandi, Evi M; Wachter, Tanja; Kühn, Shafreena; Pierer, Gerhard; Rieger, Ulrich M

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sore rates remain high in both nursing homes as well as in hospitals. Numerous surgical options are available for defect coverage in the sacral region. However, objective data is scarce as to whether a specific flap design is superior to another. Here, we aim to compare two fasciocutaneous flap designs for sacral defect coverage: the gluteal rotation flap and the gluteal V-Y flap. All primary sacral pressure sores of grades III-IV that were being covered with gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational or V-Y flaps between January 2008 and December 2014 at our institution were analysed. A total of 41 patients received a total of 52 flaps. Of these, 18 patients received 20 gluteal rotational flaps, and 23 patients received 32 V-Y flaps. Both groups were comparable with regards to demographics, comorbidities and complications. Significantly more V-Y flaps were needed to cover smaller defects. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly prolonged when surgical revision had to be carried out. Both flap designs have proven safe and reliable for defect coverage after sacral pressure sores. Gluteal rotational flaps appear to be more useful for larger defects. Both flap designs facilitate their reuse in case of pressure sore recurrence. Complication rates appear to be comparable in both designs and to the current literature. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thoracic meningocele in lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome in a child: possible enlargement with repeated motion by anchoring to the diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya, Takafumi; Horikawa, Kyohei; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tashiro, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare disorder in children that is characterized by hemivertebrae, congenital absence of ribs, meningocele, and hypoplasia of the truncal and abdominal wall presenting as a congenital lumbar hernia. An otherwise healthy 12-month-old girl was referred to the authors' hospital with soft swelling on her left middle back; scoliosis had been present since birth. Imaging revealed a thoracic meningocele, ectopia of the spleen suggesting lumbar hernia, multiple anomalies of the thoracic vertebral columns, and defects of the ribs; thus, LCVS was diagnosed. Surgical observation revealed that the meningocele was firmly anchored to part of the diaphragm, which created stretching tension in the meningocele continuously with exhalation. Once detached, the meningocele shrank spontaneously and never developed again after cauterization. In this case, continuous or pulsatile pressure in the presence of a vertebral defect was thus considered to be an important factor for formation of the thoracic meningocele.

  19. Selective stimulation of sacral nerve roots for bladder control: a study by computer modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Holsheimer, J.; Koldewijn, E. L.; Struijk, J. J.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate theoretically the conditions for the activation of the detrusor muscle without activation of the urethral sphincter and afferent fibers, when stimulating the related sacral roots. Therefore, the sensitivity of excitation and blocking thresholds of nerve

  20. Progressive bilateral anterior sacral meningoceles in Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, R.J.; Schramm, T.; Gloning, K.P.; Vogl, T.; Ostermayer, E.

    1995-01-01

    Anterior sacral meningoceles (ASM) in Marfan syndrome are rare. They may cause constipation, urinary frequency, dysmenorrhoea, and low back pain or numbness. This report describes bilateral ASM at the level of S1, S2 and S3 in a woman with Marfan syndrome who was admitted to the gynaecology department for evaluation of left lower abdominal pain. The magnetic resonance appearance of the meningoceles is discussed and compared with findings from transvaginal ultrasound and CT. As MRI offers excellent delineation of spinal and pelvic structures, it is the most useful technique available in establishing the diagnosis and planning the treatment of ASM. (orig.)

  1. Progressive bilateral anterior sacral meningoceles in Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheck, R J [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Schramm, T [Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1. Frauenklinik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gloning, K P [Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1. Frauenklinik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Vogl, T [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Ostermayer, E [Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1. Frauenklinik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    Anterior sacral meningoceles (ASM) in Marfan syndrome are rare. They may cause constipation, urinary frequency, dysmenorrhoea, and low back pain or numbness. This report describes bilateral ASM at the level of S1, S2 and S3 in a woman with Marfan syndrome who was admitted to the gynaecology department for evaluation of left lower abdominal pain. The magnetic resonance appearance of the meningoceles is discussed and compared with findings from transvaginal ultrasound and CT. As MRI offers excellent delineation of spinal and pelvic structures, it is the most useful technique available in establishing the diagnosis and planning the treatment of ASM. (orig.)

  2. Sacral herpes-zoster infection presenting as sciatic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, J; Symon, Z; Mevorach, D

    1996-06-01

    Acute herpes-zoster infection is a painful dermatomal lesion that can be manifested by a wide array of neurologic symptoms. We present a 55-year-old female with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who developed a left sciatic pain involving the S roots. Two weeks later, the patient developed fever and vesicular rash over the left gluteal area. Herpes-zoster infection was diagnosed and confirmed by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against varicella-zoster. The pain and rash resolved, after treatment with acyclovir. In the appropriate clinical setting, sacral herpes-zoster infection ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of new-onset sciatic pain.

  3. Ten-year experience of superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral defects in Tri-Service General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ta Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, sacral sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. However, the dissection of the perforator is tedious and carries a risk of compromising the perforator vessels. Patients and Methods: During the period between April 2003 and March 2013, 30 patients presented to our section with sacral wounds causing by pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts. Of a total of 30 patients, 13 were female and 17 were male. Their ages ranged from 22 to 92 years old (mean 79.8 years old. Surgical intervention was performed electively with immediate or delayed reconstruction using a SGAP flap. The characteristics of patients′ age, and sex, and cause of sacral defect, co-morbidities, wound culture, flap size, perforator number, hospital stay, and outcome were reviewed. Results: For all operations, the length of the pedicle dissection will not exceed 1 cm because of the vascular anatomy of the SGAP, which lies adjacent to the sacral region. Due to short pedicle dissection, all SGAP flap were elevated around an hour. All flaps survived except two, which had partial flap necrosis and were finally treated by contralateral V-Y advancement flaps coverage. The mean follow-up period was 14.8 months (range 3-24. No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Conclusion: Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Our study shows that deep pedicle dissection is unnecessary when the surgery involves an accurate indicating perforator, adequate flap size design, and correct selection of flap utilization between tunnel and rotation. The

  4. A Novel Collaborative Protocol for Successful Management of Penile Pain Mediated by Radiculitis of Sacral Spinal Nerve Roots From Tarlov Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Irwin; Komisaruk, Barry R; Rubin, Rachel S; Goldstein, Sue W; Elliott, Stacy; Kissee, Jennifer; Kim, Choll W

    2017-09-01

    Since 14 years of age, the patient had experienced extreme penile pain within seconds of initial sexual arousal through masturbation. Penile pain was so severe that he rarely proceeded to orgasm or ejaculation. After 7 years of undergoing multiple unsuccessful treatments, he was concerned for his long-term mental health and for his future ability to have relationships. To describe a novel collaboration among specialists in sexual medicine, neurophysiology, and spine surgery that led to successful management. Collaborating health care providers conferred with the referring physician, patient, and parents and included a review of all medical records. Elimination of postpubertal intense penile pain during sexual arousal. The patient presented to our sexual medicine facility at 21 years of age. The sexual medicine physician identifying the sexual health complaint noted a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging report of an incidental sacral Tarlov cyst. A subsequent sacral magnetic resonance image showed four sacral Tarlov cysts, with the largest measuring 18 mm. Neuro-genital testing result were abnormal. The neurophysiologist hypothesized the patient's pain at erection was produced by Tarlov cyst-induced neuropathic irritation of sensory fibers that course within the pelvic nerve. The spine surgeon directed a diagnostic injection of bupivacaine to the sacral nerve roots and subsequently morphine to the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. The bupivacaine produced general penile numbness; the morphine selectively decreased penile pain symptoms during sexual arousal without blocking penile skin sensation. The collaboration among specialties led to the conclusion that the Tarlov cysts were pathophysiologically mediating the penile pain symptoms during arousal. Long-term follow-up after surgical repair showed complete symptom elimination at 18 months after treatment. This case provides evidence that (i) Tarlov cysts can cause sacral spinal nerve root radiculitis through

  5. Accessing 3D Location of Standing Pelvis: Relative Position of Sacral Plateau and Acetabular Cavities versus Pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthonnaud, E.; Hilmi, R.; Berthonnaud, E.; Berthonnaud, E.; Dimnet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to access to pelvis position and morphology in standing posture and to determine the relative locations of their articular surfaces. This is obtained from coupling bi planar radiography and bone modeling. The technique involves different successive steps. Punctual landmarks are first reconstructed, in space, from their projected images, identified on two orthogonal standing X-rays. Geometric models, of global pelvis and articular surfaces, are determined from punctual landmarks. The global pelvis is represented as a triangle of summits: the two femoral head centers and the sacral plateau center. The two acetabular cavities are modeled as hemispheres. The anterior sacral plateau edge is represented by an hemi-ellipsis. The modeled articular surfaces are projected on each X-ray. Their optimal location is obtained when the projected contours of their models best fit real outlines identified from landmark images. Linear and angular parameters characterizing the position of global pelvis and articular surfaces are calculated from the corresponding sets of axis. Relative positions of sacral plateau, and acetabular cavities, are then calculated. Two hundred standing pelvis, of subjects and scoliotic patients, have been studied. Examples are presented. They focus upon pelvis orientations, relative positions of articular surfaces, and pelvis asymmetries.

  6. Unraveling the rapid radiation of crested newts, Triturus cristatus superspecies, using complete mitogenomic sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, B.M.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background - The rapid radiation of crested newts (Triturus cristatus superspecies) comprises four morphotypes: 1) the T. karelinii group, 2) T. carnifex - T. macedonicus, 3) T. cristatus and 4) T. dobrogicus. These vary in body build and the number of rib-bearing pre-sacral vertebrae (NRBV). The

  7. Clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the resection of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenhua; Wang Qi; He Zhongming; Zhou Jian; Wang Yimin; Wang Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in performing the surgical resection of sacral tumors. Methods: Conventional surgical excision of sacral tumors was employed in 24 patients with sacral tumors (control group), while preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta was carried out in 32 patients with sacral tumors (study group). The operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate of both groups were documented, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Angiography showed that in the study group the sacral tumors were supplied by several vessels, and these feeding arteries were occluded separately. The tumors were successfully removed in all patients with the help of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. During the surgery, the surgical area was clearly exposed and the blood loss wa remarkably reduced. After the surgery, no ectopic vascular embolization, renal ischemia, limb ischemia or other complications occurred. Statistically significant difference in the operation time, blood loss during the surgery and the one-year recurrence rate existed between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of tumor feeding artery combined with intraoperative balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce the blood loss during the surgery and provide a clear surgical field, and thus the surgical safety can be significantly ensured. (authors)

  8. The influence of sacral nerve stimulation on gastrointestinal motor function in patients with fecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M; Thomsen, F G; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence of various etiologies. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine whether SNS affects gastric emptying, small intestinal transit or colonic transit times....

  9. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Dejean, C.; Sargos, P.; Kantor, G.; Huchet, A.; Mamou, N.; Loiseau, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  10. Does cortical bone thickness in the last sacral vertebra differ among tail types in primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Abigail C; Russo, Gabrielle A

    2017-04-01

    The external morphology of the sacrum is demonstrably informative regarding tail type (i.e., tail presence/absence, length, and prehensility) in living and extinct primates. However, little research has focused on the relationship between tail type and internal sacral morphology, a potentially important source of functional information when fossil sacra are incomplete. Here, we determine if cortical bone cross-sectional thickness of the last sacral vertebral body differs among tail types in extant primates and can be used to reconstruct tail types in extinct primates. Cortical bone cross-sectional thickness in the last sacral vertebral body was measured from high-resolution CT scans belonging to 20 extant primate species (N = 72) assigned to tail type categories ("tailless," "nonprehensile short-tailed," "nonprehensile long-tailed," and "prehensile-tailed"). The extant dataset was then used to reconstruct the tail types for four extinct primate species. Tailless primates had significantly thinner cortical bone than tail-bearing primates. Nonprehensile short-tailed primates had significantly thinner cortical bone than nonprehensile long-tailed primates. Cortical bone cross-sectional thickness did not distinguish between prehensile-tailed and nonprehensile long-tailed taxa. Results are strongly influenced by phylogeny. Corroborating previous studies, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis was reconstructed as tailless, Archaeolemur edwardsi as long-tailed, Megaladapis grandidieri as nonprehensile short-tailed, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus as nonprehensile short-tailed or tailless. Results indicate that, in the context of phylogenetic clade, measures of cortical bone cross-sectional thickness can be used to allocate extinct primate species to tail type categories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative study on orthotic treatment of thoraco-lumbo-sacral fractures according to severity of trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Manzone, Patricio; Stefanizzi, Julio; Ávalos, Eduardo Mariño; Barranco, Silvia Manzone; Ihlenfeld, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar si la gravedad del trauma en lesiones toracolumbosacras mayores estables permite decidir la selección del tipo de ortesis en un tratamiento ortopédico. MÉTODOS: Estudio Retrospectivo de casos 12/1990 - 12/2006 (16 años). Criterios de Selección: 1) Seguimiento mínimo: 2 años. 2) Estudios radiológicos convencionales completos. 3) Ausencia de Litigio. 4) Tratamiento ortésico con TLSO a medida para los traumas de alta energía cinética y con ortesis prefabricadas para los de b...

  12. The feasibility and radiological features of sacral alar iliac fixation in an adult population: a 3D imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical treatments for adult spinal deformities often include pelvic fixation, and the feasibility of sacral-2 alar iliac (S2AI screw fixation has been shown previously. However, sometimes S2AI screw fixation cannot be applied due to the presence of an osteolytic lesion or trauma or because the biomechanical properties of only an S2AI screw is insufficient. Therefore, we questioned the feasibility of using sacral AI screws in other segments and determined whether S3AI and S4AI screws have the potential to be used for sacral fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and radiological features of sacral AI fixation in S1–S4 in an adult population using 3D imaging techniques. Methods: Computed tomography (CT scans were taken of 45 patients and were imported into Mimics (Version 10.01, Materialise, Belgium software to reconstruct the 3D digital images. Next, a cylinder (radius of 3.5 mm was drawn to imitate the screw trajectory of a S1–4 AI screw, and every imitated screw in each segment was adjusted to a maximum upward and downward angle to acquire the feasible region. The parameters of the S1–4AI screw trajectories were measured. Results: Sacral AI screws could be successfully imitated using 3D digital imaging. The S4AI screw trajectory could be obtained in 19 of 45 patient images (42.2%, while the feasibility rates of S1AI, S2AI, and S3AI screw fixation were 100%, 100%, and 91.1% (41/45, respectively. The feasible regions of S1AI, S2AI, and S3AI screw trajectories were wide enough, while the adjustable angle of S4AI screws was very small. Conclusion: It is feasible to place S1–2AI screws in the entire adult population and S3–4AI screws in some of the adult population. Furthermore, our study suggested that 3D digital images are suitable to study the feasibility of new screw fixation.

  13. Primary atypical sacral meningioma- not always benign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, A.K.; Casey, A.T.H.; Saifuddin, A.; Briggs, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of an atypical recurrent meningioma of the sacrum with pulmonary metastasis in a 31-year-old man. He presented with deep-seated buttock pain and urinary hesitancy for 3 months. MRI revealed a lesion occupying the central and left side of the sacral canal at the S1-S2 level. Surgical excision of the lesion via a posterior approach was undertaken, and the patient became symptom-free post-operatively. Histology confirmed atypical meningioma. Eight months later he re-presented with similar symptoms, and MRI confirmed local recurrence. The patient underwent left hemisacrectomy. Six months later he again presented with low back pain and MRI confirmed a second local recurrence. A CT scan of the chest showed multiple lung metastases. The patient died of a severe chest infection 18 months later. (orig.)

  14. Primary atypical sacral meningioma- not always benign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadra, A.K.; Casey, A.T.H.; Saifuddin, A.; Briggs, T.W. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    We present a case of an atypical recurrent meningioma of the sacrum with pulmonary metastasis in a 31-year-old man. He presented with deep-seated buttock pain and urinary hesitancy for 3 months. MRI revealed a lesion occupying the central and left side of the sacral canal at the S1-S2 level. Surgical excision of the lesion via a posterior approach was undertaken, and the patient became symptom-free post-operatively. Histology confirmed atypical meningioma. Eight months later he re-presented with similar symptoms, and MRI confirmed local recurrence. The patient underwent left hemisacrectomy. Six months later he again presented with low back pain and MRI confirmed a second local recurrence. A CT scan of the chest showed multiple lung metastases. The patient died of a severe chest infection 18 months later. (orig.)

  15. Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth; Behm, David G

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), abdominal stabilizers (AS), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles while performing squats of varied stability and resistance. Stability was altered by doing the squat movement on a Smith machine, a free squat, and while standing on two balance discs. Fourteen male subjects performed the movements. Activities of the SOL, AS, ULES, and LSES were highest during the unstable squat and lowest with the Smith machine protocol (p squats on unstable surfaces may permit a training adaptation of the trunk muscles responsible for supporting the spinal column (i.e., erector spinae) as well as the muscles most responsible for maintaining posture (i.e., SOL).

  16. Effects of acute urinary bladder overdistension on bladder response during sacral neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Zendler, S; Braun, P M; Alken, P; Jünemann, K

    1999-10-01

    Urinary retention and micturition disorders after overdistension are clinically well-known complications of subvesical obstruction. We attempted to evaluate whether bladder overdistension influences bladder response and whether overdistension supports detrusor decompensation. Following lumbal laminectomy in 9 male foxhounds, the sacral anterior roots S2 and S3 were placed into a modified Brindley electrode for reproducible and controlled detrusor activation. The bladder was filled in stages of 50 ml from 0 to 700 ml, corresponding to an overdistension. At each volume, the bladder response during sacral anterior root stimulation was registered. After overdistension, the bladder was refilled stepwise from 0 to 300 ml and stimulated. In all dogs, the bladder response was influenced by the intravesical volume. The maximum pressure (mean 69.1 cm H(2)O) was observed at mean volume of 100 ml. During overdistension, a significant reduction in bladder response of more than 80% was seen. After overdistension, a significant reduction in intravesical pressure of 19.0% was observed. In 2 cases, reduction in bladder response was more than 50% after a single overdistension. We conclude that motoric bladder function is influenced during and after overdistension. A single bladder overdistension can support acute and long-lasting detrusor decompensation. In order to protect motoric bladder function, bladder overdistension must be prevented.

  17. The Termination Level of the Dural Sac Relevant to Caudal Epidural Block in Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: A Comparison between Sacralization and Lumbarization Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Young; Jeong, Yu Mi; Lee, Sheen-Woo; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye-Young; Ahn, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a relatively common variant and have been considered as one of the reasons for back pain. It is not unusual for clinicians to encounter patients with LSTV who require caudal epidural block (CEB) for pain management. We investigated the termination level of the dural sac (DS) and anatomical features of the lumbosacral region relevant to CEB in patients with LSTV and compared these findings between sacralization and lumbarization groups. A retrospective evaluation. A university hospital with inpatient and outpatient LSTV cases presenting low back pain. Four hundred ninety-four LSTV patients were included and categorized into sacralization (n = 201) or lumbarization groups (n = 293). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of all of the LSTV patients were reviewed to determine the level of DS termination, the shortest distance between the apex of the sacral hiatus and DS, and the presence and the caudal level of sacral perineural cysts. Each lumbosacral vertebra column was divided into 3 equal portions (upper, middle, and lower thirds). The MRI findings in both of the groups were compared and analyzed. The distribution frequency of the levels of DS termination demonstrated a significant difference between the 2 groups. The mean caudal DS level in the lumbarization group was significantly lower than the sacralization group (lower third of the S2 [131 {44.7%} of 293 patients] vs. lower third of the S1 [78 {38.8%} of 201 patients]). The DS terminated at the S3 in more than 19% of the lumbarization group, whereas in only one case of the sacralization group. Although the incidence of perineural cysts was not significantly different between the 2 groups, the mean level of caudal margin of perineural cysts in the lumbarization group was significantly lower than the sacralization group (middle third of the S3 [10 {35.7%} of 28 cases] vs. middle third of the S2 [11 {44%} of 25 cases]). This study reveals several limitations including the

  18. Ipsilateral Hip Dysplasia in Patients with Sacral Hemiagenesis: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadatsugu Morimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral agenesis (SA is a rare condition consisting of the imperfect development of any part of the sacrum. This paper describes two cases of the rare cooccurrence of ipsilateral SA and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH and analyzes possible contributory factors for SA and DDH. Each of a 16-year-old female and 13-year-old female visited our hospital for left hip pain and limping. The findings of physical examinations showed a lower limb length discrepancy (left side in both cases, as well as left hip pain without limitations of the range of motion or neurological deficits. Initial radiographs demonstrated left subluxation of the left hip with associated acetabular dysplasia and partial left sacral agenesis. MRI revealed a tethering cord with a fatty filum terminale, and periacetabular osteotomy combined with allogeneic bone grafting was performed. After the surgery, the patients experienced no further pain, with no leg length discrepancy and were able to walk without a limp, being neurologically normal with a normal left hip range of motion. The cooccurrence of SA and DDH suggests a plausible hypothesis to explain the embryogenic relationship between malformation of the sacrum and hip.

  19. Effectiveness and Value of Prophylactic 5-Layer Foam Sacral Dressings to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries in Acute Care Hospitals: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and value of prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings to prevent hospital-acquired pressure injury rates in acute care settings. Retrospective observational cohort. We reviewed records of adult patients 18 years or older who were hospitalized at least 5 days across 38 acute care hospitals of the University Health System Consortium (UHC) and had a pressure injury as identified by Patient Safety Indicator #3 (PSI-03). All facilities are located in the United States. We collected longitudinal data pertaining to prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings purchased by hospital-quarter for 38 academic medical centers between 2010 and 2015. Longitudinal data on acute care, hospital-level patient outcomes (eg, admissions and PSI-03 and pressure injury rate) were queried through the UHC clinical database/resource manager from the Johns Hopkins Medicine portal. Data on volumes of dressings purchased per UHC hospital were merged with UHC data. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression was used to test the longitudinal association of prophylactic foam sacral dressings on pressure injury rates, adjusted for hospital case-mix and Medicare payments rules. Significant pressure injury rate reductions in US acute care hospitals between 2010 and 2015 were associated with the adoption of prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings within a prevention protocol (-1.0 cases/quarter; P = .002) and changes to Medicare payment rules in 2014 (-1.13 cases/quarter; P = .035). Prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings are an effective component of a pressure injury prevention protocol. Hospitals adopting these technologies should expect good value for use of these products.

  20. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  1. Radiation-induced neuropathies: collateral damage of improved cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Maisonobe, Thierry; Psimaras, Dimitri; Lenglet, Timothee; Porcher, Raphael; Lefaix, J.L.; Delenian, S.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the improvement of cancer prognosis, long-term damages of treatments become a medical and public health problem. Among the iatrogenic complications, neurological impairment is crucial to consider since motor disability and pain have a considerable impact on quality of life of long cancer survivors. However, radiation-induced neuropathies have not been the focus of great attention. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated review about the radiation-induced lesions of the peripheral nerve system. Radiation-induced neuropathies are characterized by their heterogeneity in both symptoms and disease course. Signs and symptoms depend on the affected structures of the peripheral nerve system (nerve roots, nerve plexus or nerve trunks). Early-onset complications are often transient and late complications are usually progressive and associated with a poor prognosis. The most frequent and well known is delayed radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, which may follow breast cancer irradiation. Radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy is characterized by pure or predominant lower motor neuron signs. They can be misdiagnosed, confused with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or with leptomeningeal metastases since nodular MRI enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and increased cerebrospinal fluid protein content can be observed. In the absence of specific markers of the link with radiotherapy, the diagnosis of post-radiation neuropathy may be difficult. Recently, a posteriori conformal radiotherapy with 3D dosimetric reconstitution has been developed to link a precise anatomical site to unexpected excess irradiation. The importance of early diagnosis of radiation-induced neuropathies is underscored by the emergence of new disease-modifying treatments. Although the pathophysiology is not fully understood, it is already possible to target radiation-induced fibrosis but also associated factors such as ischemia, oxidative stress and

  2. Estudio comparativo del tratamiento ortésico en las fracturas toraco-lumbosacras según la gravedad del trauma Estudo comparativo do tratamento ortótico nas fraturas toraco-lombosacro segundo a gravidade do trauma Comparative study on orthotic treatment of thoraco-lumbo-sacral fractures according to severity of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Manzone

    2011-01-01

    diferença significativa entre medições iniciais e seguimento. A única diferença significativa entre os grupos foi a cifose inicial da coluna vertebral. Sempre houve dife renças na comparação dos parâmetros geométricos do grupo controle e os grupos A e B, e entre o grupo controle e cada tipo (AO/Denis subdividido em alta ou baixa energia. As pontuações dos parâmetros funcionais finais sempre foram boas, com variações significativas entre os grupos A e B. CONCLUSÕES: É possível um bom resultado funcional em lesões toraco-lombo-sacrais estáveis, selecionando o tipo de órteses de acordo com a energia cinética do trauma. Esses resultados parecem ser melhores em traumas de alta energia tratados com dispositivos ortopédicos feitos à medida. No entanto, o tratamento ortésico diferenciado de acordo com a energia do trauma não altera os parâmetros radiológicos sagitais.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the severity of stable thoraco-lumbo-sacral trauma is useful for deciding the selection of brace type in orthopedic treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study (16 years length. Inclusion criteria: 1 Minimum follow-up: 2 years. 2 Complete conventional radiologic studies. 3 no litigation. 4 TLSO custom-made treatment for high kinetic energy trauma and pre-fabricated orthoses for low energy one. 5 Treatment performed or supervised by the senior author. Evaluation by independent observers of geometric Parameters (sagittal Cobb, vertebral kyphosis, anterior vertebral collapse initially and at follow-up, and Functional Parameters (SRS pain scale, Oswestry Index, Return to Previous Activity. Subdivision of different fractures types (of AO and Denis classifications in High (group A and Low Energy (group b according to the amount of kinetic energy of trauma. Comparison with a control group. Statistical analysis: chi square and Student t-test. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were studied (44 fractures, 23 females/18 males, 25 fractures group A and 19 group b. Average age: 46

  3. Morphological evaluation of the thoracic, lumbar and sacral column of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naida C. Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the number of thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae in tridactyla through radiographic examinations associated with gross anatomy determination. For this purpose, 12 adult specimens of M. tridactyla were analyzed, assigned to the Screening Center of Wild Animals (CETAS, IBAMA-GO, and approved by the Ethics Committee on the Use of Animals (Process CEUA-UFG nr 018/2014. In the radiographic examinations the following numbers of thoracic (T and lumbar (L vertebrae were observed: 16Tx2L (n=7, 15Tx2L (n=3, and 15Tx3L (n=2. In contrast, the numbers of vertebrae identified by anatomical dissection were as follows: 16Tx2L (n=4, 15Tx2L (n=3, and 15Tx3L (n=5. This difference occurred in cases of lumbarization of thoracic vertebrae, as seen in three specimens, and was explained by changes in regional innervations identified by anatomical dissection and the presence of floating ribs (right unilateral=1, left unilateral=1 and bilateral=1, which were not identified by radiographic exams. Regarding the sacral vertebrae there was no variation depending on the methods used, which allowed the identification of 4 (n=1 or 5 (n=11 vertebrae. Thus, we concluded that there is variation in the number of thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, in addition to lumbarization, which must be considered based on the presence of floating ribs, in this species.

  4. Doença de Paget com acometimento sacral: relato de caso Paget's disease with sacral involvement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nogueira Holanda Ferreira Braga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 71 anos de idade, com diagnóstico de doença de Paget óssea sacral. Foi realizado estudo com radiografia, cintilografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética, e o diagnóstico foi confirmado por análise histopatológica. O paciente evoluiu com boa resposta ao uso de ibandronato 150 mg, mensalmente, com redução significativa dos marcadores bioquímicos da doença.The authors report a case of a 71-year-old male patient diagnosed with Paget's disease of sacrum. Imaging study was performed with radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and the diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. The patient progressed with a good response to monthly treatment with ibandronate 150 mg, presenting a significant reduction in biochemical markers of disease.

  5. Botulinum toxin for treatment of cocontractions related to obstetrical brachial plexopathy Toxina botulínica para tratamento das co-contrações relacionadas à plexopatia braquial obstétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin type A was recently introduced for treatment of biceps - triceps muscle cocontraction, which compromises elbow function in children with obstetrical brachial plexopathy. This is our preliminary experience with this new approach. Eight children were treated with 2 - 3 U/kg of botulinum toxin injected in the triceps (4 patients and biceps (4 patients muscle, divided in 2 or 3 sites. All patients submitted to triceps injections showed a long-lasting improvement of active elbow flexion and none required new injections, after a follow-up of 3 to 18 months. Three of the patients submitted to biceps injections showed some improvement of elbow extension, but none developed anti-gravitational strength for elbow extension and the effect lasted only three to five months. One patient showed no response to triceps injections. Our data suggest that botulinum toxin can be useful in some children that have persistent disability secondary to obstetrical brachial plexopathy.A toxina botulínica do tipo A foi introduzida recentemente para o tratamento das co-contrações entre os músculos biceps e triceps, que comprometem a função do cotovelo nas crianças com plexopatia braquial obstétrica. Apresentamos nossa experiência preliminar com esta abordagem. Oito crianças foram tratadas com 2 - 3 U/kg de toxina botulínica injetada nos músculos triceps (4 pacientes e biceps (4 pacientes, divididas em 2 ou 3 sítios. Todos os pacientes submetidos a injeções no triceps apresentaram melhora persistente da flexão do cotovelo e nenhum precisou de novas aplicações após seguimento de 3 a 18 meses. Três pacientes submetidos a aplicações no biceps apresentaram melhora na extensão do cotovelo, mas nenhum adquiriu força antigravitacional e o efeito durou apenas 3 a 5 meses. Um paciente não respondeu às injeções. Nossos dados sugerem que a toxina botulínica pode ser útil no tratamento de algumas crianças com seqüelas de plexopatia braquial

  6. Exhausted implanted pulse generator in sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: What next in daily practice for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchalais, Emilie; Meurette, Guillaume; Perrot, Bastien; Wyart, Vincent; Kubis, Caroline; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation in faecal incontinence relies on an implanted pulse generator known to have a limited lifespan. The long-term use of sacral nerve stimulation raises concerns about the true lifespan of generators. The aim of the study was to assess the lifespan of sacral nerve stimulation implanted pulse generators in daily practice, and the outcome of exhausted generator replacement, in faecal incontinent patients. Faecal incontinent patients with pulse generators (Medtronic Interstim™ or InterstimII™) implanted in a single centre from 2001 to 2014 were prospectively followed up. Generator lifespan was measured according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients with a generator explanted/turned off before exhaustion were excluded. Morbidity of exhausted generator replacement and the outcome (Cleveland Clinic Florida Faecal Incontinence (CCF-FI) and Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) scores) were recorded. Of 135 patients with an implanted pulse generator, 112 (InterstimII 66) were included. Mean follow-up was 4.9 ± 2.8 years. The generator reached exhaustion in 29 (26%) cases. Overall median lifespan of an implanted pulse generator was approximately 9 years (95% CI 8-9.2). Interstim and InterstimII 25th percentile lifespan was 7.2 (CI 6.4-8.3) and 5 (CI 4-not reached) years, respectively. After exhaustion, generators were replaced, left in place or explanted in 23, 2 and 4 patients, respectively. Generator replacement was virtually uneventful. CCF-FI/FIQL scores remained unchanged after generator replacement (CCF-FI 8 ± 2 vs 7 ± 3; FIQL 3 ± 0.6 vs 3 ± 0.5; p = ns). In this study, the implanted pulse generator observed median lifespan was 9 years. After exhaustion, generators were safely and efficiently replaced. The study also gives insight into long-term needs and costs of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) therapy.

  7. Formation of the sacrum requires down-regulation of sonic hedgehog signaling in the sacral intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavita, Raffaella; Vincent, Kathleen; Pinelli, Robert; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2018-05-21

    In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling. We have previously shown that SHH signaling is essential for the normal postnatal growth and differentiation of intervertebral discs elsewhere in the spine, and that loss of SHH signaling leads to pathological disc degeneration, a very common disorder of aging. Thus, loss of SHH is pathological in one region of the spine but part of normal development in another. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Clinical results of sacral neuromodulation for chronic voiding dysfunction using unilateral sacral foramen electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, E H; Ruiz-Cerdá, J L; Eerdmans, P H; Janknegt, R A; Van Kerrebroeck, P E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term clinical efficacy and complications of neuromodulation with a unilateral sacral foramen electrode in 36 patients with chronic voiding dysfunction. Following a positive effect of a percutaneous nerve evaluation test, patients underwent open surgery. A permanent electrode was implanted in 24 patients with urge incontinence, in 6 with urgency-frequency syndrome, and in 6 with nonobstructive urinary retention. After an average follow-up period of 37.8 months, 19 patients (52.8%) continue to benefit from the neuromodulation with a significant improvement of symptoms and urodynamic parameters. The median duration of the therapeutic effect for the total study population was longer than 60 months. No significant difference in the median duration of therapeutic effect with regard to sex, the type of voiding disorder, or the implant pulse generator was found. However, in patients with previous psychological disorders the median duration of therapeutic effect was only 12 months (P = 0.008). Complications were mild. In the group of patients in whom the therapeutic effect remains, 37 reoperations have had to be performed. We conclude that although reoperations were needed to overcome technical problems, patients can achieve lasting symptomatic improvement. Since technical changes in the equipment have reduced the number of complications, even better results can be expected in terms of the reoperation rate.

  9. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. We treated 88 locations of this lesion in 68 males. The clinical features were those of lower back pains, with or without radiation into the lower extremities, sensory loss and paresis of the limbs. There was a case of loss of urinary bladder and ano-rectal control. All lesions were confirmed through cauda-equinograms and treated under general anaesthesia in knee-chest position (MECCA position). The patients were followed up for 3-6 months post-operatively. There were 88 locations in 68 males of 21-70 years of age, with 29 prolapses occurring during the age range 31-40 years, while 54 locations were on the left and 48 at L4/5. The procedures were well tolerated by all patients and there were no post-operative complications. This lesion in our series occurred mostly on the left, at the L4/5 level and peaked at 31-40 years age range. The predictability of occurrence of this disease, using side, level and age is still not feasible in males from our series.

  10. Treatment of intractable chronic pelvic pain syndrome by injecting a compound of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl into sacral spinal space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhan-song; SONG Bo; NIE Fa-chuan; CHEN Jin-mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of injecting a compound of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl into sacral spinal space to treat chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Methods: A total of 36 men with recalcitrant CPPS refractory to multiple prior therapies were treated with the injection of a compound of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl (10 ml of 0. 125% upivacaine, .05 mg Fentanyl, 5 mg Dexamethasone, 100 mg Vitamin B1 and 1 mg Vitamin B12) into sacral space once a week for 4 weeks. The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), maximum and average flow rate were performed at the start and the end of 4 weeks' therapy. Results :Mean NIH-CPSI total score was decreased from 26.5±.6 to 13.4±2.0 (P<0. 001). Significant improvement was seen in each subscore domain. A total of 32 patients (89%) had at least 25% improvement on NIH-CPSI and 22 (61%) had at least 50% improvement. Maximal and average flow rate were increased from 19. 5±3.8 to 23. 6±4. 2 and 10. 9±2.6 to 14.3± 2.4 respectively. Conclusion: Injection of this compound of Bupivacaine, Fentanyl and Dexamethasone into sacral spinal space is an effective and safe approach for recalcitrant CPPS. Further study of the mechanisms and prospective placebo controlled trials are warranted.

  11. Medium-Term Outcome of Sacral Nerve Modulation for Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govaert, Bastiaan; Maeda, Yasuko; Alberga, Job

    2012-01-01

    was percutaneous nerve evaluation. If this was successful, patients underwent sacral nerve modulation therapy with an implanted device (tined-lead and implantable pulse generator). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Outcome was assessed with the Wexner...... constipation score. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients (13 men, 104 women) with a mean age of 45.6 (SD, 13.0) years underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation. Of these, 68 patients (58%) had successful percutaneous nerve evaluation and underwent implantation of a device. The mean Wexner score was 17.0 (SD, 3.......8) at baseline and 10.2 (SD 5.3) after percutaneous nerve evaluation (p latest follow-up (median, 37 months; range, 4–92) was only 61 (52% of all patients who...

  12. Does Sacral Nerve Stimulation Improve Continence Through Enhanced Sensitivity of the Anal Canal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K

    2016-01-01

    . DESIGN: This is an explorative study. PATIENTS: Fifteen women with idiopathic fecal incontinence (mean age, 58 ± 12.2 years) were selected. INTERVENTIONS: Cortical evoked potentials were recorded during repeated rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the anal canal both before and during temporary...... the threshold for urge to defecate elicited from the anal canal, whereas supraspinal responses remained unaltered. This may suggest that sacral nerve stimulation, at least in part, acts via somatic afferent fibers enhancing anal sensation....

  13. Sacral nerve stimulation increases activation of the primary somatosensory cortex by anal canal stimulation in an experimental model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, K M

    2011-08-01

    Sacral and posterior tibial nerve stimulation may be used to treat faecal incontinence; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether sensory activation of the cerebral cortex by anal canal stimulation was increased by peripheral neuromodulation.

  14. Pelvic X-ray misses out on detecting sacral fractures in the elderly - Importance of CT imaging in blunt pelvic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicho, Andreas; Schmidt, Stefan A; Seeber, Kevin; Olivier, Alain; Richter, Peter H; Gebhard, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Patients aged 75 years and older with blunt pelvic trauma are frequently seen in the ER. The standard diagnostic tool in these patients is the plain a.p.-radiograph of the pelvis. Especially lesions of the posterior pelvic ring are often missed due to e.g. bowel gas projection and enteric overlay. With a retrospective study covering these patients over a 3 year period in our level I trauma centre, we were able to evaluate the rate of missed injuries in the a.p.-radiograph whenever a corresponding CT scan was performed. Age, gender, and accompanying fractures of the pelvic ring were recorded. The intrinsic test characteristics and the performance in the population were calculated according to standard formulas. Thus, 233 consecutive patients with blunt pelvic trauma with both conventional radiographic examination and computed tomography (CT) were included. Thereof, 56 (23%) showed a sacral fracture in the CT scan. Of 233 pelvic X-ray-images taken, 227 showed no sacral fracture. 51 (21.7%) of these were false negative, yielding a sensitivity of just 10.5%. Average age of patients with sacral fractures was 85.1±6.1 years, with 88% being female. Sacral fractures were often accompanied by lesions of the anterior pelvic ring with pubic bone fractures in 75% of sacrum fracture cases. Second most concomitant fractures are found at the acetabulum (23.3%). Plain radiographic imaging is especially likely to miss out fractures of the posterior pelvic ring, which nowadays can be of therapeutic consequence. Besides the physicians experience in the ED, profound knowledge of insensitivity of plain radiographs in finding posterior pelvic ring lesions is crucial for a reliable diagnostic routine. Since the high mortality caused by prolonged immobilisation due to pelvic ring injuries, all fractures should be identified. We therefore provide a diagnostic algorithm for blunt pelvic trauma in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A multi-level rapid prototyping drill guide template reduces the perforation risk of pedicle screw placement in the lumbar and sacral spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merc, Matjaz; Drstvensek, Igor; Vogrin, Matjaz; Brajlih, Tomaz; Recnik, Gregor

    2013-07-01

    The method of free-hand pedicle screw placement is generally safe although it carries potential risks. For this reason, several highly accurate computer-assisted systems were developed and are currently on the market. However, these devices have certain disadvantages. We have developed a method of pedicle screw placement in the lumbar and sacral region using a multi-level drill guide template, created with the rapid prototyping technology and have validated it in a clinical study. The aim of the study was to manufacture and evaluate the accuracy of a multi-level drill guide template for lumbar and first sacral pedicle screw placement and to compare it with the free-hand technique under fluoroscopy supervision. In 2011 and 2012, a randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients. 54 screws were implanted in the trial group using templates and 54 in the control group using the fluoroscopy-supervised free-hand technique. Furthermore, applicability for the first sacral level was tested. Preoperative CT-scans were taken and templates were designed using the selective laser sintering method. Postoperative evaluation and statistical analysis of pedicle violation, displacement, screw length and deviation were performed for both groups. The incidence of cortex perforation was significantly reduced in the template group; likewise, the deviation and displacement level of screws in the sagittal plane. In both groups there was no significantly important difference in deviation and displacement level in the transversal plane as not in pedicle screw length. The results for the first sacral level resembled the main investigated group. The method significantly lowers the incidence of cortex perforation and is therefore potentially applicable in clinical practice, especially in some selected cases. The applied method, however, carries a potential for errors during manufacturing and practical usage and therefore still requires further improvements.

  16. LUMBOSACRAL TRANSITIONAL ANATOMY TYPES AND DISC DEGENERATIVE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabukovska Radulovska Jasminka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The relationship between presence of lumbo sacral transitional vertebra (LSTV and disc degenerative changes is unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between different types of LSTV and disc degenerative changes at the transitional and the adjacent cephalad segment. Material and methods: Sixty-three patients (mean age 51.48 ± 13.51 out of 200 adults with low back pain who performed MRI examination of the lumbo sacral spine, classified as positive for LSTV, were included in the study. Annular tears, disc degeneration according to Phirmann classification and disc herniations were evaluated and graded at transitional and adjacent cephalad level. Results: The severity of disc degeneration at the transitional level and the adjacent level correlated with the types of LSTV. Severe disc degenerative changes were most frequent in articulated connection LSTV types and incombined LSTV type at the transitional level and in osseus connection LSTV types at the adjacent cephalad level. These changes were more frequent in unilateral articulated connection LSTV subtype (64% vs 54%; and in unilateral osseus connection LSTV subtype (25% vs no patients at transitional level, and in bilateral osseus connection LSTV subtype (100% vs 50% at the level above. High prevalence of disc herniations was observed in articulated connection LSTV types as well as in unilateral osseus connection LSTV subtype at transitional and the adjacent cephalad level. At the transitional level higher prevalence of disc herniations was characteristic for unilateral articulated connection LSTV sub type (46%vs 41% and for unilateral osseus connection LSTV subtype (50% vs no patients. At the adjacent level higher prevalence of disc herniations was observed in bilateral articulated connection LSTV subtype (38% vs 27% and in bilateral osseus connection LSTV subtype (50% vs 25%. Conclusions: The compact osseus connection (osseus bridging vs articular

  17. Outcome of long-axis percutaneous sacroplasty for the treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures with a radiofrequency-induced, high-viscosity bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, Katrin [University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); J. W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan; Vogl, Thomas J. [University of Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin G. [Radiology Munich, Munich (Germany); Marzi, Ingo [University of Frankfurt, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Our goal was to assess the technical results in patients who underwent long-axis sacroplasty for the treatment of sacral insufficiency fractures (SIF) by radiofrequency-induced high-viscosity bone cement augmentation. Twelve patients with bilateral sacral fractures were treated by augmentation with radiofrequency-activated, high-viscosity polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement under local anesthesia. CT-guided sacroplasty was performed by using a long-axis approach through a single entry point. Thirty-six vertebrae were treated in 12 sessions under a combination of CT and fluoroscopic guidance using a bilateral access and a cavity-creating osteotome prior to remote-controlled, hydraulically driven cement injection. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score before sacroplasty and at 1 and 3 months after the treatment was obtained. PMMA leaks were evaluated retrospectively using the post-interventional CT. The mean amount of high-viscosity PMMA injected per patient was 7.8 ml. No major adverse events were observed. In the first 4 days after the procedure, the mean VAS score decreased from 8.1 ± 1.9 to mean 3.1 ± 1.2 and was followed by a gradual but continuous decrease throughout the rest of the follow-up period at 24 weeks (mean 2.2 ± 1.1) and 48 weeks (mean 2.1 ± 1.4). CT fluoroscopy-guided sacral augmentation was safe and effective in all 12 patients with osteoporotic SIF. (orig.)

  18. A Randomized Comparison Between Ultrasound- and Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacral Lateral Branch Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Roderick J; Etheridge, John-Paul B; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Thonnagith, Atikun; De Villiers, Frederick; Nelems, Bill; Tran, De Q

    This randomized trial compared ultrasound (US)- and fluoroscopy-guided sacral lateral branch (SLB) blocks. We hypothesized that US would require a shorter performance time. Forty patients who required unilateral sacral lateral branch blocks for chronic low back pain were randomized to US or fluoroscopy guidance. Before the performance of the assigned block, an investigator who was not involved in patient care carried out baseline analgesic testing. With US, the dorsal sacroiliac ligament, the sacroiliac joint, and the interosseous ligament were probed with a 22-gauge block needle. The patient was asked to rate the level of discomfort using an 11-point numerical rating scale.After the analgesic test, attending anesthesiologists or supervised trainees carried out the SLB blocks. The local anesthetic agent (lidocaine 2%) was identical in all subjects. In the US group, local anesthetic (1.5 mL) was first injected on the lateral crest at the mid-point between S2 and S3. Subsequently, 2 more injections of 0.5 mL were carried out on the lateral crest, immediately cephalad to S2 and at the S1 level. In the fluoroscopy group, SLB blocks were performed according to a previously described 17-injection technique, which involves 9 skin entry sites and the targeting of the L5 posterior root and S1-S3 sacral lateral branches. A 0.4-mL volume of local anesthetic was deposited at each target point. The performance time, number of needle passes, and the incidence of vascular breach were recorded during the performance of the block.Twenty minutes after the end of local anesthetic injection, the same investigator who performed preblock analgesic testing carried out postblock testing in an identical manner. Compared with fluoroscopy, the US technique was associated with a shorter performance time (267.5 ± 99.3 vs 628.7 ± 120.3 seconds; P < 0.001), fewer needle passes and a lower incidence of vascular breach (0 vs 10 occurrences; P = 0.001). However, the block effect (ie, the

  19. A new technique for long time catheterization of sacral epidural canal in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Yüksel; Aydın, Zeynep; Taşdöğen, Aydın; Karcı, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to develop a simple and practical technique for chronic sacral epidural catheterization of rabbits. We included ten rabbits weighing 2-2.5 kg in the study. After anesthesia and analgesia, we placed an epidural catheter by a 2 cm longitudinal skin incision in the tail above the sacral hiatus region. We confirmed localization by giving 1% lidocaine (leveling sensory loss and motor function loss of the lower extremity). The catheter was carried forward through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed at the neck. Chronic caudal epidural catheter placement was succesful in all rabbits. The catheters stayed in place effectively for ten days. We encountered no catheter complications during this period. The localization of the catheter was reconfirmed by 1% lidocaine on the last day. After animals killing, we performed a laminectomy and verified localization of the catheter in the epidural space. Various methods for catheterization of the epidural space in animal models exist in the literature. Epidural catheterization of rabbits can be accomplished by atlanto-occipital, lumbar or caudal routes by amputation of the tail. Intrathecal and epidural catheterization techniques defined in the literature necessitate surgical skill and knowledge of surgical procedures like laminectomy and tail amputation. Our technique does not require substantial surgical skill, anatomical integrity is preserved and malposition of the catheter is not encountered. In conclusion, we suggest that our simple and easily applicable new epidural catheterization technique can be used as a model in experimental animal studies.

  20. Comparative study between fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers of the sacral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oksman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decubitus ulcers of the sacral region are common conditions in bedridden patients. Deep lesions (Stages III and IV often require surgical treatment for closure. Flaps of the region are the first choice for treatment. We present our experience in the treatment of these lesions and compare two different approaches: local fasciocutaneous flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap with V-Y advancement. Method: From March 2009 to May 2014, 32 patients underwent closure of sacral pressure ulcers by flaps, 17 of them with rotational local fasciocutaneous flaps and 15 with myocutaneous flaps of the gluteus maximus muscle with V-Y advancement. Evolution regarding complications and rate of success after two months was compared between the groups. Results: Out of the 32 operated patients we obtained resolution of lesions after two months in 23 (71.8%, 10 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (58.8% and 13 cases in the myocutaneous flap group (86.6%. The most common complication was partial dehiscence of sutures in 12 patients (37.5%, 8 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (47% and 4 patients in the myocutaneous flap group (26.6%. The group of patients reconstructed with local fasciocutaneous flaps presented 3 cases with seroma, one with hematoma and 6 with partial cutaneous necrosis; these patients also required more drainage time. Conclusions: Both the local rotational fasciocutaneous flap and the myocutaneous flap of the gluteus maximus muscle in V-Y flap can be used in the surgical treatment of sacral ulcers. In our experience, a reduced success rate and more complications were found in the local fasciocutaneous reconstructive method. Keywords: Pressure ulcer, Fasciocutaneous flap, Myocutaneous flap, Gluteus maximus muscle

  1. Stereoroentgenographic System With Portable Calibration Cage For Use In Clinical Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Francis; Baumrind, Sheldon; Chafetz, Neil; Curry, Sean

    1983-07-01

    For the past five years, we have been accumulating information on the performance of a stereoroentgenographic system developed for use in clinical medicine and first reported at the NATO Symposium on the Application of Human Biostereometrics. This system represents an adaptation of normal case coplanar stereometry and involves the use of a single emitter which is displaced in a controlled fashion between exposures. The system has been used primarily for the detection of applicance loosening and settling following the placement of total hip protheses and also for the detection of pseudorthosis following lumbo-sacral fusion. One major goal has been the development of a data acquisition and analysis system suitable for general hospital use which can be operated by technicians without specialized photogrammetric training. This report will focus on system design and on the delineation of technical problems encountered during routine clinical use of the system.

  2. Surgical anesthesia with a combination of T12 paravertebral block and lumbar plexus, sacral plexus block for hip replacement in ankylosing spondylitis: CARE-compliant 4 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xijian; Li, Ji; Liu, Yong; Wu, Xi; Mei, Wei

    2017-06-26

    Anesthesia management for patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis scheduled for total hip arthroplasty is challenging due to a potential difficult airway and difficult neuraxial block. We report 4 cases with ankylosing spondylitis successfully managed with a combination of lumbar plexus, sacral plexus and T12 paravertebral block. Four patients were scheduled for total hip arthroplasty. All of them were diagnosed as severe ankylosing spondylitis with rigidity and immobilization of cervical and lumbar spine and hip joints. A combination of T12 paravertebral block, lumbar plexus and sacral plexus block was successfully used for the surgery without any additional intravenous anesthetic or local anesthetics infiltration to the incision, and none of the patients complained of discomfort during the operations. The combination of T12 paravertebral block, lumbar plexus and sacral plexus block, which may block all nerves innervating the articular capsule, surrounding muscles and the skin involved in total hip arthroplasty, might be a promising alternative for total hip arthroplasty in ankylosing spondylitis.

  3. Percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of sacral fractures and sacroiliac joint disruptions with CT-controlled guidewires performed by interventionalists: single center experience in treating posterior pelvic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Marzi, Ingo; Zangos, Stephan; Wichmann, Julian L; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Mack, Martin G; Schmidt, Sven; Eichler, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation for treatment of posterior pelvic instability with the help of CT controlled guidewires, assess its accuracy, safety and effectiveness, and discuss potential pitfalls. 100 guidewires and hollow titan screws were inserted in 38 patients (49.6±19.5 years) suffering from 35 sacral fractures and/or 16 sacroiliac joint disruptions due to 33 (poly-)traumatic, 2 osteoporotic and 1 post-infectious conditions. The guidewire and screw positions were analyzed in multiplanar reconstructions. The mean minimal distance between guidewire and adjacent neural foramina was 4.5±2.01mm, with a distinctly higher precision in S1 than S2. Eight guidewires showed cortical contacts, resulting in a total of 2% mismatched screws with subsequent wall violation. The fracture gaps were reduced from 3.6±0.53mm to 1.2±0.54mm. During follow-up 3 cases of minor iatrogenic sacral impaction (<5mm) due to the bolting and 2 cases of screw loosening were observed. Interventional time was 84.0min with a mean of 2.63 screws per patient whilst acquiring a mean of 93.7 interventional CT-images (DLP 336.7mGycm). The treatment of posterior pelvic instability with a guidewire-based screw insertion technique under CT-imaging results in a very high accuracy and efficacy with a low complication rate. Careful attention should be drawn to radiation levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Low-frequency Current Sacral Dermatome Stimulation on Idiopathic Slow Transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Yi, Seung-Ju

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC.

  5. Spatial Narrative As Feature Of Singularity In Sacral Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis Oržikauskas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses architectural compositions of various religious complexes – historical and contemporary – apart from their stylistic features. The most prominent ensembles under analysis have one noticeably common feature – spatial narrative. The foreseen sequence of forms of experience and spatial structure tell different religious narratives depending on which different aspects of faith were actualized in a given period. The analyzed examples stand in proof that suggestibility of religious aspects in sacral architecture are inseparable from their artistic suggestibility aspects. In some cases, these aspects are less related to architectural stylistic means, but have a direct connection to such components of architectural compositions as foreseen sequence of a visitor’s experience and semantics of particular forms, i.e. architectural narrative, which is achieved not only through the means of perception of space, but also by the relationship to social and cultural meanings and subtext of architecture.

  6. Coronal MR imaging of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hald, J.K.; Nakstad, P.H.; Hauglum, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteers underwent coronal MR imaging at 1.5 tesla of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots. Coronal slices, 3-mm-thick with a 0.3-mm gap between the slices were obtained (TR/TE 600/22) through the lumbar spinal canal. All the nerve roots were visible on at least one image. One can routinely expect to demonstrate the 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots on T1-weighted, 3-mm-thick coronal MR scans. We found no correlation between the degree of lumbar lordosis and the lengths of the visible nerve roots. Five patients with one of the following spinal problems: anomaly, tumor, disk herniation, and failed back surgery syndrome were examined according to our protocol. In all these cases coronal MR imaging gave the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Coronal MR imaging of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerve roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J K; Nakstad, P H; Hauglum, B E [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-05-01

    Seven healthy volunteers underwent coronal MR imaging at 1.5 tesla of the normal 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots. Coronal slices, 3-mm-thick with a 0.3-mm gap between the slices were obtained (TR/TE 600/22) through the lumbar spinal canal. All the nerve roots were visible on at least one image. One can routinely expect to demonstrate the 3rd, 4th, and 5th lumbar, and 1st sacral nerve roots on T1-weighted, 3-mm-thick coronal MR scans. We found no correlation between the degree of lumbar lordosis and the lengths of the visible nerve roots. Five patients with one of the following spinal problems: anomaly, tumor, disk herniation, and failed back surgery syndrome were examined according to our protocol. In all these cases coronal MR imaging gave the correct diagnosis. (orig.).

  8. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal column tumors: technique and outcomes from a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreejit; Gobin, Y Pierre; Leng, Lewis Z; Marcus, Joshua D; Bilsky, Mark; Laufer, Ilya; Patsalides, Athos

    2013-09-01

    The existing literature on preoperative spine tumor embolization is limited in size of patient cohorts and diversity of tumor histologies. This report presents our experience with preoperative embolization of hypervascular thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal column tumors in the largest series to date. We conducted a retrospective review of 228 angiograms and 188 pre-operative embolizations for tumors involving thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal column. Tumor vascularity was evaluated with conventional spinal angiography and was graded from 0 (same as normal adjacent vertebral body) to 3 (severe tumor blush with arteriovenous shunting). Embolic materials included poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) particles and detachable platinum coils and rarely, liquid embolics. The degree of embolization was graded as complete, near-complete, or partial. Anesthesia records were reviewed to document blood loss during surgery. Renal cell carcinoma (44.2%), thyroid carcinoma (9.2%), and leiomyosarcoma (6.6%) were the most common tumors out of a total of 40 tumor histologies. Hemangiopericytoma had the highest mean vascularity (2.6) of all tumor types with at least five representative cases followed by renal cell carcinoma (2.0) and thyroid carcinoma (2.0). PVA particles were used in 100% of cases. Detachable platinum coils were used in 51.6% of cases. Complete, near-complete, and partial embolizations were achieved in 86.1%, 12.7%, and 1.2% of all cases, respectively. There were no new post-procedure neurologic deficits or other complications with long-term morbidity. The mean intra-operative blood loss for the hypervascular tumors treated with pre-operative embolization was 1745 cc. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine tumors can be performed with high success rates and a high degree of safety at high volume centers.

  9. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jian

    2015-01-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster...

  10. Median Sacral Artery, Sympathetic Nerves, and the Coccygeal Body: A Study Using Serial Sections of Human Embryos and Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco

    2016-07-01

    To examine how the median sacral artery (MSA) is involved with the coccygeal body or glomus coccygeum, we studied serial frontal or sagittal sections of 14 embryos (approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) and 12 fetuses (10-18 weeks). At five weeks, the caudal end of the dorsal aorta (i.e., MSA) accompanied putative sympathetic ganglion cells in front of the upper coccygeal and lower sacral vertebrae. At six weeks, a candidate for the initial coccygeal body was identified as a longitudinal arterial plexus involving nerve fibers and sympathetic ganglion cells between arteries. At 10-18 weeks, the MSA exhibited a highly tortuous course at the lower sacral and coccygeal levels, and was attached to and surrounded by veins, nerve fibers, and sympathetic ganglion cells near and between the bilateral origins of the levator ani muscle. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and chromogranin A in the nerves. However, throughout the stages examined, we found no evidence suggestive of an arteriovenous anastomosis, such as well-developed smooth muscle. An acute anterior flexure of the vertebrae at the lower sacrum, as well as regression of the secondary neural tube, seemed to induce arterial plexus formation from an initial straight MSA. Nerves and ganglion cells were likely to be secondarily involved with the plexus because of the close topographical relationship. However, these nerves might play a major role in the extreme change into adult morphology. An arteriovenous anastomosis along the MSA might be an overinterpretation, at least in the prenatal human. Anat Rec, 299:819-827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An audit of the physiotherapy management of paraplegic patients with sacral pressure sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pather

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pressure sores are the most common complication post spinal cord injury that requires patients to be on bed rest. Patient bed rest delay rehabilitation and may lead to other complications associated with immobility. This study sought to establish the treatment interventions physiotherapists provide to patients with sacral pressure sores and the factors that they consider when deciding whether the patient should receive physiotherapy in the ward or gym. Methods: This was a questionnaire based survey of physiotherapists working in spinal cord injury rehabilitation units in South Africa. The self-designed questionnaire was sent to all the main spinal rehabilitation units in the country (14 located in Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Free State provinces. Results: Thirty-nine physiotherapists from a total of 51 completed the questionnaires (76% response rate. The most common treatment practice for patients with sacral pressure sores was bed rest (98%. The most common physio-therapy practices (70% included were upper limb muscle strengthening, upper and lower limb passive movements, positioning into prone and side lying and passive stretching. The choice of treatment environment was influenced by doctors’ orders and the size, grade and duration of the pressure sores. Conclusion: Direct involvement in pressure sore management in South Africa seem to be less than in other parts of the world. If we are to minimise the pressure sore impact, it appears like we need more focus on gait re-education and standardised ADL programmes and patient treatment in the gym to possibly maximise healing and rehabilitation.

  12. A Novel Collaborative Protocol for Successful Management of Penile Pain Mediated by Radiculitis of Sacral Spinal Nerve Roots From Tarlov Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Goldstein, MD

    2017-09-01

    Goldstein I, Komisaruk BR, Rubin RS, et al. A Novel Collaborative Protocol for Successful Management of Penile Pain Mediated by Radiculitis of Sacral Spinal Nerve Roots From Tarlov Cysts. Sex Med 2017;5:e203–e211.

  13. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients’ age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%. Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p=0.087. Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity.

  14. Clinical Outcome of Sacral Chordoma With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy Compared With Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Kamada, Tadashi; Imai, Reiko; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Shido, Yoji; Wasa, Junji; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, post-treatment function, toxicity, and complications of carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) for sacral chordoma compared with surgery. Methods and Materials: The records of 17 primary sacral chordoma patients treated since 1990 with surgery (n = 10) or carbon ion RT (n = 7) were retrospectively analyzed for disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, complications, and functional outcome. The applied carbon ion dose ranged from 54.0 Gray equivalent (GyE) to 73.6 GyE (median 70.4). Results: The mean age at treatment was 55 years for the surgery group and 65 years for the carbon ion RT group. The median duration of follow-up was 76 months for the surgery group and 49 months for the carbon ion RT group. The local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years was 62.5% for the surgery and 100% for the carbon ion RT group, and the disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 85.7% and 53.3%, respectively. Urinary-anorectal function worsened in 6 patients (60%) in the surgery group, but it was unchanged in all the patients who had undergone carbon ion RT. Postoperative wound complications requiring reoperation occurred in 3 patients (30%) after surgery and in 1 patient (14%) after carbon ion RT. The functional outcome evaluated using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system revealed 55% in the surgery group and 75% in the carbon ion RT group. Of the six factors in this scoring system, the carbon ion RT group had significantly greater scores in emotional acceptance than did the surgery group. Conclusion: Carbon ion RT results in a high local control rate and preservation of urinary-anorectal function compared with surgery.

  15. Predictive value of radioculography in patients with lumbago-sciatica. A prospective study (part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espersen, J.O.; Kosteljanetz, M. (University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Halaburt, H.; Miletic, T. (University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark). Dept. of Neuroradiology)

    1984-01-01

    One hundred patients with symptoms of lumbo-sacral root compression were prospectively and consecutively assigned to operation based alone on clinical findings. A preoperative myelogram was performed in all patients and described without a knowledge of the clinical features. All patients were explored for the clinically and myelographically relevant disc. When the myelogram was normal (16 patients) both lower lumbar interspaces were exposed. In 58 patients a herniated disc was revealed at surgery. Only 'myelographic herniation' with indentation of the contrast column was accompanied by a high frequency of disc herniation at surgery (73-87%). In cases with normal myelograms only 5% had a disc herniation. The severity of the myelographic finding was clearly correlated to the frequency of positive surgical findings and good outcomes. The preoperative radiculogram gives a high degree of certainty in the preoperative evaluation whether a surgical lesion is present or not and reveals a precise prediction of the outcome of surgery.

  16. Predictive value of radioculography in patients with lumbago-sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espersen, J.O.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Halaburt, H.; Miletic, T.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred patients with symptoms of lumbo-sacral root compression were prospectively and consecutively assigned to operation based alone on clinical findings. A preoperative myelogram was performed in all patients and described without a knowledge of the clinical features. All patients were explored for the clinically and myelographically relevant disc. When the myelogram was normal (16 patients) both lower lumbar interspaces were exposed. In 58 patients a herniated disc was revealed at surgery. Only 'myelographic herniation' with indentation of the contrast column was accompanied by a high frequency of disc herniation at surgery (73-87%). In cases with normal myelograms only 5% had a disc herniation. The severity of the myelographic finding was clearly correlated to the frequency of positive surgical findings and good outcomes. The preoperative radiculogram gives a high degree of certainty in the preoperative evaluation whether a surgical lesion is present or not and reveals a precise prediction of the outcome of surgery. (Author)

  17. A Clinico-epidemiologic Profile of Herpeszoster in Norht India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Chaudhary

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinico-epidemiological study of 230 cases of herpes zoster revealed an overallincidence of 0.6 percent. Out of 230 patients 160 were males and 70 females (male and female ratio being 2.2:1. The maximum incidence was noted in the second and third decades. A higher incidence was observed in the months of March, April, May and then in August, September and October. A confirmative history of chicken poxin the past was available in 34 (14.7% patients only. There was no appreciable difference between right and left side involvement, except for the cranial segments, where the right side was predominantly involved. Thoracic segments were most commonly (55.2% involved followed by cervical (19.5%, lumbo-sacral (13.9% , and cranial (11.3% segments. Prodromal symptoms were recorded in 20% patients. Among the cranial nerves, ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve was most commonly (57.7% affected. Post herpetic neuralgia was noticed in 14.3% patients.

  18. The use of free musculocutaneous flaps to cover chronic radiation ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiguchi, Kounosuke; Tajima, Sadao; Tanaka, Yoshio; Hira, Michiya; Imai, Keisuke; Fukae, Eiichi; Omiya, Yuka.

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with chronic radiation ulcer treated with free musculocutaneous flap transfer are described. The first patient was a 66-year-old woman who developed sacral ulcer 7 years after radiation combined with surgery for uterine cancer. After debridement of this ulcer, interpositional vein grafts 30 cm in length was used to reconstruct an 'extended' latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. The second patient was a 62-year-old woman. She developed ulcer on her chest 15 years after postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. Radiation damage extended to the myocardium and pulmonary parenchyma. After careful debridement, reconstruction was performed by using the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. The last patient was a 72-year-old woman. Ulcer of the right axilla developed 19 years after postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. Reconstruction was performed by using a free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. In these patients in whom radiation-damaged tissue was not completely excised, favorable results could be attained by using the transfer of the free musculocutaneous flaps. (N.K.)

  19. Mechanical comparison between lengthened and short sacroiliac screws in sacral fracture fixation: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Zhang, S; Sun, T; Wang, D; Lian, W; Tan, J; Zou, D; Zhao, Y

    2013-09-01

    To compare the stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw and standard sacroiliac screw for the treatment of unilateral vertical sacral fractures; to provide reference for clinical applications. A finite element model of Tile type C pelvic ring injury (unilateral Denis type II fracture of the sacrum) was produced. The unilateral sacral fractures were fixed with lengthened sacroiliac screw and sacroiliac screw in six different types of models respectively. The translation and angle displacement of the superior surface of the sacrum (in standing position on both feet) were measured and compared. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in the same sacral segment. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively. The stability of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is superior to that of one lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The stability of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is markedly superior to that of one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 or S2 segment. The vertical and rotational stability of lengthened sacroiliac screw fixation and sacroiliac screw fixation in S2 is superior to that of S1. In a finite element model of type C pelvic ring disruption, S1 and S2 lengthened sacroiliac screws should be utilized for the fixation as regularly as possible and the most stable fixation is the combination of the lengthened sacroiliac screws of S1 and S2 segments. Even if lengthened sacroiliac screws cannot be systematically used due to specific conditions, one sacroiliac screw fixation in S1 and S2 segments respectively is recommended. No matter which kind of sacroiliac screw is used, if only one screw can be implanted, the fixation in S2 segment is more recommended

  20. Sacral insufficiency fractures: a report of three cases; Fracturas por insuficiencia del sacro: a proposito de tres casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, V.; Pulpeiro, J. R.; Lauda Corchon, M. [Clinica Nosa Senora dos Ollos Grandes. Lugo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures pose a diagnostic problem because of the nonspecific clinical signs and the absence of distinguishing features in standard radiological studies. The main causes are osteoporosis, making women reaching the age of menopause among the populations most commonly affected, and a history of radiotherapy, leading to the inclusion of neoplastic disease in the differential diagnosis. The characteristic site is ala sacralis, usually bilateral, and the fracture is vertical, running parallel to the sacroiliac joints. The sacral bone may also be involved (H pattern), as well as the medial region of the ilium. It is frequently associated with fractures of the supraacetabular region and the pubic symphysis. Computed tomography is the technique of choice for detecting the fracture line and/or sclerosis, although it is less sensitive than magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or scintigraphy during acute phases. MR of the above regions shows nonspecific edema, contrasting with hypointense signals indicating the general path of the fracture line in T2-weighted images. The use of gadolinium or fat suppression greatly increases the sensitivity. Bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive diagnostic tool, although the H pattern occurs in less than 50% of cases. (Author) 24 refs.

  1. Morphometric study of the true S1 and S2 of the normal and dysmorphic sacralized sacra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Ayşegül; Alemdaroğlu, Kadir Bahadır; Özmeriç, Ahmet; Yücens, Mehmet; Göksülük, Dinçer

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to generate data for the S1 and S2 alar pedicle and body and the alar orientations for both dysmorphic and normal sacra. The study comprised two groups: Group N consisted of 53 normal sacra and Group D included 10 dysmorphic sacra. Various features such as alar pedicle circumference; anterior, middle, and posterior axis of the sacral ala; sacral body height and width; and sagittal thickness were measured. In group N, the median anterior axis of the alae was observed to be 30° on the right and 25° on the left, the median midline axis was found to be 20° on the right and 15° on the left, and the median posterior alar axis was -15° on the right and -20° on the left. The true S1 and S2 alar pedicle circumferences were observed to be significantly smaller in group D, which demonstrated a shorter S1 alar pedicle mean circumference, significantly narrower S1 body mean width, and considerably tapered sagittal thickness. Our analysis indicated that dysmorphic sacra have a lower sagittal thickness and width of bodies and smaller alar pedicles, which explains the difficulties in their percutaneous fixation.

  2. [Evaluation of radiation exposure of personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre using the new real-time dosimetry system "dose aware"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M C; Strauss, A; Pflugmacher, R; Nähle, C P; Pennekamp, P H; Burger, C; Wirtz, D C

    2014-08-01

    There is a positive correlation between operation time and staff exposure to radiation during intraoperative use of C-arm fluoroscopy. Due to harmful effects of exposure to long-term low-dose radiation for both the patient and the operating team it should be kept to a minimum. AIM of this study was to evaluate a novel dosimeter system called Dose Aware® (DA) enabling radiation exposure feedback of the personal in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre in real-time. Within a prospective study over a period of four month, DA was applied by the operation team during 104 orthopaedic and trauma operations in which the C-arm fluoroscope was used in 2D-mode. During ten operation techniques, radiation exposure of the surgeon, the first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist was evaluated. Seventy-three operations were analysed. The surgeon achieved the highest radiation exposure during dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis, kyphoplasty and screw fixation of sacral fractures. The first assistant received a higher radiation exposure compared to the surgeon during plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %), intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures (143 %) and dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis (240 %). During external fixation of ankle fractures (68 %) and screw fixation of sacral fractures (66 %) radiation exposure of the theatre nurse exceeded 50 % of the surgeon's radiation exposure. During plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %) and intramedullary splinting of clavicular fractures (115 %), the anaesthesiologist received a higher radiation exposure than the surgeon. The novel dosimeter system DA provides real-time radiation exposure feedback of the personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre for the first time. Data of this study demonstrate that radiation exposure of the personnel depends on the operation type. The first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist might be

  3. Sacral colpopexy versus transvaginal mesh colpopexy in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Colleen D; Park, Jean; Terry, Colin L; Woodman, Patrick J; Hale, Douglass S

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can predispose women to pelvic organ prolapse and can also affect the success of pelvic organ prolapse surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative anatomical outcomes following sacral colpopexy (SC) and transvaginal mesh colpopexy in a group of obese women with pelvic organ prolapse. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of obese women who underwent SC (n = 56) or transvaginal mesh colpopexy (n = 35). Follow-up ranged from 6 to 12 months. Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative variables were compared using Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests, and by analysis of covariance. The women in the SC group had significantly higher mean apical vaginal measurements (P transvaginal mesh colpopexy group. There were no significant differences between the groups for other postoperative outcomes, including mesh erosion, recurrent prolapse symptoms, dyspareunia, and surgical satisfaction (P > 0.05). In these 91 obese patients with pelvic organ prolapse, SC resulted in better anatomical outcomes than transvaginal mesh colpopexy. However, the two procedures had similar outcomes with regard to recurrent symptoms and surgical satisfaction.

  4. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: les nerfs peripheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Dejean, C.; Sargos, P.; Kantor, G. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, centre regional de lutte contre le cancer, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Huchet, A.; Mamou, N. [Service d' oncologie medicale et de radiotherapie, CHU Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Loiseau, H. [Service de neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-15

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  5. Percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of sacral fractures and sacroiliac joint disruptions with CT-controlled guidewires performed by interventionalists: Single center experience in treating posterior pelvic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J.; Marzi, Ingo; Zangos, Stephan; Wichmann, Julian L.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Mack, Martin G.; Schmidt, Sven; Eichler, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation can be performed under CT-imaging. • Guidewires help in precise placement of cannulated sacroiliac screw. • Only a diminishing rate of misplacements can be seen. • The method appears to be a safe and very accurate procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation for treatment of posterior pelvic instability with the help of CT controlled guidewires, assess its accuracy, safety and effectiveness, and discuss potential pitfalls. Methods: 100 guidewires and hollow titan screws were inserted in 38 patients (49.6 ± 19.5 years) suffering from 35 sacral fractures and/or 16 sacroiliac joint disruptions due to 33 (poly-)traumatic, 2 osteoporotic and 1 post-infectious conditions. The guidewire and screw positions were analyzed in multiplanar reconstructions. Results: The mean minimal distance between guidewire and adjacent neural foramina was 4.5 ± 2.01 mm, with a distinctly higher precision in S1 than S2. Eight guidewires showed cortical contacts, resulting in a total of 2% mismatched screws with subsequent wall violation. The fracture gaps were reduced from 3.6 ± 0.53 mm to 1.2 ± 0.54 mm. During follow-up 3 cases of minor iatrogenic sacral impaction (<5 mm) due to the bolting and 2 cases of screw loosening were observed. Interventional time was 84.0 min with a mean of 2.63 screws per patient whilst acquiring a mean of 93.7 interventional CT-images (DLP 336.7 mGy cm). Conclusions: The treatment of posterior pelvic instability with a guidewire-based screw insertion technique under CT-imaging results in a very high accuracy and efficacy with a low complication rate. Careful attention should be drawn to radiation levels

  6. Percutaneous cannulated screw fixation of sacral fractures and sacroiliac joint disruptions with CT-controlled guidewires performed by interventionalists: Single center experience in treating posterior pelvic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.fischer@kgu.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Marzi, Ingo [Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan; Wichmann, Julian L.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Mack, Martin G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, Sven [Orthopaedic University Hospital Friedrichsheim, Marienburgstraße, 260528 Frankfurt (Germany); Eichler, Katrin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation can be performed under CT-imaging. • Guidewires help in precise placement of cannulated sacroiliac screw. • Only a diminishing rate of misplacements can be seen. • The method appears to be a safe and very accurate procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate minimally invasive sacroiliac screw fixation for treatment of posterior pelvic instability with the help of CT controlled guidewires, assess its accuracy, safety and effectiveness, and discuss potential pitfalls. Methods: 100 guidewires and hollow titan screws were inserted in 38 patients (49.6 ± 19.5 years) suffering from 35 sacral fractures and/or 16 sacroiliac joint disruptions due to 33 (poly-)traumatic, 2 osteoporotic and 1 post-infectious conditions. The guidewire and screw positions were analyzed in multiplanar reconstructions. Results: The mean minimal distance between guidewire and adjacent neural foramina was 4.5 ± 2.01 mm, with a distinctly higher precision in S1 than S2. Eight guidewires showed cortical contacts, resulting in a total of 2% mismatched screws with subsequent wall violation. The fracture gaps were reduced from 3.6 ± 0.53 mm to 1.2 ± 0.54 mm. During follow-up 3 cases of minor iatrogenic sacral impaction (<5 mm) due to the bolting and 2 cases of screw loosening were observed. Interventional time was 84.0 min with a mean of 2.63 screws per patient whilst acquiring a mean of 93.7 interventional CT-images (DLP 336.7 mGy cm). Conclusions: The treatment of posterior pelvic instability with a guidewire-based screw insertion technique under CT-imaging results in a very high accuracy and efficacy with a low complication rate. Careful attention should be drawn to radiation levels.

  7. Chordomas of the Skull Base, Mobile Spine, and Sacrum: An Epidemiologic Investigation of Presentation, Treatment, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Bilsky, Mark H; Laufer, Ilya

    2018-05-01

    Chordomas are rare primary bone tumors that arise from the axial skeleton. Our objective was to analyze trends in radiation and surgery over time and determine location-based survival predictors for chordomas of the skull base, mobile spine, and sacrum. A retrospective cohort study of the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) database from 1973 to 2013 was conducted. All patients had histologically confirmed chordomas. The principal outcome measure was overall survival (OS). The cohort included 1616 patients: skull base (664), mobile spine (444), and sacrum (508). Skull base tumors presented earliest in life (47.4 years) and sacral tumors presented latest (62.7 years). Rates of radiation remained stable for skull base and mobile spine tumors but declined for sacral tumors (P = 0.006). Rates of surgical resection remained stable for skull base and sacral tumors but declined for mobile spine tumors (P = 0.046). Skull base chordomas had the longest median survival (162 months) compared with mobile spine (94 months) and sacral tumors (87 months). Being married was independently associated with improved OS for skull base tumors (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.99; P = 0.044). Surgical resection was independently associated with improved OS for sacral chordomas (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.69; P mobile spine chordomas and radiation for sacral chordomas decreased over time. Patients with skull base tumors survived longer than did patients with mobile spine and sacral chordomas, and surgical resection was associated with improved survival in sacral chordomas only. Understanding the behavior of these tumors can help cranial and spinal surgeons improve treatment in this patient population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sacral Myeloid Sarcoma Manifesting as Radiculopathy in a Pediatric Patient: An Unusual Form of Myeloid Leukemia Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ruivo Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma (MS, granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is defined as a localized extramedullary mass of blasts of granulocytic lineage with or without maturation, occurring outside the bone marrow. MS can be diagnosed concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. The authors report a case of sacral MS occurring as a relapse of myeloid leukemia in a 5-year-old girl who was taken to the emergency department with radiculopathy symptoms.

  9. Effective treatment of the brachial plexus syndrome in breast cancer patients by early detection and control of loco-regional metastases with radiation or systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenova, B.; Braverman, A.S.; Schwartz, M.; Sohn, C.; Lange, C.; Efiom-Ekaha, D.; Rotman, M.; Yoon, H.

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer (BC) patients the brachial plexus syndrome (BPS) has been reported to be due to loco-regional metastases or radiation plexopathy. Associated arm edema is considered more suggestive of the latter. Radiation therapy is the only effective treatment for BPS reported. The charts of all BC patients who presented to our clinic from 1982 to 2006 with homolateral arm pain and neurological deficits, without humerus, cervical spine, or brain metastases, were reviewed. There were 28 patients fulfilling these criteria for BPS. Supraclavicular, axillary or chest wall metastases developed synchronously with the BPS in 26 patients; in 21 they were recurrences, found 6-94 months (median 34 months) after primary BC treatment, while in 5 others they were progressing inoperable primary tumors and nodes. Arm edema first occurred at the same time as loco-regional metastases in 19 patients. Treatment for the BPS was administered to 22 patients; it was directed at their loco-regional metastases. The BPS was initially treated with radiation (8 patients) or chemo- or endocrine therapy (14 patients); 19 (86%) had partial or complete remission of pain and neurologic deficits, with an 8-month median duration. The BPS in BC patients is due to loco-regional metastases and is often associated with arm edema. Chemo- or endocrine therapy induced the remission of pain and deficits as frequently as radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Comparison of Lumbar Lordosis in Lateral Radiographs in Standing Position with supine MR Imaging in consideration of the Sacral Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Zeman, Florian; Grifka, Joachim; Völlner, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Purpose  To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. Methods  MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Results  Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99° (± 10 754) on radiographs and 47.91° (± 9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9°. Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3°) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71°) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63°) compared to the other groups. Conclusions  Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9°. MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs. Key Points   · Large

  11. Fundamentos básicos de la ejecución holística de ejercicios abdominales para estabilizar la columna lumbo-abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio León Prados

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el efecto de ejercicios específicos para fortalecer y reforzar la zona central del cuerpo y su relación con el rendimiento deportivo y la salud han tenido especial relevancia en los últimos años. La acción sinérgica de la fuerza de la musculatura abdominal, la dinámica ventilatoria y un adecuado control postural contribuyen a estabilizar la columna vertebral lumbar y a minimizar el estrés que soporta a la hora de levantar, trasportar o elevar determinadas cargas. Esta consideración resulta un aspecto esencial no solo en el rendimiento deportivo sino en la conservación y mejora de la salud y calidad de vida. No obstante, para el diseño y selección de ejercicios destinados a dicho fin resulta imprescindible en cada momento conocer la capacidad de cada sujeto de garantizar una adecuada ejecución de los ejercicios seleccionados. En el artículo se detallan pautas específicas para un acondicionamiento holístico de la musculatura que moviliza y estabiliza la columna lumbo-abdominal, haciendo especial hincapié en aspectos relacionados con el control y aprendizaje técnico de los ejercicios en relación tanto a su efecto como factor condicionante en numerosas acciones motrices desarrolladas en un ámbito deportivo como a la mejora de la higiene postural en un ámbito utilitario.

  12. MAdCAM-1 expressing sacral lymph node in the lymphotoxin beta-deficient mouse provides a site for immune generation following vaginal herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Kelly A; Linehan, Melissa M; Ruddle, Nancy H; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2004-08-01

    The members of the lymphotoxin (LT) family of molecules play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis. Whereas LT alpha-deficient mice lack all lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, mice deficient in LT beta retain mesenteric lymph nodes and cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the generation of mucosal lymph nodes. In this study, we describe the presence of a lymph node in LT beta-deficient mice responsible for draining the genital mucosa. In the majority of LT beta-deficient mice, a lymph node was found near the iliac artery, slightly misplaced from the site of the sacral lymph node in wild-type mice. The sacral lymph node of the LT beta-deficient mice, as well as that of the wild-type mice, expressed the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 similar to the mesenteric lymph node. Following intravaginal infection with HSV type 2, activated dendritic cells capable of stimulating a Th1 response were found in this sacral lymph node. Furthermore, normal HSV-2-specific IgG responses were generated in the LT beta-deficient mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection even in the absence of the spleen. Therefore, an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the development of a lymph node associated with the genital mucosa, and such a lymph node serves to generate potent immune responses against viral challenge.

  13. VAC Therapy in Large Infected Sacral Pressure Ulcer Grade IV—Can Be an Alternative to Flap Reconstruction?

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, R. K.; Aseeja, Veena

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The compl...

  14. The anatomy of the first sacral nerve root sheath shown by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N R; Dixon, A K; Freer, C E

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of 25 patients with normal computed tomographic appearances at the lumbosacral junction revealed wide variation in the anatomical level at which the first sacral nerve root sheaths were seen emerging from the theca. In nine patients (36%), the S1 nerve root sheaths were first recognized at the level of the lumbosacral disc. In 14 patients (56%), the sheaths emerged cranial to the disc; it is possible that these patients may be more prone to neurological complications related to disc or facet joint disease, especially if the sheath is laterally sited within the lateral recess. Conversely, that minority of patients (two, 8%) in whom the root sheaths emerge caudal to the disc level may be relatively protected from neurological complications.

  15. Insufficiency fractures following radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Hitoshi; Takegawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuki, Hirokazu; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kawanaka, Takashi; Shiba, Atsushi; Kishida, Yoshiomi; Iwamoto, Seiji; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical and radiological findings of insufficiency fractures (IF) of the female pelvis following radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the radiation oncology records of 108 patients with gynecologic malignancies who underwent external beam radiation therapy of the whole pelvis. All patients underwent conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) scan every 6 months in follow-up after radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide bone scan were added when the patients complained of pelvic pain. Thirteen of 108 patients (12%) developed IF in the irradiated field with a median interval of 6 months (range 3-51) from the completion of external beam radiation therapy. All patients who developed IF were postmenopausal women. Age of the patients who developed IF was significantly higher than that of the other patients. The parts of IF were sacroiliac joints, pubis, sacral body and 5th lumbar vertebra and six of 14 patients had multiple lesions. Treatment with rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs lead to symptomatic relief in all patients, although symptoms lasted from 3 to 20 months. Radiation-induced pelvic IF following radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies were frequently observed in the post-menopausal patients within 1 year after external beam radiation therapy. Symmetrical fractures of the bilateral sacroiliac joint and pubis were the characteristic pattern of pelvic IF. All patients healed with conservative treatment, and nobody became non-ambulant. (author)

  16. Psoas compartment and sacral plexus block via electrostimulation for pelvic limb amputation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Jonathon M; Boscan, Pedro; Goh, Clara S S; Rezende, Marlis

    2017-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of psoas compartment and sacral plexus block for pelvic limb amputation in dogs. Prospective clinical study. A total of 16 dogs aged 8±3 years and weighing 35±14 kg (mean±standard deviation). Dogs were administered morphine (0.5 mg kg -1 ) and atropine (0.02 mg kg -1 ); anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Regional blocks were performed before surgery in eight dogs with bupivacaine (2.2 mg kg -1 ) and eight dogs were administered an equivalent volume of saline. The lumbar plexus within the psoas compartment was identified using electrolocation lateral to the lumbar vertebrae at the fourth-fifth, fifth-sixth and sixth-seventh vertebral interspaces. The sacral plexus, ventrolateral to the sacrum, was identified using electrolocation. Anesthesia was monitored using heart rate (HR), invasive blood pressure, electrocardiography, expired gases, respiratory frequency and esophageal temperature by an investigator unaware of the group allocation. Pelvic limb amputation by coxofemoral disarticulation was performed. Dogs that responded to surgical stimulation (>10% increase in HR or arterial pressure) were administered fentanyl (2 μg kg -1 ) intravenously for rescue analgesia. Postoperative pain was assessed at extubation; 30, 60 and 120 minutes; and the morning after surgery using a visual analog scale (VAS). The number of intraoperative fentanyl doses was fewer in the bupivacaine group (2.7±1.1 versus 6.0±2.2; pdogs at extubation (0.8±1.9 versus 3.8±2.5) and at 30 minutes (1.0±1.4 versus 4.3±2.1; pdogs. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging appearances and clinical outcome following sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction for sacral neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Marianna; Davies, A.M.; James, Steven L.J. [Department of Radiology, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Stirling, A.J.; Grainger, M. [Department of Spinal Surgery, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grimer, R.J. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction is an uncommonly performed complex surgical procedure for the treatment of sacral neoplasia. There are many challenges in the post-operative period including the potential for tumor recurrence, infection, and construct failure. We present our experience of this patient cohort and describe the complications and imaging appearances that can be encountered during the follow-up period. Retrospective review of our Orthopaedic Oncology database was undertaken which has been collected over a 30-year period to identify patients that had undergone sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction. Pre and post-operative imaging including radiographs, CT, and MRI was reviewed. These were viewed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with consensus opinion if there was disagreement over the imaging findings. Data regarding patient demographics, tumor type, and dimensions was collected. Serial review of radiographs, CT, and MRI was performed to assess implant position and integrity, strut graft position and union, and for the presence of recurrence within the surgical bed. Five male and two female patients (mean age 36 years, age range 15-54 years) were treated with this procedure. Histological diagnoses included chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and spindle cell sarcoma. Mean maximal tumor size on pre-operative imaging was 10.7 cm (range, 6-16 cm). Post-operative follow-up ranged from 10-46 months. A total of 76 imaging studies were reviewed. Commonly identified complications included vertical rod and cross-connector fracture and screw loosening. Fibula strut graft non-union and fracture was also evident on imaging review. Two patients demonstrated disease recurrence during the follow-up period. This study demonstrates the spectrum and frequency of complications that can occur following sacrectomy and ilio-lumbar reconstruction for sacral neoplasia. (orig.)

  18. Shrines and relics between Late Antiquity and Middle Ages: Christianization of the space or sacralization of the Christianity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Canetti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the importance of relics and sanctuaries against the backdrop of the sacralization of Christianity and the latter’s re-elaboration into a religious system that occurred in urban milieux in the late ancient times. The main steps of this process, which came to a climax in the 4th century, are the Christianization of time and space as well as the reinterpretation of Christ’s death in terms of a sacrifice.

  19. Sacral Theater, a code to simulate the propagation of the superconducting magnet LHC atlas barrel toroid transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastineau, B.

    2000-06-01

    Sacral Theater has been developed for the toroid magnet Atlas of the CERN LHC project. This three dimensional calculations code calculates the propagation of the transition of a superconducting coil in 25 m long hippodrome. Procedures to study low currents have been included. This work is a part of the magnet safety system because the coils protection is made by warmers activating the quench propagation in case of default detection. This allows the complete dissipation of storage energy that can reach 1080 MJ on Atlas. (N.C.)

  20. Limb myokymia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, J.W.; Allen, A.A.; Bastron, J.A.; Daube, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with myokymic discharges localized to limb muscles on needle electromyography had various neurologic lesions, both acute and chronic. Of the 38 patients, 27 had had previous radiation therapy and the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced plexopathy, myelopathy, or both. For the remaining 11 patients, the diagnoses included multiple sclerosis, inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, ischemic neuropathy, inflammatory myopathy, and chronic disorders of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The clinical presentations and results of local ischemia, peripheral nerve block, and percutaneous stimulation suggest that most limb myokymic discharges arise focally at the site of a chronic peripheral nerve lesion

  1. Comparison of lumbar lordosis in lateral radiographs in standing position with supine MR imaging in consideration of the sacral slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Voellner, Florian; Zeman, Florian

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99 (± 10754) on radiographs and 47.91 (±9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). Measurements of single level lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9 . Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3 ) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71 ) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63 ) compared to the other groups. Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9 . MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs.

  2. Comparison of lumbar lordosis in lateral radiographs in standing position with supine MR imaging in consideration of the sacral slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benditz, Achim; Boluki, Daniel; Weber, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Voellner, Florian [Regensburg Univ. Medical Center (Germany). Orthopedic Surgery; Zeman, Florian [Regensburg Univ. Medical Center (Germany). Center for Clinical Studies

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the influence of sacral slope on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by standing radiographs and magnetic resonance images in supine position (MRI). Little information is available on the correlation between measurements of lumbar lordosis obtained by radiographic and MR images. Most relevant studies have shown correlations for the thoracic spine, but detailed analyses on the lumbar spine are lacking. MR images and standing lateral radiographs of 63 patients without actual low back pain or radiographic pathologies of the lumbar spine were analyzed. Standing radiographic measurements included the sagittal parameters pelvic incidence (PI) pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS); MR images were used to additionally measure lumbar L1-S1 lordosis and single level lordosis. Differences between radiographic and MRI measurements were analyzed and divided into 4 subgroups of different sacral slope according to Roussouly's classification. Global lumbar lordosis (L1-S1) was 44.99 (± 10754) on radiographs and 47.91 (±9.170) on MRI, yielding a clinically relevant correlation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). Measurements of single level lordosis only showed minor differences. At all levels except for L5 / S1, lordosis measured by means of standing radiographs was higher than that measured by MRI. The difference in global lumbar L1-S1 lordosis was -2.9 . Analysis of the Roussouly groups showed the largest difference for L1-S1 (-8.3 ) in group 2. In group 4, when measured on MRI, L5 / S1 lordosis (25.71 ) was lower than L4 / L5 lordosis (27.63 ) compared to the other groups. Although measurements of global lumbar lordosis significantly differed between the two scanning technologies, the mean difference was just 2.9 . MRI in supine position may be used for estimating global lumbar lordosis, but single level lordosis should be determined by means of standing radiographs.

  3. The Unresolved Case of Sacral Chordoma: From Misdiagnosis to Challenging Surgery and Medical Therapy Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Fabio; Christoforidis, Dimitrios; di Summa, Pietro G.; Gay, Béatrice; Cherix, Stéphane; Raffoul, Wassim; Matter, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A sacral chordoma is a rare, slow-growing, primary bone tumor, arising from embryonic notochordal remnants. Radical surgery is the only hope for cure. The aim of our present study is to analyse our experience with the challenging treatment of this rare tumor, to review current treatment modalities and to assess the outcome based on R status. Methods Eight patients were treated in our institution between 2001 and 2011. All patients were discussed by a multidisciplinary tumor board, and an en bloc surgical resection by posterior perineal access only or by combined anterior/posterior accesses was planned based on tumor extension. Results Seven patients underwent radical surgery, and one was treated by using local cryotherapy alone due to low performance status. Three misdiagnosed patients had primary surgery at another hospital with R1 margins. Reresection margins in our institution were R1 in two and R0 in one, and all three recurred. Four patients were primarily operated on at our institution and had en bloc surgery with R0 resection margins. One had local recurrence after 18 months. The overall morbidity rate was 86% (6/7 patients) and was mostly related to the perineal wound. Overall, 3 out of 7 resected patients were disease-free at a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range, 1.6-8.0 years). Conclusion Our experience confirms the importance of early correct diagnosis and of an R0 resection for a sacral chordoma invading pelvic structures. It is a rare disease that requires a challenging multidisciplinary treatment, which should ideally be performed in a tertiary referral center. PMID:24999463

  4. Sacral Fracture Nonunion Treated by Bone Grafting through a Posterior Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of a sacral fracture is a rare but serious clinical condition which can cause severe chronic pain, discomfort while sitting, and significant restriction of the level of activities. Fracture nonunions reportedly occur most often after nonoperative initial treatment or inappropriate operative treatment. We report a case of fracture nonunion of the sacrum and pubic rami that resulted from non-operative initial treatment, which was treated successfully using bone grafting through a posterior approach and CT-guided percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation combined with anterior external fixation. Although autologous bone grafting has been the gold standard for the treatment of pelvic fracture nonunions, little has been written describing the approach. We utilized a posterior approach for bone grafting, which could allow direct visualization of the nonunion site and preclude nerve root injury. By this procedure, we were able to obtain the healing of fracture nonunion, leading to pain relief and functional recovery.

  5. Urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis due to sacral herpes zoster: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B; Avci, A; Eken, C; Ozgok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Zona zoster infection is often associated with painful erythematous vesicular eruptions of the skin or mucous membranes. Varicella zoster virus which stays latent in the sensorial root ganglia causes zona zoster infection. The most recognized feature of zona zoster is the dermatomal distribution of vesicular rashes. In the present case report, we state an unusual presentation of sacral zona zoster with urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of morphological and functional changes of the uterus induced by sacral surface electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Takahide; Murakami, Takashi; Ozawa, Yuka; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological and kinematical changes of the uterus induced by electrical stimulation applied to the skin just above the second and fourth posterior sacral foramens (sacral surface electrical stimulation [ssES]) in 26 healthy subjects. Out of them, eight subjects who had severe pain subjectively during every menstruation received ssES just in menstruation. Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were examined by using T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1-weighted MR cinematography, respectively. Cyclic electrical stimulation for 15 min with 5 sec ON and 5 sec OFF was applied just before MR scanning. A decrease in thickness of the muscular layer of the uterus was observed in every subject after ssES for 15 min and was significant as compared with the thickness before ssES. Periodic uterine movement during menstruation was observed in the subjects with severe menstrual pain in MR cine and the power spectrum analysis of the movement showed a marked decrease in peak power and frequency after ssES treatment. We conclude that ssES causes a reduction of static muscle tension of the uterus in all menstrual cycle periods and suppression of uterine peristalsis during menstruation in the subjects with severe menstrual pain. Possible neural mechanisms for these static and dynamic effects of ssES on the uterus at spinal level are discussed. (author)

  7. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in breast cancer patients with radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondrup, K.; Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Rose, C.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients without signs of recurrent disease at least 60 months after radiotherapy (RT). Clinically, 35% (95% confidence limits: 25-47%) had RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-36%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%), assessment of a definite level was not possible. In most, symptoms began during or immediately after RT, thus being without significant latency. Numbness or paresthesias (71%, 52-86%) and pain (43%, 25-62%) were the most prominent symptoms, while the most prominent objective signs were decreased or absent muscle stretch reflexes (93%, 77-99%) closely followed by sensory loss (82%, 64-93%) and weakness (71%, 52-86%). Neurophysiological investigations were carried out in 46 patients (58%). The most frequent abnormalities in patients with RBP were signs of chronic partial denervation with increased mean duration of individual motor unit potentials, and decreased amplitude of compound muscle and sensory action potentials. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. (author)

  8. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in breast cancer patients with radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondrup, K.; Olsen, N.K. (Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Odense Unviersity Hospital (Denmark)); Pfeiffer, P.; Rose, C. (Department of Oncology R, Odense University Hospital (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    The clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients without signs of recurrent disease at least 60 months after radiotherapy (RT). Clinically, 35% (95% confidence limits: 25-47%) had RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-36%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%), assessment of a definite level was not possible. In most, symptoms began during or immediately after RT, thus being without significant latency. Numbness or paresthesias (71%, 52-86%) and pain (43%, 25-62%) were the most prominent symptoms, while the most prominent objective signs were decreased or absent muscle stretch reflexes (93%, 77-99%) closely followed by sensory loss (82%, 64-93%) and weakness (71%, 52-86%). Neurophysiological investigations were carried out in 46 patients (58%). The most frequent abnormalities in patients with RBP were signs of chronic partial denervation with increased mean duration of individual motor unit potentials, and decreased amplitude of compound muscle and sensory action potentials. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. (author).

  9. Application of posterior pelvic tilt taping for the treatment of chronic low back pain with sacroiliac joint dysfunction and increased sacral horizontal angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-hoon; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2012-11-01

    Kinesio Taping (KT) is a therapeutic method used by physical therapists and athletic trainers in combination with other treatment techniques for various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular problems. However, no research has evaluated the effect of KT in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this case was to describe the application of posterior pelvic tilt taping (PPTT) with Kinesio tape as a treatment for chronic LBP and to reduce the anterior pelvic tilt angle. Case report. The patien was a 20-year-old female amateur swimmer with a Cobb's angle (L1-S1) of 68°, a sacral horizontal angle of 45°, and pain in both medial buttock areas and sacroiliac joints. We performed PPTT with Kinesio tape for 2 weeks (six times per week for an average of 9 h each time). The patient’s radiographs showed that the Cobb's angle (L1-S1) had decreased from 68° to 47° and that the sacral horizontal angle had decreased from 45° to 31°. Reductions in hypomobility or motion asymmetry, as assessed by the motion palpation test, and in pain, as measured by the pain-provocation tests, were observed. On palpation for both medial buttock areas in the prone position, the patient felt no pain. The patient experienced no pain or stiffness in the low back area while performing forward flexion in the standing position with knees fully extended when washing dishes in the sink. The case study demonstrated that PPTT intervention favourably affected the pelvic inclination and sacral horizontal angle, leading to beneficial effects on sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) and medial buttock pain. Additional research on the clinical effects of this taping procedure requires greater numbers of athletes with SIJD or LBP who have inappropriate anterior pelvic tilt angles and hyperlordosis.

  10. Cloacal reconstruction after a complex treatment of perineal haemangioma in a variant of PELVIS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalimas, Algirdas; Posiunas, Gintas; Strupas, Sigitas; Raugalas, Ramunas; Raistenskis, Juozas; Verkauskas, Gilvydas

    2015-10-08

    PELVIS is an acronym defining the association of perineal hemangioma, malformations of external genitalia, lipomyelomeningocele, vesicorenal abnormalities, imperforate anus and skin tag. Eleven cases have been reported according to the Orphanet data. Acronyms of LUMBAR and SACRAL syndrome have been used and most probably represent a spectrum of the same entity. Very little is known about the success and timing of cloacal reconstruction after the treatment of hemangioma. We present a variant of PELVIS syndrome and discuss the possibilities and optimal timing of surgical reconstruction. Female infant was born with persistent cloaca and multiple hemangiomas of genitals, perineal area and left thigh. Colostomy was performed after birth. In order to treat hemangioma and to make the reconstruction of cloaca possible, corticosteroid treatment orally and multiple laser treatments were performed alternating Nd:YAG laser and pulsed dye laser therapy. Cystoscopy confirmed hemangiomatosis in the mucosa of the common channel, bladder neck and septate vagina. Oral propranolol treatment was started at the age of 18 months and continued for 1 year. It induced rapid improvement of hemangiomas. Two more pulsed dye laser treatments were performed to remove residuals of hemangiomas from the perineum and genital area. Posterior sagital reconstruction by separation of the rectum, mobilization of urogenital sinus and vaginal reconstruction was performed with no major bleeding at the age of 4 years. Postoperatively, after a period of progressive rectal dilatation colostomy was closed. Girl is now 6 years old, dry day and night without residual urine and normal upper tracts. Rectal calibration is normal, fecal continence is still to be evaluated but constipation is easily manageable. CT of the spine and the perineum showed sacral dysplasia and spina bifida with lumbo-sacral lipoma and tethering of terminal filum without neurological deterioration at the moment but requiring close

  11. Development of Marjolin's ulcer following successful surgical treatment of chronic sacral pressure sore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.A.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    of surgical excision and successful closure of the wound, the patient developed Marjolin's ulcer 2.5 years later. Yet it illustrates the primary importance of preventing the development pressure sores, of aggressive (surgical) therapy with healing when they do arise and of taking frequent biopsies......STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: Report of an unusual case, where a Marjolin's ulcer that developed 2.5 years after surgical excision and successful closure. SETTING: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burn Unit and the Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Copenhagen University...... Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 22-year-old man sustained a fracture with luxation of the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae and loss of sensory and motor function after a diving accident (complete C8 lesion). During initial hospitalization, he developed a sacral ulcer...

  12. [Association of intercalary cervical bone and occult lumbar and sacral spina bifida. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Osuna, César; Avila-Zamorano, Myrna Lizeth; Suárez-Ahedo, Carlos; Trueba-Davalillo, Cesáreo

    2009-01-01

    The defects of the spinal cord enclose diverse malformations that go from spina bifida to myelomeningocele but there is also a rare variant that is the intercalary bone. The incidence of this phenomenon may vary in 1 to 1,000 to 5,000. At our knowledge, there are no cases reported where it can be an association of intercalary bone and a bifid spine in different levels. In this article we report the case of one patient that coincide with an intercalary cervical bone, bifid spine in lumbar column and bifid spine in sacral column. The objective of this article is also to comment how the clinical symptoms are unspecific, the chronic pain is the frequent symptom, and how the physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs can provide excellent results in a short and medium term.

  13. Effect of spinal anterior root stimulation and sacral deafferentation on bladder and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, Hamed; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Zepke, Franko; Bodin, Charlotte; Domurath, Burkhard; Kutzenberger, Johannes

    2018-05-10

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly devastating injury with a variety of complications; among them are neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sacral anterior root stimulation with sacral deafferentation (SARS-SDAF) on neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction in a large well-defined spinal cord injury cohort. In the manner of cross-sectional study, subjects undergone SARS-SDAF between September 1986 and July 2011 answered a questionnaire concerning conditions before and after surgery in the department of Neuro-Urology, Bad Wildungen, Germany. In total 287 of 587 subjects were analyzed. Median age was 49 years (range 19-80), median time from SCI to surgery was 10 years (range 0-49), and from surgery to follow-up 13 years (range 1-25). Of the analyzed subjects, 100% of both gender used SARS for bladder emptying. On the visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 10 (best), satisfaction with SARS-SDAF was 10 concerning bladder emptying, however 5 and 8 regarding sexual performance, for female and male users, respectively. Baseline and follow-up comparison showed a decline in self-intermittent catheterization (p < 0.0001), partial catheterization by attendant (p = 0.0125), complete catheterization and suprapubic catheterization (p < 0.0001), transurethral catheterization (p < 0.0011), and fewer cases of involuntary urine leakage (p < 0.0001). The SARS-SDAF is a beneficial multi-potential treatment method with simultaneous positive effect on multi-organ dysfunction among SCI subjects.

  14. VAC Therapy in Large Infected Sacral Pressure Ulcer Grade IV-Can Be an Alternative to Flap Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R K; Aseeja, Veena

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The complete wound healing was achieved in 6 weeks and at half the cost of flap surgery. Moreover, the chances of flap failure and its related complications were eliminated.

  15. A Prospective, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Study to Investigate the Impact of a Turn-and-Position Device on the Incidence of Hospital-acquired Sacral Pressure Ulcers and Nursing Staff Time Needed for Repositioning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly D; Clark, Rebecca C

    2016-11-01

    Patients in critical care areas are at risk for developing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) due to their physical conditions and limited ability to reposition themselves. A prospective, 2-phase quality improvement study was conducted from September to November 2011 and from February to April 2012 in 1 medical and 1 surgical ICU to investigate the impact of a turn-and-assist device on the incidence of HAPUs and the time and personnel required to reposition patients reported as person/minutes (staff x minutes). A consecutive, convenience sample of patients was selected from newly admitted ICU patients who were at least 18 years old, nonambulatory, and required 2 or more people to assist with turning and repositioning. Sociodemographic data (patient age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, incontinence status); total Braden score and subscores for Activity, Mobility, and Moisture on admission; length of ICU stay and ventilator days; and sacral pressure ulcer incidence and stage and turn-and-assist data were collected. Fifty (50) patients participated in each phase. In phase 1, standard care for positioning included pillows, underpads, standard low-air-loss beds and additional staff as required for turning. In phase 2, the study product replaced standard care repositioning products including pillows; and a larger disposable moisture-wicking underpad (included as part of the turn study project kit) was substituted for the smaller, standard moisture-wicking disposable underpad. Turning procedures were timed with a stopwatch. Data were collected for a total of 32 hours during the observation periods; all patients were followed from admission until discharge from the ICU for a maximum of 14 days. T-tests were used to compare patient characteristics and person-minutes needed for repositioning differences, and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the incidence of sacral HAPUs during phase 1 and phase 2 of the study. No statistically significant

  16. Sacral neuromodulation effects on periurethral sensation and urethral sphincter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after Stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to Stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after Stage 1 implantation; three of the four withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function 2 weeks post Stage 1 implantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

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    Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

  18. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation of the lumbar and sacral spinal cord: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.

  19. Radiation diagnosis of pelvic ring damages in acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dytalov, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on 58 victims with multifocal damages to the pelvic ring were used to examine the diagnostic potentialities of different radiation diagnostic techniques and to compare their resolving power. The later was 65.1, 83.3 and 94.7% in plain and multidimensional X-ray studies, and computed tomography, respectively. Complex of signs is described closed sacral fractures on the plain and oblique pelvic inlet (caudal) radiograms proposed, which could improve the diagnosis of fractures by 8.8 times, and an original orthopedic gauze-plate for the detection and estimation of invisible pelvic bone displacement, and an original procedure for pelvic X-ray study with target load in acute injury. This all can improve the quality of examination of casualties substantially and define indications for different treatments more precise [ru

  20. Disabling Orthostatic Headache after Penetrating Stonemason Pencil Injury to the Sacral Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brembilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating injuries to the spine, although less common than motor vehicle accidents and falls, are important causes of injury to the spinal cord. They are essentially of two varieties: gunshot or stab wounds. Gunshot injuries to the spine are more commonly described. Stab wounds are usually inflicted by knife or other sharp objects. Rarer objects causing incidental spinal injuries include glass fragments, wood pieces, chopsticks, nailguns, and injection needles. Just few cases of penetrating vertebral injuries caused by pencil are described. The current case concerns a 42-year-old man with an accidental penetrating stonemason pencil injury into the vertebral canal without neurological deficit. After the self-removal of the foreign object the patient complained of a disabling orthostatic headache. The early identification and treatment of the intracranial hypotension due to the posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sacral fistulae were mandatory to avoid further neurological complications. In the current literature acute pattern of intracranial hypotension immediately after a penetrating injury of the vertebral column has never been reported.

  1. A comparison of the analgesic efficacy of transforaminal methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine in lumbo-sacral radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Nazia; Usmani, Hammad; Siddiqui, Anwar Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Although transforaminal epidural steroid injections under fluoroscopic guidance have become a common mode of treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy due to herniated disc, the efficacy of steroid with low doses of clonidine has not been compared yet. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of methylprednisolone alone and with low doses of clonidine for transforaminal injection in lumbosacral radiculopathy. A randomized, double-blind trial. This study was performed at the Pain Clinic under the Department of Anaesthesiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. One hundred and eighty ASA grade I and II patients aged between 18 and 55 years were allocated into groups I, II and III to receive methylprednisolone 60 mg alone or methylprednisolone 60 mg with or without low doses of clonidine (0.5 mcg/kg or 1 mcg/kg) as transforaminal epidural injection. Pain relief and patient's satisfaction were evaluated with the global pain scale. Follow-up visits were advised at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and then at 6 months after injection. Associated complications were recorded. Maximum pain relief was observed at 2 weeks after injection in all the three groups, with no difference in complication rate among the three groups. The most common complication observed was paresthesia in the nerve distribution. Greater than 60% improvement in pain scores was seen in 40% of the patients in group I, 50% of the patients in group II and 75% of the patients in group III. This study is limited by the lack of a placebo group. Adding 1 mcg/kg clonidine to 60 mg methylprednisolone in transforaminal epidural injections provided better pain relief than 60 mg methylprednisolone with 0.5 mcg/kg clonidine or 60 mg methylprednisolone alone in patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy, with practically no significant side-effects.

  2. Cancer of the breast and anterior sacral meningeal in a patient with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Laureiro, E.; Musetti, C.; Vázquez, A.; Cabovianco, A.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of women in the world Western. It is rare below 30 years. Marfan syndrome (MS) is an entity clinically characterized by cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal genetic base. Its prevalence is estimated at 4-6 per 100,000 births. In the literature there are few reports of cancers diagnosed in association with SM, and after a thorough review, we found only two communications association with malformations such as dural sac meningocele. Objective. The aim of this study was to review the literature from communication A case report of a patient with SM in which the age of 24 he diagnosed with breast cancer and a previous sacral meningocele. Case. Female patient 24 years old, with SM, who consulted a tumor of right breast. Was studied with mammography and cytological puncture were positive for malignancy. Local treatment consisted of modified radical mastectomy and chest wall radiotherapy. The pathology corresponded to ductal carcinoma Infiltrating (CDI) NOS 27mm diameter greater final histologic grade II carcinoma in situ solid and cribriform intermediate grade without necrosis greater than 30%; 10 axillary lymph resected, all free of metastases. The dosage of hormone receptors was frankly positive for both estrogen and progesterone. In sum CDI NOS stage IIA. the chest radiograph and bone scan showed no abnormalities and abdominal ultrasound He requested postoperatively revealed an abdominopelvic image 13 x 16 cm. positron abdomen and pelvis confirmed a predominantly cystic mass in the pelvis and abdomen lower. Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the tumor corresponded to a meningocele before and proceeded to peritoneal cyst resection and closure of the sacral gap. At the time of writing, the patient is free and without neurological deficit disease, low adjuvant Tamoxifen for 3 years. Conclusions. The SM as breast cancer in younger women is uncommon. Few cancers have been reported in association with SM. Some of

  3. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  4. Unilateral Cervical Polyneuropathies following Concurrent Bortezomib, Cetuximab, and Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhasan Elghouche

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a constellation of cervical polyneuropathies in a patient treated with concurrent bortezomib, cetuximab, and cisplatin alongside intensity modulated radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with neck metastasis. The described deficits include brachial plexopathy, cervical sensory neuropathy, and oculosympathetic, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerve palsies within the ipsilateral radiation field. Radiation neuropathy involving the brachial plexus is typically associated with treatment of breast or lung cancer; however, increased awareness of this entity in the context of investigational agents with potential neuropathic effects in head and neck cancer has recently emerged. With this report, we highlight radiation neuropathy in the setting of investigational therapy for head and neck cancer, particularly since these sequelae may present years after therapy and entail significant and often irreversible morbidity.

  5. Objective evaluation by reflectance spectrophotometry can be of clinical value for the verification of blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Eila; Fossum, Bjöörn; Berg, Elisabeth; Lindholm, Christina; Stark, André

    2014-08-01

    Early detection of non blanching erythema (pressure ulcer category I) is necessary to prevent any further skin damage. An objective method to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema is presently not available. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if a non invasive objective method could differentiate between blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Seventy-eight patients were included. The sacral area of all patients was assessed using (i) conventional finger-press test and (ii) digital reading of the erythema index assessed with reflectance spectrophotometry. The patients were examined at admission and during 5 days postsurgery. Reflectance spectrophotometry measurements proved able to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema. The reliability, quantified by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was excellent between repeated measurements over the measurement period, varying between 0·82 and 0·96, and a significant change was recorded in the areas from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0·0001). The value from the reference point did not show any significant changes over the same period (P = 0·32). An objective method proven to identify early pressure damage to tissue can be a valuable tool in clinical practice. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Techniques of lumbar-sacral spine fusion in spondylosis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeta, Ricardo S G; Avanzi, Osmar

    2011-07-01

    Spine fusions can be performed through different techniques and are used to treat a number of vertebral pathologies. However, there seems to be no consensus regarding which technique of fusion is best suited to treat each distinct spinal disease or group of diseases. To study the effectiveness and complications of the different techniques used for spinal fusion in patients with lumbar spondylosis. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Randomized clinical studies comparing the most commonly performed surgical techniques for spine fusion in lumbar-sacral spondylosis, as well as those reporting patient outcome were selected. Identify which technique, if any, presents the best clinical, functional, and radiographic outcome. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis based on scientific articles published and indexed to the following databases: PubMed (1966-2009), Cochrane Collaboration-CENTRAL, EMBASE (1980-2009), and LILACS (1982-2009). The general search strategy focused on the surgical treatment of patients with lumbar-sacral spondylosis. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were selected with a total of 1,136 patients. Meta-analysis showed that patients who underwent interbody fusion presented a significantly smaller blood loss (p=.001) and a greater rate of bone fusion (p=.02). Patients submitted to fusion using the posterolateral approach had a significantly shorter operative time (p=.007) and less perioperative complications (p=.03). No statistically significant difference was found for the other studied variables (pain, functional impairment, and return to work). The most commonly used techniques for lumbar spine fusion in patients with spondylosis were interbody fusion and posterolateral approach. Both techniques were comparable in final outcome, but the former presented better rates of fusion and the latter the less complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pregnancy in women with Fowler's syndrome treated with sacral neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunda, Azar; Karmarkar, Roopali; Abtahi, Bahareh; Gonzales, Gwen; Elneil, Sohier

    2013-07-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of pregnancy on sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and vice versa in patients with Fowler's syndrome (FS), which is typified by chronic urinary retention (CUR). We performed a retrospective study of pregnancy in patients with FS who underwent a two-stage SNM implantation. Data were obtained using a standard questionnaire and clinical interview. There were a total of ten patients with 13 pregnancies. The SNM was switched off in ten of the 13 pregnancies, with CUR recurring in nine of the ten pregnancies and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occurring in four of these pregnancies (more than three UTI in the pregnancy). Those in whom the device was left on continued to void normally. One woman had a first trimester miscarriage, eight pregnancies went to term, and four deliveries were premature. Caesarean section was performed in eight pregnancies for obstetric reasons. Four pregnancies resulted in a vaginal delivery. There were no congenital anomalies reported. Following delivery, four of nine women experienced dysfunction of their SNM device when it was switched back on. Turing off the SNM during pregnancy results in recurrence of CUR, with an increased risk of recurrent UTI associated with preterm delivery. This did not impact foetal well-being. The option of keeping the SNM on during pregnancy should therefore be considered, and as caesarean section affects the SNM device, we advise that caesarean section should only be performed for obstetric reasons.

  8. Body mass index predicts risk for complications from transtemporal cerebellopontine angle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantravadi, Avinash V; Leonetti, John P; Burgette, Ryan; Pontikis, George; Marzo, Sam J; Anderson, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk for specific complications from transtemporal cerebellopontine angle (CPA) surgery for nonmalignant disease. Case series with chart review. Tertiary-care academic hospital. Retrospective review of 134 consecutive patients undergoing transtemporal cerebellopontine angle surgery for nonmalignant disease from 2009 to 2011. Data were collected regarding demographics, body mass index, intraoperative details, hospital stay, and complications including cerebrospinal fluid leak, wound complications, and brachial plexopathy. One hundred thirty-four patients were analyzed with a mean preoperative body mass index of 28.58. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant difference in body mass index between patients with a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and those without (P = .04), as well as a similar significant difference between those experiencing postoperative brachial plexopathy and those with no such complication (P = .03). Logistical regression analysis confirmed that body mass index is significant in predicting both postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak (P = .004; odds ratio, 1.10) and brachial plexopathy (P = .04; odds ratio, 1.07). Elevated body mass index was not significant in predicting wound complications or increased hospital stay beyond postoperative day 3. Risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak and brachial plexopathy is increased in patients with elevated body mass index undergoing surgery of the cerebellopontine angle. Consideration should be given to preoperative optimization via dietary and lifestyle modifications as well as intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring of the brachial plexus to decrease these risks.

  9. Neuromodulation of detrusor hyper-reflexia by functional magnetic stimulation of the sacral roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, M K; Shah, P J; Fowler, C; Mundy, A R; Craggs, M D

    1996-07-01

    To investigate the acute effects of functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) on detrusor hyper-reflexia using a multi-pulse magnetic stimulator. Seven male patients with established and intractable detrusor hyper-reflexia following spinal cord injury were studied. No patient was on medication and none had had previous surgery for detrusor hyper-reflexia. After optimization of magnetic stimulation of S2-S4 sacral anterior roots by recording toe flexor electromyograms, unstable detrusor activity was provoked during cystometry by rapid infusion of fluid into the bladder. The provocation test produced consistent and predictable detrusor hyper-reflexia. On some provocations, supramaximal FMS at 20 pulses/s for 5 s was applied at detrusor pressures which were > 15 cmH2O. Following FMS there was an obvious acute suppression of detrusor hyper-reflexia. There was a profound reduction in detrusor contraction, as assessed by the area under the curves of detrusor pressure with time. Functional magnetic stimulation applied over the sacrum can profoundly suppress detrusor hyper-reflexia in man. It may provide a non-invasive method of assessing patients for implantable electrical neuromodulation devices and as a therapeutic option in its own right.

  10. Effects of Acute Sacral Neuromodulation at Different Frequencies on Bladder Overactivity in Pigs

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    Xing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We investigated the effects of different stimulation frequencies on the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral neuromodulation (SNM in pigs. Methods Implant-driven stimulators were used to stimulate the S3 spinal nerve in 13 pigs. Cystometry was performed by infusing normal saline (NS or acetic acid (AA. SNM (pulse width, 210 µsec at frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 Hz was conducted at the intensity threshold at which observable perianal and/or tail movement was induced. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of different frequencies on the micturition reflex. Results AA-induced bladder overactivity significantly reduced the bladder capacity (BC to 34.4%±4.7% of the NS control level (354.4±35.9 mL (P0.05, but SNM at 15, 30, and 50 Hz significantly increased the BC to 54.5%±7.1%, 55.2%±6.5%, and 57.2%±6.1% of the NS control level (P0.05. Conclusions This study demonstrated that 15 Hz was an appropriate frequency for SNM and that frequencies higher than 15 Hz did not lead to better surgical outcomes.

  11. Late toxicities after conventional radiation therapy alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Tuan, Jeffrey Kit Loong, E-mail: ntrtkl@nccs.com.sg [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Ha, Tam Cam [Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Ong, Whee Sze [Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Siow, Tian Rui [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Ivan Weng Keong [National University Health System Singapore (Singapore); Yap, Swee Peng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat; Chua, Eu Tiong; Fong, Kam Weng [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wee, Joseph Tien Seng [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore)

    2012-09-15

    Background and purpose: We sought to evaluate the nature and frequency of late toxicities in a cohort of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Seven-hundred and ninety-six consecutive NPC patients treated using conventional radiotherapy at a single center from 1992 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with histology proven, completely staged, Stage I-IVB World Health Organization Type I-III NPC and completed radical radiotherapy were included. Patients with incomplete staging investigations, distant metastases at diagnosis, previous treatment, and incomplete radiotherapy were excluded. Radiotherapy-related complications were categorized using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Results: Median follow-up was 7.2 years. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival were 69% and 56%, respectively, and the corresponding 10-year rates were 52% and 44%. Among 771 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up post treatment, 565 (73%) developed RT-related complications. Diagnosed neurological complications were cranial nerve palsies (n = 70; 9%), temporal lobe necrosis (n = 37; 5%), Lhermitte's syndrome (n = 7; 1%), and brachial plexopathy (n = 2; 0.3%). Non-neurological complications included xerostomia (n = 353; 46%), neck fibrosis (n = 169; 22%), hypo-pituitarism (n = 48; 6%), hearing loss (n = 120; 16%), dysphagia (n = 116; 15%), otorrhea (n = 101; 13%), tinnitus (n = 94; 12%), permanent tube feeding (n = 61; 8%), trismus (n = 45; 6%), second malignancies within treatment field (n = 17; 2%), and osteo-radionecrosis (n = 13; 2%). Conclusions: While radiotherapy is curative in NPC, many patients suffer significant late treatment morbidities with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  12. Late toxicities after conventional radiation therapy alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, Jeffrey Kit Loong; Ha, Tam Cam; Ong, Whee Sze; Siow, Tian Rui; Tham, Ivan Weng Keong; Yap, Swee Peng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat; Chua, Eu Tiong; Fong, Kam Weng; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We sought to evaluate the nature and frequency of late toxicities in a cohort of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Seven-hundred and ninety-six consecutive NPC patients treated using conventional radiotherapy at a single center from 1992 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with histology proven, completely staged, Stage I–IVB World Health Organization Type I–III NPC and completed radical radiotherapy were included. Patients with incomplete staging investigations, distant metastases at diagnosis, previous treatment, and incomplete radiotherapy were excluded. Radiotherapy-related complications were categorized using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Results: Median follow-up was 7.2 years. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival were 69% and 56%, respectively, and the corresponding 10-year rates were 52% and 44%. Among 771 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up post treatment, 565 (73%) developed RT-related complications. Diagnosed neurological complications were cranial nerve palsies (n = 70; 9%), temporal lobe necrosis (n = 37; 5%), Lhermitte’s syndrome (n = 7; 1%), and brachial plexopathy (n = 2; 0.3%). Non-neurological complications included xerostomia (n = 353; 46%), neck fibrosis (n = 169; 22%), hypo-pituitarism (n = 48; 6%), hearing loss (n = 120; 16%), dysphagia (n = 116; 15%), otorrhea (n = 101; 13%), tinnitus (n = 94; 12%), permanent tube feeding (n = 61; 8%), trismus (n = 45; 6%), second malignancies within treatment field (n = 17; 2%), and osteo-radionecrosis (n = 13; 2%). Conclusions: While radiotherapy is curative in NPC, many patients suffer significant late treatment morbidities with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  13. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is

  14. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of a case of sacral nerve root neurolymphomatosis that occurred during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Nakazora, Tatsuki; Ariyoshi, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare, unique subtype of lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves. Clinical/radiologic diagnosis of NL is challenging. We report F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of a case of breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in which NL developed regardless of regression of systemic lesions during induction chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT showed characteristic findings of well-demarcated, linear abnormal FDG uptake along a sacral vertebral foramen, leading to diagnosis of NL, with the finding of thickened nerve roots on magnetic resonance imaging. Altered chemotherapeutic regimen resulted in disappearance of these abnormal FDG uptake, with recovery of neurologic symptoms. Peripheral nerve NL may occur during chemotherapy, and FDG PET/CT can be a useful imaging modality in diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic response of this disease.

  15. A median sacral artery anterior to the iliocaval junction: a case report-anatomical considerations and clinical relevance for spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, Louis; Tandabany, Sharmila; Foulon, Pascal; Havet, Eric; Peltier, Johann

    2018-01-01

    The median sacral artery (MSA) is a relatively small vessel that always arises from the posterior, terminal part of the infrarenal aorta. In most cases, the MSA runs behind the iliocaval junction. Here, we describe a very rare case of an MSA running in front of this junction. During a human cadaveric dissection of the retroperitoneal area, we unexpectedly observed that the MSA passed in front of the left common iliac vein. The anatomy of the MSA has been extensively described and variations are quite rare. On the basis of this specific case, knowledge of the anatomic interactions between the MSA and other lumbar retroperitoneal vessels may help to avoid potential complications during surgery.

  16. Rectal cancer: The radiation basis of radiotherapy, target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosset, J.F.; Servagi-Vernat, S.; Crehange, G.; Azria, D.; Gerard, J.P.; Hennequin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since the implementation of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and meso-rectal excision, the 5-year rates of locoregional failures in T3-T4 N0-N1M0 rectal cancer fell from 25-30% thirty years ago to 5-8% nowadays. A critical analysis of the locoregional failures sites and mechanisms, as well as the identification of nodal extension, helps the radiation oncologist to optimize the radiotherapy target definition. The upper limit of the clinical target volume is usually set at the top of the third sacral vertebra. The lateral pelvic nodes should be included when the tumor is located in the distal part of the rectum. The anal sphincter and the levator muscles should be spared when a conservative surgery is planned. In case of abdomino-perineal excision, the ischio-rectal fossa and the sphincters should be included in the clinical target volume. A confrontation with radiologist and surgeon is mandatory to improve the definition of the target volumes to be treated. (authors)

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Metastatic and Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiotherapy has been utilized for metastatic and recurrent osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma (ES, in order to provide palliation and possibly prolong overall or progression-free survival. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is convenient for patients and offers the possibility of increased efficacy. We report our early institutional experience using SBRT for recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Methods. We reviewed all cases of osteosarcoma or ES treated with SBRT between 2008 and 2012. Results. We identified 14 patients with a total of 27 lesions from osteosarcoma (n=19 or ES (n=8. The median total curative/definitive SBRT dose delivered was 40 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 30–60 Gy in 3–10 fractions. The median total palliative SBRT dose delivered was 40 Gy in 5 fractions (range, 16–50 Gy in 1–10 fractions. Two grade 2 and 1 grade 3 late toxicities occurred, consisting of myonecrosis, avascular necrosis with pathologic fracture, and sacral plexopathy. Toxicity was seen in the settings of concurrent chemotherapy and reirradiation. Conclusions. This descriptive report suggests that SBRT may be a feasible local treatment option for patients with osteosarcoma and ES. However, significant toxicity can result, and thus systematic study is warranted to clarify efficacy and characterize long-term toxicity.

  18. Etiology and management of primary amenorrhoea: A study of 102 cases at tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Goyal, Manu; Kachhawa, Garima; Mahey, Reeta; Kulshrestha, Vidushi

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of etiologic causes of primary amenorrhea in Indian population. A retrospective study was performed using 102 complete medical records of women with primary amenorrhea who attended the Gynaecologic Endocrinology Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AIIMS, New Delhi from September 2012 to September 2015. Cases were analysed according to clinical profile, development of secondary sexual characteristics, physical examination, pelvic and rectal examination, X-ray of chest and lumbo-sacral spine, hormone profile, pelvic USG, MRI, and cytogenetic study including karyotype. The three most common causes of primary amenorrhea were Mullerian anomalies (47%), gonadal dysgenesis (20.5%), and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (14.7%) in the present study. There were 3 cases of Turner syndrome (45,XO), 5 cases of Swyer's syndrome (46,XY) and 2 cases of Androgen insensitivity syndrome (46,XY). One case had pituitary macroadenoma and eight cases (7.8%) were of genital tuberculosis. The present study has currently been the largest case series of primary amenorrhea from North India. Mullerian anomaly is the most prevalent etiological factor leading to amenorrhoea followed by gonadal dysgenesis in our study. Racial, genetic and environmental factors could play role in the cause of primary amenorrhea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dyskospondylitis and paravertebral abscesses in a calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, S.

    2006-01-01

    A case of progressive spastic paraparesis due to a dyskospondylitis at the level of T9-T10 is described in a four-month old Holstein female calf. The calf was recumbent, but bright, alert and willing to suckle. Despite repeated attempts, the calf was not able to assume the sternal recumbency. The radiological findings were decisive for the in life diagnosis. Spinal radiography of the thoraco-lumbar region revealed lysis and collapse of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies; irregular proliferative new bone was evident. Lumbo-sacral myelography showed a narrowing and dorsal displacement of the ventral contrast column at the same spinal level, indicating a severe ventral extradural compression of the spinal cord. At the level of the thoracic cavity, a 20 x 15 cm diameter opacity extending ventrally to T8-T13 and caudo-dorsally to the heart was also evident. At gross necroscopy, two approximately 15 cm diameter encapsulated paravertebral abscesses were evident in the thoracis cavity just below the spinal column. A pure culture of Fusobacterium necrophorum was obtained from them. A saggital section of the spine showed an erosive suppurative process of T9 and T10 vertebral bodies that provoked the compression of the thoracic tract of the spinal cord [it

  20. Age-related loss of lumbar spinal lordosis and mobility--a study of 323 asymptomatic volunteers.

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    Marcel Dreischarf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The understanding of the individual shape and mobility of the lumbar spine are key factors for the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The influence of age and sex on the total lumbar lordosis and the range of motion as well as on different lumbar sub-regions (lower, middle and upper lordosis in asymptomatic subjects still merits discussion, since it is essential for patient-specific treatment and evidence-based distinction between painful degenerative pathologies and asymptomatic aging. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A novel non-invasive measuring system was used to assess the total and local lumbar shape and its mobility of 323 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 20-75 yrs; BMI 50 yrs compared to the youngest age cohort (20-29 yrs. Locally, these decreases mostly occurred in the middle part of the lordosis and less towards the lumbo-sacral and thoraco-lumbar transitions. The sex only affected the RoE. CONCLUSIONS: During aging, the lower lumbar spine retains its lordosis and mobility, whereas the middle part flattens and becomes less mobile. These findings lay the ground for a better understanding of the incidence of level- and age-dependent spinal disorders, and may have important implications for the clinical long-term success of different surgical interventions.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE ESTRATÉGIAS NÃO FARMACOLÓGICAS NO ALÍVIO DA DOR DE PARTURIENTES

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    REJANE MARIE BARBOSA DAVIM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de estratégias sin fármacos para aliviar el dolor de parturientas en trabajo de parto. Fue un ensayo clínico del tipo intervención terapéutica “antes y depués”, realizado en la Unidad de Parto Humanizado de la Maternidad Escuela Januário Cicco/UFRN – en Natal/RN – con 100 parturientas durante la aplicación de estratégias sin fármacos como ejercicios respiratórios, relajamiento muscular y masaje lumbo-sacral. Para evaluar la intensidad del dolor de las parturientas utilizamos la escala analógica visual. La mayoría de las parturientas tenía entre 20 a 30 años de edad (60%, enseñanza primaria incompleta (85%, renta familiar hasta 2 sueldos mínimos (74% y (78% con acompañante. La ocitocina fue administrada en 81% de los casos y apenas 15% de esas mujeres no recibieron ninguna medicación. Verificamos alivio significativo del dolor con la aplicación de las estratégias sin farmácos, que fueron eficaces al aliviar el dolor de las parturientas del estudio.

  2. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Performing Caudal Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikooseresht, Mahshid; Hashemi, Masoud; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shahandeh, Farideh; Agah, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    The caudal approach to the epidural space has been used for decades to treat low back pain caused by lumbosacral root compression. The use of fluoroscopy during epidural steroid injection is the preferred method for placing the needle more accurately in the sacral hiatus, but it carries the risk of radiation hazard. The aim of the study was to assess the anatomical structure of the sacral hiatus and the feasibility of caudal epidural injections under ultrasound guidance. Two hundred and forty patients (male = 100, female = 140) with low back pain and sciatica who were candidates for caudal epidural injection were enrolled into this study. Ultrasound images of the sacral hiatus and bilateral cornua were obtained by a real-time linear array ultrasound transducer. The distance between bilateral cornua and the anterior and posterior wall of the sacrum were measured at the base (sacral hiatus). Under the guide of ultrasonography, we defined the injection successful if turbulence of medication fluid was observed in the sacral canal, but correct placement of the needle and injectant was confirmed on fluoroscopic view as the gold standard technique. The epidurogram showed that the injection was successful in 230 of the 240 patients (95.8%). In eight patients, the injection was not in the correct place in the sacral canal. The sacral hiatus could not be identified by ultrasound images in only two patients who had a closed sacral hiatus identified by fluoroscopy. The mean distance of the sacral hiatus was 4.7 ± 1.7 mm and the mean distance between bilateral cornua was 18.0 ± 2.8 mm. The mean duration of the procedure was 10.8 ± 6.8 minutes. No major complication was observed in the next month. In conclusion, ultrasound could be used as a safe, fast and reliable modality to observe the anatomic variation of the sacral hiatus and to perform caudal epidural injections

  3. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography-assisted modified superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Chi-Yu; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Han-Ting; Liu, Hung-Hui; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Ta; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sores are often observed in patients who are bedridden. They can be a severe problem not only for patients and their caregivers but also for plastic surgeons. Here, we describe a new method of superior gluteal artery perforator flap harvesting and anchoring with the assistance of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography. In this report, we describe the procedure and outcomes for 19 patients with grades III and IV sacral pressure sores who underwent the operation between September 2015 and November 2016. All flaps survived, and two experienced wound-edge partial dehiscence. With the assistance of this imaging device, we were able to acquire a reliable superior gluteal artery perforator flap and perform modified operations with it that are safe, easy to learn and associated with fewer complications than are traditional. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification of viral microRNAs expressed in human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Jennifer L; Wang, Kening; Tang, Shuang; Krause, Philip R; Mont, Erik K; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Cullen, Bryan R

    2010-01-01

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs isolated from human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was used to identify HSV-2 microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during latent infection. This effort resulted in the identification of five distinct HSV-2 miRNA species, two of which, miR-H3/miR-I and miR-H4/miR-II, have been previously reported. Three novel HSV-2 miRNAs were also identified, and two of these, miR-H7 and miR-H9, are derived from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) and are located antisense to the viral transcript encoding transactivator ICP0. A third novel HSV-2 miRNA, miR-H10, is encoded within the unique long (U(L)) region of the genome, 3' to the U(L)15 open reading frame, and is presumably excised from a novel, latent HSV-2 transcript distinct from LAT.

  5. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  6. Sexual response in patients treated with sacral neuromodulation for lower urinary tract symptoms or fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voskuilen, A C; Oerlemans, D J; Gielen, N; Lansen-Koch, S M P; Weil, E H J; van Lankveld, J J D M; van den Hombergh, U; Baeten, C G M I; van Kerrenbroeck, P E V

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for urinary symptoms or fecal incontinence gives improvement of female sexual function and whether improvement is due to physiological or psychological factors. Between 2002 and 2008, 8 patients had an array of questionnaires before and after SNM implantation. The questionnaires were: the Questionnaire for Screening for Sexual Dysfunctions, the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire and the McGill-Mah Orgasm Questionnaire. Three of these 8 patients underwent vaginal plethysmography before and after implantation. No statistically significant changes were found, although there seems to be a trend toward improvement in orgasm scores. In plethysmography all 3 patients showed increased vaginal pulse amplitude with the stimulator turned on with both erotic and non-erotic stimuli. This study does not show a clear effect of SNM on sexual function, although there seems to be an improvement in orgasm scores. The lack of response on psychological questionnaires and the increase in vaginal pulse amplitude after SNM implantation indicate that there might be a physiological response. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Causes of lumbosacral plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, A.C.; Donaghy, M.; Moore, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    The lumbosacral plexus represents the nerve supply to the lower back, pelvis and legs. This review will focus on diseases and disorders affecting the pathway as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). We stress the need to review the lumbosacral plexus in patients with non-specific symptoms such as back, hip, pelvic pain, and in those who present with sciatica unaccompanied by demonstrable intervertebral disc prolapse. We illustrate that the imaging appearances may be non-specific and re-inforce the importance of the clinical history and the use of tissue sampling to achieve an accurate diagnosis

  8. Causes of lumbosacral plexopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planner, A.C.; Donaghy, M.; Moore, N.R

    2006-12-15

    The lumbosacral plexus represents the nerve supply to the lower back, pelvis and legs. This review will focus on diseases and disorders affecting the pathway as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). We stress the need to review the lumbosacral plexus in patients with non-specific symptoms such as back, hip, pelvic pain, and in those who present with sciatica unaccompanied by demonstrable intervertebral disc prolapse. We illustrate that the imaging appearances may be non-specific and re-inforce the importance of the clinical history and the use of tissue sampling to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

  9. S3 Dorsal Root Ganglion/Nerve Root Stimulation for Refractory Postsurgical Perineal Pain: Technical Aspects of Anchorless Sacral Transforaminal Lead Placement

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    X. Zuidema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic perineal pain limits patients in physical and sexual activities, leading to social and psychological distress. In most cases, this pain develops after surgery in the urogenital area or as a consequence of trauma. Neuromodulation is one of the options in chronic postsurgical perineal pain treatment. We present a case of refractory perineal pain after right sided surgical resection of a Bartholin’s cyst which was treated with third sacral nerve root/dorsal root ganglion stimulation using the transforaminal approach. We describe a new anchorless lead placement technique using a unique curved lead delivery sheath. We postulate that this new posterior foraminal technique of lead placement is simple, safe, and reversible and may lower the occurrence of lead related complications.

  10. Chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract activity via a sacral dorsal root ganglia interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Abeer; Ross, Shani E.; Sperry, Zachariah J.; Ouyang, Aileen; Stephan, Christopher; Jiman, Ahmad A.; Bruns, Tim M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Our goal is to develop an interface that integrates chronic monitoring of lower urinary tract (LUT) activity with stimulation of peripheral pathways. Approach. Penetrating microelectrodes were implanted in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult male felines. Peripheral electrodes were placed on or in the pudendal nerve, bladder neck and near the external urethral sphincter. Supra-pubic bladder catheters were implanted for saline infusion and pressure monitoring. Electrode and catheter leads were enclosed in an external housing on the back. Neural signals from microelectrodes and bladder pressure of sedated or awake-behaving felines were recorded under various test conditions in weekly sessions. Electrodes were also stimulated to drive activity. Main results. LUT single- and multi-unit activity was recorded for 4-11 weeks in four felines. As many as 18 unique bladder pressure single-units were identified in each experiment. Some channels consistently recorded bladder afferent activity for up to 41 d, and we tracked individual single-units for up to 23 d continuously. Distension-evoked and stimulation-driven (DRG and pudendal) bladder emptying was observed, during which LUT sensory activity was recorded. Significance. This chronic implant animal model allows for behavioral studies of LUT neurophysiology and will allow for continued development of a closed-loop neuroprosthesis for bladder control.

  11. A case of von Willebrand disease discovered during treatment of a sacral pressure ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Fukaya, Sumiko; Furuya, Masaichi; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2010-12-01

    A sacral pressure ulcer developed in a patient hospitalized for cerebral infarction. Each time necrotic tissue was debrided from the ulcer, pressure hemostasis was necessary to stop the bleeding. As treatment continued, the pressure required to stop the bleeding caused the ulcer to worsen, leading to a downward spiral in the patient's condition. While trying to determine the cause of this problem, we discovered that the patient had von Willebrand disease. Medication controlled the bleeding, and the pressure ulcer began to heal at the same time. It was clear to us that conservative treatment would lead to a complete cure but that the healing process would take a long time and require continued administration of an expensive drug. We decided, therefore, to close the wound with a fasciocutaneous flap so that the patient could be quickly transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. About 1 month after surgery, epithelialization was complete, we were able to discontinue medication, and the patient was discharged. This experience demonstrates the importance of determining the cause of any deviation from the normal course of healing in pressure ulcers. It also indicates that the use of fasciocutaneous flaps, which involve little intraoperative bleeding in short surgeries, is appropriate in cases like this one.

  12. Sacral nerve stimulation for constipation: do we still miss something? Role of psychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Alfonso; Martellucci, Jacopo; Talento, Pasquale; Ferrari, Carlo Andrea

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to try to understand if psychological evaluation of patients candidate to sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) could be a potential selection criterion to identify those patients who could successfully respond to this treatment. From 2005 to 2007, 68 patients with slow transit constipation were identified, and all of them fulfill the selection criteria for the SNS treatment. The MMPI-2 test was purposed to all the patients. Wexner score, bowel movements, and SF36 were recorded in all the patients. Twenty-three patients (33.8%) refused the psychological evaluation. Forty-five patients completed the test: only 13 patients (19.1%) had a score in the normal range of the scales of the MMPI-2 and were implanted with the temporary test for SNS. After the screening period, 11 patients (84.6%) reported more than 50% improvement of bowel movements per week and no need of laxatives, so they were definitively implanted. The mean follow-up period was 22 months (range 12-36). The mean number of bowel movements per week and Wexner score were significantly improved after 1 year (p < 0.001). A complete and accurate psychological evaluation could be very important in the selection of the patients with STC that could benefit from SNS.

  13. Peripheral injury of pelvic visceral sensory nerves alters GFRa (GDNF family receptor alpha localization in sensory and autonomic pathways of the sacral spinal cord

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    Shelley Lynne Forrest

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signalling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain. Our previous immunohistochemical studies of spinal cord and sciatic nerve injuries in adult rodents have identified characteristic changes in GFRα1, GFRα2 or GFRα3 in central spinal cord axons of sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. Here we extend and contrast this analysis by studying injuries of the pelvic and hypogastric nerves that contain the majority of sensory axons projecting to the pelvic viscera (e.g., bladder and lower bowel. At 7 d, we detected some effects of pelvic but not hypogastric nerve transection on the ipsilateral spinal cord. In sacral (L6-S1 cord ipsilateral to nerve injury, GFRα1-immunoreactivity (IR was increased in medial dorsal horn and CGRP-IR was decreased in lateral dorsal horn. Pelvic nerve injury also upregulated GFRα1- and GFRα3-IR terminals and GFRα1-IR neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus that provides the spinal parasympathetic preganglionic output to the pelvic nerve. This evidence suggests peripheral axotomy has different effects on somatic and visceral sensory input to the spinal cord, and identifies sensory-autonomic interactions as a possible site of post-injury regulation.

  14. The effect of radiation therapy for bone metastasis in urinary organ cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Ippei; Inoue, Shinya; Nakazawa, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis symptoms are complications that greatly reduce the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients. We report a retrospective study on the efficacy of radiation therapy for patients with bone metastasis in urinary organ cancer. (Subjects and methods) Subjects are comprised of 17 patients; total irradiated areas consist of 25 sites. There are 5 patients diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma, 1 patient with bladder cancer and 11 patients with prostatic cancer. All of them have undergone radiation therapy for bone metastasis in urinary organ cancer between April 2007 and March 2014 in the Department of Urology, Kanazawa Medical University. The mean age of the patients was 66.7 years old. We looked at irradiated areas, exposure dose and changes of symptom in all patients. Irradiated areas are thoracolumbar vertebrae (14 sites), cranial base (2 sites), pubic bone (1 site), ilium bone (2 sites), sacral bone (1 site), rib bone (1 site) and hip joint (1 site). The mean exposure dose of one area is 37.5 Gy (13.5-60). 19 irradiated sites which were previously reported to have sharp pain have gained improvement at 16 sites. These 16 sites have comparatively lesser pain or no pain. 8 cases in acknowledgment of walk difficulty, it was with 7 cases walking alone possibility again. This study showed that radiation therapy have significant improvement in terms of symptoms and QOL for the patients with bone metastasis in urinary organ cancer. (author)

  15. Neuromodulation: urodynamic effects of sacral (S3) spinal nerve stimulation in patients with detrusor instability or detrusor hyperflexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J L; Groen, J

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the urodynamic effects of sacral (S3) nerve stimulation in patients with urge incontinence due to detrusor overactivity which has been refractory to conservative treatment. A total of 24 patients with idiopathic detrusor instability and five with neurogenic hyperreflexia were studied urodynamically before and 6 months after a permanent S3 foramen electrode implant. The urodynamic studies at follow-up were done with the stimulus on. Clinically, the average voiding frequency, the number of leakage episodes and pad use per 24 h decreased significantly. Improvement in several urodynamic parameters was noted. In the idiopathic as well as in the neurogenic group, the correlation between symptomatic and urodynamic improvement was incomplete. Neuromodulation leads to improvement of several urodynamic parameters in patients with urge incontinence due to detrusor overactivity which has been refractory to conservative treatment and appears to be a valuable treatment option in these patients.

  16. Identification of Viral MicroRNAs Expressed in Human Sacral Ganglia Latently Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus 2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Jennifer L.; Wang, Kening; Tang, Shuang; Krause, Philip R.; Mont, Erik K.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2010-01-01

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs isolated from human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was used to identify HSV-2 microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during latent infection. This effort resulted in the identification of five distinct HSV-2 miRNA species, two of which, miR-H3/miR-I and miR-H4/miR-II, have been previously reported. Three novel HSV-2 miRNAs were also identified, and two of these, miR-H7 and miR-H9, are derived from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) and are located antisense to the viral transcript encoding transactivator ICP0. A third novel HSV-2 miRNA, miR-H10, is encoded within the unique long (UL) region of the genome, 3′ to the UL15 open reading frame, and is presumably excised from a novel, latent HSV-2 transcript distinct from LAT. PMID:19889786

  17. Value of MRI in the diagnosis of non-clival, non-sacral chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, D.; Wang, X.; Vanhoenacker, F.; De Schepper, A.M.; Drevelengas, A.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the MR features of non-sacral, non-clival chordoma and to describe a MR prototype of the lesion.Design and patients We reviewed the MR findings of 10 patients with a histologically proven chordoma (6 cervical spine, 1 thoracic spine, 3 lumbar spine). There were three female and seven male patients. Age ranged from 12 to 66 years with a mean age of 44.6 years. The MR images were reviewed for signal intensity (SI) and morphology. All lesions showed a soft tissue extension spanning several vertebral segments. Most of the lesions exhibited a so-called collar button appearance (sagittal images). Two cases of cervical chordoma displayed a ''dumbbell morphology'' (axial images) or ''mushroom'' appearance without bone involvement and with enlargement of the neuroforamen mimicking a neurogenic tumor. Although the region of the nucleus pulposus is the last part of the fetal notochord in the adult to involute, disks were surprisingly spared in all patients. Eight of 10 patients showed heterogeneous SI on all sequences. The overall SI of all lesions was isointense or slightly higher than that of muscle on T1-weighted images. All lesions exhibited high SI on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium contrast administration there was a moderate enhancement in most cases. Although the SI on MR imaging is not specific, chordoma should be considered when a destructive lesion of a vertebral body is associated with a soft tissue mass with a collar button or mushroom appearance and dumbbell morphology, spanning several vertebral segments and sparing the disk(s). (orig.)

  18. Radiation induced fractures of sacrum: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, M.; Firooznia, H.; Golimbu, C.; Horner, N.

    1988-01-01

    Sacral insufficiency fracture due to bone atrophy may develop as a complication of irradiation of pelvic malignancies. Pain is the presenting symptom and the clinical diagnoses most often considered are recurrence of the original malignancy and metastatic disease. Computed tomography provides the most specific information helpful for the detection of these fractures and for exclusion of recurrent malignancy

  19. 3D Volumetric Modeling and Microvascular Reconstruction of Irradiated Lumbosacral Defects After Oncologic Resection

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    Emilio Garcia-Tutor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locoregional flaps are sufficient in most sacral reconstructions. However, large sacral defects due to malignancy necessitate a different reconstructive approach, with local flaps compromised by radiation and regional flaps inadequate for broad surface areas or substantial volume obliteration. In this report, we present our experience using free muscle transfer for volumetric reconstruction in such cases, and demonstrate 3D haptic models of the sacral defect to aid preoperative planning.Methods: Five consecutive patients with irradiated sacral defects secondary to oncologic resections were included, surface area ranging from 143-600cm2. Latissimus dorsi-based free flap sacral reconstruction was performed in each case, between 2005 and 2011. Where the superior gluteal artery was compromised, the subcostal artery was used as a recipient vessel. Microvascular technique, complications and outcomes are reported. The use of volumetric analysis and 3D printing is also demonstrated, with imaging data converted to 3D images suitable for 3D printing with Osirix software (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland. An office-based, desktop 3D printer was used to print 3D models of sacral defects, used to demonstrate surface area and contour and produce a volumetric print of the dead space needed for flap obliteration. Results: The clinical series of latissimus dorsi free flap reconstructions is presented, with successful transfer in all cases, and adequate soft-tissue cover and volume obliteration achieved. The original use of the subcostal artery as a recipient vessel was successfully achieved. All wounds healed uneventfully. 3D printing is also demonstrated as a useful tool for 3D evaluation of volume and dead-space.Conclusion: Free flaps offer unique benefits in sacral reconstruction where local tissue is compromised by irradiation and tumor recurrence, and dead-space requires accurate volumetric reconstruction. We describe for the first time the use of

  20. The comparison of assessment of pigeon semen motility and sperm concentration by conventional methods and the CASA system (HTM IVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimowicz, M D; Nizanski, W; Batkowski, F; Savic, M A

    2008-07-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare conventional, microscopic methods of evaluating pigeon sperm motility and concentration to those measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system). Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons, each of 40 males (group I: meat-type breed; group II: fancy pigeon) using the lumbo-sacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected in each group were diluted 1:100 in BPSE solution and divided into two equal samples. One sample was examined subjectively by microscope and the second one was analysed using CASA system. The sperm concentration was measured by CASA using the anti-collision (AC) system and fluorescent staining (IDENT). There were not any significant differences between the methods of evaluation of sperm concentration. High positive correlations in both groups were observed between the sperm concentration estimated by Thom counting chamber and AC (r=0.87 and r=0.91, respectively), and between the sperm concentration evaluated by Thom counting chamber and IDENT (r=0.85 and r=0.90, respectively). The mean values for CASA measurement of proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) were significantly lower than the values estimated subjectively in both groups of pigeons (pCASA system is very rapid, objective and sensitive method in detecting subtle motility characteristics as well as sperm concentration and is recommended for future research into pigeon semen.

  1. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus ) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris ) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  2. Grhl3 and Lmo4 play coordinate roles in epidermal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Nikki R; Caddy, Jacinta; Ting, Stephen B; Auden, Alana; Vasudevan, Sumitha; King, Sarah L; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    In addition to its role in formation of the epidermal barrier, the mammalian transcription factor Grainy head-like 3 (Grhl3) is also essential for neural tube closure and wound repair, processes that are dependent in part on epidermal migration. Here, we demonstrate that the LIM-only domain protein, LMO4 serves as a functional partner of GRHL3 in its established roles, and define a new cooperative role for these factors in another developmental epidermal migration event, eyelid fusion. GRHL3 and LMO4 interact biochemically and genetically, with mutant mice exhibiting fully penetrant exencephaly, thoraco-lumbo-sacral spina bifida, defective skin barrier formation, and a co-incident eyes-open-at-birth (EOB) phenotype, which is not observed in the original individual null lines. The two genes are co-expressed in the surface ectoderm of the migrating eyelid root, and electron microscopy of Grhl3/Lmo4-null eyes reveals a failure in epithelial extension and a lack of peridermal clump formation at the eyelid margins. Accumulation of actin fibers is also absent in the circumference of these eyelids, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation is lost in the epidermis and eyelids of Grhl3(-/-)/Lmo4(-/-) embryos. Keratinocytes from mutant mice fail to "heal" in in vitro scratch assays, consistent with a general epidermal migratory defect that is dependent on ERK activation and actin cable formation.

  3. Myelo-meningocele: A multi-disciplinary problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2014-01-01

    Myelo-meningoceles are part of congenital afflictions of the spinal column. They arise from the failure of the neural tube to fuse properly during early embryonic growth. The causes and sequalae are multiple and, therefore, require multiple disciplines, to handle them. This study assessed the role of inter-disciplinary approach in the management of myelo-meningoceles. From 1975 to 2007, the author repaired 20 midline lumbar and lumbo-sacral myelo-meningoceles; 5 in Jamaica and 15 in Nigeria. There were 11 males and 9 females. Their ages, at operation, ranged from 1 to 168 days. All had urine and faecal incontinence and severe paraparesis to paraplegia. Skeletal deformities were present in 16 cases. The operations were carried out under routine general anaesthesia and in prone position. All cases were followed-up for up to 60 months, apart from one who died 4 days at home after discharge. There were no deaths within the period of hospitalisation, usually about 14 days. Those followed-up have not made much improvement, though they were able to sit up without support and move around by shifting on their buttocks on the floor. We must continue to help these patients, but under the umbrella of specialised rehabilitation centres with the different specialists working together to make these patients attain a meaningful life and be useful to themselves and the society.

  4. Muscle-splitting approach to superior and inferior gluteal vessels: versatile source of recipient vessels for free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S

    2000-07-01

    The superior gluteal vessel has been reported as a recipient in free-tissue transfer for the coverage of complex soft-tissue defects in the lumbosacral region, where a suitable recipient vessel is difficult to find. The characteristics of proximity, vessel caliber, and constancy make the superior gluteal vessel preferable to previously reported recipient vessels. However, there are technical difficulties in microsurgery (e.g., short pedicle length and deep location) and muscle injury (transection of the muscle) associated with use of the superior gluteal vessel. The purpose of this article is to present a modification of an approach to the gluteal vessel to alleviate technical difficulties and minimize muscle injury. From August of 1997 to January of 1999, six patients received microvascular transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle or myocutaneous flap to the sacral (4) and ischial (2) regions. The causes of defects were tumor (1), trauma (1), and pressure sores (4). A muscle-splitting approach was used on the superior gluteal vessel and was later applied to the inferior gluteal vessel. The gluteus maximus muscle was split as needed in the direction of its fibers, and the perforators were dissected down to the superior or inferior gluteal artery and vein deep into the muscle. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 22 months, and all of the flaps survived with complete recovery of the lesion. The major drawbacks of using the superior and inferior gluteal vessels can be overcome with the muscle-splitting approach, which provides increased accessibility and additional length to the vascular pedicle while causing minimal injury to the muscle itself. It also proves to be an easy, safe, and reliable method of dissection. When free-tissue transfer to sacral, gluteal, and ischial regions is indicated, the muscle-splitting approach to the superior and inferior gluteal vessels is a recommended option in the selection of a recipient vessel.

  5. An economic appraisal of the Australian Medical Sheepskin for the prevention of sacral pressure ulcers from a nursing home perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many devices are in use to prevent pressure ulcers, but from most little is known about their effects and costs. One such preventive device is the Australian Medical Sheepskin that has been proven effective in three randomized trials. In this study the costs and savings from the use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin were investigated from the perspective of a nursing home. Methods An economic model was developed in which monetary costs and monetary savings in respect of the sheepskin were balanced against each other. The model was applied to a fictional (Dutch) nursing home with 100 beds for rehabilitation patients and a time horizon of one year. Input variables for the model consisted of investment costs for using the sheepskin (purchase and laundry), and savings through the prevented cases of pressure ulcers. The input values for the investment costs and for the effectiveness were empirically based on a trial with newly admitted rehabilitation patients from eight nursing homes. The input values for the costs of pressure ulcer treatment were estimated by means of four different approaches. Results Investment costs for using the Australian Medical Sheepskin were larger than the monetary savings obtained by preventing pressure ulcers. Use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an additional cost of approximately €2 per patient per day. Preventing one case of a sacral pressure ulcer by means of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an investment of €2,974 when the sheepskin is given to all patients. When the sheepskin is selectively used for more critical patients only, the investment to prevent one case of sacral pressure ulcers decreases to €2,479 (pressure ulcer risk patients) or €1,847 (ADL-severely impaired patients). The factors with the strongest influence on the balance are the frequency of changing the sheepskin and the costs of washing related to this. The economic model was hampered by considerable uncertainty in the

  6. An economic appraisal of the Australian Medical Sheepskin for the prevention of sacral pressure ulcers from a nursing home perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achterberg Wilco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many devices are in use to prevent pressure ulcers, but from most little is known about their effects and costs. One such preventive device is the Australian Medical Sheepskin that has been proven effective in three randomized trials. In this study the costs and savings from the use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin were investigated from the perspective of a nursing home. Methods An economic model was developed in which monetary costs and monetary savings in respect of the sheepskin were balanced against each other. The model was applied to a fictional (Dutch nursing home with 100 beds for rehabilitation patients and a time horizon of one year. Input variables for the model consisted of investment costs for using the sheepskin (purchase and laundry, and savings through the prevented cases of pressure ulcers. The input values for the investment costs and for the effectiveness were empirically based on a trial with newly admitted rehabilitation patients from eight nursing homes. The input values for the costs of pressure ulcer treatment were estimated by means of four different approaches. Results Investment costs for using the Australian Medical Sheepskin were larger than the monetary savings obtained by preventing pressure ulcers. Use of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an additional cost of approximately €2 per patient per day. Preventing one case of a sacral pressure ulcer by means of the Australian Medical Sheepskin involves an investment of €2,974 when the sheepskin is given to all patients. When the sheepskin is selectively used for more critical patients only, the investment to prevent one case of sacral pressure ulcers decreases to €2,479 (pressure ulcer risk patients or €1,847 (ADL-severely impaired patients. The factors with the strongest influence on the balance are the frequency of changing the sheepskin and the costs of washing related to this. The economic model was hampered by considerable

  7. Value of MRI in the diagnosis of non-clival, non-sacral chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, D.; Wang, X.; Vanhoenacker, F.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Drevelengas, A. [Department of Radiology, University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-06-01

    To determine the MR features of non-sacral, non-clival chordoma and to describe a MR prototype of the lesion.Design and patients We reviewed the MR findings of 10 patients with a histologically proven chordoma (6 cervical spine, 1 thoracic spine, 3 lumbar spine). There were three female and seven male patients. Age ranged from 12 to 66 years with a mean age of 44.6 years. The MR images were reviewed for signal intensity (SI) and morphology. All lesions showed a soft tissue extension spanning several vertebral segments. Most of the lesions exhibited a so-called collar button appearance (sagittal images). Two cases of cervical chordoma displayed a ''dumbbell morphology'' (axial images) or ''mushroom'' appearance without bone involvement and with enlargement of the neuroforamen mimicking a neurogenic tumor. Although the region of the nucleus pulposus is the last part of the fetal notochord in the adult to involute, disks were surprisingly spared in all patients. Eight of 10 patients showed heterogeneous SI on all sequences. The overall SI of all lesions was isointense or slightly higher than that of muscle on T1-weighted images. All lesions exhibited high SI on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium contrast administration there was a moderate enhancement in most cases. Although the SI on MR imaging is not specific, chordoma should be considered when a destructive lesion of a vertebral body is associated with a soft tissue mass with a collar button or mushroom appearance and dumbbell morphology, spanning several vertebral segments and sparing the disk(s). (orig.)

  8. Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. (author)

  9. Pühaduse performatiivsus ja kristlik teater / The Performativity of Sacrality and Christian Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madis Kolk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: 20. sajandil on esile kerkinud mitmeid teatrisuundi, mis on kritiseerinud ja püüdnud ületada Lääne traditsioonilise teatri väidetavat sõnakesksust ning samuti selle võimetust täita n-ö püha kunsti funktsioone. Kuigi seda pühadusedefitsiiti on püütud leevendada ennekõike orientaalsetest teatrivormidest inspiratsiooni ammutades, aitab selle võimalikku tekkelugu mõista ka katoliikliku kultuuri mõjuväljas võrsunud teatrikunsti ning teatrivaenulikuma ortodoksi teoloogia kontekstis välja töötatud ikooniteoloogia võrdlus. Kõrvutades nende kahe konfessiooni teoloogilis-esteetilisi arusaamu, saame analüüsida ka performatiivsuse esteetika seisukohast olulisi kunstiteose loome- ja tajutingimuste vormilisi ja meelelisi aspekte ning nende toimet sakraalse kunsti sihtide seisukohast. SU M M A R Y In the 21st century Western society has seen an increasing interest in topics related to religion. In this context, the connection between the concept of sacrality in Western culture and freedom of verbal and artistic expression has been reconsidered; the very possibility of so-called sacred art within Western culture has been called into question. Already in the 20th century several theatrical movements in the West have expressed the need to strive for religious (or at least quasi-religious goals by means of the stage. This can already be seen in the work of the symbolists, but such experiments accelerated and became more forceful under the influence of Antonin Artaud’s visions and under the aegis of intercultural theatre. In all of these different quests one can find common elements: discontent with the discursivity of the theatrical canon, a need for a metaphysical dimension in the theatre, and the belief that channels of perception can be opened through contact with exotic ritual cultures. In his book Sacred Theatre Ralph Yarrow has attempted to define the criteria of sacrality in the theatre, drawing upon William S. Haney

  10. Can the possibility of transverse iliosacral screw fixation for first sacral segment be predicted preoperatively? Results of a computational cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Hoon; Jin, Jin Woo; Kang, Byoung Youl; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the possibility of transverse iliosacral (TIS) screw fixation into the first sacral segment (S 1 ) and introduce practical anatomical variables using conventional computed tomography (CT) scans. A total of 82 cadaveric sacra (42 males and 40 females) were used for continuous 1.0-mm slice CT scans, which were imported into Mimics ® software to produce a three-dimensional pelvis model. The anterior height (BH) and superior width (BW) of the elevated sacral segment was measured, followed by verification of the safe zone (SZ S1 and SZ S2 ) in a true lateral view. Their vertical (VD S1 and VD S2 ) and horizontal (HD S1 and HD S2 ) distances were measured. VD S1 less than 7mm was classified as impossible sacrum, since the transverse fixation of 7.0 mm-sized IS screw could not be done safely. Fourteen models (16.7%; six females, eight males) were assigned as the impossible sacrum. There was no statistical significance regarding gender (p=0.626) and height (p=0.419). The average values were as follows: BW, 31.4mm (SD 2.9); BH, 16.7mm (SD 6.8); VD S1 , 13.4mm (SD 6.1); HD S1 , 22.5mm (SD 4.5); SZ S1 , 239.5mm 2 (SD 137.1); VD S2 , 15.5mm (SD 3.0); HD S2 , 18.3mm (SD 2.9); and SZ S2 , 221.1mm 2 (SD 68.5). Logistic regression analysis identified BH (p=0.001) and HD S1 (p=0.02) as the only statistically significant variables to predict the possibility. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis established a cut-off value for BH and HD S1 of impossible sacrum of 20.6mm and 18.6mm, respectively. BH and HD S1 could be used to predict the possibility of TIS screw fixation. If the BH exceeds 20.6mm or HD S1 is less than 18.6mm, TIS screw fixation for S 1 should not be undertaken because of narrowed SZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Outcome With Percutaneous Ilio-sacral Screw Fixation For Posterior Pelvic Ring Injuries In Patients Involved In Heavy Manual Laboring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek SM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable posterior pelvic ring injuries are best treated with operative methods due to better post-op functional score. Our patient cohort was involved in heavy manual laboring frequently required ground level work in their activities of daily living. There are very few outcome studies dealing exclusively with such patients. Materials & Methods: Forty one patients who were treated with percutaneous sacroiliac screw fixation under fluoroscopic guidance and were followed-up for at least one year were analyzed retrospectively for functional outcome using the Majeed score. Results: Twenty one (51.22% and thirteen (31.70% patients were found to be in excellent and good categories respectively and majority of the patients (thirty/73.17% were able to return to their original occupation with or without minor adjustments. Conclusion: Percutaneous ilio-sacral screw fixation for posterior pelvic unstable injuries is an acceptable mode of treatment in patients involved in heavy manual laboring.

  12. The cost-benefit of using soft silicone multilayered foam dressings to prevent sacral and heel pressure ulcers in trauma and critically ill patients: a within-trial analysis of the Border Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Nick; Liu, Wei; Gerdtz, Marie; Sage, Sarah; McCann, Jane; Freeman, Amy; Vassiliou, Theresa; DeVincentis, Stephanie; Ng, Ai W; Manias, Elizabeth; Knott, Jonathan; Liew, Danny

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the cost-benefit of soft silicone foam dressings in pressure ulcer (PU) prevention among critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU). A randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of soft silicone foam dressings in preventing sacral and heel PUs was undertaken among 440 critically ill patients in an acute care hospital. Participants were randomly allocated either to an intervention group with prophylactic dressings applied to the sacrum and heels in the ED and changed every 3 days in the ICU or to a control group with standard PU prevention care provided during their ED and ICU stay. The results showed a significant reduction of PU incidence rates in the intervention group (P = 0·001). The intervention cost was estimated to be AU$36·61 per person based on an intention-to-treat analysis, but this was offset by lower downstream costs associated with PU treatment (AU$1103·52). Therefore, the average net cost of the intervention was lower than that of the control (AU$70·82 versus AU$144·56). We conclude that the use of soft silicone multilayered foam dressings to prevent sacral and heel PUs among critically ill patients results in cost savings in the acute care hospital. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Vienna psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with global brachial plexus injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Antonia Hruby

    Full Text Available Global brachial plexopathies cause major sensory and motor deficits in the affected arm and hand. Many patients report of psychosocial consequences including chronic pain, decreased self-sufficiency, and poor body image. Bionic reconstruction, which includes the amputation and prosthetic replacement of the functionless limb, has been shown to restore hand function in patients where classic reconstructions have failed. Patient selection and psychological evaluation before such a life-changing procedure are crucial for optimal functional outcomes. In this paper we describe a psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with complete brachial plexopathies and present psychosocial outcome variables associated with bionic reconstruction.Between 2013 and 2017 psychosocial assessments were performed in eight patients with global brachial plexopathies. We conducted semi-structured interviews exploring the psychosocial adjustment related to the accident, the overall psychosocial status, as well as motivational aspects related to an anticipated amputation and expectations of functional prosthetic outcome. During the interview patients were asked to respond freely. Their answers were transcribed verbatim by the interviewer and analyzed afterwards on the basis of a pre-defined item scoring system. The interview was augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning (SF-36 Health Survey, body image (FKB-20 and deafferentation pain (VAS. Additionally, psychosocial outcome variables were presented for seven patients before and after bionic reconstruction.Qualitative data revealed several psychological stressors with long-term negative effects on patients with complete brachial plexopathies. 88% of patients felt functionally limited to a great extent due to their disability, and all of them reported constant, debilitating pain in the deafferented hand. After bionic reconstruction the physical

  14. The Vienna psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with global brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Laura Antonia; Pittermann, Anna; Sturma, Agnes; Aszmann, Oskar Christian

    2018-01-01

    Global brachial plexopathies cause major sensory and motor deficits in the affected arm and hand. Many patients report of psychosocial consequences including chronic pain, decreased self-sufficiency, and poor body image. Bionic reconstruction, which includes the amputation and prosthetic replacement of the functionless limb, has been shown to restore hand function in patients where classic reconstructions have failed. Patient selection and psychological evaluation before such a life-changing procedure are crucial for optimal functional outcomes. In this paper we describe a psychosocial assessment procedure for bionic reconstruction in patients with complete brachial plexopathies and present psychosocial outcome variables associated with bionic reconstruction. Between 2013 and 2017 psychosocial assessments were performed in eight patients with global brachial plexopathies. We conducted semi-structured interviews exploring the psychosocial adjustment related to the accident, the overall psychosocial status, as well as motivational aspects related to an anticipated amputation and expectations of functional prosthetic outcome. During the interview patients were asked to respond freely. Their answers were transcribed verbatim by the interviewer and analyzed afterwards on the basis of a pre-defined item scoring system. The interview was augmented by quantitative evaluation of self-reported mental health and social functioning (SF-36 Health Survey), body image (FKB-20) and deafferentation pain (VAS). Additionally, psychosocial outcome variables were presented for seven patients before and after bionic reconstruction. Qualitative data revealed several psychological stressors with long-term negative effects on patients with complete brachial plexopathies. 88% of patients felt functionally limited to a great extent due to their disability, and all of them reported constant, debilitating pain in the deafferented hand. After bionic reconstruction the physical component summary

  15. Age-related loss of lumbar spinal lordosis and mobility--a study of 323 asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Albiol, Laia; Rohlmann, Antonius; Pries, Esther; Bashkuev, Maxim; Zander, Thomas; Duda, Georg; Druschel, Claudia; Strube, Patrick; Putzier, Michael; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the individual shape and mobility of the lumbar spine are key factors for the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The influence of age and sex on the total lumbar lordosis and the range of motion as well as on different lumbar sub-regions (lower, middle and upper lordosis) in asymptomatic subjects still merits discussion, since it is essential for patient-specific treatment and evidence-based distinction between painful degenerative pathologies and asymptomatic aging. A novel non-invasive measuring system was used to assess the total and local lumbar shape and its mobility of 323 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 20-75 yrs; BMI lordosis for standing and the range of motion for maximal upper body flexion (RoF) and extension (RoE) were determined. The total lordosis was significantly reduced by approximately 20%, the RoF by 12% and the RoE by 31% in the oldest (>50 yrs) compared to the youngest age cohort (20-29 yrs). Locally, these decreases mostly occurred in the middle part of the lordosis and less towards the lumbo-sacral and thoraco-lumbar transitions. The sex only affected the RoE. During aging, the lower lumbar spine retains its lordosis and mobility, whereas the middle part flattens and becomes less mobile. These findings lay the ground for a better understanding of the incidence of level- and age-dependent spinal disorders, and may have important implications for the clinical long-term success of different surgical interventions.

  16. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Kamran A. [Mayo Medical School, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Rose, Peter S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Olivier, Kenneth R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 {+-} 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10-40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1-5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  17. Telehealth-based model of care redesign to facilitate local fitting and management of patients with a spinal fracture requiring a thoracic lumbar sacral orthosis in rural hospitals in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ryan; Giles, Michelle; Morison, Jane; Henderson, Judith

    2018-03-23

    To develop and implement a telehealth-based model of care for spinal fractures requiring management with thoracic lumbar sacral orthoses that eliminates the need for transfer to a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. Pre-post design observational study evaluating model of care implementation. Rural referral hospitals in a large NSW region covering metropolitan, rural and remote hospitals. Patients presenting with a thoracic or lumbar spine fracture requiring thoracic lumbar sacral orthoses management and rural clinicians caring for them. Number of patients managed in rural hospitals without transfer to a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital; length of stay and related cost efficiencies; clinicians' perceived skills, knowledge and confidence levels. Model of care was implemented with clinical and system governance processes; and educational workshops across eight rural hospitals. A total of 81 patients managed in rural hospitals under this model between July 2013 and June 2016 without transfer were included in this study. Mean length of stay reduced from nine to four days. Hospital transfers were eliminated from the patient journey, totalling 24 324 km. Workshops were attended by 71 clinicians from nine rural hospitals and survey findings indicated a significant increase in staff knowledge, skill and confidence post education. Cost efficiencies were gained by eliminating 162 inter-hospital transfers and 405 patient bed days. This model has streamlined patient journeys and reduced transfers and travel, enabling rural clinicians to provide specialised services in local communities and facilitating timely evidence-based care in local communities without any adverse events. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  18. Lumbar lordosis and sacral slope in lumbar spinal stenosis: standard values and measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, J; Oppermann, J; Scheyerer, M J; Gundlfinger, K; Neiss, W F; Budde, S; Floerkemeier, T; Eysel, P; Beyer, F

    2015-05-01

    Radiological study. To asses standard values, intra- and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of sacral slope (SS) and lumbar lordosis (LL) and the correlation of these parameters in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the lumbar spine of 102 patients with LSS were included in this retrospective, radiologic study. Measurements of SS and LL were carried out by five examiners. Intraobserver correlation and correlation between LL and SS were calculated with Pearson's r linear correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for inter- and intraobserver reliability. In addition, patients were examined in subgroups with respect to previous surgery and the current therapy. Lumbar lordosis averaged 45.6° (range 2.5°-74.9°; SD 14.2°), intraobserver correlation was between Pearson r = 0.93 and 0.98. The measurement of SS averaged 35.3° (range 13.8°-66.9°; SD 9.6°), intraobserver correlation was between Pearson r = 0.89 and 0.96. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.966 to 0.992 ICC in LL measurements and 0.944-0.983 ICC in SS measurements. There was an interobserver reliability ICC of 0.944 in LL and 0.990 in SS. Correlation between LL and SS averaged r = 0.79. No statistically significant differences were observed between the analyzed subgroups. Manual measurement of LL and SS in patients with LSS on lateral radiographs is easily performed with excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. Correlation between LL and SS is very high. Differences between patients with and without previous decompression were not statistically significant.

  19. Rectal cancer: The radiation basis of radiotherapy, target volume; Cancers du rectum: volumes cible de la radiotherapie, bases rationnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosset, J.F.; Servagi-Vernat, S. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Jean-Minjoz, 3, boulevard Fleming, 25030 Besancon (France); Crehange, G. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 1, rue du Pr-Marion, 21079 Dijon cedex (France); Azria, D. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Val-d' Aurelle, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Gerard, J.P. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice (France); Hennequin, C. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    Since the implementation of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and meso-rectal excision, the 5-year rates of locoregional failures in T3-T4 N0-N1M0 rectal cancer fell from 25-30% thirty years ago to 5-8% nowadays. A critical analysis of the locoregional failures sites and mechanisms, as well as the identification of nodal extension, helps the radiation oncologist to optimize the radiotherapy target definition. The upper limit of the clinical target volume is usually set at the top of the third sacral vertebra. The lateral pelvic nodes should be included when the tumor is located in the distal part of the rectum. The anal sphincter and the levator muscles should be spared when a conservative surgery is planned. In case of abdomino-perineal excision, the ischio-rectal fossa and the sphincters should be included in the clinical target volume. A confrontation with radiologist and surgeon is mandatory to improve the definition of the target volumes to be treated. (authors)

  20. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns of people with low back pain (LBP, and (ii the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i muscle activity patterns, (ii lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. Results The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or

  1. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L

    2012-09-07

    Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i) the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns) of people with low back pain (LBP), and (ii) the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i) muscle activity patterns, (ii) lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii) postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies) met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural characteristics. Movement

  2. The impact of office chair features on lumbar lordosis, intervertebral joint and sacral tilt angles: a radiographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Diana; Grondin, Diane; Callaghan, Jack

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which office chair feature is better at improving spine posture in sitting. Participants (n = 28) were radiographed in standing, maximum flexion and seated in four chair conditions: control, lumbar support, seat pan tilt and backrest with scapular relief. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral joint angles and sacral tilt were compared between conditions and sex. Sitting consisted of approximately 70% of maximum range of spine flexion. No differences in lumbar flexion were found between the chair features or control. Significantly more anterior pelvic rotation was found with the lumbar support (p = 0.0028) and seat pan tilt (p < 0.0001). Males had significantly more anterior pelvic rotation and extended intervertebral joint angles through L1-L3 in all conditions (p < 0.0001). No one feature was statistically superior with respect to minimising spine flexion, however, seat pan tilt resulted in significantly improved pelvic posture. Practitioner Summary: Seat pan tilt, and to some extent lumbar supports, appear to improve seated postures. However, sitting, regardless of chair features used, still involves near end range flexion of the spine. This will increase stresses to the spine and could be a potential injury generator during prolonged seated exposures.

  3. Treatment of unstable sacral fractures with percutaneous reconstruction plate internal fixation Tratamento de fraturas sacrais instáveis com reconstrução percutânea com fixação de placa interna

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    Hong-Wei Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects of percutaneous reconstruction plate internal fixation in the treatment of unstable sacral fractures. METHODS: Percutaneous reconstruction plate internal fixation was applied on 21 cases of unstable sacral fracture (15 males and six females, at age range of 16-65 years, mean 38.3 years including four cases of Denis Zone I, 14 cases of Zone II and three cases of Zone III. In operation, an arc incision (about 3-5 cm long was made along the iliac crest on the outside border of posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS on both sides, and then the plate was transported from the wounded side to the opposite one through the subcutaneous tunnel. RESULTS: The mean incision length, operation time, intraoperative blood loss was 4.3cm, 45.2min, and 160.8ml respectively. All these patients were followed up for 12-33 months (average 16.3 months, which showed no incision infection, intraoperative neurovascular injury, internal fixation loose or breakage, disunion, or obvious lower limb length inequality. The function result was rated as excellent in six cases, good in 12 and fair in 3, with excellence rate of 85.7%, according to the Majeed scoring system. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous reconstruction plate internal fixation is an ideal surgical approach to unstable sacral fractures, as it is easy, safe, causing less trauma and fewer complications, and conducive to quicker recovery.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da reconstrução percutânea com fixação de placa interna no tratamento de fraturas sacrais instáveis. MÉTODOS: A reconstrução percutânea com fixação de placa interna foi aplicada em 21 casos de fratura sacral instável (15 homens e seis mulheres, com idade variando entre 16 e 65 anos, média de 38,3 anos incluindo quatro casos de Zona I de Denis, 14 casos de Zona II e três casos de Zona III. No ato operatório, uma incisão arqueada (cerca de 3 a 5cm de comprimento foi feita ao longo da crista ilíaca na borda externa da

  4. Whole vertebral bone segmentation method with a statistical intensity-shape model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shouhei; Fritscher, Karl; Schuler, Benedikt; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni; Schubert, Rainer

    2011-03-01

    An automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images is presented. Especially we focused on constructing and utilizing 4 different statistical intensity-shape combined models for the cervical, upper / lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. For this purpose, two previously reported methods were combined: a deformable model-based initial segmentation method and a statistical shape-intensity model-based precise segmentation method. The former is used as a pre-processing to detect the position and orientation of each vertebra, which determines the initial condition for the latter precise segmentation method. The precise segmentation method needs prior knowledge on both the intensities and the shapes of the objects. After PCA analysis of such shape-intensity expressions obtained from training image sets, vertebrae were parametrically modeled as a linear combination of the principal component vectors. The segmentation of each target vertebra was performed as fitting of this parametric model to the target image by maximum a posteriori estimation, combined with the geodesic active contour method. In the experimental result by using 10 cases, the initial segmentation was successful in 6 cases and only partially failed in 4 cases (2 in the cervical area and 2 in the lumbo-sacral). In the precise segmentation, the mean error distances were 2.078, 1.416, 0.777, 0.939 mm for cervical, upper and lower thoracic, lumbar spines, respectively. In conclusion, our automatic segmentation algorithm for the vertebrae in human body CT images showed a fair performance for cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.

  5. MULLIGAN MOBILIZATION VERSUS STRETCHING ON THE MANAGEMENT OF PIRIFORMIS SYNDROME A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Samahir Abuaraki Elbkheet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Piriformis syndrome is a commonly overlooked specific cause of low back pain. Apart from mimicking the sciatica-like symptoms, unilateral piriformis tightness can cause rotational dysfunction and pain in the lumbar region. This could lead to low back pain which is a common musculo skeletal problem and a major reason for activity limitation. Stretching the piriformis tightened muscle is a preferred choice of treatment against surgical intervention to release the muscle. Mulligan’s mobilization is based on movement with mobilization which is proven to be effective in many musculo skeletal dysfunctions including the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study is to explore and compare the two treatment methods in relieving the low back pain in clinical conditions with piriformis syndrome. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 patients with piriformis syndrome were selected and divided into two groups. One group was given only piriformis stretching for the tightened muscle and the other group given Mulligan mobilization for lumbo sacral joints. VAS and lower limb functional index were taken to compare before and after the treatment regime of 4 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in both pain scale and lower limb mobility and function. But there was significant improvement in pain relief and LLFI after the treatment regime in both groups compared to the pre-treatment status. Conclusion: Even as the piriformis syndrome is caused by the tightness of the muscle, the consequence in the lower back and lumbar spine mobility can be improved by a Mulligan mobilization as a single mode of intervention.

  6. Age-Related Loss of Lumbar Spinal Lordosis and Mobility – A Study of 323 Asymptomatic Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Albiol, Laia; Rohlmann, Antonius; Pries, Esther; Bashkuev, Maxim; Zander, Thomas; Duda, Georg; Druschel, Claudia; Strube, Patrick; Putzier, Michael; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Background The understanding of the individual shape and mobility of the lumbar spine are key factors for the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The influence of age and sex on the total lumbar lordosis and the range of motion as well as on different lumbar sub-regions (lower, middle and upper lordosis) in asymptomatic subjects still merits discussion, since it is essential for patient-specific treatment and evidence-based distinction between painful degenerative pathologies and asymptomatic aging. Methods and Findings A novel non-invasive measuring system was used to assess the total and local lumbar shape and its mobility of 323 asymptomatic volunteers (age: 20–75 yrs; BMI lordosis for standing and the range of motion for maximal upper body flexion (RoF) and extension (RoE) were determined. The total lordosis was significantly reduced by approximately 20%, the RoF by 12% and the RoE by 31% in the oldest (>50 yrs) compared to the youngest age cohort (20–29 yrs). Locally, these decreases mostly occurred in the middle part of the lordosis and less towards the lumbo-sacral and thoraco-lumbar transitions. The sex only affected the RoE. Conclusions During aging, the lower lumbar spine retains its lordosis and mobility, whereas the middle part flattens and becomes less mobile. These findings lay the ground for a better understanding of the incidence of level- and age-dependent spinal disorders, and may have important implications for the clinical long-term success of different surgical interventions. PMID:25549085

  7. Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Cuellar, Jorge; Zamora, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of spondylolysis reported from radiograph-based studies has been questioned in recent computed tomography (CT)-based studies in adults; however, no new data are available in pediatric patients. Spina bifida occulta (SBO), which has been associated to spondylolysis, may be increasing its prevalence, according to recent studies in adults in the last decades, but without new data in pediatric patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of spondylolysis and SBO in pediatric patients using abdomen and pelvis CT as a screening tool. We studied 228 patients 4-15 years old (107 males), who were evaluated with abdomen and pelvis CT scans for reasons not related to the spine. The entire lumbo-sacral spine was evaluated to detect the presence of spondylolysis and SBO. We compared the prevalence of spondylolysis in patients with and without SBO. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and sex as independent predictors of spondylolysis and SBO. The prevalence of spondylolysis was 3.5 % (1.1-5.9 %); 2/8 patients presented with olisthesis, both with grade I slip. The prevalence of SBO was 41.2 % (34.8-59.2 %) (94 patients). Spondylolysis was not more frequent in patients with SBO than in patients without SBO. Male sex and decreasing age independently predicted the presence of SBO, but not of spondylolysis. We observed a 3.5 % prevalence of spondylolysis and a 41.2 % prevalence of SBO. SBO was significantly more frequent in males and younger patients.

  8. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  9. A Good Short-term Outcome in Delayed Decompression of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Klebsiella pneumoniae Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression. A 50-year old female presented with one-week history of persistent low back pain with progressively worsening bilateral lower limb weakness for seven days and urinary retention associated with saddle anesthesia of 2-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast of the lumbo-sacral region showed an intramuscular collection of abscess at left gluteus maximus and left multifidus muscle with a L3-L5 posteriorly placed extradural lesion enhancing peripherally on contrast, suggestive of epidural abscess that compressed the cauda equina. The pus was drained using the posterior lumbar approach. Tissue and pus culture revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggestive of bacterial infection. The patient made immediate improvement of muscle power over bilateral lower limbs postoperative followed by ability to control micturition and defecation in the 4th post-operative day. A good short-term outcome in delayed decompression of cauda equine syndrome is extremely rare. Aggressive surgical decompression combined with antibiotic therapy led to good short-term outcome in this patient despite delayed decompression of more than 48 hours.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Spinal Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Stauder, Michael C.; Miller, Robert C.; Bauer, Heather J.; Rose, Peter S.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Brown, Paul D.; Brinkmann, Debra H.; Laack, Nadia N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Based on reports of safety and efficacy, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of malignant spinal tumors was initiated at our institution. We report prospective results of this population at Mayo Clinic. Materials and Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2010, 85 lesions in 66 patients were treated with SBRT for spinal metastases. Twenty-two lesions (25.8%) were treated for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (RT). The mean age of patients was 56.8 ± 13.4 years. Patients were treated to a median dose of 24 Gy (range, 10–40 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1–5). Radiation was delivered with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and prescribed to cover 80% of the planning target volume (PTV) with organs at risk such as the spinal cord taking priority over PTV coverage. Results: Tumor sites included 48, 22, 12, and 3 in the thoracic, lumbar, cervical, and sacral spine, respectively. The mean actuarial survival at 12 months was 52.2%. A total of 7 patients had both local and marginal failure, 1 patient experienced marginal but not local failure, and 1 patient had local failure only. Actuarial local control at 1 year was 83.3% and 91.2% in patients with and without prior RT. The median dose delivered to patients who experienced local/marginal failure was 24 Gy (range, 18–30 Gy) in a median of three fractions (range, 1–5). No cases of Grade 4 toxicity were reported. In 1 of 2 patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity, SBRT was given after previous radiation. Conclusion: The results indicate SBRT to be an effective measure to achieve local control in spinal metastases. Toxicity of treatment was rare, including those previously irradiated. Our results appear comparable to previous reports analyzing spine SBRT. Further research is needed to determine optimum dose and fractionation to further improve local control and prevent toxicity.

  11. Radiculoplexopathie, anticorps anti Yo et cancer ovarien sous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les radiculo-plexopathies au cours des cancers sont le plus souvent d'origine métastatique. Leur origine dysimmune est rare. Nous rapportons un cas de radiculoplexopathie d'évolution favorable sous traitement immunomodulateur, survenue chez une patiente porteuse d'un carcinome ovarien bilatéral sous ...

  12. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  13. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: a comparative case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asari, S; Meurette, G; Mantoo, S; Kubis, C; Wyart, V; Lehur, P-A

    2014-11-01

    The study assessed the initial experience with posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for faecal incontinence and compared it with sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) performed in a single centre during the same timespan. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted at the colorectal unit, University Hospital, Nantes, France, from May 2009 to December 2010. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with chronic severe faecal incontinence underwent neurostimulation including PTNS in 21 and SNS in 57. The main outcome measures were faecal incontinence (Wexner score) and quality of life (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, FIQL) scores in a short-term follow-up. No significant differences were observed in patients' characteristics. Of 57 patients having SNS, 18 (32%) failed peripheral nerve evaluation and 39 (68%) received a permanent implant. Two (5%) developed a wound infection. No adverse effects were recorded in the PTNS group. There was no significant difference in the mean Wexner and FIQL scores between patients having PTNS and SNS at 6 (P = 0.39 and 0.09) and 12 months (P = 0.79 and 0.37). A 50% or more improvement in Wexner score was seen at 6 and 12 months in 47% and 30% of PTNS patients and in 50% and 58% of SNS patients with no significant difference between the groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation is a valid method of treating faecal incontinence in the short term when conservative treatment has failed. It is easier, simpler, cheaper and less invasive than SNS with a similar short-term outcome. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Sacral Rituality and Mysticism in the Service of the Awakening of National Identity. Baltic-Balkan Parallels in the Works of B. Kutavičius, L. Lebič and V. Tormis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pompe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the works of all B. Kutavičius, L. Lebič and V. Tormis, one can find a pronounced inclination towards the ritual, the use of folk instruments, the idea of the circulation of life, and some sort of simulation of folk music of unidentifiable prehistoric times. These parallels raise the questions about the causes for such similarities which are connected to the socio-political situations of countries in which the composers lived and created. Therefore, it is not possible to disconnect the stylistic changes of the seventies and eighties from the desire for political and ideological liberation. All three composers responded to those trends with similar artistic solutions: they searched for mystical and sacral music of prehistoric tribes which functioned as trigger for the awakening of strong national feelings. 

  15. Oral-facial-digital syndrome with mesoaxial polysyndactyly, common AV canal, hirschsprung disease and sacral dysgenesis: Probably a transitional type between II, VI, variant of type VI or a new type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 4 month old male infant, the first in order of birth of healthy first cousin consanguineous parents who has many typical features of oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFDS VI including hypertelorism, bilateral convergent squint, depressed nasal bridge, and wide upturned nares, low set posteriorly rotated ears, long philtrum, gum hyperplasia with notches of the alveolar borders, high arched palate, and hyperplastic oral frenula. He has mesoaxial and postaxial, polysyndactyly which is the specific feature of OFDS VI, however the cerebellum is normal on MRI brain. He has also some rare congenital anomalies including common atrioventricular canal, hirschsprung disease, and sacral dysgenesis. This patient may have a transitional type between II and VI, a variant of type VI or a new type.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of posterior sacroiliac complex pain: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Wade; Ahmed, Shihab U; Baisden, Jamie; Patel, Nileshkumar; Kennedy, David J; Duszynski, Belinda; MacVicar, John

    2015-02-01

    To assess the evidence on the validity of sacral lateral branch blocks and the effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy in managing sacroiliac complex pain. Systematic review with comprehensive analysis of all published data. Six reviewers searched the literature on sacral lateral branch interventions. Each assessed the methodologies of studies found and the quality of the evidence presented. The outcomes assessed were diagnostic validity and effectiveness of treatment for sacroiliac complex pain. The evidence found was appraised in accordance with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evaluating scientific evidence. The searches yielded two primary publications on sacral lateral branch blocks and 15 studies of the effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy. One study showed multisite, multidepth sacral lateral branch blocks can anesthetize the posterior sacroiliac ligaments. Therapeutic studies show sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy can relieve sacroiliac complex pain to some extent. The evidence of the validity of these blocks and the effectiveness of this treatment were rated as moderate in accordance with the GRADE system. The literature on sacral lateral branch interventions is sparse. One study demonstrates the face validity of multisite, multidepth sacral lateral branch blocks for diagnosis of posterior sacroiliac complex pain. Some evidence of moderate quality exists on therapeutic procedures, but it is insufficient to determine the indications and effectiveness of sacral lateral branch thermal radiofrequency neurotomy, and more research is required. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Usefulness of the combination of imaging techniques to evaluate the influence of the association of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, in the appearance of fractures, during the course of metastatic disease of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casacó, CA.; Prats, A.; Torres, LA.; Sánchez, Y.; Masquida, E.; Valladares, L.; Romero, S; Marrero, L.O.; Alonso, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis; Cause the majority of morbidity and mortality in older adults and their prevalence continues to increase. The clinical coincidence of vascular disease and osteoporosis indicates that there are common mediators that adversely affect and resemble bone metabolism and vascular integrity. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are part of a shared diagnosis. We intend to work with the use of two combined imaging techniques to precociously assess the state of bone mass in patients with advanced neoplasia who live with osteoporosis and atherosclerosis in order to be able to take appropriate medical and therapeutic behaviors that help to improve the quality of life of these patients. Purpose: To determine the morpho functional status of bone in patients with osteoporosis and atherosclerosis with metastatic bone disease, through two noninvasive and combined imaging techniques, at different stages of disease progression. Method: A prospective, descriptive and longitudinal study will be carried out on 100 patients referred from the Orthopedics and Oncology Service of the Frank Paíz Hospital and the Oncology Institute, with a confirmed diagnosis of metastatic neoplastic disease in bones and with a history of osteoporosis and Vascular arteriosclerosis, or with clinical suspicion of them. With ages between 35 and 60 years and both sexes. In the period between 2010 and 2014. The BMD values will be determined through Densitometry at the lumbo-sacral column and hips level, at the beginning, at six months and at the first year, in each of the patients . Bone scintigraphy with MDP will also be performed at the beginning, six months and the year of the first one performed equally on all patients in the sample.

  18. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascelles, B Duncan X; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Thomson, Andrea; Wheeler, Simon; Correa, Maria

    2012-01-27

    Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.

  19. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lascelles B Duncan X

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%, and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%. Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5; the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral. Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.

  20. Can MRI Localise the Cause of Chronic Low Backache in Lumbar Spondylosis and Help Guide Specific Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joish Upendra Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: MRI is a primary imaging modality in assessing chronic low backache. Many of the findings identified on MRI may not be symptomatic. Nerve root compressions, compression of cauda equina, posterior annular tear, facetal arthropathy are more likely to be symptomatic. Management of each of these pathologies vary. It is essential to identify the pathologies that can cause pain and symptoms in lumbar spondylosis. Aim: To identify the specific finding/pathology on MRI that corresponds to the clinical presentation of the patient with lumbar spondylosis. Materials and Methods: The study was done between May and December 2016 and included 100 patients who were referred for MRI of lumbosacral spine with history of debilitating backache for more than 2 weeks. After ruling out other causes, clinical evaluation of patients was done to localize leve; and type of pain. T1, T2 weighted and STIR imaging of lumbo-sacral spine was done. The images were studied to localize the pathology which most likely caused the pattern of pain the patient experienced. Results: The study included 55 ladies and 45 men. 42 people had radiculopathy. In 86% of cases, MRI helped in localizing the exact pathology responsible for the pattern of pain the patients experienced. Nerve compressions were seen in 86% of patients with radiculopathy. Among the people without radiculopathy, the cause for pain could be localized in 86%. The most common cause of pain identified was horizontal posterior annular fissure (40%. Conclusion: In a significant number of patients with chronic low backache, we can identify the specific pathology that corroborates with the clinical symptomatology of the patient. This aids in guiding specific management to provide symptomatic relief.

  1. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  2. SaFaRI: sacral nerve stimulation versus the FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation for adult faecal incontinence: a randomised investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Annabelle E; Croft, Julie; Napp, Vicky; Corrigan, Neil; Brown, Julia M; Hulme, Claire; Brown, Steven R; Lodge, Jen; Protheroe, David; Jayne, David G

    2016-02-01

    Faecal incontinence is a physically, psychologically and socially disabling condition. NICE guidance (2007) recommends surgical intervention, including sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), after failed conservative therapies. The FENIX magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) device is a novel continence device consisting of a flexible band of interlinked titanium beads with magnetic cores that is placed around the anal canal to augment anal sphincter tone through passive attraction of the beads. Preliminary studies suggest the FENIX MSA is safe, but efficacy data is limited. Rigorous evaluation is required prior to widespread adoption. The SaFaRI trial is a National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded UK multi-site, parallel group, randomised controlled, unblinded trial that will investigate the use of the FENIX MSA, as compared to SNS, for adult faecal incontinence resistant to conservative management. Twenty sites across the UK, experienced in the treatment of faecal incontinence, will recruit 350 patients randomised equally to receive either SNS or FENIX MSA. Participants will be followed-up at 2 weeks post-surgery and at 6, 12 and 18 months post-randomisation. The primary endpoint is success, as defined by device in use and ≥50 % improvement in the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) at 18 months post-randomisation. Secondary endpoints include complications, quality of life and cost effectiveness. SaFaRI will rigorously evaluate a new technology for faecal incontinence, the FENIX™ MSA, allowing its safe and controlled introduction into current clinical practice. These results will inform the future surgical management of adult faecal incontinence.

  3. Uterine carcinosarcoma associated with pelvic radiotherapy for sacral chordoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Kahraman

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: In uterine masses seen in patients with history of irradiation to the pelvic field, the probability of uterine sarcomas should always be kept in mind. These tumors may occur simultaneously with recurrence of primary tumor previously treated by adjuvant radiation therapy.

  4. Lumbosacral Plexus Injury and Brachial Plexus Injury Following Prolonged Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lan Kao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management.

  5. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  6. A Rare Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S Rathod

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid cyst in the pelvis is rare, and usually presents with pressure symptoms affecting the adjacent abdominal organs. We describe a rare hydatid cyst which was eroding the sacral hallow, protruding into the right sciatic foramen and presenting as a radiating pain and weakness of right lower limb due to compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Laparotomy with removal of cyst and postoperative treatment with albendazole is effective in controlling the disease and preventing recurrence.

  7. SENILE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN ADULT LUMBAR SPINE! - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garjesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP is a common presenting complaint affecting mostly middle aged and older person and traditionally considered as ageing process, but now-a-days large number of younger people are also affected by this debilitating chronic disorder. The cause of early onset of degenerative spine disease is multifactorial, but genetical predisposition plays very important role. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To find out association between genetic predisposition and degenerative spine disease in adult patients and to assess the pattern of MRI findings of various degenerative diseases in lumbo-sacral spine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present cross-sectional study had been performed among 100 selected patients in 1yr period, who presented with chief complaint of chronic low back pain. After taking detailed clinical and professional history, MRI of lumbosacral spine had been performed. Total 100 patients were divided in two groups on the basis of genetical predisposition. Prevalence and spectrum of degenerative changes were compared between both groups. RESULTS: Hundred patients of 20 to 35-year age had been selected with mean age of 27yr. Out of 100 patients; 47 were male and 53 were female. The most common degenerative findings were desiccation of disc (95% followed by disc bulge, herniation, spinal canal stenosis, ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, facet joint hypertrophy and modic changes. L4-L5 and L5- S1 were the most commonly involved spinal levels for any degenerative pathology. CONCLUSION: Good association is seen between early onset of degenerative spine disease and genetical predisposition in patients who have history of similar type degenerative spine disease in one or more first degree relatives in comparison to those patients who do not have any genetical predisposition. So it can be concluded that heredity play important role in early onset of degenerative spine disease in adults.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Persian version of the spine functional index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarinia, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Azadeh; Maleki-Ghahfarokhi, Azam; Gabel, Charles Philip; Zohrabi, Majid

    2018-05-15

    There are various instruments and methods to evaluate spinal health and functional status. Whole-spine patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, such as the Spine Functional Index (SFI), assess the spine from the cervical to lumbo-sacral sections as a single kinetic chain. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the SFI for Persian speaking patients (SFI-Pr) and determine the psychometric properties of reliability and validity (convergent and construct) in a Persian patient population. The SFI (English) PRO was translated into Persian according to published guidelines. Consecutive symptomatic spine patients (104 female and 120 male aged between 18 and 60) were recruited from three Iranian physiotherapy centers. Test-retest reliability was performed in a sub-sample (n = 31) at baseline and repeated between days 3-7. Convergent validity was determined by calculating the Pearson's r correlation coefficient between the SFI-Pr and the Persian Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) for back pain patients and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) for neck patients. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) used Maximum Likelihood Extraction followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). High levels of internal consistency (α = 0.81, item range = 0.78-0.82) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.96, item range = 0.83-0.98) were obtained. Convergent validity was very good between the SFI and RMQ (r = 0.69) and good between the SFI and NDI (r = 0.57). The EFA from the perspective of parsimony suggests a one-factor solution that explained 26.5% of total variance. The CFA was inconclusive of the one factor structure as the sample size was inadequate. There were no floor or ceiling effects. The SFI-Pr PRO can be applied as a specific whole-spine status assessment instrument for clinical and research studies in Persian language populations.

  9. [A case of medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries presenting with spastic quadriplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takashi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Yamashita, Tamayo; Nagata, Shinji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 58-year-old man showing spastic paraparesis due to medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries. He noticed weakness of both legs and gait disturbance at the age of 58 years and his symptoms progressively worsened during the following several months. General physical findings were normal. Blood pressure was normal and there were no signs of arteriosclerosis. Neurological examination on admission revealed lower-limb-dominant spasticity in all four extremities, lower-limb weakness, hyperreflexia in all extremities with positive Wartenberg's, Babinski's and Chaddock's signs, mild hypesthesia and hypopallesthesia in both lower limbs, and spastic gait. Cranial nerves were all normal. Serum was negative for antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 antibody. Nerve conduction and needle electromyographic studies of all four limbs revealed normal findings. Cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were all normal. Brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries compressing the medulla oblongata. Neurovascular decompression of the right vertebral artery was performed because compression of the right side was more severe than that of the left side. Post-operative MRI revealed outward translocation of the right vertebral artery and relieved compression of the medulla oblongata on the right side. The patient's symptoms and neurological findings improved gradually after the operation. Bilateral pyramidal tract signs without cranial nerve dysfunction due to compression of the medulla oblongata by tortuous vertebral arteries are extremely rare and clinically indistinguishable from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Although we did not perform a genetic test for HSP, we consider that the spastic paraparesis and mild lower-limb hypesthesia were caused by compression of the medulla oblongata by bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries based on the post

  10. Passive Back Support Exoskeleton Improves Range of Motion Using Flexible Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias B. Näf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, lower back pain affects more than 40% of the working population. Mechanical loading of the lower back has been shown to be an important risk factor. Peak mechanical load can be reduced by ergonomic interventions, the use of cranes and, more recently, by the use of exoskeletons. Despite recent advances in the development of exoskeletons for industrial applications, they are not widely adopted by industry yet. Some of the challenges, which have to be overcome are a reduced range of motion, misalignment between the human anatomy and kinematics of the exoskeleton as well as discomfort. A body of research exists on how an exoskeleton can be designed to compensate for misalignment and thereby improve comfort. However, how to design an exoskeleton that achieves a similar range of motion as a human lumbar spine of up to 60° in the sagittal plane, has not been extensively investigated. We addressed this need by developing and testing a novel passive back support exoskeleton, including a mechanism comprised of flexible beams, which run in parallel to the spine, providing a large range of motion and lowering the peak torque requirements around the lumbo-sacral (L5/S1 joint. Furthermore, we ran a pilot study to test the biomechanical (N = 2 and functional (N = 3 impact on subjects while wearing the exoskeleton. The biomechanical testing was once performed with flexible beams as a back interface and once with a rigid structure. An increase of more than 25% range of motion of the trunk in the sagittal plane was observed by using the flexible beams. The pilot functional tests, which are compared to results from a previous study with the Laevo device, suggest, that the novel exoskeleton is perceived as less hindering in almost all tested tasks.

  11. A limited, low-dose computed tomography protocol to examine the sacroiliac joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, L.; Silberberg, P.J.; Rainbow, A.; Butler, R.

    1993-01-01

    Limited, low-dose, three-scan computed tomography (CT) was shown to be as accurate as a complete CT series in examining the sacroiliac joints and is suggested as an effective alternative to plain radiography as the primary means to detect sacroiliitis. The advantages include the brevity of the examination, a 2-fold to 4-fold reduction in radiation exposure relative to conventional radiography and a 20-fold to 30-fold reduction relative to a full CT series. The technique was developed from studies of anatomic specimens in which the articular surfaces were covered with a film of barium to show clearly the synovial surfaces and allow the choice of the most appropriate levels of section. From the anteroposterior scout view the following levels were defined: at the first sacral foramen, between the first and second sacral foramina and at the third sacral foramen. In the superior section a quarter of the sacroiliac joint is synovial, whereas in the inferior section the entire joint is synovial. The three representative cuts and the anteroposterior scout view are displayed on a single 14 x 17 in. (36 x 43 cm) film. Comparative images at various current strengths showed that at lower currents than conventionally used no diagnostic information was lost, despite a slight increase in noise. The referring physicians at the authors' institution prefer this protocol to the imaging routine previously used. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. Spinal cord anomalies in patients with anorectal malformations without severe sacral abnormalities or meningomyelocele: outcomes after expectant, conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrklund, Kristiina; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Taskinen, Seppo; Kivisaari, Reetta; Rintala, Risto J

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the significance of spinal cord anomalies (SCAs) in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs) by comparing the outcomes for bowel function, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and lower-limb neurological abnormalities to these outcomes in patients with similar ARMs and a normal spinal cord. METHODS The spinal cord MRI records of female patients treated for vestibular and perineal fistula (VF/PF) and male patients with rectourethral fistula (RUF) at a single center between 1983 and 2006 were reviewed. Bowel function and LUTS were assessed by questionnaire. Patients with extensive sacral anomalies or meningomyelocele were excluded. RESULTS Of 89 patients (median age 15 years, range 5-29 years), MRI was available in 90% (n = 80; 40 male patients with RUF), and 80% of patients returned the questionnaire (n = 64; 31 male patients with RUF). Spinal cord anomalies were found in 34%, comprising a filum terminale lipoma in 30%, low conus medullaris in 10%, and thoracolumbar syrinx in 6%. Bowel functional outcomes between patients with SCAs (n = 23) and those with a normal spinal cord (n = 41) were not significantly different for soiling (70% vs 63%), fecal accidents (43% vs 34%), and constipation (57% vs 39%; p = not significant for all). The LUTS, including urge (65% vs 54%), urge incontinence (39% vs 24%), stress incontinence (17% vs 22%), and straining (32% vs 29%) were also comparable between groups (p = not significant for all). No patients developed lower-limb neurological abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that the long-term functional outcomes for patients with SCAs who had VF/PF and RUF may not differ significantly from patients with the same type of ARMs and a normal spinal cord. The results favor a conservative approach to their management in the absence of abnormal neurological findings in the lower limbs.

  13. Turning off sacral nerve stimulation does not affect gastric and small intestinal motility in patients treated for faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsøe, J; Fassov, J; Schlageter, V; Rijkhoff, N J M; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2012-10-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) reduces symptoms in up to 80% of patients with faecal incontinence (FI). Its effects are not limited to the distal colon and the pelvic floor. Accordingly, spinal or supraspinal neuromodulation have been suggested as part of the mode of action. The effect of SNS on gastric and small-intestinal motility was studied. Using the magnet tracking system, MTS-1, a small magnetic pill was tracked twice through the upper gastrointestinal tract of eight patients with FI successfully treated with SNS. Following a randomized double-blind crossover design, the stimulator was either left active or was turned off for 1 week before investigations with MTS-1. The median (range) frequency of gastric con-tractions was 3.05 (2.83-3.40) per min during SNS and 3.04 (2.79?-3.76) per min without (P=NS). The median (range) frequency of contractions in the small intestine during the first 2h after pyloric passage was 10.005 (9.68-10.70) per min during SNS and 10.09 (9.79-10.29) per min without SNS (P=NS). The median (range) velocity of the magnetic pill during the first 2h in the small intestine was 1.6 (1.2-2.8) cm/min during SNS and 1.7 (0.8-3.7) cm/min without SNS (P=NS). Small-intestinal propagation mainly occurred during very fast movements (>15cm/min), accounting for 51% (42-60%) of the distance 3% (2-4%) of the time during SNS and for 53% (18-73%) of the distance 3% (1-8%) of the time without SNS (P=NS). Turning off SNS for 1week did not affect gastric or small-intestinal motility patterns. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  15. Fatigue fracture of the sacrum in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Scott P.; Daffner, Richard H.; Sciulli, Robert L.; Schneck-Jacob, Stephanie L.

    2004-01-01

    There are relatively few reports of sacral stress fractures in children. In adolescents, sacral stress fractures have been reported in patients involved in vigorous athletic activity. Recognition of these fractures is important to avoid unnecessary biopsy if the findings are confused with tumor or infection. We report a sacral fatigue fracture in a 15-year-old without a history of athletic participation or trauma. (orig.)

  16. Currarino triad: surgical management and follow-up results of four [correction of three] cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Nejat; Elmaci, Ilhan; Gokben, Bekir; Balak, Naci; Tosyali, Nadir

    2010-08-01

    The Currarino syndrome is a rare triad that is a combination of a presacral mass, a congenital sacral bony abnormality and an anorectal malformation. We present 4 children with complete Currarino triad who were diagnosed using MRI. Our aim was to report the neurosurgical management of Currarino syndrome in children. All of the patients had chronic constipation and pain in the lumbosacral region. In the plain radiograph, 3 patients had a sacral scimitar-shaped bony abnormality, and 1 patient had total sacral agenesis. There was a narrow anal canal or narrow ventrally displaced anus in all patients. Their anorectal malformations were characterized as anal stenoses (4 patients), associated with Hirschsprung's disease in 2 cases. In 3 patients, MRI showed tethered cord syndrome in addition to the presacral mass. There was hydrocephalus in 1 patient. Anal stenosis was treated by anal dilatation. In 2 patients, rectal biopsy and temporary colostomy (2 patients) had been performed previously due to Hirschsprung's disease. We performed a posterior procedure via lumbar and sacral partial laminectomy-laminoplasty and transdural ligation of the neck of the meningocele for anterior sacral meningoceles, or alternatively, tumor excision for other types of presacral lesions. Histopathologically, 3 were cases of anterior sacral meningoceles and 1 was a teratoma. One of them also had a spinal abscess. He required reoperation (twice) and appeared at the time to have improved with medical therapy. All patients improved and stabilized. There were no additional neurological deficits and no recurrence of the presacral mass over the follow-up period (6 years, on average). The family pedigree did not reveal any familial transmission pattern. In cases of Currarino triad, MRI can allow the characterization of the presacral masses. If it is an anterior sacral meningocele or a solid tumor without severe anorectal malformation, it can be managed with posterior lumbar and sacral procedures

  17. Impact of Local Management on Long-Term Outcomes in Ewing Tumors of the Pelvis and Sacral Bones: University of Florida Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Shi Wenyin; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective analysis describes our 35-year experience with respect to disease control and functional status. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients with localized Ewing tumors of the pelvis and sacral bones were treated from 1970 to 2005. Twenty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT), and 9 patients were treated with combined local therapy in the form of surgery + RT. The median RT dose was 55.2 Gy. The patients who received RT alone were more likely to be older men with larger tumors exhibiting soft-tissue extension. Patients in the definitive RT group were more likely to receive etoposide and ifosfamide or undergo bone marrow transplant. Median potential follow-up was 19.4 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial cause-specific survival, freedom from relapse rate, and local control rates were 26% vs. 76% (p = 0.016), 28% vs. 78% (p = 0.015), and 64% vs. 100% (p = 0.087), respectively, for patients treated with definitive RT and combined therapy. Overall, tumors <8 cm had significantly better cause-specific survival, but this was unrelated to local control. The median Toronto Extremity Salvage Score for the definitive RT and combined therapy groups were 99 and 94, respectively (p = 0.19). Seven definitive RT patients (27%) had serious complications. Conclusion: Combined modality local therapy should be considered if pelvic Ewing tumors are resectable. However, because of the extent of local disease, most patients have unresectable or partially resectable tumors and therefore require RT in some capacity. For this reason, innovative RT strategies are needed to improve long-term disease outcomes and minimize side effects while maintaining an acceptable functional result

  18. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  19. The validity of compliance monitors to assess wearing time of thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthoses in children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louis N; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Mendoza, Melissa M; McDonald, Craig M; Molitor, Fred; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C; Bagley, Anita

    2008-06-15

    Prospective multicenter observation. To determine the validity of 3 commercially available at recording thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) wearing time of children with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess each monitor's function during daily activities. A major limitation to studies assessing the effectiveness of spinal prophylactic bracing is the patient's compliance with the prescribed wearing time. Although some studies have begun to use objective compliance monitors, there is little documentation of the validity of the monitors during activities of daily life and no comparisons of available monitors. Fifteen children with SCI who wore a TLSO for paralytic scoliosis were observed for 4 days during their rehabilitation stay. Three compliance monitors (2 temperature and 1 pressure sensitive) were mounted onto each TLSO. Time of brace wear from the monitors was compared with the wear time per day recorded in diaries. Observed versus monitored duration of brace wear found the HOBO (temperature sensitive) to be the most valid compliance monitor. The HOBO had the lowest average of difference and variance of difference scores. The correlation between the recorded daily entries and monitored brace wear time was also highest for the HOBO in analysis of dependent and independent scores. Bland-Altman plots showed that the pressure sensitive monitor underestimated wear time whereas the temperature monitors overestimated wear time. Compliance to prescribed wearing schedule has been a barrier to studying TLSO efficacy. All 3 monitors were found to measure TLSO compliance, but the 2 temperature monitors were more in agreement with the daily diaries. Based on its functional advantages compared with the HOBO, the StowAway TidbiT will be used to further investigate the long-term compliance of TLSO bracing in children with SCI.

  20. Fat Composition Changes in Bone Marrow During Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Ruben; Pritz, Jakub [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Bydder, Mark [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Gulaya, Sachin; Zhu, He; Williamson, Casey W. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Welch, Christian S. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Vaida, Florin [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Bydder, Graeme [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify changes in bone marrow fat fraction and determine associations with peripheral blood cell counts. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, 19 patients received either highly myelotoxic treatment (radiation therapy plus cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil mitomycin C [FU/MMC], or cisplatin/5-FU/cetuximab) or less myelotoxic treatment (capecitabine-radiation therapy or no concurrent chemotherapy). Patients underwent MR imaging and venipuncture at baseline, midtreatment, and posttreatment visits. We performed mixed effects modeling of the mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF[%]) by linear time, treatment, and vertebral column region (lumbar [L]4-sacral [S]2 vs thoracic [T]10-L3 vs cervical[C]3-T9), while controlling for cumulative mean dose and other confounders. Spearman rank correlations were performed by white blood cell (WBC) counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) before and after treatment. Results: Cumulative mean dose was associated with a 0.43% per Gy (P=.004) increase in PDFF(%). In the highly myelotoxic group, we observed significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit within L4-S2 (10.1%, P<.001) and within T10-L3 (3.93%, P=.01), relative to the reference C3-T9. In the less myelotoxic group, we did not observe significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit according to region. Within L4-S2, we observed a significant difference between treatment groups in the change in PDFF(%) per visit (5.36%, P=.04). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in WBC versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within T10-S2 ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 (P<.05). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in absolute neutrophil counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within L4-S2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.81 (P<.05). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging fat quantification is sensitive to marrow composition changes that result from chemoradiation therapy. These changes are associated with peripheral blood cell counts. This study supports a

  1. Fat Composition Changes in Bone Marrow During Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Ruben; Pritz, Jakub; Bydder, Mark; Gulaya, Sachin; Zhu, He; Williamson, Casey W.; Welch, Christian S.; Vaida, Florin; Bydder, Graeme; Mell, Loren K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify changes in bone marrow fat fraction and determine associations with peripheral blood cell counts. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, 19 patients received either highly myelotoxic treatment (radiation therapy plus cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil mitomycin C [FU/MMC], or cisplatin/5-FU/cetuximab) or less myelotoxic treatment (capecitabine-radiation therapy or no concurrent chemotherapy). Patients underwent MR imaging and venipuncture at baseline, midtreatment, and posttreatment visits. We performed mixed effects modeling of the mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF[%]) by linear time, treatment, and vertebral column region (lumbar [L]4-sacral [S]2 vs thoracic [T]10-L3 vs cervical[C]3-T9), while controlling for cumulative mean dose and other confounders. Spearman rank correlations were performed by white blood cell (WBC) counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) before and after treatment. Results: Cumulative mean dose was associated with a 0.43% per Gy (P=.004) increase in PDFF(%). In the highly myelotoxic group, we observed significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit within L4-S2 (10.1%, P<.001) and within T10-L3 (3.93%, P=.01), relative to the reference C3-T9. In the less myelotoxic group, we did not observe significant changes in PDFF(%) per visit according to region. Within L4-S2, we observed a significant difference between treatment groups in the change in PDFF(%) per visit (5.36%, P=.04). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in WBC versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within T10-S2 ranged from 0.69 to 0.78 (P<.05). Rank correlations of the inverse log differences in absolute neutrophil counts versus the differences in PDFF(%) overall and within L4-S2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.81 (P<.05). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging fat quantification is sensitive to marrow composition changes that result from chemoradiation therapy. These changes are associated with peripheral blood cell counts. This study supports a

  2. Plexopatia lombar após histerectomia abdominal: relato de caso Plexopatía lumbar después de la histerectomía abdominal: relato de caso Lumbar plexopathy after abdominal hysterectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Vaz da Silva

    2006-12-01

    anesthesia, but they can also be secondary to the surgery itself. The aim of this report was to present the case of a patient who underwent a pelvic surgery and developed lumbar plexopathy, and to discuss the possible causes. CASE REPORT: A woman patient, 38 years old, 58 kg, 1.63 m, physical status ASA I, was admitted to undergo a total abdominal hysterectomy for treatment of uterine leiomyomatosis. Initial monitoring included pulse oxymetry, non-invasive blood pressure, electrocardioscope, and urine output. After venous cannulation in the left upper limb with an 18G catheter, cefazoline (2 g, dypirone (2 g, dexamethasone (10 mg, and metochlopramide (10 mg were administered. With the patient in left lateral decubitus, a 16G Tuohy needle was inserted in the L3-L4 space, in the median line, for the epidural block. Fifteen milliliters of 0.75% ropivacaine and 2 mg of morphine were administered, followed by placement of the catheter for postoperative analgesia. The surgery was uneventful, and the patient's cardiovascular parameters were stable. Eight hours after the procedure, at the postanesthetic follow-up, the patient could not walk and presented monoparesis in the left lower limb. The hypothesis of radicular syndrome was ruled out after clinical and radiological evaluation. Since symptoms did not resolve, an electroneuromyography was done 30 days later, and was compatible with lumbar plexopathy, which was possibly caused by trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The anesthesiologist must be aware of the postoperative neurological complications and should be part of the efforts to diagnose their causes, of the treatment, and its evolution.

  3. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  4. Sacral neuromodulation and Botulinum toxin A for refractory idiopathic overactive bladder: a cost-utility analysis in the perspective of Italian Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelle, Maria Paola; Vottero, Mario; Popolo, Giulio Del; Mencarini, Marco; Ostardo, Edoardo; Spinelli, Michele; Giannantoni, Antonella; D'Ausilio, Anna

    2015-08-01

    To assess the relative cost-effectiveness of two therapeutic strategies: one starting with sacral neuromodulation (SNM) versus one starting with Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for the management of refractory incontinent idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) patients, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS). Direct medical costs (2011) and benefits (quality-adjusted life years-QALYs) were assessed over a ten-year time frame adapting to the Italian practice a published Markov model. Clinical inputs were based on the published literature and on the expert opinion. Resource consumption rates were provided by clinical experts; unit costs were collected from a single hospital accounting and from standard tariff lists and public prices. Interventional procedures and management of adverse events were costed through a micro-costing approach. The primary outcome was incremental costs per QALYs gained (i.e. differential costs divided by differential benefits). Deterministic (DSA) and probabilistic (PSA) sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the model. Starting with SNM appears to be cost effective (i.e. under 40.000/QALY) from year three (21,259/QALY) onwards and becomes dominant (i.e. more effective and less costly) at year ten: cumulative costs were 32,975 for early SNM and 33,309 for early BTX-A, while cumulative QALYs were 7.52 and 6.93, respectively. At year ten, DSA suggests the results robustness and 99.8 % of the PSA iterations fell within the cost-effectiveness threshold. A therapeutic strategy starting with SNM may be considered cost effective in the midterm and cost saving in the long-term treatment of idiopathic OAB from the INHS perspective.

  5. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashad Bhagwat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.

  6. Currarino triad associated with malrotation of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Fajez S.; AbuRub, Mohammad A.; Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2007-01-01

    Currarino triad is a rare congenital condition characterized by a sacral bony defect, presacral mass, and anorectal malformations. We describe an unusual case of complete Currarino triad in a 22-year-old female with sacral bony defect, anal stenosis, recto-vaginal fistula, and dual pathology meningocele and teratoma in the pre sacral mass associated with malrotation of the colon. This combination has not been reported previously. The clinical presentation, surgical management and review of literature are discussed. (author)

  7. Currarino triad associated with malrotation of the colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, Fajez S [Dept. of General Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, Amman (Jordan); AbuRub, Mohammad A [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Jordan University Hospital, Amman (Jordan); Hadidy, Azmy M [Dept. of Radiology (Hadidy), Jordan University Hospital, Amman (Jordan)

    2007-07-01

    Currarino triad is a rare congenital condition characterized by a sacral bony defect, presacral mass, and anorectal malformations. We describe an unusual case of complete Currarino triad in a 22-year-old female with sacral bony defect, anal stenosis, recto-vaginal fistula, and dual pathology meningocele and teratoma in the pre sacral mass associated with malrotation of the colon. This combination has not been reported previously. The clinical presentation, surgical management and review of literature are discussed. (author)

  8. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  9. Comparison of open reduction versus minimally invasive surgical approaches on screw position in canine sacroiliac lag-screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjardin, Loïc M; Marturello, Danielle M; Guiot, Laurent P; Guillou, Reunan P; DeCamp, Charles E

    2016-07-19

    To compare accuracy and consistency of sacral screw placement in canine pelves treated for sacroiliac luxation with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) techniques. Unilateral sacroiliac luxations created experimentally in canine cadavers were stabilized with an iliosacral lag screw applied via ORIF or MIO techniques (n = 10/group). Dorsoventral and craniocaudal screw angles were measured using computed tomography multiplanar reconstructions in transverse and dorsal planes, respectively. Ratios between pilot hole length and sacral width (PL/SW-R) were obtained. Data between groups were compared statistically (p sacroiliac luxations provides more accurate and consistent sacral screw placement than ORIF. With proper techniques, iatrogenic neurological damage can be avoided with both techniques. The PL /SW-R, which relates to safe screw fixation, also demonstrates that screw penetration of at least 60% of the sacral width is achievable regardless of surgical approach. These findings, along with the limited dissection needed for accurate sacral screw placement, suggest that MIO of sacroiliac luxations is a valid alternative to ORIF.

  10. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  12. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  13. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  14. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  15. Hypofractionated regional nodal irradiation for breast cancer: Examining the data and potential for future studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiyan, Shahed N.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas; Khan, Atif J.; Freedman, Gary; Poppe, Matthew M.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available examining the role of hypofractionated radiation schedules in the management of women requiring regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The purpose of this review is to examine the available literature for the efficacy (where available) and toxicity of hypofractionated radiation schedules in breast cancer with RNI limited to the axilla and supraclavicular regions. Multiple randomized and prospective studies have documented the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated schedules delivering whole breast irradiation (WBI) alone. Subsets from these randomized trials and smaller prospective/single-institution studies have documented the feasibility of hypofractionated RNI but the limited numbers prevent definitive conclusions and limited efficacy data are available. With regard to possible toxicity affecting organs at risk with RNI, key structures include the breast, skin, heart, lungs, axilla (lymphedema), and brachial plexus. Based on data from several randomized trials, hypofractionated radiation is not associated with significant changes in breast toxicity/cosmesis or cardiac toxicity; the addition of hypofractionated RNI would not be expected to change the rates of breast or cardiac toxicity. While RNI has been shown to increase rates of pulmonary toxicity, hypofractionated RNI has not been associated with more frequent pulmonary complications than standard RNI. Moving forward, future studies will have to evaluate for increased lung toxicity. With regard to lymphedema, data from randomized hypofractionated WBI trials failed to demonstrate an increase in lymphedema and smaller studies utilizing hypofractionated RNI have failed to as well. Data from head and neck cancer as well as hypofractionated breast radiation with RNI have failed to demonstrate an increase in brachial plexopathy with the exception of older trials that used much larger dose per fraction (>4 Gy/fraction) schedules. At this time, published data support the feasibility of

  16. Application of radiation-induced apoptosis in radiation oncology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crompton, N.E.A.; Emery, G.C.; Ozsahin, M.; Menz, R.; Knesplova, L.; Larsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid assay of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to radiation-induced damage is presented. Age and genetic dependence of radiation response have been quantified. The assay is sensitive to low doses of radiation. Its ability to assess the cytotoxic response of blood capillaries to radiation has been evaluated. (author)

  17. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  18. Garre's chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the sacrum: a rare condition mimicking malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nasir, N

    2012-02-03

    Garre\\'s chronic diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis (DSOM) is a rare disease that occurs most commonly in the mandible. We present a case of sacral DSOM that simulated an expanding destructive sacral tumour. Treatment was conducted on the basis of the available experience with the mandibular form of the disease, with partial symptomatic relief, but progressive sclerosis of the sacral lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case initially presenting in the sacrum. As an osteolytic expanding lesion simulating malignancy, it is important to recognize this entity in the sacrum.

  19. Estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the bladder in the adult ovariectomized cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, V. G. J. M.; Meijer, E; Holstege, G

    2001-01-01

    Estrogen affects autonomic functions such as micturition. The sacral cord is important in the control of micturition and contains numerous estrogen receptor-alpha immnoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons. Therefore, the present double labeling study examines whether sacral parasympathetic preganglionic

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  1. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  2. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  4. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  5. Conservative Treatment for Bony Healing in Pediatric Lumbar Spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-06-15

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to investigate recent outcomes of conservative treatment for bony healing in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis (LS) and to identify the problems that need to be resolved. Several diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for LS have been developed recently, leading to better outcomes for bony healing. Overall, 63 consecutive pediatric patients (53 boys and 10 girls) with LS (average age: 13.8 years; range: 6-17 years) were analyzed. Diagnosis and staging (very early, early, progressive, and terminal) were based on multidetector computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For all patients except those with terminal-stage pars defect, conservative treatment included rest, avoidance of sports, and the use of a thoraco-lumbo-sacral-type trunk brace. Follow-up MRI was performed monthly. When the signal changes resolved, CT scans were obtained to assess bony healing. Three patients dropped out during the study period. A total of 60 patients were included (50 boys and 10 girls) in this study (follow-up rate: 95.2%), with 86 instances of LS (very early: 36, early: 16, progressive: 15, terminal: 19) in 65 laminae. In the very early stage, the bony healing rate was 100%, and average treatment period was 2.5 months (range: 1-7 months). In the early stage, the bony healing rate was 93.8%, and the average treatment period was 2.6 months (range: 1-6 months). In the progressive stage, the bony healing rate was 80.0%, and the average treatment period was 3.6 months (range: 3-5 months). The average overall recurrence rate was 26.1%. All patients showing recurrence eventually achieved bony healing. High bony healing rates and short treatment periods were observed with conservative treatment in pediatric patients with LS. However, the recurrence rates were relatively high. This issue should be targeted in future studies. 2.

  6. Tubercular spondylodiscitis in elderly is a more severe disease: a report of 66 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Viswanathan, Vibhu Krishnan; Kanna, Rishi Mukesh; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran

    2017-12-01

    (1) To analyze peculiarities of presentation and prognosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis (TBS) in elderly. (2) To assess if associated co-morbidities and risks lead to poorer outcome (3) To observe if different management strategy needs to be implemented in them. Retrospective analysis of 66 consecutive elderly TBS patients (>60 years) treated conservatively or surgically between January 2010 and July 2013 was performed. Details regarding clinical presentation (general health, ambulatory status, co-morbidities), neurological status, medical or surgical complications and outcome measurements [visual analog score, clinico-radiological evidence of healing and lumbar lordosis in lumbar (L) or lumbo-sacral (LS) or focal kyphosis in thoracic (T) or thoraco-lumbar (TL) disease] were analysed. Of 66 patients (mean age 67.9 years), 85% had at least one medical co-morbidity and only 45% were community ambulators. Mean delay in presentation was 132 days and lumbar disease was commonest. 35% had neuro-deficit. Most patients had stage 2 (38%) or 3 (42.4%) disease. 19 patients were conservatively managed, while others underwent surgery. Significant complications occurred in 23 patients, most common being liver dysfunction (9 patients). Five patients (8%) expired during treatment: three succumbed to multi-focal tubercular disease, while two expired secondary to medical illnesses. Mean loss of lordosis in conservatively treated (CG) L/LS disease was 8°, while lordosis was restored by 11.6° in operative group (OG). In T/TL disease, sagittal alignment correction by 12.6° was observed in OG as against 5.7° kyphotic collapse in CG patients. 92% patients were cured with no recurrences. The final VAS scores in operative and conservative groups were not significantly different (OG 1.4 ± 0.6, CG 1.9 ± 0.7). TBS in elderly differed from that in younger by having a higher co-morbidities, later presentation, higher neuro-deficit, greater mortality and increased complications

  7. Sakralaus ir demoniško miesto vaizdiniai lietuvių dramaturgijoje | The Images of a Sacral and Demonic City in Lithuanian Dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Martišiūtė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the dramas where the city is depicted as a special place determining the dramatization of a piece of work. The city symbolism is analyzed according to the criteria of the archetypal city images formulated by M. Eliade, and J. Lotman. The first part of the article ”A sacral city – Vilnius” deals with historical dramas (“Gediminas’ Dream” by A. Fromas Gužutis, “Kęstutis’ Death” by Maironis, “Radvila the Thunder”, “The Fate of Twilight ”, and “Barbora Radvilaite” by B. Sruoga, “Živilė” by A. Škėma, “Barbora Radvilaitė” by J. Grušas, “The Cathedral” by J. Marcinkevičius, “The Crown and the Sand” by R. Samulevičius, and etc.. In Lithuanian dramaturgy, Vilnius meets all the criteria of an ideal, sacred city. In poetic dramas, Vilnius is described as a superb creation embodying the plenitude of human existence. The second part of the article “The Demonic City” deals with the dramas in which the city symbolism conveys the opposite of a sacred, ideal city – an eccentric and demonic city localized in the “outskirts” of cultural space. This aspect of the city symbolism is analyzed in separate subsections: “The Doomed City” (“The Sea Bells” by Vydūnas, and “The Shackles” by M. Pečkauskaitė, “The Profane City” (the comedy “Vain Attempts” by P. Vaičiūnas, “Julijana” by A. Škėma, “A Spring Song” by B. Sruoga, “The Mammoth Hunt” by K. Saja and etc., “The Reflections of Identity” (“Liučė is skating” by L. S. Černiauskaitė, “A Neighbour”, “Madagascar”, and “A Close City” by M. Ivaškevičius.

  8. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  9. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  10. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  11. Results of Neoadjuvant Short-Course Radiation Therapy Followed by Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for T1-T2 N0 Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arezzo, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.arezzo@unito.it [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Arolfo, Simone; Allaix, Marco Ettore [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Munoz, Fernando [Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Cassoni, Paola [Pathology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Monagheddu, Chiara [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Piedmont Reference Centre for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, City of Health and Science Hospital of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciccone, Giovannino [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Piedmont Reference Centre for Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention, City of Health and Science Hospital of Torino, Torino (Italy); Morino, Mario [General Surgery I, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the short-term outcomes of neoadjuvant short-course radiation therapy (SCRT) followed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for T1-T2 N0 extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Recent studies suggest that neoadjuvant radiation therapy followed by TEM is safe and has results similar to those with abdominal rectal resection for the treatment of extraperitoneal early rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We planned a prospective pilot study including 25 consecutive patients with extraperitoneal T1-T2 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma undergoing SCRT followed by TEM 4 to 10 weeks later (SCRT-TEM). Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of this treatment modality were compared with historical groups of patients with similar rectal cancer stage and treated with long-course radiation therapy (LCRT) followed by TEM (LCRT-TEM), TEM alone, or laparoscopic rectal resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) at our institution. Results: The study was interrupted after 14 patients underwent SCRT of 25 Gy in 5 fractions followed by TEM. Median time between SCRT and TEM was 7 weeks (range: 4-10 weeks). Although no preoperative complications occurred, rectal suture dehiscence was observed in 7 patients (50%) at 4 weeks follow-up, associated with an enterocutaneous fistula in the sacral area in 2 cases. One patient required a colostomy. Quality of life at 1-month follow-up, according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 survey score, was significantly worse in SCRT-TEM patients than in LCRT-TEM patients (P=.0277) or TEM patients (P=.0004), whereas no differences were observed with TME patients (P=.604). At a median follow-up of 10 months (range: 6-26 months), we observed 1 (7%) local recurrence at 6 months that was treated with abdominoperineal resection. Conclusions: SCRT followed by TEM for T1-T2 N0 rectal cancer is burdened by a high rate of painful dehiscence of the suture line and enterocutaneous

  12. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumour (GCT is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  14. Effect of Sacral Neuromodulation on Outcome Measures and Urine Chemokines in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kenneth M; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Bui, Don; Killinger, Kim; Chancellor, Michael; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-05-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may improve interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/BPS) symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency and perhaps even pain, but objective measures of improvement are lacking. We evaluated the potential for urinary chemokines to serve as measures of treatment response over time to SNM. Women with IC/BPS undergoing SNM consented for this study. Three-day bladder/pain diaries were collected at baseline and validated Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Problem Index (ICSPI) scores and mid-stream urine specimens were collected at baseline and at 24 weeks after successful implant. Collected urine was screened for infection by dipstick and analyzed for chemokines by luminex xMAP analysis. At baseline (n = 16), urine levels of CXCL-1 positively correlated with pain score (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), urgency (r = 0.61, P = 0.01), ICSPI (r = 0.43, P = 0.09) and daily voids (r = 0.44, P = 0.08). ICSPI and pain scores also positively correlated with sIL-1ra (r = 0.50, P = 0.04) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) or CCL2 positively correlated with daily voids (r = 0.45, P = 0.07) only. At 24 weeks, the median ICSPI index fell from 28 to 15 (n = 7, P = 0.008). Urine levels of sIL-1ra (633.8 ± 188.2 vs. 149.9 ± 41.62 pg/mL) and MCP-1 (448.3 ± 11.6 vs. 176.9 ± 46.16 pg/mL) and CCL5 (20.78 ± 4.09 vs. 11.21 ± 4.12 pg/mL) were also significantly reduced at the follow-up relative to baseline values (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis of data revealed that sIL-1ra and MCP-1 together explained the majority of variance in data. Levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-10, interleukin (IL)-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were also reduced at 24 weeks, but differences were not significant. Concomitant decrease in urine levels of chemokines especially MCP-1 was associated with treatment response of SNM. These results

  15. Threshold dose for peripheral neuropathy following intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a large animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; DeLuca, A.M.; Barnes, M.; Anderson, W.; Terrill, R.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation injury to peripheral nerve is a dose-limiting toxicity in the clinical application of intraoperative radiotherapy, particularly for pelvic and retroperitoneal tumors. Intraoperative radiotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy in humans receiving doses of 20-25 Gy is manifested as a mixed motor-sensory deficit beginning 6-9 months following treatment. In a previous experimental study of intraoperative radiotherapy-related neuropathy of the lumbro-sacral plexus, an approximate inverse linear relationship was reported between the intraoperative dose (20-75 Gy range) and the time to onset of hind limb paresis (1-12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy). The principal histological lesion in irradiated nerve was loss of large nerve fibers and perineural fibrosis without significant vascular injury. Similar histological changes in irradiated nerves were found in humans. To assess peripheral nerve injury to lower doses of intraoperative radiotherapy in this same large animal model, groups of four adult American Foxhounds received doses of 10, 15, or 20 Gy to the right lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve using 9 MeV electrons. The left lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve were excluded from the intraoperative field to allow each animal to serve as its own control. Following treatment, a complete neurological exam, electromyogram, and nerve conduction studies were performed monthly for 1 year. Monthly neurological exams were performed in years 2 and 3 whereas electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were performed every 3 months during this follow-up period. With follow-up of greater than or equal to 42 months, no dog receiving 10 or 15 Gy IORT shows any clinical or laboratory evidence of peripheral nerve injury. However, all four dogs receiving 20 Gy developed right hind limb paresis at 8, 9, 9, and 12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy

  16. Vascular Entrapment of Both the Sciatic and Pudendal Nerves Causing Persistent Sciatica and Pudendal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Ahmet; Basol, Gulfem; Usta, Taner; Cam, Isa

    2018-04-24

    To demonstrate the laparoscopic approach to malformed branches of the vessels entrapping the nerves of the sacral plexus. A step-by-step explanation of the surgery using video (educative video) (Canadian Task force classification II). The university's Ethics Committee ruled that approval was not required for this video. Kocaeli Derince Education and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey. A 26-year-old patient who had failed medical therapy and presented with complaints of numbness and burning pain on the right side of her vagina and pain radiating to her lower limbs for a period of approximately 36 months. The peritoneum was incised along the external iliac vessels, and these vessels were separated from the iliopsoas muscle on the right side of the pelvis. The laparoscopic decompression of intrapelvic vascular entrapment was performed at 3 sites: the lumbosacral trunk, sciatic nerve, and pudendal nerve. The aberrant dilated veins were gently dissected from nerves, and then coagulated and cut with the LigaSure sealing device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn). The operation was completed successfully with no complications, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the operation. At a 6-month follow-up, she reported complete resolution of dyspareunia and sciatica (visual analog scale score 1 of 10). A less well-known cause of chronic pelvic pain is compression of the sacral plexus by dilated or malformed branches of the internal iliac vessels. Laparoscopic management of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus has been described by Possover et al [1,2] and Lemos et al [3]. This procedure appears to be feasible and effective, but requires significant experience and familiarity with laparoscopy techniques and pelvic nerve anatomy. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with lumbo-pelvic pain in recreational cyclists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    control, physical pain. S Afr J Sports Med 2017;29:1-8. .... external rotation and abduction (Ext/Abd/ER) stabilising the ... the difference in the shift between legs was less than 2 cm. [4] .... Distance cycled per week was associated with gender.

  18. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  19. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  20. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  1. Sacralizing Reality Digitally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2014-01-01

    authenticity derived from scientific sources is analysed. The case is made that through hyperlinks, YouTube videos and discussion forums, religious communities such as the online Asatrú groups strategically assemble religious authority on a foundation of science, tapping into non-religious ecologies...

  2. Acute urinary retention due to benign inflammatory nervous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Hattori, Takamichi

    2006-08-01

    Both neurologists and urologists might encounter patients with acute urinary retention due to benign inflammatory nervous diseases. Based on the mechanism of urinary retention, these disorders can be divided into two subgroups: disorders of the peripheral nervous system (e.g., sacral herpes) or the central nervous system (e.g., meningitis-retention syndrome [MRS]). Laboratory abnormalities include increased herpes virus titers in sacral herpes, and increased myelin basic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in some cases with MRS. Urodynamic abnormality in both conditions is detrusor areflexia; the putative mechanism of it is direct involvement of the pelvic nerves in sacral herpes; and acute spinal shock in MRS. There are few cases with CSF abnormality alone. Although these cases have a benign course, management of the acute urinary retention is necessary to avoid bladder injury due to overdistension. Clinical features of sacral herpes or MRS differ markedly from those of the original "Elsberg syndrome" cases.

  3. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoung, Youl Hun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit

  5. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.

  6. Differentiation of primary chordoma, giant cell tumor and schwannoma of the sacrum by CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Ming-Jue, E-mail: smjsh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng-Sheng [Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Ding, Xiao-Yi, E-mail: dingxiaoyi1965@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yuan, Fei, E-mail: yuanfeirj@hotmail.com [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Du, Lian-Jun; Lu, Yong [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Wei-Bin [Department of Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate criteria to differentiate sacral chordoma (SC), sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT) and giant sacral schwannoma (GSS) with CT and MRI. Materials and methods: CT and MR images of 22 SCs, 19 SGCTs and 8 GSSs were reviewed. The clinical and imaging features of each tumor were analyzed. Results: The mean ages of SC, SGCT and GSS were 55.1 ± 10.7, 34.3 ± 10.7 and 42.4 ± 15.7 years old. SCs (77.3%) were predominantly located in the midline of lower sacrum, while most SGCTs (73.7%) and GSSs (87.5%) were eccentrically located in upper sacrum. There were significant differences in age, location, eccentricity, morphology of bone residues, intratumoral bleeding and septations. Multiple small cysts were mainly observed in SGCTs (73.7%) with large central cysts in GSSs (87.5%). SGCTs expanded mainly inside sacrum while SCs and GSSs often extended into pelvic cavity (P = 0.0022). Involvement of sacroiliac joints and muscles were also different. Ascending extension within sacral canal was only displayed in SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs showed difference between large and small tumors (P = 0.0002), regardless of tumor type (P = 0.095). No significant difference was displayed in gender (P = 0.234) or tumor size (P = 0.0832) among three groups. Conclusion: Age, epicenter of the lesion (midline vs. eccentric and upper vs. lower sacral vertebra), bone residues, cysts, bleeding, septation, expanding pattern, muscles and sacroiliac joint involvement can be criteria for diagnosis. Fluid–fluid level is specific for SGCTs and ascending extension within the sacral canal for SCs. The preservation of intervertebral discs is related to tumor size rather than tumor type.

  7. Vascular entrapment of the sciatic plexus causing catamenial sciatica and urinary symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nucelio; Marques, Renato Moretti; Kamergorodsky, Gil; Ploger, Christine; Schor, Eduardo; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic congestion syndrome is a well-known cause of cyclic pelvic pain (Ganeshan et al., Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 30(6):1105-11, 2007). What is much less well known is that dilated or malformed branches of the internal or external iliac vessels can entrap the nerves of the sacral plexus against the pelvic sidewalls, producing symptoms that are not commonly seen in gynecological practice, such as sciatica, or refractory urinary and anorectal dysfunction (Possover et al., Fertil Steril 95(2):756-8. 2011). The objective of this video is to explain and describe the symptoms suggestive of vascular entrapment of the sacral plexus, as well as the technique for the laparoscopic decompression of these nerves. Two anecdotal cases of intrapelvic vascular entrapment are used to review the anatomy of the lumbosacral plexus and demonstrate the laparoscopic surgical technique for decompression at two different sites, one on the sciatic nerve and one on the sacral nerve roots. After surgery, the patient with the sciatic entrapment showed full recovery of the sciatica and partial recovery of the myofascial pain. The patient with sacral nerve root entrapment showed full recovery with resolution of symptoms. The symptoms suggestive of intrapelvic nerve entrapment are: perineal pain or pain irradiating to the lower limbs in the absence of a spinal disorder, and lower urinary tract symptoms in the absence of prolapse of a bladder lesion. In the presence of such symptoms, the radiologist should provide specific MRI sequences of the intrapelvic portion of the sacral plexus and a team and equipment to expose and decompress the sacral nerves should be prepared.

  8. Close correlation of herpes zoster-induced voiding dysfunction with severity of zoster-related pain: A single faculty retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mizue; Takahashi, Ichiro; Honma, Masaru; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2015-11-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), a common vesiculo-erythematous skin disease associated with reactivation of varicella zoster virus in the cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia, is accompanied by several related symptoms represented by postherpetic neuralgia. Among them, involvement of vesicorectal dysfunction is relatively rare. The vesicorectal symptom can usually be recovered in transient course, but is quite important in terms of impaired quality of life. Male individuals affected with HZ and skin lesions on sacral dermatome have been reported as independent risk factors of zoster-related voiding dysfunction. In this study, urinary symptoms were focused upon and six patients with zoster-related voiding dysfunction at a single faculty of dermatology in Japan from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients showed HZ lesions on the sacral area and the urinary symptom recovered in approximately 2 months (14 days to 7 months). The term of treatment for zoster-associated urinary dysfunction was positively correlated with that for zoster-related pain without significance (r = 0.661, P = 0.153). Average treatment term for pain relief of sacral HZ accompanied by voiding dysfunction (91.3 ± 76.44 days) was significantly longer than that of sacral HZ without urinary symptom (18.9 ± 20.42 days) (P = 0.032). These results suggested that zoster-related voiding dysfunction would mainly be involved in sacral HZ and closely associated with severity of zoster-related pain. Dermatologists should be aware that severe zoster-related pain accompanied by sacral HZ, which is related to prolonged treatment of pain relief, can be a predictive factor of voiding dysfunction. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Correlation of Digital Palpation and Transabdominal Ultrasound for Assessment of Pelvic Floor Muscle Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Behbahani, Roxana Bazaz; Lorestani, Leila; Azari, Afsaneh

    2009-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunction has been commonly associated with urinary disorders and lumbo-pelvic pain. Transabdominal (TA) ultrasound is currently used by physical therapists to assess PFM function. Controversy exists regarding the correlation between TA ultrasound measurement and vaginal palpation for assessment of PFM contraction, and this relationship has not yet been examined concurrently during the same contraction. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of ...

  11. Interaction of hyperthermia and radiation: radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshek, D.D.; Orr, J.S.; Solomonidis, E.

    1981-01-01

    Cell-survival data were collected to determine the survival response of asynchronous CHO cells subject to radiation and hyperthermia. The irradiation was at room temperature 100 minutes before exposure to hyperthermia at 42 0 C. The survival response to the combination of these two agents is expressed by means of a survival surface, a three-dimensional concept relating cell survival to heat dose and radiation dose. The survival surface could be approximately described by a survival model comprising three components of cell killing: the unperturbed radiation component, the unperturbed hyperthermia component and the interaction component. The dependence of the radiation component and the interaction component on radiation quality were investigated by irradiating with either 60 Co γ rays, 250 kV X rays or 14.7 MeV neutrons. An analysis suggests that the interaction component and the radiation component exhibit similar dependencies on radiation quality both for the deposition of damage and the repair or accumulation of that damage. (U.K.)

  12. Use of computed tomography to define a sacral safe corridor for placement of 2.7 mm cortical screws in feline sacroiliac luxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Helen; Durand, Alexane; De Vicente, Felipe

    2018-06-01

    Objectives This study aimed to define a safe corridor for 2.7 mm cortical sacroiliac screw insertion in the dorsal plane (craniocaudal direction) using radiography and CT, and in the transverse plane (dorsoventral direction) using CT in feline cadavers. A further aim was to compare the values obtained by CT with those previously reported by radiography in the transverse plane. Methods Thirteen pelvises were retrieved from feline cadavers and dissected to expose one of the articular surfaces of the sacrum. A 2.7 mm screw was placed in the sacrum to a depth of approximately 1 cm in each exposed articular surface. Dorsoventral radiography and CT scanning of each specimen were performed. Multiplanar reconstructions were performed to allow CT evaluation in both the dorsal and transverse planes. Calculations were made to find the maximum, minimum and optimum angles for screw placement in craniocaudal (radiography and CT) and dorsoventral (CT) directions when using a 2.7 mm cortical screw. Results Radiographic measurement showed a mean optimum craniocaudal angle of 106° (range 97-112°). The mean minimum angle was 95° (range 87-107°), whereas the mean maximum angle was 117° (108-124°). Measurement of the dorsal CT scan images showed a mean optimum craniocaudal angle of 101° (range 94-110°). The mean minimum angle was 90° (range 83-99°), whereas the mean maximum angle was 113° (104-125°). The transverse CT scan images showed a mean dorsoventral minimum angle of 103° (range 95-113°), mean maximum angle of 115° (104-125°) and mean optimum dorsoventral angle of 111° (102-119°). Conclusions and relevance An optimum craniocaudal angle of 101° is recommended for 2.7 mm cortical screw placement in the feline sacral body, with a safety margin between 99° and 104°. No single angle can be recommended in the dorsoventral direction and therefore preoperative measuring on individual cats using CT images is recommended to establish the ideal individual angle in the

  13. Isolated Transverse Sacrum Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kavalci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral fracture commonly results from high-energy trauma. Most insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are seen in women after the age of 70. Fractures of the sacrum are rare and generally combined with a concomitant pelvic fracture. Transverse sacral fractures are even less frequent which constitute only 3–5% of all sacral fractures. This type of fractures provide a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of isolated transverse fracture of sacrum in a young man sustained low-energy trauma. The patient presented to our emergency department after several hours of injury, and diagnosed by clinical features and roentgenogram findings.

  14. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  15. ~.Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobile and the last fused with the ventral surface of the carapace and articulated caudally with the first thoracic vertebra. The thoracic vertebrae were seven in number, the last thoracic vertebra articulated with the first sacral vertebra. Three sacral vertebrae were identified in the animals while 15caudal vertebrae were.

  16. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  17. The analysis of radiation exposure of hospital radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae Sik; Shin, Byung Chul; Moon, Chang Woo; Cho, Yeong Duk; Lee, Yong Hwan; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was performed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyz ed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52±1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 5OmSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87±1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22±0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97±0.43 mSv/year over, 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67±1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13±0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear medicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.69±1.81 mSv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (0<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74±1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17±0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74±1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75±1

  18. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  19. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  20. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are

  1. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  2. Radiation injuries/ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooden, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book was written to aid trial attorneys involved in radiation litigation. Radiologists and medical physicists will also find it helpful as they prepare for trial, either as a litigant or an expert witness. Two chapters present checklists to guide attorneys for both plaintiffs and defendants. Gooden titles these checklists Elements of Damages and Elements of Proof and leads the reader to conclusions about each of these. One section that will be particularly helpful to attorneys contains sample interrogatories associated with a case of alleged radiation exposure resulting in a late radiation injury. There are interrogatories for the plaintiff to ask the defendant and for the defendant to ask the plaintiff

  3. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  4. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Soon [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kunwoo [Dept. of Natural Radiation Safety, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies.

  5. Proposing a simple radiation scale for the public: Radiation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Tae Soon; Cho, Kunwoo

    2017-01-01

    A new radiation scale is proposed. With empathy toward the vast majority of people who are not well versed in radiation and related matters, and thus suffering from misunderstanding that breeds unnecessary fear of radiation, the aim of proposing a new radiation scale, radiation index (RAIN), is to put the general public at ease with the concept of radiation. RAIN is defined in dimensionless numbers that relate any specific radiation dose to a properly defined reference level. As RAIN is expressed in plain numbers without an attached scientific unit, the public will feel comfortable with its friendly look, which in turn should help them understand radiation dose levels easily and allay their anxieties about radiation. The expanded awareness and proper understanding of radiation will empower the public to feel that they are not hopeless victims of radiation. The correspondence between RAIN and the specific accumulated dose is established. The equivalence will allow RAIN to serve as a common language of communication for the general public with which they can converse with radiation experts to discuss matters related to radiation safety, radiation diagnosis and therapy, nuclear accidents, and other related matters. Such fruitful dialogues will ultimately enhance public acceptance of radiation and associated technologies

  6. Locally challenging osteo- and chondrogenic tumors of the axial skeleton: results of combined proton and photon radiation therapy using three-dimensional treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, Eugen B; Fitzek, Markus M; Liebsch, Norbert J; Munzenrider, John E

    1995-02-01

    patients who were controlled for more than 6 months failed locally, yielding a 5-year local control rate of 59% for 15 patients. Overall, 4 patients (27%) developed distant metastasis (two in patients with uncontrolled primary); 4 patients succumbed to their disease, 3 patients died of intercurrent disease, resulting in overall survival of 44% at 5 years. Group 3 (giant cell tumors, osteo- and chondroblastoma): One of 8 patients with giant cell tumor failed locally, 1 patient distantly, and all patients are alive. Three of 4 patients with osteo- or chondroblastoma are alive and well. One patient suffered local recurrence and died of disease. Local control rate and overall survival for this group of 12 patients was 76% and 87% and local control for patients with giant cell tumors 83% at 5 years. In the majority of cases radiotherapy was well tolerated. However, one patient with a large base of skull tumor developed retinopathy, one patient required enucleation of a previously blind eye, and another patient with sacral tumor developed chronic diarrhea. Conclusion: Combined proton and photon radiation therapy optimized by 3D treatment planning, allows the delivery of higher radiation doses to tumors of the axial skeleton, while respecting normal tissue constraints. High radiation doses can result in improved long-term local control.

  7. Radiation versus radiation: nuclear energy in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a proper perspective on radiation exposures from nuclear energy. Instead of comparing these exposures with other pollutants, natural and man-made, it assesses the radiation doses that result from the human environment and from the entire fuel cycle associated with nuclear generated electricity. It explores radiation versus radiation, not only in terms of absolute levels but, more importantly, of the enormous variability characterizing many radiation sources. The quantitative findings and their implications are meant to contribute to a balanced understanding of the radiological impact of nuclear energy, and so to help to bridge the information gap that is perceived to exist on this issue. The 1988 Unscear report and its seven scientific annexes provide an authoritative and dispassionate factual basis for examining radiation levels from all sources, natural and man-made. It is the main source for this paper. (author)

  8. Roles of radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2009-01-01

    Radiation chemistry acts as a bridge connecting radiation physics with radiation biology in spatial and temporal insight. The theory, model, and methodology coming from radiation chemistry play an important role in the research and development of radiation biology. The chemical changes induced by ionizing radiation are involved not only in early event of biological effects caused by ionizing radiation but in function radiation biology, such as DNA damage and repair, sensitive modification, metabolism and function of active oxygen and so on. Following the research development of radiation biology, systems radiation biology, accurate quality and quantity of radiation biology effects need more methods and perfect tools from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

  10. Supernatural threats to kings: exploration of a motif in the Ulster Cycle and in other medieval Irish tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.; Ó hUiginn, R.; Ó Catháin, B.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this contribution is the belief in a sacral bond between the land and the ruler. This belief is connected with the concept known as ‘sacral kingship’, which is found in many cultures. In the Tenach or Old Testament, for instance, the king is supposed to be chosen by God and anointed

  11. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  12. Use of synchrotron radiation in radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) holds great expectation as a new research tool in the new areas of material science, because it has the continuous spectral distribution from visible light to X-ray, and its intensity is 10 2 to 10 3 times as strong as that of conventional radiation sources. In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, a synchrotron radiation experimental facility has been constructed, which will start operation in fiscal 1982. With this SR, the photons having the wavelength in undeveloped region from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-ray are obtained as intense mono-wavelength light. The SR thus should contribute to the elucidation of the fundamentals in the biological action of radiation. The following matters are described: synchrotron radiation, experimental facility using SR, electron storage ring, features of SR, photon factory plan and synchrotron radiation experimental facility, utilization of SR in radiation biology field. (J.P.N.)

  13. Lymphangiogram of the pelvic limb in normal dogs with Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, F.; Nishikawa, T.; Kudo, T.; Otomo, K.; Koike, T.

    1982-01-01

    Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (0.2 ml/kg) was injected directly into the lymphatic vessels of the pelvic limbs in 28 healthy adult mongrel dogs. The contrast medium appeared on the roentgenogram in the popliteal, lateral iliac, medial iliac, sacral and lumbar aortic lymph nodes (LN). It was also visible in the iliofemoral, superficial inguinal and cranial mediastinal LN in several dogs. It diffused from the popliteal into the sacral, medial iliac and lateral iliac LN to fill the cisterna chyli and thoracic duct system. The features of the popliteal, lateral iliac and lumbar aortic LN were shown in the lymphangiograms of all the animals. The incidence of the other LN was different. Depending on the incidence of these LN in the lymphangiogram, the pictures of the canine lymphatic system were classified into three types:(1) medial iliac and sacral LN were visible on both sides (16%);(2) one of these LN was not observed (36%);(3) medial iliac and/or sacral lymph node was not observed on both sides (48%). (author)

  14. Technical sheets of ionizing radiations. 2. Non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of different non-ionizing radiations are studied: ultra-violet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, micrometric waves, ultrasonics. In spite of their apparent diversity these radiations are similar in their physico-chemical effects, but in view of their widely varying production methods and types of application each type is considered separately. It is pointed out that no organization resembling the CIPR exists in the field of non-ionizing radiations, the result being a great disparity amongst the different legislations in force [fr

  15. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.

    1981-01-01

    Application is made of two different generalised fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler (Gravitation (San Francisco: Freeman) ch 36,37 (1973)) and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalisations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance. (author)

  16. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  17. Development of natural radiation model for evaluation of background radiation in radiation portal monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jin Hyung; Moon, Myung Kook [Radioisotope Research and Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In ports and airports, radiation portal monitors (RPM) are deployed to detect illicit radioactive materials. Detected gamma rays in a RPM include background radiation and radiation from a freight. As a vehicle moves through the RPM, the vehicle causes the fluctuations in the natural background radiation signal, which ranges of up to 30%. The fluctuation increases the uncertainty of detection signal and can be a cause of RPM false alarm. Therefore, it is important to evaluate background radiation as well as radiation from a container. In this paper, a natural background radiation model was developed to evaluate RPM. To develop natural background radiation model, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed and compared with experimental measurements from a RPM for {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th series, and {sup 235}U series, which are major sources of natural background radiation. For a natural radiation source, we considered a cylindrical soil volume with 300 m radius and 1 m depth, which was estimated as the maximum range affecting the RPM by MCNP6 simulation. The volume source model was converted to surface source by using MCNP SSW card for computational efficiency. The computational efficiency of the surface source model was improved to approximately 200 times better than that of the volume source model. The surface source model is composed of a hemisphere with 20 m radius in which the RPM and container are modelled. The natural radiation spectrum from the simulation was best fitted to the experimental measurement when portions of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th series, and {sup 235}U series were 0.75, 0.0636, and 0.0552 Bq·g{sup -1}, respectively. For gross counting results, the difference between simulation and experiment was around 5%. The background radiation model was used to evaluate background suppression from a 40 ft container with 7.2 m·s{sup -1} speed. In further study, background models and freight models for RPM in real container ports will be developed and applied to

  18. From radiation chemistry to radiation engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a steady recognition that radiation in the form of electrons or gamma rays can offer positive advantages as a processing technology. Underlying this process industry, and largely responsible for its success, are significant contributions from the field of basic and applied radiation chemistry. In this paper it is attempted to relate fundamental radiation chemistry studies directly to the practical engineering applications

  19. Radiation and man. From radiology to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Man first became aware of the invisible radiation surrounding him in 1895, when Wilhelm Roentgen showed that a photographic plate could be affected by an invisible radiation capable of passing through matter. He called this radiation 'X-rays' from X, the unknown. Doctors immediately saw the usefulness of this type of radiation and began to use it in medical research. This was the birth of radiology. 'Mankind has been exposed to radiation since his first appearance on Earth. We first became aware of this at the end of the 19. century'. However, it was not long before some of the doctors and radiologists treating their patients with X-rays began to fall ill. It began to be understood that exposure to high doses of radiation was dangerous and protective measures were necessary. From the 1920's onwards, international commissions were established to specify regulations for the use of radiation and for the radiological protection of personnel. (authors)

  20. Radiation hormesis and its potential to manage radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, Madhu; Mathew, Lazar

    2000-01-01

    The term radiation hormesis explains stimulatory or beneficial effects of low dose radiation exposure, which cannot be predicted by extrapolation of detrimental or lethal effects of high dose radiation exposure. Although beneficial effects of low doses of radiation were observed soon after discovery of x-rays and radioactivity, studies remained inconclusive until recently, due to (i) inadequate statistical planning of experiments conducted in early part of the 20th century; and (ii) poor dose monitoring. Recently (1980s onwards), large scale, systematic epidemiological and experimental studies with a number of diverse systems have demonstrated existence of radiation hormesis beyond doubt. It is pointed out that the hormetic effects of radiation have not been successfully exploited so far for human benefits, primarily because underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. It is argued that with more and more studies, it is becoming evident that radiation hormesis is not merely physiological adaptation, but a genetically regulated phenomenon and involves de novo synthesis of proteins. Role of these proteins in induction of radiation hormesis is the current area of research in a number of world-renowned laboratories. The first part of this review elucidates the shifts in paradigms on radiation effects in the 20th century and the later portion presents a brief on underlying molecular mechanisms of radiation hormesis and their implications towards management of radiation injuries. (author)

  1. Radiation signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)

  2. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  3. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  4. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  5. Regulation for radiation protection in applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, Avinash U.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of ionising radiation in multifarious field are increasing in the country for the societal benefits. The national regulatory body ensures safety and security of radiation sources by enforcing provisions in the national law and other relevant rules issued under the principle law. In addition, the enforcement of detailed requirements contained in practice specific safety codes and standard and issuance of safety directives brings effectiveness in ensuring safe handling and secure management of radiation sources. The regulatory requirements for control over radiation sources throughout their life-cycle have evolved over the years from experience gained. Nevertheless, some of the regulatory activities which require special attention have been identified such as the development of regulation to deal with advance emerging radiation technology in applications of radiation in medicine and industry; sustaining continuity in ensuring human resource development programme; inspections of category 3 and 4 disused sources and their safe disposal; measures for controlling transboundary movement of radiation sources. The regulatory measures have been contemplated and are being enforced to deal with the above issues in an effective manner. The complete involvement of the management of radiation facilities, radiation workers and their commitment in establishing and maintaining safety and security culture is essential to handle the radiation sources safely and efficiently at all times

  6. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  7. Determination of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae in kidney urinary bladder x-ray films in the Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid G. Khashoggi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigated the rate of occurrence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV, spinal variant, in kidney urinary bladder (KUB plain radiographs in a Saudi population. Methods: Between January 2012 to January 2015, KUB plain films obtained from patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed, and the presence or absence of LSTV was documented and classified as incomplete or complete. Patients who had evidence of spinal surgery that would obscure the view were excluded. Results: A total of 2078 patients underwent KUB examinations during the study period; LSTV anomalies were detected in 158 of these. Sacralization was present in 153 (96.8% of this cohort, while lumbarization was present in 5 (3.2%. A total of 136 (86.1% of the sacralized segments were of the incomplete type, whereas 17 (10.7% were complete. Of the lumbarized vertebrae, 3 (1.8% were incomplete, and 2 (1.2% were complete. The most frequent type in men was type Ib (28.5% for sacralized segments, and type IIb for lumbarized segments (0.6%. In women, type Ia was the most common form of sacralized segments (11.3% and type IIb was the most common form of lumbarized segments (2.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of LSTV in Saudi patients is 7.6%, with a higher incidence of sacralization than lumbarization. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up time are needed to demonstrate the clinical significance thereof.

  8. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  9. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  10. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  11. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ki Moon; Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert's risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public's risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts' radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual's opinions have often exacerbated the public's confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years' research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects perception of radiation exposure.

  12. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  13. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  14. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  15. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  16. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01</