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Sample records for radiation health rh

  1. Photonuclear excitation of 103Rh by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Harumi; Yoshihara, Kenji; Mukoyama, Takeshi; Nakajima, Tetsuo

    1989-01-01

    Photonuclear excitation of 103 Rh nucleus was studied by the use of synchrotron radiation at KEK. Formation of excited state was confirmed by observing Rh K X-rays emitted following the isomeric transition of 103m Rh with a low-energy photon spectrometer. The induced activity due to 103 Rh(γ,γ') 103m Rh reaction was determined carefully by subtracting the fluorescent K X-rays due to natural background radiation. The integral cross-section for 103m Rh by resonance absorption at 295 keV is found to be (1∼2)x10 -28 cm 2 ·eV and is compared with that estimated from the previous experimental value for the 1277-keV level and the calculated value

  2. Photonuclear excitation of 103Rh by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, Kenji; Kaji, Harumi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Mukoyama, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Photonuclear excitation of the 103 Rh nucleus was studied using synchrotron radiation. Formation of the excited state was confirmed by observing K X-rays emitted following the isomeric transition of the 103m Rh with a low-energy photon spectrometer. The intensity of induced activity due to 103 Rh(γ,γ') 103m Rh reaction was determined carefully by subtracting the fluorescent K X-rays due to natural background radiation. The integral cross-section for isomer production of 103m Rh by resonance absorption of photons at 295 keV is found to be (2.1±0.8) x 10 -28 cm 2 eV and is compared with that estimated from the previous experimental value for the 1277-keV level. (author)

  3. A Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This projects seeks to continue the development of the Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC. The effort has taken parallel paths by implementing...

  4. Radiation chemical behavior of Rh(III) in HClO4 and HNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Khalkina, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation chemical behavior of Rh is very interesting since Rh accumulates in irradiated U but has not been reported in the literature. Scattered data do exist for the radiation chemical behavior of Rh(III) in weakly acidic and alkaline solutions. Pulsed radiolysis was used to investigate the formation of unstable oxidation states of Rh during reduction and oxidation of Rh(III) in neutral solutions. The rate constant of the reaction Rh(III) + e aq - was found to be 6·10 10 liter/mole·sec. The radiation chemical behavior of Rh(III) toward γ-radiolysis in neutral, weakly acidic (up to 0.1 N), and alkaline solutions was examined. In neutral solutions of [Rh(NH 3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2 and RhCl 3 , metallic Rh is formed. The degree of reduction is ∼ 1%. In neutral and weakly acidic solutions of Rh(NO 3 ) 3 , Rh 2 O 3 ·xH 2 O is formed. Irradiation of Rh(ClO 4 ) 3 solutions produces no reduction. The radiation chemical behavior of Rh(III) in HClO 4 and HNO 3 solutions at concentrations > 1 M is studied in the present work

  5. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  6. Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on experimental radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwon Il; Kim, Sun Hee; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Yeon Wha; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2006-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a common toxicity of radiation or chemotherapy, which is used a treatment for head and neck cancer. We investigated effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on radiation-induced oral mucositis in rat model. Spraque-Dawley rats (7 per group) exposed to a single dose of 25 Gy (day 0) on their head, except for one group, were randomly divided into un-treated, vehicle-treated, and two rhEGF-treated groups. Rats were topically applied with rhEGF (15 or 30 μ g/oral cavity/day) or vehicle to their oral mucosa. Survival rate of rats, weight changes, and food intakes were examined from day 0 to 18 after radiation. Histology study was performed from oral mucosa of rats at day 7 and 18 after radiation. rhEGF-treated groups (15 or 30 μ g/day) showed all survival rate 33%, whereas un-treated and vehicle-treated groups showed all survival rate 0% at the end of experiment. rhEGF-treated groups statistically had less weight loss compared to vehicle-treated group from day 2 to 7 after radiation. Food intake of rats with rhEGF treatment turned to increase at day 14 after radiation. At 7 day after radiation, un-treated and vehicle-treated groups showed severe pseudomembraneous of ulcerative oral mucositis. On the other hand, rhEGF-treated groups had no more than cellular swelling and degeneration of epidermal cells in oral mucosa of rats. These results suggest that rhEGF has significantly positive effects on radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats. rhEGF display a therapeutic potential on a clinical level

  7. Radioprotective effects of Sipunculus nudus L. polysaccharide combined with WR-2721, rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuqi; Shen Xianrong; Liu Yuming; He Ying; Jiang Dingwen; Chen Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the radioprotective effect of Sipunculus nudus L. polysaccharide (SNP) in combination with WR-2721, rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on irradiated mice. A total of 70 Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice were divided into seven groups: the control group, the model group and five administration groups. All groups, except the control group, were exposed to a 5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray beam. Blood parameters [including white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts and hemoglobin level] were assessed three days before irradiation, and the on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after irradiation. Spleen, thymus and testicular indices, DNA contents of bone marrow cells, bone marrow nucleated cells, sperm counts, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone and estradiol levels in the serum were assessed on the 14th day after irradiation. The combined administration of SNP, WR-2721, rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF exerted synergistic recovery effects on peripheral blood WBC, RBC and platelet counts and hemoglobin levels in irradiated mice, and synergistic promotion effects on spleen, thymus, testicle, bone marrow nucleated cells and sperm counts in irradiated mice. The synergistic administration increased the serum SOD activities and serum testosterone content of irradiated mice, but synergy decreased the content of serum MDA and estradiol in irradiated mice. These results suggest that the combined administration of SNP, WR-2721, rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF should increase the efficacy of these drugs for acute radiation sickness, protect immunity, hematopoiesis and the reproductive organs of irradiated-damaged mice, and improve oxidation resistance in the body. (author)

  8. Study of the effects of low-dose radiation and rhEGF on growth of cultured human epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jicheng; Zhao Xiaoyu; Sheng Weihua; Tang Zhongyi

    1998-01-01

    In authors' study, the method of taking skin sample, mincing and trypsinizing the sample are presented. The cells were inoculated on adherent membrane or, for sublethally injured 3T3 cells, in culture dish fed with Eargles' medium supplemented with fetal calf serum and various growth-stimulating factors. The cultures were incubated at 37 degree C in an atmosphere containing 5% CO 2 . The medium was changed every three days. The cultured cells became confluent in about two weeks. At the same time, low-dose-radiation and rhEGF were used to influence the growth of the epithelial cells and to test the effects of dosage and concentration. The results showed that low-dose-radiation in the conditions like authors' study could enhance the growth of human epithelial cells just like rhEGF, and it has synergetic effects with rhEGF. The mechanism is discussed

  9. Nonionizing radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    While a great deal of work has been done by international bodies to establish permissible levels for ionizing radiation, much less attention has been paid to the nonionizing forms of radiation and their possible health effects. Taking into account that equipment producing such radiation is now widely used both in the house and in industry, the paper presents the possible health effects of ultraviolet, visible, laser, infrared and microwave radiation, of electric and magnetic fields and of the ultrasound waves

  10. Rh Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type is called Rh. Rh factor is a protein on red blood cells. Most people are Rh-positive; they have Rh factor. Rh-negative people don't have it. Rh factor is inherited though genes. When you're pregnant, blood from your baby can cross into your ...

  11. Therapeutic effect of rhIL-11 administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Luo Qingliang; Xiong Guolin; Liu Xiaolan; Qiu Liling; Chen Guozhi; Huang Ying; Ge Ping; Geng Yu; Sun Liansheng; Dong Bo; Li Yuanmin; Chen Wangqiu; Shen Chun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The author describes the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in monkeys. Methods: Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 3.0 Gy 60 Co γ rays were divided into 3 groups. One group was the control administered with vehicle, the second one was subjected to administer rhIL-11 on days 0-13 after TBI (60 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 , sc) and the third one to administer rhIL-11 on days 13-26 after TBI at the same doses. Results: The early treated group had higher platelet nadirs compared with that of the other two. The duration of platelet and leukocyte numbers below 50% of their baseline values shortened significantly in animals treated with rhIL-11, especially in the early treated group. During the first week after irradiation, the early treated group had lower erythrocyte count compared with the control, but it began to rise at day 19 after irradiation. Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture demonstrated that rhIL-11 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-MK, CFU-Mix, CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM in vitro. The authors also got the same results in histopathological observation. Conclusion: rhIL-11 administered at different times can not only accelerate the haematopoietic recovery of acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys, but also result in better therapeutic effect when administered earlier

  12. Radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Noriah Jamal

    1996-01-01

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation

  13. Radiation and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Ali, Mohd Yusof; Jamal, Noriah [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation.

  14. Radiation, health and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1997-11-01

    Experience from over one hundred years of working with radiation and follow-up studies of hundreds of thousands of workers has not revealed health hazards caused by normal exposure to natural radiation or to artificial radiation below the limits prescribed by ICRP. For the public, dose limits are only a fraction of those specified for occupationally exposed workers. While many people feel anxiety about the possibility of accidents in nuclear establishments and the short and long term effects on their health and on the health of their descendants, the risks from radiation must be seen in perspective. Human activities have added some artificial radioactive substances to the environment, but on the whole, that amount is far slighter than most people realize, and so slight that its impact on health can only be characterized as minimal

  15. Radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fall-out from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects. (author)

  16. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  17. The study on the preparation of rhIL-6 and its effects on recovery of mice from radiation-induced hematopoietic aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jicheng; Zhang Yun; Sheng Weihua

    1997-08-01

    The E coil highly expressing rhIL-6 constructed by our department was fermented and rhIL-6 products were extracted and purified. The specific activity of the purified rhIL-6 products reached 4.83 x 10 8 IU/mg. The rhIL-6 products were used to treat BALB/c mice injured by 60 Co irradiation for six days (2 μg/big/each). The results showed that the bleeding time, coagulation time and prothrombin time of the rhIL-6 treatment group were significantly shorter than those of the control group (P<0.01), the platelet count and WBC increased by 130% and 165% in the treatment group as compared with the control, the numbers of CFU-Mix cultured in vitro and CFU-s in spleen were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.01). These results suggest that rhIL-6 exerts beneficial effects on the recovery of mice from radiation-induced injuries of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and thus helps recovery from radiation injury of bone marrow and hematopoietic function. (17 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  18. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  19. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  20. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  1. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, talk with your health care provider about scheduling an Rh immune globulin injection during your pregnancy ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  2. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilseia Aparecida Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    heterogeneous eye model, indicating that the homogeneous water eye model is a reasonable one. The determined isodose curves give a good visualization of dose distributions inside the eye structures, pointing out their most exposed volume....................................................Cite this article as:Barbosa NA, da Rosa LAR, de Menezes AF, Reis JP, Facure A, Braz D. Assessment of ocular beta radiation dose distribution due to 106Ru/106Rh brachytherapy applicators using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(3:02038. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0203.8

  3. Radiation protection and occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.; Carter, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Optical radiation and visual health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxler, M.; Hitchins, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a focus on the parameters of ultraviolet light, visible, and infrared radiation s which could cause long-term visual health problems in humans. It reviews early research on radiation effects on the eye, and gives detailed attention to the hazardous effects of optical radiation on the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. These data are further analyzed with regard to five potential long-term visual health problems; retinal degeneration, visual aging, disorder of visual development, ocular drug phototoxicity, and cataracts. Finally, epidemiologic principles for studying the relationships between optical radiation and long-term visual health problems are reviewed, concluding with the implications for future research and radiation protection. The contents include: historical perspectives; optical radiation and cataracts; the involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); optical radiation damage to the ocular photoreceptors; possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations; optical radiation and the aged eye; optical radiation effects on aging and visual perception; optical radiation effects on visual development; and index

  5. The interaction between radiation and complexes of cis-Pt(II) and Rh(II): studies at the molecular and cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibber, R.

    1985-01-01

    As a first step in gaining an understanding of the relative cellular effects of the transition metal/nitroimidazole complexes the authors have examined the effect of radiation given to cells in the presence of metal complexes not containing a nitroimidazole ligand. The compounds used in the cellular work are a series of Rh(II) carboxylates, cisplatin and JM8 (CBDCA, cis-diammine-1, 1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum (II)). In radiation chemical experiments, Rh(II) acetate and cisplatin were chosen to represent model systems. Results from these radiation chemical and cellular experiments then allow interpretation of the changes in biological response caused by these agents, which are discussed in terms of the mechanism(s) thought to be operative in radiosensitization. (author)

  6. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  7. Radiation-chemical behaviour of Rh(4) in perchlorate and nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Khalkina, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetic of rhodium(4) reduction in the process of radiolysis in solutions of perchloric (0.6-3.2 mol/l) and nitric (2-9 mol/l) acids with rhodium (4) concentration (0.4-5)x10 -3 mol/l has been studied. Irradiation of the solutions was carried out using a 60 Co source with dose rate of 3.5 Gy/s in the absorbed dose range up to 10 4 Gy. A mechanism of radiation-chemical reduction of rhodium(4) in perchloric and nitric acid solutions in suggested, the reason for high radiation-chemical yields of reduction is discussed. 7 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and benefits of formalized global health training in radiation oncology. We explore how defining specific competencies in this area can help trainees and practitioners integrate their activities in global health within their existing roles as clinicians, educators, or scientists. This would also help create...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  9. Poll of radiation health scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A sampling of 210 university-employed radiation health scientists randomly selected from the membership lists of the Health Physics Society and the Radiation Research Society was polled in a secret ballot. The results support the positions that the public's fear of radiation is substantially greater than realistic, that TV, newspapers and magazines substantially exaggerate the dangers of radiation, that the amount of money now being spent on radiation protection is sufficient, and that the openness and honesty of U.S. government agencies about dangers of radiation were below average before 1972 but have been above average since then. Respondents give very high credibility ratings to BEIR, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and NCRP and to the individual scientists associated with their reports, and very low credibility ratings to those who have disputed them

  10. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  11. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  12. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  13. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  14. Radiation. Your health at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This public information pamphlet gives a simple account of the nature of ionizing radiations and their effects on human health. Sources of radiation, both natural and man-made, to which the population may be exposed and the setting of exposure limits are discussed. The need is stressed for more research into the effects of low levels of exposure over long periods of time. The aims of the Radiation and Health Information Service and a list of organizers in European countries are given. A reading list is included. (UK)

  15. Radiation and health. Benefit and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    The book on radiation and health covers the following topics: The world of radiation and waves; a sight into biology; if radiation hits the body; a sight into the internal radiation diagnostics; radiation hazards; the not always beloved sun; mobile phones, microwave ovens and power poles; healing with and due to radiation; radiation and food; radiation in the environment; generation and interactions of radiation in more detail; radiation effects in the cell - closer insight; radiation doses and measurement; epidemiology and its pitfalls; the system of radiation protection radiation accidents.

  16. Radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.

    1979-01-01

    The growing controversy over low-level radiation risks stems from challenges to the assumptions that had been made about dose rate, linear theory, and total-body exposure. The debate has focused on whether there is a risk threshold or whether linearity overstates low-level risks, both theories being consistent with the available data. The generally accepted consensus on the risks of cancer and genetic effects are examined for several occupational groups and compared with recent studies which use different methodologies and reach conflicting conclusions. The weaknesses of the more recent studies are noted and the conclusion is reached that adherence to the earlier assumptions is probably the conservative position. Since the relationship of exposure to small doses of carcinogenic agents to cancer is a weak link and difficult to verify statistically, the prognosis is poor for resolving the question of linearity. It is important that the costs of reducing the risks be carefully balanced with the available evidence

  17. Haematological effects of rhG-CSF on dogs exposed to 6.5 Gy uneven γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Xia Zhenbiao; Dong Bo

    1996-01-01

    The stimulative effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on hematopoietic regeneration were studied in dogs receiving an uneven γ-irradiation with the pelvis shielded at a dose of 6.5 Gy. In the treated dogs, intravenous administration of rhG-CSF at 5 or 10 μg/kg per day for 16 to 20 days caused significant increases of peripheral blood leucocytes, neutrophils, reticulocytes, and platelets. The nucleated cell and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow also showed an obvious rise, while the hemoglobin level did not significantly change during the course of treatment. In the irradiated dogs treated with rhG-CSF, the severity of neutropenia decreased, and its duration shortened

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    -for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M and O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document

  19. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  20. Construction of a river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and preliminary RH mapping of chromosomes 3 and 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Womack

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo (Bubalus bubalis not only is a useful source of milk, it also provides meat and works as a natural source of labor and biogas. To establish a project for buffalo genome mapping a 5,000-rad whole genome radiation hybrid panel was constructed for river buffalo and used to build preliminary RH maps from two chromosomes (BBU 3 and BBU10. The preliminary maps contain 66 markers, including coding genes, cattle ESTs and microsatellite loci. The RH maps presented here are the starting point for mapping additional loci, in particular, genes and expressed sequence tags that will allow detailed comparative maps between buffalo, cattle and other species to be constructed. A large quantity of DNA has been prepared from the cell lines forming the RH panel reported here and will be made publicly available to the international community both for the study of chromosome evolution and for the improvement of traits important to the role of buffalo in animal agriculture.

  1. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is restricted to the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In general, these cumulative exposures are well below 100 rem, or about 50 times background or less. The two effects of interest in this dose range are genetic mutations and cancer production. The genetic effects will not be discussed in detail. The chief reason for the rise in risk estimates for cancer is the longer follow-up of exposed populations

  2. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  3. Public health aspects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-12-01

    The sources and levels of natural and manmade radiation are discussed in this report, and the resulting risks of radiation-induced cancer and hereditary diseases are estimated. The medical uses of X-rays currently increase the average population exposure by something like 35 per cent above natural background radiation. At a future time when nuclear generators will produce one kilowatt of electricity per person it is expected that the additional exposure from this source will not exceed 6 per cent of that from natural background. Acceptability of the risks that these exposures represent must depend upon the benefits with which they are associated, and upon the risks associated with other options open to society including alternative ways of obtaining similar benefits. The public health impact of the radiation from nuclear power generation, for example, is believed to be considerably less than that from the combustion products associated with the production of an equivalent amount of electrical power by conventional coal-fired stations. (author)

  4. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  5. Solar radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan; Brekke, Paal; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Joerg; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  6. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  7. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  8. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work to destroy, foreign substances) against the Rh proteins. Other ways Rh-negative pregnant women can be exposed to the Rh protein that might cause antibody production include blood transfusions ...

  9. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  10. Health and radiation protection management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, A.; Vargas, M.; Lorenzetti, J.; Lança, L.

    2017-01-01

    Quality management and continuous improvement systems are becoming part of daily health services, including radiodiagnostic services, which are designed to meet the needs of users, operating in an environment where the differential is due to the competence and quality of the services provided. The objective of this study is to show the scope of the management of health services, especially radiodiagnosis and radiological protection. Method: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on a review of the literature on the subject. Results: Radiodiagnosis has demonstrated the need for efficient management, especially because ionizing radiation is present in this environment and it is imperative that the professionals working in this area are aware of the need to perform adequate radiological protection for themselves and for users. Conclusion: Universal access to information has changed the attitude of the user and the user has become more demanding in his choices, wanting to understand, express, interact and choose the best quality service in view of the various options available in the market

  11. Health Service use of ionising radiations: Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet gives outline guidance on the use of ionising radiations in the Health Service in the United Kingdom. Extensive reference is made to documents where more detailed information may be found. The guidance covers general advice on the medical use of ionising radiations, statutory requirements, and guidance on selected Health Service issues such as patient identification procedures, information management systems, deviations from prescribed radiation dose, imaging and radiotherapy. (57 references) (U.K.)

  12. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  13. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L.

    2006-01-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  14. Ionizing radiations in Italian health care structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fizzano, M.R.; Frusteri, L. [Technical Advisory Dept. for Risk Assessment and Prevention, Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The Council of the European Union has completely renewed the framework regarding radiation protection by adopting some directives: Directive 97/43 EURATOM lays down the general principles of the radiation protection of individuals undergoing exposure to ionising radiations related to medical exposures, as a supplement of Directive 96/29 EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiations.The incorporation into Italian legislation of the European Community directives on the improvement of health and safety at work has promoted a vast effort in order to revise the surveillance approach in many facilities, including hospitals. In Italy, safety law is referred to every workplace; anyway the use of ionising radiations is ruled by specific laws. So in the health care structures it is necessary integrating both the laws and this process is often difficult to carry on. The Italian Legislative Decree 230/95, one the main laws that aim to protect workers against ionising radiations, introduced Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This Decree asks that a doctor and a technical expert analyse the workplace and classify area and workers in according to dose of ionising radiation established by law. The Italian Legislative Decree 626/94 asks that risk analysis in general is made by doctor and specialist in risk. So, in case of risk from ionising radiation, all these figures have to cooperate in order to make an evaluation risk document. (N.C.)

  15. Radiation and children's health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    After the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a variety of information has been complicatedly prevailing on the health effects of radiation exposure, which forces residents to spend uneasy days. Its cause is that the information on radiation cannot properly be understood by them. For the healthy growth of children, in particular, it is important to properly understand the situation, and raise children without losing to anxiety and rumors. Fukushima City has held lectures in order to eliminate the anxiety of parents in child-rearing, where some misunderstandings were seen judging from questions about radiation there. In the form of answering to the misconceptions of them, this paper explains the effect of low-dose exposure, provisional reference value of the radioactive cesium in foods, and thyroid cancer and health damage caused by radiation. In addition, it comparatively analyzed the health survey results in Fukushima prefecture with those of residents in other prefectures. (A.O.)

  16. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  17. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  18. Introduction to radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This introductory chapter presents an overview of topics that are examined throughout the book. There are brief discussions on basic scientific notation, epidemiology, risk assessment, and the use of assumptions and approximations in scientific research. The book presents evidence that ionizing radiation causes a variety of human health hazards. The health hazards evaluated in detail are cancer and chromosomal damage

  19. Call for a radiation health commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    Public health and safety during nuclear accidents can best be safeguarded by physician participation in decision-making before, during, and after radiation emergencies. They are clearly best prepared to deal with the physical and emotional effects of such emergencies. Despite the continuing perception of safety by many experts, nuclear regulatory agencies are not able to relieve public anxiety about the health effects from nuclear power plants during radiation emergencies. Informed physician participation in patient care at the time of radiation emergencies in nuclear power plants could alleviate some of this anxiety. Since the medical profession has to be involved in postaccident medical care from radiation accidents, physicians must increase and update their understanding of the public health and clinical consequences of all kinds of radiation emergencies. They must be kept well informed about the dangers of radiation exposure in and around the worksite, in clinical settings, and in the community. If the public is to benefit from such medical expertise, there must be continuing medical involvement in dealing with radiation emergencies at the highest policy levels

  20. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  1. Health Services management. Health Service use of ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This circular consolidates and updates advice on the statutory and management responsibilities of Health Authorities in relation to the use of ionising radiations (including radioactive substances) on premises controlled by them and/or by persons employed by them (author)

  2. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly

  3. Radiation, chemicals, and occupational health research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation protection and its interplay with physical research programs are described. Differences and similarities between problems in health protection for chemicals and for radiation are discussed. The importance of dosimetry in radiation work and its relevance to chemicals are cited. A collaborative program between physical and biological scientists on the toxicity of metals is briefly described. It serves as an example of new research directed toward the development of fundamental concepts and principles as a basis for understanding and controlling occupational and population exposures to chemicals. 12 references, 4 figures

  4. Health hazards of UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The author describes the effects and health risks of UV exposure. This includes UV effects on the DNS, the eyes, the immune system, and the skin. Finally, recommendations are given for protection against excessive UV exposure on the basis of the IRPA/INIRC guidelines. (orig.) [de

  5. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  6. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

  7. Radiation protection. Radioactivity and health. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Feldmann, A.; Muench, E.; Paschke, M.

    1986-09-01

    This booklet makes an attempt at elucidating the mutual influence of radioactivity and health in a way which is understandable to the non-expert. The basics of radioactivity are briefly explained by way of introduction, the next item to be described is exposure of man to natural and artificial radiation. Somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are subsequently discussed. The whole area of radioecology - starting with radioactive discharge from nuclear plants and going on to the determination of man's exposure to radiation - is covered and supplemented by a description of the risks of radiation therapy. All this serves to describe the results of long-term research on questions of the radiobiological risks in an understandable way and provide useful information about this eminently important area. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

  9. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  10. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  11. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Garder, K.

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  12. Health surveillance of persons engaged in radiation work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the health surveillance of the workers engaged in radiation work prescribed in the section 33 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) are: (1) to ensure that the workers are suitable for the radiation work, (2) to monitor the health of the workers during the radiation work, and (3) to define the implications to the health if the radiation exposure exceeding the prescribed maximum value or other abnormal exposure is suspected or observed. The health requirements related to radiation work, aspects to be considered in the health surveillance, and procedures relating to observed or suspected overexposure are defined in this guide

  13. Health effects of radiation exposure and protection from radiation through an industrial health management angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Gen

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines fundamental knowledge, health risks, and protection related to radiation in order to carry out appropriate industrial health management to reduce great public anxiety caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident developed by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Radiation generally causes damage to DNA such as generation of reactive oxygen species in cells, which are also created by exposures of various kinds of physical and chemical factors. This suggests that as well as applying 5 basic measures for industrial health management in the work place, common public health measures and disease prevention, such as keeping good sanitary conditions, healthy lifestyles, home discipline, social supports, efficient health education, etc. are important for us to prevent radiation-related cancer manifestation. Improvement of early detection and treatment for cancer is also important to eliminate the public anxiety. (A.O.)

  14. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  15. Human radiation experimentation: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper observes ethical human experimentation can be considered in terms of two basic principles or tests: informed, willing and knowledgeable subjects; and expectation of benefits. A number of human experiments are evaluated in terms of these principles, including a sixteenth century toxicology experiment, the deliberate exposure by an x-ray pioneer, and the plutonium injection cases of the 1940's. The following rational ethic is proposed for the practice of health physics with respect to human radiation experimentation: At all levels, the health physicist has a professional as well as personal obligation to ensure that proper human requirements, including proper informed consent and willing subjects, arc carried out with respect to human radiation experimentation, and must be convinced that the real or potential benefits to be derived from the experiment clearly exceed the potential detriment and risk. (author)

  16. Proceedings of radiation and occupational health Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng Kwan Hoong

    1995-07-01

    This book compiled the papers presented at this symposium. The were papers on policy of radiation safety regulations, radiation safety measures, radiation in medicine and radiation protection, radiation measurements, radon measurement, radiation in petroleum industry, radiation monitoring and non ionizing radiation safety

  17. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  18. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  19. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-01-01

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods

  20. How health risk from radiation is assessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm-Crites, L.

    1994-07-01

    The likelihood that a dose of radiation will result in death from cancer at some future time can be estimated by multiplying the dose equivalent by a risk factor, or dose-to-risk conversion factor. Conversion factors, which are based on studies of atomic bomb survivors and others, provide approximate predictions of the health effects to be expected from a given radiological exposure. Following recommendations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy currently uses risk conversion factors of 4 x 10 -4 (0.0004 LCFs) per person-rem for workers and 5 x 10 -4 (0.0005 LCFs) per person-rem for the general public (NRC 1991; DOE 1993). The conversion factor for general public is slightly higher than that for workers because the general public includes infants and children, who are more susceptible to cancer. The current overall death rate from cancer in the United States is between 20 and 25 percent, in other words, cancer accounts for one out of nearly every four deaths. An action affecting a population of 20,000 people, with the estimated potential to induce one latent cancer fatality, should therefore be understood as adding one death from cancer to a normally expected total of 4500. Studies dedicated to improving their ability to predict radiation health effects are constantly in progress, nationally and internationally, and risk conversion factors are periodically revised to incorporate new experimental and epidemiological information

  1. [The Hospital Information System of the Brazilian National Unified Health System: a preliminary evaluation of performance in monitoring RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the adequacy of the Hospital Information System of the National Unified Health System (SIH-SUS) in identifying cases of RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) at the Fernandes Figueira Institute (IFF/FIOCRUZ) from 1998 to 2003. Neonatal records, data from the Medical Archives, and AIH (Hospital Admissions Authorization Form) data consolidated in the SIH-SUS were analyzed. Cases were identified according to the following fields: principal diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, and procedure performed. During the period studied, 194 cases of HDN were diagnosed. The Medical Archives registered 148 newborns with HDN, however only 147 AIHs were issued and 145 consolidated in the SIH-SUS. Among these 145 cases, 84 cited HDN as the principal diagnosis, while secondary diagnosis identified 38 additional cases and the procedures performed failed to identify any further cases. Thus, the SIH-SUS identified only 122 (62.9%) of the 194 cases of HDN treated at the IFF/FIOCRUZ. Although it is necessary to evaluate other units, the SIH-SUS does not appear to be reliable for monitoring HDN. Additional studies are essential for employing secondary administrative data in the context of epidemiological surveillance.

  2. The radiation protection programme activities of the World Health Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.; Suess, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation protection activities of the World Health Organization are reviewed. They include studies of radiation protection standards and guidelines, and public health aspects of nuclear power. WHO also provides member states with world data on radioactivity in air, water and food, and assessments of population exposure and health effects. (H.K.)

  3. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  4. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... father or the mother. Can the Rh factor cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. During pregnancy, problems can occur if you ... can die from anemia. Can the Rh factor cause problems during my first pregnancy? Health problems usually do not occur during an ...

  5. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  6. Radiation and Health: A Workshop for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    This workshop covers nuclear science and technology topics suitable for science teachers to use in grade 4-12 classes. Subjects included are Fundamentals of Radiation, Exposure to natural and man- made Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Effects, Radioactive Waste Management, Health Physics and Radiation Physics, and Career possibilities in Nuclear Technology. Schools of participants will receive a working Geiger Counter. Workshop presenter is a TEA-approved CPE Provider. Limited to 20 participants - 3 hours - Cost 2.00

  7. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  8. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  9. Radiation protection instrumentation at the Andalusian health service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrador Cordoba, M.; Garcia Rotllan, J.

    1997-01-01

    In Andalusia the contributions of radiological risks in the nuclear industry and of natural radiation are small and the same holds for medical applications of individuals and research. The performance models in radiation protection is monitored by the Andalusian Health Service through the public health institutions. This short communication describes the model and results obtained

  10. Natural ionizing radiation and human health in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about potential effects of natural ionizing radiation on general population health. Natural radionuclides are particularly stressed, as well as health effects of high and lower doses. Radio-ecological areals have been presented for Serbia, while radiation risk has been assessed for the population of Serbia according to census years.

  11. Energies, health, medicine. Low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file concerns the biological radiation effects with a special mention for low radiation doses. The situation of knowledge in this area and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are detailed, the different directions of researches are given. The radiation doses coming from medical examinations are given and compared with natural radioactivity. It constitutes a state of the situation on ionizing radiations, known effects, levels, natural radioactivity and the case of radon, medicine with diagnosis and radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  12. Health and radiation: Surveillance and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Langmark, F.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming a zero risk of low-dose radiation would allow society to save a lot of resources currently used in radiation protection. If this assumption should turn out to be wrong, however, the society would face a serious cancer problem within 20-40 years. Thus, the present resources allocated to radiation protection seem justified from an ethical and moral point of view. Such radiation protection should also include monitoring of naturally enhanced radiation and possibilities of contamination, and ecological changes from energy production, waste deposition and fertilizing. The weaker parts of establishing the dose/effect relationship are radiation biology and radiation medicine. Therefore, continued research in these disciplines should be encouraged

  13. CoFeRh alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabakovic, Ibro [Seagate Technology, Research and Development, Bloomington, MN 55435 (United States)], E-mail: ibro.m.tabakovic@seagate.com; Qiu Jiaoming; Riemer, Steve; Sun Ming; Vas' ko, Vlad; Kief, Mark [Seagate Technology, Research and Development, Bloomington, MN 55435 (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Rh(III) species in CoFe solution containing RhCl{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Cl, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, CoSO{sub 4}, FeSO{sub 4}, saccharin, and NaLS (Na lauryl sulfate) has been investigated. The electrochemistry of Rh(III) species is influenced by each of the compounds present in CoFe plating solution, but especially by addition of saccharin and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} to the RhCl{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl solution. The nucleation and growth of Rh on GC (glassy carbon), Ru, and Cu electrodes from NH{sub 4}Cl solution was studied using the potentiostatic current-transient methods. The results support a predominantly progressive nucleation of Rh on all three-electrode surfaces. The nucleation kinetic parameters ANo (steady state nucleation rate) and Ns (saturation nuclear number density) were found to vary with potential and are electrode-dependent in order: GC > Ru{approx}Cu. The electrodeposited Rh films obtained from NH{sub 4}Cl solution and nonmagnetic CoFeRh film obtained from CoFe solution were characterized in terms of the following properties: morphology, surface roughness, crystal structure and chemical composition. The origin of light elements found in Rh and CoFeRh films (O, Cl, S, C, N) was discussed.

  14. CoFeRh alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakovic, Ibro; Qiu Jiaoming; Riemer, Steve; Sun Ming; Vas'ko, Vlad; Kief, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Rh(III) species in CoFe solution containing RhCl 3 , NH 4 Cl, H 3 BO 3 , CoSO 4 , FeSO 4 , saccharin, and NaLS (Na lauryl sulfate) has been investigated. The electrochemistry of Rh(III) species is influenced by each of the compounds present in CoFe plating solution, but especially by addition of saccharin and H 3 BO 3 to the RhCl 3 -NH 4 Cl solution. The nucleation and growth of Rh on GC (glassy carbon), Ru, and Cu electrodes from NH 4 Cl solution was studied using the potentiostatic current-transient methods. The results support a predominantly progressive nucleation of Rh on all three-electrode surfaces. The nucleation kinetic parameters ANo (steady state nucleation rate) and Ns (saturation nuclear number density) were found to vary with potential and are electrode-dependent in order: GC > Ru∼Cu. The electrodeposited Rh films obtained from NH 4 Cl solution and nonmagnetic CoFeRh film obtained from CoFe solution were characterized in terms of the following properties: morphology, surface roughness, crystal structure and chemical composition. The origin of light elements found in Rh and CoFeRh films (O, Cl, S, C, N) was discussed

  15. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2000-01-01

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  16. Health Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation on Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah-Alatas; Yanti Lusiyanti

    2001-01-01

    Increases of development and use of equipment that procedures non-ionizing radiant energy such as laser, radar, microwave ovens, power lines and hand phones, bring about public concern about the possible health effects owing to the non-ionizing radiation exposure. Non ionizing electromagnetic radiation compared to ionizing radiation, has longer wavelength, lower frequency, and lower photon energy in its interaction with body tissues. The term on non-ionizing radiation refers to the groups of electromagnetic radiations with energies less than about 10 eV corresponding to wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible, infra red microwave and radiofrequency spectral regions. This paper describes the current state of knowledge about types of non-ionizing radiation and the health effects at molecular and cellular levels as well as its effects on human health. (author)

  17. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Although the health effects of radiation doses in occupationally exposed persons had received attention, it was not until the 1950s, when the atmospheric atom bomb tests of the United States and the Soviet Union had raised the level of environmental radioactivity, that the long-term effects of low-level radiation dosage became a matter of popular concern throughout the world. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was created, and the World Health Organization (WHO) appointed an expert committee to provide advice concerning radiation and human health. In its first report, the WHO expert committee identified several areas of high natural radiation where studies of the exposed population might possibly provide information concerning the effects of chromic low-level radiation dosage

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  19. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  20. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  1. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinkhal', G.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  2. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is '3.' The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based

  3. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  4. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-30

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  5. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-Trucon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is '3.' The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based

  6. Radio frequency (RF) radiation exposure and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Mahmoudi, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of wireless communication I show the explosive growth in time of mobile telephony and explain how this affects the perception of fear of the general public for electromagnetic radiation. Then, after explaining the physics of electromagnetic radiation, I discuss the interaction

  7. Probabilistic induction of delayed health hazards in occupational radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.H.M.; Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers are periodically monitored for their personal occupational dose. Various types of radiation measurement devices are used, mostly film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Several thousand occupational radiation workers were monitored over a period of seven years (jan. 1995- Dec. 2001). These included atomic energy personnel, nuclear materials personnel, staff of mediology departments (diagnostic, therapeutic and nuclear medicine) and industrial occupational workers handling industrial radiography equipment besides other applications of radiation sources in industry. The probably of induction of health hazards in these radiation workers was assessed using the nominal probability coefficient adopted by the ICRP (1991) for both hereditary effects and cancer induction. In this treatise, data procured are presented and discussed inthe light of basic postulations of probabilistic occurrence of radiation induced delayed health effects

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  9. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  10. Ionizing radiation induced biological response and its public health implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.

    1994-01-01

    Several sources of ionizing radiation exist in natural and artificial environment of humanity. An overview of their biological effects and the biological response of man is present. Emphasize is given to the differences caused by high and low doses. The interrelation of radiology, radiation hygiene and public health is pointed out. Especially, the physical and biological effects of radiation on cells and their responses are discussed in more detail. (R.P.)

  11. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2005-01-01

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  12. Structure and catalytic reactivity of Rh oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, J.; Westerström, R.; Resta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, we show that a thin RhO2 surface oxide film forms prior to the bulk Rh2O3 corundum oxide on all close-packed single crystal Rh surfaces. Based on previous reports, we argue that the RhO2 surface oxide also forms on vicinal Rh surface...

  13. Epidemiology and effects on health of low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Artalejo, F.; Andres Manzano, B. de; Rel Calero, J. del

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the concept and aims of epidemiology, its methods and contribution to the knowledge of the effects of low ionizing radiation doses on health. The advantages of epidemiological studies for knowing the consequences of living near nuclear facilities and the effects of occupational exposure to radiations are also described. (Author) 43 refs

  14. IONIZING RADIATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREWIN, R B

    1964-01-04

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection.With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine.The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized.

  15. Ionizing Radiation as an Industrial Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, R. B.

    1964-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection. With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine. The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized. PMID:14105012

  16. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Taib Osman

    1995-01-01

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  17. Health aspects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    A brief description of natural background radiation is given. To understand the relationship between doses and effects the magnitude and distribution over time are stressed. The derivation of radiation protection standards and corresponding risks are discussed. The risks to the occupational worker and to the public from nuclear power are placed in context of risks in other industries and from alternate energy sources, including conservation. (author)

  18. The health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, A.N.; Dixit, Nishant

    2012-01-01

    It has been established by various researches, that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health. There is substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation despite the large amount of work carried out (both laboratory and epidemiological). Exposure to high levels of radiation can cause radiation injury, and these injuries can be relatively severe with sufficiently high radiation doses. Prolonged exposure to low levels of radiation may lead to cancer, although the nature of our response to very low radiation levels is not well known at this time. Many of our radiation safety regulations and procedures are designed to protect the health of those exposed to radiation occupationally or as members of the public. According to the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, any amount, however small, of radiation is potentially harmful, even down to zero levels. The threshold hypothesis, on the other hand, emphasizes that below a certain threshold level of radiation exposure, any deleterious effects are absent. At the same time, there are strong arguments, both experimental and epidemiological, which support the radiation hormesis (beneficial effects of low-level ionizing radiation). These effects cannot be anticipated by extrapolating from harmful effects noted at high doses. Evidence indicates an inverse relationship between chronic low-dose radiation levels and cancer incidence and/or mortality rates. Examples are drawn from: 1) state surveys for more than 200 million people in the United States; 2) state cancer hospitals for 200 million people in India; 3) 10,000 residents of Taipei who lived in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; 4) high-radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 5) 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; 6) almost 300,000 radon measurements of homes in the United States; and 7) non-smokers in high-radon areas of early Saxony, Germany. This evidence conforms to the hypothesis that

  19. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: (1) A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. (2) A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is ''3''. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  20. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  1. Radiation and occupational health: keynote address: the impact of radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The part of address discusses the following issue: sources of exposure, effects of ionizing radiations, deterministic effects, stochastic effects, in utero exposure, recommendations of radiation protection: principles, practices, intervention, radiation protection in practices

  2. Revision of the occupational health examination form for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Chen Erdong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To revise the Occupational Health Examination Form for Radiation Workers, which is served as annex 3 of Management Regulations for Occupational Health Surveillance (Decree No.23 of Ministry of Health, P.R. China), so as to further improve and standardize the occupational health management for radiation workers. Methods: Based on corresponding laws, standards and general principles of occupational medicine. Results: The new version of the Form was established and passed auditing. Conclusion: The theoretical foundation, intention and methods of the revision process are briefly introduced. Requirements and necessary recommendations for implement the new Form are also described. (authors)

  3. Radiation, waves, fields. Causes and effects on environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.

    1990-01-01

    The book discusses static electricity, alternating electric fields, magnetostatic fields, alternating magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, optical and ionizing radiation and their hazards and health effects. Each chapter presents basic physical and biological concepts and describes the common radiation sources and their biological effects. Each chapter also contains hints for everyday behaviour as well as in-depth information an specific scientific approaches for assessing biological effects; the latter are addressed to all expert readers working in these fields. There is a special chapter on the problem of so-called 'terrestrial radiation'. (orig.) With 88 figs., 31 tabs [de

  4. Health effects of exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuerauf, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A working group on the Health Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation met in Sofia (Bulgaria) from February 21-25, 1978. The conference was organized by the European Regional Bureau of the World Health Organization, WHO, in cooperation with the Bulgarian government. The main task for the participants was the revision and discussion of two guidelines. A Manual on Nonionizing Radiation Protection will be made available in 1979 to governmental and official organs to support them in establishing standards for the control of radiation. (orig.) [de

  5. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Zubaidah

    2003-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  6. Unravelling radiation response: from public health to personalized radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Soumen Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism underlying response to ionizing radiation exposure is at the heart of radiation biology and its applications. This presentation will showcase how the mass spectrometry-based global profiling helped to identify not only potential age-independent biomarkers of ionizing radiation exposure in mice but also a hitherto unexplored link between DNA repair and polyamine metabolism at an organismal level. It will then provide a glimpse of how a combination of metabolomics and molecular biological tools combined to elucidate the metabolic reprogramming underlying therapeutic resistance of cancer cells. It will then elaborate how an integrated -omics approach could be adopted to understand the heterogeneity in the effects ionizing radiation in the context of development and health. Finally, it will present a framework on how clinicians, epidemiologists and basic researchers can come together to usher in a new era of personalized radiation therapy as well as to develop a paradigm of personalized counter measures against radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Radiation and health risks: a bioethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author suggests that radiation and radioactivity have acquired a set of attributes that tend almost inevitably to intensify public alarm as public concern over nuclear energy and nuclear weapons has escalated. She discusses the moral argument that widespread use of radioactive substances seems tantamount to an immoral violation of human rights no matter what the benefits might be

  8. Development of public health assurance technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Yang, Jae Seung

    2007-07-01

    This project was performed to develop the radiation sterilization process of public health products and RT/BT fusion technology and to secure a detection and quarantine system of irradiated food. To establish the radiation sterilization of public health goods, current status of radiation sterilization of disposable medical equipment was investigated and the manufacturing process of disposable media for microbial cultivation were developed using a gamma sterilization. In addition, microbial contamination of disposable kitchen utensils was surveyed and pathogen-free organic compost was developed by radiation sterilization. The radiation responses of bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio, E. coli, and D. radiodurans were analyzed by DNA chip and 2-D electrophoresis. To validate the safety of surviving bacteria after irradiation, the expressions of virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria were monitored using real-time PCR, and the growth of mycotoxin-producing funguses was studied after irradiation. And also, quantitative detection methods of irradiated and inactivated Salmonella using a real-time PCR and a immuno assay. To establish the quarantine and quality assurance of irradiated food and public health products, radiation technology was applied to the fermented foods, minimally processed food and dried vegetables. Radiation effects on insects was examined and the corresponding data base was constructed. We also collaborated on the preliminary test of international trade of sea food with USA or India. To establish the official detection method of irradiated food, physical, chemical and biological detection methods for irradiated food were verified. Finally, multiple range test of irradiated food was performed

  9. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  10. Development of public health assurance technology by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Yang, Jae Seung (and others)

    2007-07-15

    This project was performed to develop the radiation sterilization process of public health products and RT/BT fusion technology and to secure a detection and quarantine system of irradiated food. To establish the radiation sterilization of public health goods, current status of radiation sterilization of disposable medical equipment was investigated and the manufacturing process of disposable media for microbial cultivation were developed using a gamma sterilization. In addition, microbial contamination of disposable kitchen utensils was surveyed and pathogen-free organic compost was developed by radiation sterilization. The radiation responses of bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio, E. coli, and D. radiodurans were analyzed by DNA chip and 2-D electrophoresis. To validate the safety of surviving bacteria after irradiation, the expressions of virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria were monitored using real-time PCR, and the growth of mycotoxin-producing funguses was studied after irradiation. And also, quantitative detection methods of irradiated and inactivated Salmonella using a real-time PCR and a immuno assay. To establish the quarantine and quality assurance of irradiated food and public health products, radiation technology was applied to the fermented foods, minimally processed food and dried vegetables. Radiation effects on insects was examined and the corresponding data base was constructed. We also collaborated on the preliminary test of international trade of sea food with USA or India. To establish the official detection method of irradiated food, physical, chemical and biological detection methods for irradiated food were verified. Finally, multiple range test of irradiated food was performed.

  11. About the training on radiation protection in health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Armas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Paper education on Radiation Protection in health environments is essential to optimise the use of radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The continuous increment in the number of available radiation emitting equipment in health environments and the generalisation of procedures, which imply important radiation exposures to patients, are expected to increase the overall doses to patients. A consequence of this will be the increment of harmful effects, especially, radiation induced cancer. General concern towards this respect has produced a generalisation of the requirements considered to be needed in a proper Radiation Protection education. Norms have been created for this purpose at both national and European level. here, the European and Spanish norms are reviewed. the applications of these norms are, also reviewed. Furthermore, the objectives of various platforms and European projects, aimed at improving the formation of health personnel on Radiation Protection, are presented. A conclusion of the review is that there exist significant differences in the syllabuses proposed for various professionals at different levels. Moreover, all the legislation collected in the norms has not been implemented in common practice. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Radiation protection and certification of health professionals in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, C.P.V. Castro; Sá, L.V.; Delgado, J.U.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has three pillars: justification, optimization and dose limitation. The safe use of ionizing radiation is established by the dose limits resulting from exposure of the public and worker, justification and optimization for medical exposures. In Brazil, there are at least 200,000 professionals working in medical facilities involving the use of ionizing radiation. There are standards of radiation protection that establish the obligation of performance of professionals certified in the facilities through criteria pre-established in Specific Norms. Certification in radiation protection assesses the skills, knowledge and skills of professionals. A detailed research, classification and analysis of the requirements required by the regulatory body for professional performance in this area was carried out, as well as the skills and abilities required by the radiation protection standards in force in the country. The results obtained demonstrated that the certification process of these professionals aims at higher quality and optimization of the medical procedures performed. The direct beneficiaries of this process would be practitioners themselves and patients of medical practices involving the use of ionizing radiations. Certifying health care professionals in radiation protection would meet the demand for national standards and that require a performance control of those involved in medical treatments using ionizing radiations

  13. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  14. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  15. Protection From Radiation Of Allied Health Professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Croatian legislators, but not to the International (ISCO-08) and National (NKZ-10) Standard Classification of Occupations, university degree health professionals are limited to those individuals who have health-orientated education gained at the School of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, and study programs of Speech and Language Pathology. All other clinical scientists are considered as university degree non-health professionals who participate in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, i.e. as allied health professionals. The objective of this paper is to discuss the status of university degree health associates within the Croatian health care system. The latest Ordinance on job titles/positions and coefficients of job complexity (i.e. basic salary coefficients) in public services provides only one coefficient (1.571) for clinical physicists, psychologists, biologists etc., and just three coefficients (1.445, 1.513, 1.571) for clinical engineers, social workers etc., at the bottom of the coefficients scale of all clinical staff completed different university studies of equal duration in years and/or workloads in European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits. Simultaneously, there are 30 coefficients (1.659-2.361) for health professionals, meticulously taking into account all possible combinations of their employment in state hospital/institute or not, obtained B.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees, titles of primarius, specialist or subspecialist, etc. Since 750 university degree health associates make currently only about 1 percent of the Croatian health workforce, any discrimination among clinical staff is unnecessary. Full regulation and appreciation of all professions, equal opportunities of continuing professional education and training, as well as career advancement (internship, residency, sub-specialization, postgraduate specialist programs, etc.) should be facilitated and provided to all

  16. Radiation protection office at the general direction of health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protection office at the general direction of health has the following functions: organisation and relations with decentralized services, legal aspects, relations with the direction of nuclear installation safety, nuclear medicine with licensing, radioactive wastes in relation with ANDRA, environment, trusteeship of OPRI in matter of measurements, dosimetry and epidemiology in relation with the Minister of work and training in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  17. Health effects of low-level radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have attempted to assess the carcinogenic risk induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Such studies are difficult to carry out because the incidence of radiation induced cancers is of only a few per cent, even following relativity large doses, and because there is no way to distinguish radiation induced cancer from the background of natural human cancers; moreover these surveys are exposed to many biases due to relatively small sizes of the populations studied and the difficulties of finding an appropriate control group, of estimating the absorbed doses and of collecting the data. A few national or international expert committees have analysed the available data and evaluated the carcinogenic effects. Their estimations of the risk, are similar and allow one to quantify the carcinogenic risk for doses above 100 rads. The risks of lower doses must be determined by extrapolation from human data at high doses. This extrapolation requires the knowledge of the dose-effect relationship. A linear extrapolation is most common and probably leads to a conservative estimate of the risk. A linear-quadratic function is probably more realistic and in better accordance with most scientific data. However the validity of its use for the estimation of carcinogenic risk is still debated. In experimental animals, the influence of dose-rate is important and some data suggest that this is the same for the carcinogenic effect in human beings. The genetic effects are probably less important than was feared a few years ago. The most important recent observation is the absence of any significant genetic effect in the progeny of the survivors of the A. bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This allows a conservative estimate of the maximum genetic risk for human beings [fr

  18. A consideration of low dose radiation effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake categorized as 9 Mw occurred off the northeast coast of Japan. The subsequent destructive tsunami disabled emergency units of Fukushima Dai'ichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused partial meltdown of reactors and explosions. Resulting radiation releases forced large evacuations, bore concerns about food and water and fears against human health. In this manuscript, we described the effect of radiation, especially low dose radiation below 100 mSv, on cancer risk, focusing on fetuses and children. (author)

  19. Computing in radiation protection and health physics - 10 years further

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.; Greif, N.; Struwe, H.; Wissmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Computing influences radiation protection and health physics more extensively as ever before. The good old data processing and main frame computing has changed towards information technology in a wider sense. Technologies and operating systems out of workplace computing have amended microprocessor technology in measuring devices. The boundaries between them are constantly in a state of flux. The use of the world wide web has become indispensable. No radiation protection expert could still manage without a workplace computer. Measuring networks, radiation protection information systems, data bases, computer simulation and other challenging applications form the image of today. (orig.)

  20. A high-resolution comparative RH map of porcine chromosome (SSC) 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattink, A.P.; Faivre, M.; Jungerius, B.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Harlizius, B.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution comparative map was constructed for porcine Chromosome (SSC) 2, where a QTL for back fat thickness (BFT) is located. A radiation hybrid (RH) map containing 33 genes and 25 microsatellite markers was constructed for this chromosome with a 3000-rad porcine RH panel. In total, 16

  1. Urban pollution by electromagnetic radiation. What risk for human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines, domestic appliances, radios, TV sets, cell-phones, radar, etc., they are all instruments which, entering our everyday life, cause electromagnetic pollution. The risks for human health as a consequence of being exposed to this kind of radiation haven't been clearly ascertained yet, even if there is proof of the connection between the onset of some tumoral forms and exposure to electromagnetic fields. Many countries, among which Italy, are tackling the problem of safety distances, necessary to reduce exposure to non-ionising radiation, by issuing bills suitable for human health protection [it

  2. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  3. Manual on public health action in radiation emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Over the years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a series of reports and publications providing guidance on the public health aspects of nuclear power production, in line with target 11 of the European policy for health for all, which calls for the reduction of injury, disability and death from accidents. Immediately after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986, the WHO Regional Office for Europe established an emergency operation to provide technical cooperation and communication links with Member States. A special project on the public health dimensions of radiation emergencies was subsequently established, which included a series of activities related both directly to the Chernobyl accident and to emergency planning for future accidents. This manual brings together the experience gained in the special project to improve the planning for and response to emergencies. It has been prepared to meet public health needs arising from all types of major radiation emergency in the European Region. The manual describes the guiding principles and advises on the practical application of measures to protect and inform the public in a radiation emergency. It is hoped that the manual will promote close interaction between the WHO Member States in this field. The advice given in earlier WHO publications on radiation emergencies has been examined and revised in the light of recent experience 12 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Manual on public health action in radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Over the years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a series of reports and publications providing guidance on the public health aspects of nuclear power production, in line with target 11 of the European policy for health for all, which calls for the reduction of injury, disability and death from accidents. Immediately after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986, the WHO Regional Office for Europe established an emergency operation to provide technical cooperation and communication links with Member States. A special project on the public health dimensions of radiation emergencies was subsequently established, which included a series of activities related both directly to the Chernobyl accident and to emergency planning for future accidents. This manual brings together the experience gained in the special project to improve the planning for and response to emergencies. It has been prepared to meet public health needs arising from all types of major radiation emergency in the European Region. The manual describes the guiding principles and advises on the practical application of measures to protect and inform the public in a radiation emergency. It is hoped that the manual will promote close interaction between the WHO Member States in this field. The advice given in earlier WHO publications on radiation emergencies has been examined and revised in the light of recent experience

  5. Radiation health effects. Experience from Chernobyl to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekitani, Yui; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 led to a high level of radioactive contamination over wide area in Europe. High radiation-dose exposure to 134 power plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome. The internal radiation exposure by radioactive iodine-131 caused operated thyroid cancer among more than 6000 children at the time of the accident until 2010. The low dose irradiation by radioactive cesium-137 continues even today, and evacuation and relocation proved a deeply traumatic experience to many people. Since the Chernobyl accident, WHO and IAEA have established a global assistance system to strengthen the activities related to radiation emergency medical preparedness and response network. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has also caused many people to evacuate, and great suffering, hardship, and anxiety to the residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Therefore the Fukushima Prefectural Government is now conducting the 'The Fukushima Health Management Survey' to alleviate residents' concerns about radiation and to facilitate suitable healthcare in the future. It is necessary to continue scientific research around Chernobyl and provide accurate information on radiation health effects not only to the Fukushima residents but also toward all over the world. (author)

  6. Health hazards of low doses of ionizing radiations. Vo. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in clinical manifestations of several disease entities that may be fatal. The onset and severity of these acute radiation syndromes are deterministic in relation to dose magnitude. Exposure to ionizing radiations at low doses and low dose rates could initiate certain damage in critical molecules of the cell, that may develop in time into serious health effects. The incidence of such delayed effects in low, and is only detectable through sophisticated epidemiological models carried out on large populations. The radiation damage induced in critical molecules of cells may develop by stochastic biochemical mechanisms of repair, residual damage, adaptive response, cellular transformation, promotion and progression into delayed health effects, the most important of which is carcinogenesis. The dose response relationship of probabilistic stochastic delayed effects of radiation at low doses and low dose rates, is very complex indeed. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the factors involved, and the uncertainties encountered. Contrary to acute deterministic effects, the occurrence of probabilistic delayed effects of radiation remains to be enigmatic. 7 figs

  7. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerski, P; Ostrowski, K; Shore, M L; Silverman, C., Suess, M.J.; Waldeskog, B

    1974-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, 15--18 Oct. 1973, sponsored by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Polish Scientific Council to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare are presented. It covered numerous aspects of exposure to microwave radiation. The papers more specifically relating to occupational exposure to microwaves deal with: measurement of microwave radiations, clinical manifestations, neurological findings, health status of microwave workers, blood protein disorders, effects of electromagnetic fields in densely populated areas, microwave cataract and concomitant pathology, retinal changes, assessment of lens translucency in microwave workers. A list of participants at the symposium and an author and subject index are appended.

  8. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  9. Radiation hormesis, public health, and public policy: a commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R J; Bowers, E J; Clelland, R C

    1983-03-01

    Public policy affecting public health regarding effects of low-level ionizing radiations has been, and is being, determined by effects estimates based on linear or other monotonic extrapolation from high-level radiation dose-response data to presumed ecologically realistic low-level exposure effects. Such predictive, unmeasured estimates are very possibly in serious error; they are incompatible with observed low-level dose-response data that indicate a negative correlation between low-level radiation data and health effects, such as cancer mortality rates. Observed negative correlations with low-level radiation data are to be expected on the basis of evidence supporting the validity of the hormesis phenomenon. Hormesis theory, derived in part from evolutionary biology, asserts that while high levels of exposure to an agent such as ionizing radiation are indeed hazardous, ecologically realistic low levels can be stimulatory and largely beneficial. Stimulation of activities of DNA and other repair mechanisms may be involved. Although evidence of the reality of radiation hormesis has been reported in about 1000 scientific publications over the last century, this effect has been largely unrecognized. Moreover, this widespread non-acceptance of hormesis as a real-world phenomenon is usually but not always present in the case of chemical hormesis; the oversight appears systematic. The ignoring of the hormesis phenomenon seems to constitute a very serious error in modern biomedical science and in preventive medicine. A mathematical model is offered that describes the general shape of certain dose-response functions when radiation hormesis at low-level exposure is taken into consideration along with the well-known detrimental effects of high-level radiation.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Upton notes the wide misunderstanding of the health risks from nuclear energy because of its association with nuclear weapons, but he also notes and reviews a broad consensus within the scientific community on the risks of low-level irradiation. The author makes the point that society must be involved in determining the level of acceptable risk, and that society has a right to expect that risk assessments will be technically sound. The author uses a series of tables to present numerical interpretations of the scientific consensus, which finds the risk to be relatively small. 30 references, 11 tables

  11. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  12. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, S.; Ugolin, N.; Lebeau, J.; Ory, K.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy production is necessarily associated with the handling and storage of radioactive elements, which are liable to have deleterious effects on human health, and on environment. These deleterious effects are varied, but they greatly depend on the dose, which has been received, and the exposure type. Therefore, only intense and massive exposures are liable to be clinically detected. They can entail immediate consequences, even lead to the person's death. Thanks to safety measures, which have been implemented to an international scale, this occurs very rarely. Excluding extensive accidental cases, medical irradiation for therapeutic use and conflicts, workers and population in general are exposed to low doses and low dose-rates. Low dose exposures, resulting from either a contamination or an external irradiation are more frequent. In fact, we could say that the whole humanity is concerned by natural exposure, which varies depending on regions, as well as by medical exposure, which varies depending on the medicalisation status of the country. (author)

  13. The problem with detriment. [Radiation detriment/health detriment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunster, H.J. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK))

    1991-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection introduced the term detriment as a quantitative expression of 'all the deleterious effects of exposure to radiation'. Detriment due only to effects on health was called 'health detriment'. It is implicit in the definition of radiation detriment, even if limited to health detriment, that it is derived from many components of different characteristics. These components include: attributable death due to cancer, illness and anxiety before that death; illness, therapy and anxiety associated with non-fatal cancer; hereditary disorders in the observable offspring and in later generations; and, at high doses, deterministic effects. The contribution that each of these components makes to the detriment is influenced by both the probability of its occurrence and its severity if it does occur. (author).

  14. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  15. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force.

  16. National Institutes of Health Funding in Radiation Oncology: A Snapshot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H.; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force

  17. National Institutes of Health funding in radiation oncology: a snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael; McBride, William H; Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Currently, pay lines for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants are at a historical low. In this climate of fierce competition, knowledge about the funding situation in a small field like radiation oncology becomes very important for career planning and recruitment of faculty. Unfortunately, these data cannot be easily extracted from the NIH's database because it does not discriminate between radiology and radiation oncology departments. At the start of fiscal year 2013 we extracted records for 952 individual grants, which were active at the time of analysis from the NIH database. Proposals originating from radiation oncology departments were identified manually. Descriptive statistics were generated using the JMP statistical software package. Our analysis identified 197 grants in radiation oncology. These proposals came from 134 individual investigators in 43 academic institutions. The majority of the grants (118) were awarded to principal investigators at the full professor level, and 122 principal investigators held a PhD degree. In 79% of the grants, the research topic fell into the field of biology, 13% in the field of medical physics. Only 7.6% of the proposals were clinical investigations. Our data suggest that the field of radiation oncology is underfunded by the NIH and that the current level of support does not match the relevance of radiation oncology for cancer patients or the potential of its academic work force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematical models for radiation effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, U.S.; Petwal, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a theoretical approach of basic mathematical models for radiation effect on human health. The largest natural sources of radiation exposure to humans are radon gas. While radon gas has always been in the environment, awareness of its contribution to human radiation exposure has increased in recent years. Radon's primary pathway is through air space in soil and rock. Pressure differences between the soil and the inside of buildings may cause radon gas to move indoors. Radon decays to radon daughters, some of which emit alpha radiation. Alpha-emitting radon daughters are adsorbed on to dust particles which, when inhaled, are trapped in the lungs and may cause gene damage, mutations and finally cancer. Exposure to excess UV radiation increases risk of skin cancer but there is also a dark side. The incidence of all types of skin cancer is related to exposure to UV radiation. Non-melanoma skin cancer, eye melanoma, and lip cancer have also been related to natural UV light

  19. Proposal to integrate the service on radiation hygiene at the primary health care services for workers exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana; Lopez Pumar, Georgina; Gonzalez Amil, Melva

    1998-01-01

    The National Health System implemented in the last few years a new pattern of primary attention for workers by creating doctors offices in work centers. At the same time, the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP) carries the medical surveillance of the staff exposed to ionizing radiation. This work proposes a program to integrate the consulting room on radiation hygiene to primary health care services for workers that work with ionizing radiation sources, aiming to ameliorate and improve them

  20. Attributability of health effects at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose-response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: 1) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either. In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  1. Attributability of Health Effects at Low Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: (i) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  2. Health check on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry using Todai Health Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takehiko; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Sudo, Seiji; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, the plants are located far from urban areas and the working environments are generally separate from each other for radiation protection purposes. The health investigation on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry was carried out using the Todai Health Index questionnaire in 1982, 1983 and 1984. As a control study non-radiation workers on the other several working fields were investigated in the same manner. The results showed that the status of radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry is similar to that of the workers in the other working fields and the THI questionnaire is useful to know health and working status of a group of workers. (author)

  3. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  4. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  5. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.; Komarov, E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies carried out in various countries and by the World Health Organization on health effects of exposure of populations to high levels of natural background radiation result in observations of different significance. There are indications of changes in chromosome aberration rate; Down's syndrome has been observed to be possibly related to radiation exposure; malignant neoplasms in bone apparently correspond to high concentrations of 226 Ra in drinking water. Although various researchers have looked for them, effects have not been demonstrated regarding cancer mortality (other than malignant neoplasms involving bone), gross congenital abnormalities, fertility index, growth and development, hereditary disease (other than the possibility of Down's syndrome), infant mortality, longevity, multiple births, sex ratio, or spontaneous abortion rate. On the basis of reported data clear quantitative conception of the risk of low-level radiation from natural sources could not be developed and feasibility studies of further epidemiological programmes should be organized. The possibility of reducing the collective population dose from natural sources could be further explored and a basis for necessary legal action on establishment of standards for possible sources of natural radiation, such as building materials, fertilizers, natural gas and water, might be developed. (author)

  6. Biological and medical effects of UV radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazena, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effecsts of UV radiation on human health are discussed. UV radiation is taken up through the skin and eyes. In the case of the eyes, the only known effects are damaging ones (e.g. cataracts). Irradiation of the skin, on the other hand, may either have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect or cause health problems if the exposure is too frequent and/or the dose too high. Positive effects are: Stimulation of the vitamin-D-3 synthesis and the autoimmune system, economisation of blood circulation, higher fitness, and the development of a UV protection system in the skin. Negative effects are: UV erythema, disturbances of the unspecific resistance and the immune system, and photocarcinogenesis. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiation and health effects. A report on the TMI-2 accident and related health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Unit 2 reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Station was severely damaged by an accident. Radioactivity was discharged to the environment resulting in a small amount of radiation exposure to the public. Continuing concerns by some members of the communities around TMI about the potential radiation-induced health effects prompted GPU Nuclear Corporation to examine the information gathered from the accident investigation in the context of our current knowledge of radiation and its effects on human health. Although this report deals with technical matters, the information is presented in a manner that can be understood by those who do not have scientific backgrounds. This report is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an overview of the past 80 years of relevant research on the subject of radiation and its effects on human health. During that time, scientists and physicians throughout the world have studied hundreds of thousands of individuals exposed to radiation from medical and occupational sources and from nuclear weapons explosions. Epidemiologic studies of humans, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb, have established that following exposure to large doses of radiation, certain health effects, including cancer, can be observed. Radiation-induced health effects from low doses of radiation, such as those associated with the TMI-2 accident, appear infrequently, if at all, and are identical and, therefore, indistinguishable from similar health effects which occur normally. For example, cancers induced by radiation are indistinguishable from those occurring spontaneously or normally. It is not possible, therefore, for scientists to determine directly whether radiation-induced health effects at low doses occur at all; such observations can only be inferred by statistical methods. The second section of this report provides a brief description of the TMI-2 accident. Most of the radioactivity from the

  8. ASA conference on radiation and health, Coolfont VI: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The 1986 ASA Conference on Radiation and Health (Coolfont VI) continued the procedure established in 1981 of holding forenoon and evening sessions, leaving afternoons free for discussion and relaxation. One exception was made this year in that Michael and Marie Stoline were invited to discuss the Chernobyl Disaster on Monday afternoon. The program consisted of the following topics: a general overview of radiation and health problems; cytogenetics and radiation (human and animal studies and statistical analysis of dose-response curves); uranium and health effects, including continuing emphasis on radon, which has attracted considerable national interest lately; epidemiologic studies of workers at nuclear power plants and an uranium processing plant; the latest assessment of atomic bomb dosimetry. These Coolfont Conferences provide an excellent environment for an interchange of ideas and information in an assemblage of scientists from a variety of disciplines. Unfortunately there is one important factor which limits this interchange: language. In order to overcome the difficulty of statisticians understanding nuclear scientists and nuclear scientists understanding statisticians, I suggested one of two procedures: each group prepare a set of commonly used terms with definitions which would be understood by the other group(s); have an introductory session in which each group attempts to explain its language to the other group(s). This problem of communication is even more serious when scientists attempt to explain their research efforts to the general public. The Coolfont Conferences on Radiation and Health should be ideal forums for development of a language which could be understood by the general public as well as different scientific groups. This document contains the abstracts of 12 presented papers

  9. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the...

  10. Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: Introducing the ESTRO HERO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, Yolande; Grau, Cai

    2012-01-01

    New evidence based regimens and novel high precision technology have reinforced the important role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer. Current data estimate that more than 50% of all cancer patients would benefit from radiotherapy during the course of their disease. Within recent years, the radiotherapy community has become more than conscious of the ever-increasing necessity to come up with objective data to endorse the crucial role and position of radiation therapy within the rapidly changing global oncology landscape. In an era of ever expanding health care costs, proven safety and effectiveness is not sufficient anymore to obtain funding, objective data about cost and cost-effectiveness are nowadays additionally requested. It is in this context that ESTRO is launching the HERO-project (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology), with the overall aim to develop a knowledge base and a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. To accomplish these objectives, the HERO project will address needs, accessibility, cost and cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy. The results will raise the profile of radiotherapy in the European cancer management context and help countries prioritizing radiotherapy as a highly cost-effective treatment strategy. This article describes the different steps and aims within the HERO-project, starting from evidence on the role of radiotherapy within the global oncology landscape and highlighting weaknesses that may undermine this position.

  11. Health economics in radiation oncology: introducing the ESTRO HERO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Yolande; Grau, Cai

    2012-04-01

    New evidence based regimens and novel high precision technology have reinforced the important role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer. Current data estimate that more than 50% of all cancer patients would benefit from radiotherapy during the course of their disease. Within recent years, the radiotherapy community has become more than conscious of the ever-increasing necessity to come up with objective data to endorse the crucial role and position of radiation therapy within the rapidly changing global oncology landscape. In an era of ever expanding health care costs, proven safety and effectiveness is not sufficient anymore to obtain funding, objective data about cost and cost-effectiveness are nowadays additionally requested. It is in this context that ESTRO is launching the HERO-project (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology), with the overall aim to develop a knowledge base and a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. To accomplish these objectives, the HERO project will address needs, accessibility, cost and cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy. The results will raise the profile of radiotherapy in the European cancer management context and help countries prioritizing radiotherapy as a highly cost-effective treatment strategy. This article describes the different steps and aims within the HERO-project, starting from evidence on the role of radiotherapy within the global oncology landscape and highlighting weaknesses that may undermine this position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health promotion and computer science in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennarola, R.; Porzio, G.; Pennarola, E.; Cavaliere, L.

    2008-01-01

    An automatic system of clinical-diagnostic information aimed at radiological protection and sanitary prevention has been applied to workers exposed to ionising radiation at the University of Naples Federico II over the last 5 years. The medical surveillance has been carried out in 247 workers on duty at 29 scientific Departments and 30 laboratories of Naples University Federico II exposed to radiation sources which were constituted by a particle accelerator, Rx Diffractometer, electronic microscope and radionuclides of low energy ( 32 P, 35 S, 7 Be, 3 H, 125 I, 14 P, 14 C, 33 Y, 241 Am, 55 Fe, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 88 Y, 226 Rn, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 210 Pb, 109 Cd, 22 Na). For every person exposed a computerized case sheet was elaborated recording clinical, biological, dosimetric and other preventive data (anlage, smoking, alcohol, drugs, toxics). In case of localized radiation risk, computerized capillaroscopic monitoring of the regions of the skin exposed to radiation was carried out. The results of the research show that the absorbed doses in the workers have generally been under effective dose limit for public exposure (1 mSv/y). The clinical and biological data have shown the healthiness of the workers exposed to ionising radiation. Also the capillaroscopic examinations in the localized expositions of the skin have generally given good perfusion of the exposed tissues, integrating the health concept. The statistical and computer method with computer developed graphics has proved useful in particular risk conditions (i.e. hematic alterations, functions of the emunctory organs, etc.).This research has highlighted the role of medical surveillance in developing health promotion criteria and intervention planning through a complete real-time control of data. (author)

  13. World Health Organization, radiofrequency radiation and health - a hard nut to crack (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    In May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated cancer risks from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. RF radiation was classified as Group 2B, a possible human carcinogen. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. In spite of this, in most countries little or nothing has been done to reduce exposure and educate people on health...

  14. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Timothy K.; Goodman, Chris D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Boldt, R. Gabriel [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Rodrigues, George B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Lock, Michael I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zaric, Gregory S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Louie, Alexander V., E-mail: Dr.alexlouie@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. Results: In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Conclusions: Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions

  15. Evaluation of Health Economics in Radiation Oncology: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Timothy K.; Goodman, Chris D.; Boldt, R. Gabriel; Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A.; Rodrigues, George B.; Lock, Michael I.; Mishra, Mark V.; Zaric, Gregory S.; Louie, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. Results: In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Conclusions: Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions

  16. Role of the health center in health crisis management, especially in a radiation disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurahashi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In a disaster, in particular a radiation disaster, health centers should play an active role in taking advantage of its own expertise. There are various causes of a health crisis; the response to a health crisis is defined according to each cause. However, it should be adequately addressed by assuming the worst case for a health crisis of unknown cause. The role of health centers, in addition to the implementation of appropriate and timely treatment of any health crisis, is prevention of a future health crisis, advanced preparation, and damage recovery; activities during normal times are also important to maintain. Regarding the specific activities of the health center, judgment in the preference of measures to be performed is important. That the information is collected properly based on the idea of risk communication, coordination, and public relations transmission is required also for health centers. (author)

  17. Conference on the public health aspects of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The Conference on Public Health Aspects of Protection against Ionizing Radiation was convened by the World Health Organization at Duesseldorf, Germany, from 25 June - 4 July 1962. It was designed to examine the part which public health authorities should play in controlling the hazards of ionizing radiation, and it was attended by 63 participants from 36 countries and from a number of international organizations. The aims of the Conference were: a) to specify the role of public health services in respect of radiation protection; b) to review, on the basis of existing material and information to be made available at the Conference, the present situation of radiation protection services in different countries and to discuss desirable trends in the organization and administration of these services within the public health services; and c) to consider requirements as regards qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services. The programme of the Conference centred around seven major topics: 1) ionizing radiation as a public health problem; 2) principles of public health in radiation protection; 3) review of existing laws, regulations, codes of practice and examples of radiation protection services; 4) the role of public health radiation protection services; 5) the role of public health services in planning for and dealing with emergencies (incidents and accidents); 6) qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services; 7) health education of the public in the field of radiation protection

  18. Conference on the public health aspects of protection against ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-01

    The Conference on Public Health Aspects of Protection against Ionizing Radiation was convened by the World Health Organization at Duesseldorf, Germany, from 25 June - 4 July 1962. It was designed to examine the part which public health authorities should play in controlling the hazards of ionizing radiation, and it was attended by 63 participants from 36 countries and from a number of international organizations. The aims of the Conference were: a) to specify the role of public health services in respect of radiation protection; b) to review, on the basis of existing material and information to be made available at the Conference, the present situation of radiation protection services in different countries and to discuss desirable trends in the organization and administration of these services within the public health services; and c) to consider requirements as regards qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services. The programme of the Conference centred around seven major topics: 1) ionizing radiation as a public health problem; 2) principles of public health in radiation protection; 3) review of existing laws, regulations, codes of practice and examples of radiation protection services; 4) the role of public health radiation protection services; 5) the role of public health services in planning for and dealing with emergencies (incidents and accidents); 6) qualifications and training of public health personnel in charge of radiation protection services; 7) health education of the public in the field of radiation protection.

  19. Contribution of modern medical imaging technology to radiation health effects in exposed populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The introduction of technically-advanced imaging systems in medicine carries with it potential health hazards, particularly from ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure of human populations. This paper will discuss what we know and what we do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation, how the risks of radiation-induced health effects may be estimated, the sources of the scientific data, the dose-response models used, the uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess health risks from low-level radiation, and what the implications might be for radiation protection in medicine and public health policy

  20. Provenance of nuclear radioactivity radiation and hazardous health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhuja, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    This assessment has an important consideration for nuclear energy upon the creation of radioactivity being generated and mobilized through various energy agencies. The term 'Radioactivity' or the rate of nuclear decay is measured in units called 'Becquerel' (Bq), where 1 Bq= 1 event (disintegration) per second. Another commonly used unit of radioactivity is the Curie (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.70 x 10"1"0 Bq. Radiation is all around us. It is in our environment and has been since the earth was formed. As a result, life has evolved in the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation. It comes from outer space (cosmic), ground (terrestrial) and even from within our own bodies. It is in the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the state of our wellbeing. However, the entire system is related to human and human-health issues. This paper examines the empirical evidence incorporated with human-made nuclear radioactivity from nuclear energy sources, especially while maintaining the viability of radioactive mechanisms, which may cause the uncontrolled highly dangerous harmful effects of radionuclides in human body and these radiations can even damage the DNA in the cells of people when exposed to it, because it is the DNA that passes on instructions for growth and development to the next generation. This, in turn, is the paradigm for the health risks of various sources of nuclear radioactivity. (author)

  1. Radiation and health effects. A report on the TMI-2 accident and related health studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-08-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Unit 2 reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Station was severely damaged by an accident. Radioactivity was discharged to the environment resulting in a small amount of radiation exposure to the public. Continuing concerns by some members of the communities around TMI about the potential radiation-induced health effects prompted GPU Nuclear Corporation to examine the information gathered from the accident investigation in the context of our current knowledge of radiation and its effects on human health. Although this report deals with technical matters, the information is presented in a manner that can be understood by those who do not have scientific backgrounds. This report is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an overview of the past 80 years of relevant research on the subject of radiation and its effects on human health. During that time, scientists and physicians throughout the world have studied hundreds of thousands of individuals exposed to radiation from medical and occupational sources and from nuclear weapons explosions. Epidemiologic studies of humans, such as the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb, have established that following exposure to large doses of radiation, certain health effects, including cancer, can be observed. Radiation-induced health effects from low doses of radiation, such as those associated with the TMI-2 accident, appear infrequently, if at all, and are identical and, therefore, indistinguishable from similar health effects which occur normally. For example, cancers induced by radiation are indistinguishable from those occurring spontaneously or normally. It is not possible, therefore, for scientists to determine directly whether radiation-induced health effects at low doses occur at all; such observations can only be inferred by statistical methods. The second section of this report provides a brief description of the TMI-2 accident. Most of the radioactivity from the

  2. The impact of cell phone radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salakhov, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Constant exposure to radio frequency signals from mobile phones and their base stations could adversely affect on human health. As a consequence, as a result of this impact it is appeared frequent headaches, loss of memory and concentration, tension in the eardrum and sudden bouts of fatigue, childhood leukemia, brain tumors, eye cataracts, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system. Some people suffer from hyperelectrosensitivity. It should be noted that the analog phones much more harmful to human health than digital ones. Radio frequency of electromagnetic fields which is used by a modern cellular communications is in the range from 450 MHz to 1.9 GHz. Such fields unlike to ionizing radiation can not cause secondary radioactivity in the body. The cell phone is a device having a potential danger to health, so it is advisable wherever possible to protect yourselves from its use, or at least to minimize its use

  3. Training strategic community agents in health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Teresa C.S.B.; Silva, IIson P.M. da; Jannuzzi, Denise M.S.; Maurmo, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-01

    The main motivation for the development of training was the need to train agents (opinion makers) with proximity and credibility among the population, to clarify the most frequently asked questions in relation to ionizing radiation, the operation of nuclear power plants, emergency plans and about the possibility of there effects of radiation on the health of inhabitants in regions close to the central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. The project has a target audience of 420 agents, 60 of them have already been trained in a pilot project . The results indicate that the topics of training were adequate and the agents have expanded their knowledge. On the other hand, the information passed on to communities by agents, recognized by this population as ' the most reliable people', is of greater credibility and likelihood of success in communicating important issues for the population living in the vicinity of the CNAAA. (author)

  4. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  5. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval on November 11 t h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  6. The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, A.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH) [de

  7. Radiation and health: low-level-ionizing radiation exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports of various radiation exposure and protection studies is presented. An in-depth analysis of reports available suggests that the possible beneficial outcomes of exposure to LLIR are: increased Growth rate, Development, Neurogenesis, Memory, Fecundity (Fertility), Immunity (Resistance to diseases due to large doses of radiation) and Lifespan (Longevity) Decreased Cancer deaths, Cardiovascular deaths, Respiratory deaths, Neonatal deaths, Sterility, Infection, Premature deaths. The findings also suggest that the LNT theory is overly stated for assessing carcinogenic risks at low doses. It is not scientifically justified and should be banned as it creates radio phobia thereby blocking the efforts to supply reliable, environmentally friendly nuclear energy and important medical therapies. There is no need for anyone to live in fear of serious health consequences from the radioactivity that comes out from nuclear installations and exposures in the range of background radiation. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to Indian population

  8. Impact of UV Radiation on Genome Stability and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer during the past few years has increased the incidence of solar UV radiation specifically the UV-C on earth's surface is one of the major environmental concerns because of the harmful effects of this radiation in all forms of life. The solar UV radiation including the harmful wavelength range of UV-B (280-320 nm) represents a significant climatic stress for both animals and plants, causing damage to the fundamental biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, thus activating genotoxic stress and induces genome instability. When DNA absorbs UV-B light, energy from the photon causes covalent linkages to form between adjacent pyrimidine bases, creating photoproducts, primarily cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-6,4-pyrimidinone photoproduct (6,4PPs). Pyrimidine dimers create distortions in the DNA strands and therefore can inhibit DNA replication as well transcription. Lack of efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage may induce the formation of DNA double stand breaks (DSBs), one of the serious forms of damage in DNA double helix, as well as oxidative damage. Unrepaired DSBs in the actively dividing somatic cells severely affect cell growth and development, finally results in loss of cell viability and development of various diseases, such as cancer in man.This chapter mainly highlights the incidence of solar UV-radiation on earth's surface along with the formation of major types of UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and finally our present understanding on the impact on solar UV radiation on human health.

  9. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  10. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  11. Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Gordon M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

  12. Magnetic properties of Co-Rh and Ni-Rh nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondon, Tristana; Saul, Andres; Guevara, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We have calculated the magnetic properties of pure Ni, Co and Rh, and alloyed Co-Rh and Ni-Rh free-standing nanowires by an ab initio method. We have found that the pure Co and Ni wires present an enhanced magnetic moment with respect to their bulk values, and we have obtained that a magnetic order appears for pure Rh wires. For concentrations up to 50% Rh, in the alloyed Ni-Rh linear chains there is an enhancement of the total magnetic moment with respect to the pure nanowires, and in the case of Co-Rh the alloying with Rh enhances the Co magnetic moment. In both systems we obtain very high Rh magnetic moments

  13. World Health Organization, radiofrequency radiation and health - a hard nut to crack (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart

    2017-08-01

    In May 2011 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluated cancer risks from radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Human epidemiological studies gave evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. RF radiation was classified as Group 2B, a possible human carcinogen. Further epidemiological, animal and mechanistic studies have strengthened the association. In spite of this, in most countries little or nothing has been done to reduce exposure and educate people on health hazards from RF radiation. On the contrary ambient levels have increased. In 2014 the WHO launched a draft of a Monograph on RF fields and health for public comments. It turned out that five of the six members of the Core Group in charge of the draft are affiliated with International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an industry loyal NGO, and thus have a serious conflict of interest. Just as by ICNIRP, evaluation of non-thermal biological effects from RF radiation are dismissed as scientific evidence of adverse health effects in the Monograph. This has provoked many comments sent to the WHO. However, at a meeting on March 3, 2017 at the WHO Geneva office it was stated that the WHO has no intention to change the Core Group.

  14. Characterization of Rh films on Ta(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.Q.; Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface and electronic structure of Rh films on Ta(110) up to several monolayers thick on Ta(110) are characterized by photoemission, Auger emission, low energy electron diffraction and low energy ion scattering. From the variation of the Rh Auger peak-to-peak intensity as a function of evaporation time, Rh/Ta(110) appears to grow in the Stranski-Krastanov mode at room temperature. However, the LEIS data show that the Rh adatoms begin to cluster on Ta(110) before growth of the monolayer is completed. Diffuse LEED scattering suggests that the Rh films are disordered. Photoemission shows that Rh chemisorption on Ta(110) generates two peaks located at 1.2 and 2. 5 eV binding energy during the initial phase of thin film growth (0 3.7 ML). Photoemission data for CO covered surfaces show that CO dissociates on the Rh/Ta(110) surface for Rh coverages less than 2.5 ML and also show that the Rh clusters develop at least one site capable of molecular CO adsorption above 0.3 ML Rh coverage. 38 refs., 5 figs

  15. Working group 6: Health. 2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the increasing development of nuclear energy have been evaluated for the Belgian population. Nuclear industry has been shown to be safer than conventional industry, epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the nuclear energy being more complete than those related to the conventional energy. Somatic and genetic effects of small and high doses of ionizing radiations on the Belgian population have been estimated. Small doses of ionizing radiations are expected to promote only carcinogenic effects. The latent period of cancers, the plateau region (period of high risk) and the absolute and relative risk expressed per rem per 10 6 people per year for leukaemia (having the highest risk) and for the ''other cancers'' have been also estimated. These estimations were obtained by linear extrapolation to the 1 rem level from observations made after irradiation at relatively high dose levels and much higher dose rates. Strict protective regulations have been recommended in order to reduce to a minimum the exposure of population to ionizing radiations as well as to get more information on the radioactive genetic and somatic consequences on population. (G.C.)

  16. Long-term visual health risks from solar ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ocular exposure to the ultraviolet radiation (UV) contained in sunlight may result in long-term visual health problems. UV plays a role in the etiology of cataracts and possibly in the etiology of visual impairments associated with solar retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, ocular aging, cystoid macular edema, retinitis pigmentosa, and senile macular degeneration. The exact does relationships between known UV bioeffects and these ocular problems is, however, uncertain. Thus, there are questions about the extent to which protective measures should be taken to reduce UV exposure of the eye. This paper identifies the long-term visual health problems potentially associated with ocular exposure to solar UV; proposes worst-case assumptions for the role of solar UV in these visual problems; and recommends protective measures based on damage thresholds and worst-case assumptions

  17. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Absolute measurement of the cross sections of neutron radiative capture for 23Na, Cr, 55Mn, Fe, Ni, 103Rh, Ta, 197Au and 238U in the 10-600keV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rigoleur, Claude; Arnaud, Andre; Taste, Jean.

    1976-10-01

    The total energy weighting technique has been applied to measuring absolute neutron capture cross sections for 23 Na, Cr, 55 Mn, Fe, Ni, 103 Rh, Ta, 197 Au, 238 U in the 10-600keV energy range. A non hydrogeneous liquid scintillator was used to detect the gamma from the cascade. The neutron flux was measured with a 10 B INa(Tl) detector or a 6 Li glass scintillator of well known efficiency. The fast time-of-flight technique was used with on line digital computer data processing [fr

  19. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  20. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up

  1. ASA conference on radiation and health: Coolfont 7: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings provide a summary of papers presented at the seventh annual ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held at the Coolfont Conference Center in Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. More than forty scientists, including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists, and physicists, participated in the conference. The 1987 conference focused on lung cancer risks, especially lung cancer risks due to radon. The BEIR IV report, which addresses health risks of radon and other internally deposited alpha-emitters, was summarized early in the conference. Results of analyses of data on miners in Colorado and in New Mexico were presented, as well as analyses of combined data from several studies, which were used as the basis of estimates in the BEIR IV report. Statistical issues related to appropriate analysis of chronic exposure and of smoking data received considerable attention and discussion. Papers describing models for lung cancer risks based on exposure to cigarette smoke, radiation, and other substances provided insights into general understanding of lung cancer mechanisms. Carcinogenic models were also the subject of a presentation on radiation-induced skin cancer in humans and animals. In addition, relevant data on animal experiments involving radon exposure were summarized. Understanding risks requires relating them to dose, and thus the presentation on dosimetry, both for miner populations and for residents of US homes, made an important contribution to the conference. Presentations on current efforts at the state and national level to assess radon levels in US homes were also of considerable interest to the participants. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  2. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosan, K J; Ibrahim, Mto; Saidu, S A; Ma'aji, S M; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, E U; Ikhuenbor, D B; Ige, T A

    2016-08-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in-service training and monitoring on radiation safety was

  3. Characterization of Rh films on Ta(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.Q.; Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.

    1990-01-01

    The surface and electronic structure of Rh films on Ta(110) up to several monolayers thick on Ta(110) are characterized by photoemission, Auger emission, low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). From the variation of the Rh Auger peak-to-peak intensity as a function of evaporation time, Rh appears to grow in the Stranski--Krastanov mode at room temperature. However, the LEIS data show that the Rh adatoms begin to cluster on Ta(110) before growth of the monolayer is completed. Diffuse LEED scattering suggests that the Rh films are disordered. Photoemission shows that Rh chemisorption on Ta(110) generates two peaks located at -1.5 and -2.5 eV binding energy during the initial phase of thin-film growth (0 3.7 ML). CO dissociates on the Rh/Ta(110) surface for Rh coverages<2.5 ML and the surface develops a site capable of molecular CO adsorption above 0.3-ML Rh coverage

  4. Relationships between skin cancers and blood groups--link between non-melanomas and ABO/Rh factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.

  5. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  6. A mathematical foundation for controlling radiation health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection is to attain an adequate control of radiation health risk compared with other risks. Our society in the 21 st century is predicted by some experts to seek the high priority of safety for expanding activity of human beings. The law of controlling risks will be a key subject to serve the safety of human beings and their environment. The main principles of the ICRP system of radiological system are strongly relating to the general law of various risk controls. The individual-based protection concept clearly gives us a mathematical model of controlling risks in general. This paper discusses the simplest formulation of controlling risks in the ICRP system, including other relating systems. First, the basic characteristics of occupational exposure as a risk control is presented by analyzing the data compiled over half a century. It shows the relation ship between dose control levels and individually controlled doses. The individual-based control also exerts some influence on the resultant collective dose. The study of occupational exposure concludes the simple mathematical expression of controlling doses under the ICRP system as shown by Kumazawa and Numakunai. Second, the typical characteristics of biological effects with repair or recovery of bio-systems are given by analyzing the data published. Those show the relationship between dose and biologically controlled or regulated response. The bio-system is undoubtedly relating to cybernetics that contains many functions of controlling risks. Consequently radiation effects might somewhat express the feature of biological risk controls. The shouldered survival of irradiated cells shows cybernetic characteristics that are assumed to be the mathematical foundation of controlling risks. The dose-response relationship shows another type of cybernetic characteristics, which could be reduced to the same basic form of controlling risks. The limited study of radiation effects definitely confirms the two

  7. Rh Variability in Multi-Ethnic Perspective: Consequences for RH Genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.M. Tax

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe RhD bloodgroup was first described by Levine en Stetson in 1939 after the manifestation of a hemolytic transfusion reaction in a woman who recently gave birth, after transfusion with her husbands red cells. The RhD-negative woman produced antibodies against the RhD present on the

  8. Human vaccination against RH5 induces neutralizing antimalarial antibodies that inhibit RH5 invasion complex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Ruth O; Silk, Sarah E; Elias, Sean C

    2017-01-01

    serum antibodies exhibited cross-strain functional growth inhibition activity (GIA) in vitro, targeted linear and conformational epitopes within RH5, and inhibited key interactions within the RH5 invasion complex. This is the first time to our knowledge that substantial RH5-specific responses have been...

  9. GnRH-agonist versus GnRH-antagonist IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, E G; Pados, G; Grimbizis, G

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current debate concerning possible differences in efficacy between the two GnRH analogues used in IVF stimulated cycles, the current study aimed to explore whether progesterone control in the late follicular phase differs when GnRH antagonist is used as compared with GnRH agonist...

  10. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  11. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  12. Non-ionizing radiation and health protection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, Henri.

    1979-01-01

    Wavelength and frequency are two closely related properties which determine the characteristics of any particular type of electromagnetic radiation and which can be used interchangeably to describe it. For protection purposes the determination of the energy absorbed (absorbed dose) and of its distribution within living systems, whatever the radiation concerned, is still one of the chief problems to be solved. Therefore, although thermal effects are often prevailing, no appropriate dose-effect relationships could be established in most cases and more particularly as far as non-thermal effects are concerned. The problems associated with the different types of NIR are briefly reviewed. An increasing number of countries is promulgating regulatory measures for limiting exposure to NIR of occupationally exposed individuals and of the general population. Harmonization of basic concepts and internationally acceptable protection standards are therefore urgently needed. IRPA is probably the only international, non-governmental scientific organization able to promote wide international and interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of health protection against NIR. Therefore, after having carefully considered the situation, IRPA felt that it was its responsibility to produce guidance on basic protection criteria and standards and created the International NIR-Committee with the objective of developing background documents and internationally accepted recommendations

  13. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  14. New superconductor LaRhSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, S.; Moriwaki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Tanaka, H.; Takabatake, T.; Fujii, H.

    1994-01-01

    Superconductivity in LaRhSb was newly found below the transition temperature T c = 2.67 K by the measurements of the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat in magnetic fields. The characteristics of the superconductivity determined in this study indicate that LaRhSb is a type II superconductor following the BCS theory. (orig.)

  15. Rh-catalyzed linear hydroformylation of styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, E.H.; Janssen, M.C.C.; Mueller, C.; Lutz, M.; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Usually the Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of styrene predominantly yields the branched, chiral aldehyde. An inversion of regioselectivity can be achieved using strong p-acceptor ligands. Binaphthol-based diphosphite and bis(dipyrrolyl-phosphorodiamidite) ligands were applied in the Rh-catalyzed

  16. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  17. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  18. Analysis of the health of a group exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Ledesma, F.; Crespo, H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of exposure to low radiation doses, the health status of professional staff exposed to ionizing radiation is investigated. Based on archived material of medical and radiation exposure records taken over a time span of 13 years, a variety of medical parameters are explored. Findings of surveys made are given. (author)

  19. A comparative DFT study on the dehydrogenation of methanol on Rh(100) and Rh(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Wu, Xingyu; Yu, Yingzhe

    2018-04-01

    Numerous density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the complete mechanisms of methanol dehydrogenation on Rh(100) and Rh(110) surfaces. The adsorption properties of relevant species were discussed in details. In addition, a comprehensive reaction network including four reaction pathways was built and analyzed. It is found that the initial Osbnd H bond scission of CH3OH seems to be more favorable than Csbnd H bond cleavage on both Rh(100) and Rh(110) surfaces from the perspective of activation barriers. It is also concluded that path1 (CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO) is the predominant pathway on both Rh(100) and Rh (110) surfaces. On the whole, in most of the dehydrogenation reactions investigated, the energy barriers on Rh(100) are lower than those on Rh (110). Remarkable differences in the activity and predominant reaction pathway on Rh(100), Rh(110) and Rh(111) indicate that the dehydrogenation of methanol might be structure-sensitive.

  20. Health effects and radiation dose from exposure to radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon exposure has been declared a health hazard by several organisations, for example the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). The basis for the risk estimate has been the results from epidemiological studies on miners exposed to radon, supported by the results of residential epidemiology. Only few of the many residential epidemiological studies carried out hitherto have a design applicable for a risk estimate. The largest is the Swedish national study but several large well designed studies are ongoing. An excess risk has also been found in animal research. The model describes smoking and radon exposure as between additive and multiplicative, found in both miners and residential studies. The relatively few non-smokers among the miners and also among the residents give a problem at estimating the radon risk for these groups. It would also be desirable to know more about the importance of the age and the time period at exposure. Lung dose calculations from radon exposure are not recommended by ICRP in their publication 66. For comparison with other radiation sources the ICRP recommends the concept 'dose conversion convention' obtained as the risk estimate divided by the detriment. Other effects of radon exposure than lung cancer have not been shown epidemiologically, but dose calculations indicate an excess risk of about 5% of the excess lung cancer risk. (author)

  1. Non-Ionizing Radiation - sources, exposure and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation contains the electromagnetic wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Optical radiation consists of UV, visible and infrared (IR) radiation while EM fields include static, extremely low (ELF), low frequency (LF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields. The principal scientific organization on non-ionizing radiation is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The main activity of ICNIRP is to provide guidance on safe exposure and protection of workers and members of the public by issuing statements and recommendations. (orig.)

  2. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  3. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2006-12-15

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  4. Personnel radiation exposure in the Asse saltmine repository during 1967 to 2008. Health monitoring Asse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The health monitoring Asse includes the following chapters: Introduction, background information including handling of radioactive materials and radiation protection issues, data on radiation exposure (personnel dosimetry, incorporation surveillance, local dose rate measurements, exhaust monitoring, radioactivity in the salt mine air and in the brine, contamination), concept of the data base, interrogation of the personnel, quantification of the individual radiation doses, results of the radiation exposure quantification; significance of the results and perspectives.

  5. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  6. Legal aspects of recent studies on the health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of ionising radiation has recently been reviewed by three different high-level bodies. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) issued in 1988 a report to the General Assembly with the title ''Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionising Radiation''. A review of the biological effects of ionizing radiations has also been performed by the United States National Research Council's Committee BEIR V, published in 1989, with the title ''Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionising Radiation''. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has in November 1990 adopted its new recommendations issued as ICRP Publication 60. One of the newer health hazards is non-ionizing radiation (NIR), exposure to which extends from occupational into the field of public health. There are also collaborate studies on the health risks of non-ionizing radiation performed by e.g. the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). The most recent studies on the health effects of radiation are discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Rh-flash acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously, if the threshold is zero the system of data processing is off and all data will be stored. The document is structured on six sections titled: 1. Description; 2. Specifications; 3. Explaining the design of channels; 4. Explaining the shared part of the design; 5. Addressing (→ user guide); 6. Software precautions. (author)

  8. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Data are reported on the possible mechanism of biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on the human body. The lesioning effect of this radiation resulted in some of the persons in the development of disorders of the function of information and vegetative-regulatory systems determined as a desintegration syndrome. This syndrome is manifested in unspecific neuro-vegetative disorders of the function of most important physiological and homeostatic system of the body leading to weakening of the processes of compensation and adaptation. This condition is characterized by an unspecific radiation syndrome as distinct from acute or chronic radiation disease which is a specific radiation syndrome

  9. 103Ru/103mRh generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, B.; Kowalska, E.; Bilewicz, A.; Skarnemark, G.

    2009-01-01

    103m Rh is a very promising radionuclide for Auger electron therapy due to its very low photon/electron ratio. The goal of the present work was the elaboration a method for production of large quantities of 103m Rh for generator system. It was found that the combination of solvent extraction with evaporation of 103 RuO 4 followed by decomposition of H 5 IO 6 makes it possible to produce 103m Rh of high radionuclidic and chemical purity. (author)

  10. Scattering of fast neutrons from 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, E.; Reitmann, D.

    1978-01-01

    The scattering of fast neutrons from 103 Rh was studied by means of (n, n), (n, n') and (n, n'γ) measurements at neutron energies up to 2 MeV. More than fifty unknown γ-transitions were identified and a level scheme established which includes fifteen unreported excited states. Branching ratios, spins and parities for these levels were deduced, as well as the effective activation cross sections for the 103 Rh(n, n')sup(103m)Rh reaction. The results are compared with existing data and with calculations based on the optical and statistical models. (Auth.)

  11. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  12. The comparison of health status between male and female medical radiation workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Guochao; Tian, Youjia; Zhang, Fengmei; Feng, Zhihui; Chen, Qianshu; Qu, Jianying; Lim, David

    2017-01-01

    To assess the health statue of chronically exposed Chinese medical radiation workers. A cross-sectional study of 530 medical radiation workers in a city of China was conducted to document the health status and the monitored annually absorbed doses. Long-term and low-dose radiation exposure can affect a number of health indicators in the individuals, which covered the cardiovascular system, hematologic system, ophthalmology, liver and kidney s functions, chromosome aberration and micronucleus. The differences in the health status between male and female individuals were associated with job types and exposed years of service. The monitored doses of individuals were lower than the limit value of the national standard. The health status in chronically exposed individuals demonstrated some gender difference associated with length of exposure and work type. This study provides some evidence to understand the health status of medical radiation workers in China and have the potentially to inform screening and clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  13. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  14. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczynski Dariusz; Xu Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in ...

  15. Some elementary concepts of radiation health and safety in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1980-02-01

    Some elementary concepts of radiation health and safety in underground uranium mines are discussed. This report reviews the main radiation sources which contribute to the contamination of mine atmospheres and hence to the exposure of mine workers. A brief discussion of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, with special reference to radon and its progeny, is followed by the introduction of the presently accepted radiation indexes for radiation hazard (WL) and radiation exposure (WLM). Finally, a succinct review of the available techniques for radiation control and monitoring in underground uranium mines is complemented by a discussion of various methods of personnel radiation protection, including the use of respirators, job rotation, personnel dosimetry and medical surveillance

  16. Proceedings of the Stakeholders Conference on Review of the Radiation Health and Safety Bill 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Kenya enacted a radiation protection law in 1982 largely to control the use of radiation sources in medical field. The use of radiation has now been extended to sectors and significantly increased in the medical field. Radiation protection Board held its second a stake holders conference to review the radiation health and safety law to make more inclusive and the scope of the proposed legislation relevant. The conference discussed usage, classification and regulation of conventional radiation sources and the associated radiation practices. The conference discussed an overview on the recent development towards the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation by Ministry of Energy.It was noted 95% of public exposure to radiation comes conventional sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, education and 5% of public exposure comes from natural sources and power plants

  17. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  18. Absolute calibration of the Rh-103(n,n')Rh-103m reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.H.; Murphy, M.F.; March, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The uncertainties in determining the absolute values of the Rh-103(n, n') Rh-103m reaction rate (which is widely used as a neutron damage flux monitor) have been reduced to approximately +-5%. This has been achieved with the use of a calibrated source of Pd-103-Rh-103m activity supplied by the IAEA. Agreement to within 3% between measured and calculated values of the reaction rate (normalised to the U-238 fission rate) has been achieved. (author)

  19. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  20. Radiation protection for medical and allied health personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine. In addition, an attempt has been made to reflect current practice in medicine and present the material in terms readily understood by an audience, most of whom have limited expertise in radiation protection terminology and principles. This report is intended to cover those sources of ionizing radiation encountered commonly in the clinical environment

  1. World health organization radiation medicine programme in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.; Volodin, V.

    1993-01-01

    Where WHO's catalytic role can stimulate cooperation between countries, and in crucial areas where international cooperation in use of ionizing radiation in medicine is needed, activities may be carried out in such areas as; 1) preparation and dissemination of authoritative information on rational use of radiation in medicine; 2) cooperative quality assurance studies; 3) workshops on specific topics in radiation medicine or protection; 4) seminars on topics that have international implications. 21 refs

  2. Health (Radiation Safety) Act 1983 (Victoria) No. 9889 of 17 May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Act amends the Health Act 1958 by adding a new Section entitled ''Radiation Safety''. In addition to establishing guidelines for the registration and licensing of certain radiation apparatus and sealed radioactive sources, this new Section authorises the Governor in Council to make regulations concerning, inter alia, transport and disposal of radioactive substances and public health and safety. The Act also sets up a Radiation Advisory Committee and a Radiographers and Radiation Technologists Registration Board of Victoria and amends the Nuclear Activities (Prohibitions) Act 1983 in respect of certain licensing provisions. (NEA) [fr

  3. Can the ionizing radiation and sunlight be harmful to health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesmen, Curt

    2008-01-01

    We're all exposed to radiation sources: the sun, X-rays, mammograms, CT scans, dental exams, even soil and we're just now finding out whether those rays, combined, are dangerous. Scientists are still figuring that out and they tend to disagree about the risks. But they recently found worrying signs that radiation exposure is on the rise, thanks largely to the popularity of high-tech medical exams such as CT scans. So it's wise to limit exposure as possible. The odds of developing cancer from radiation exposure are very small, but risks do rise the younger a person is radiated. There is a radiation footprint for every person. Some scientists do not believe any level of radiation is necessarily safe. At some time in life anyone will need a radiation-based medical treatment or diagnostic test. Radiation therapy may be the best way to shrink a cancer or save a life. A recent study warned that up to one-third of all CT scans may be medically unnecessary. Frequent flying theoretically ups cancer risks. After all, seven miles above sea level, there is much less atmosphere to absorb radiation from the sun.

  4. Control of Hazards to Health From Laser Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Medical guidance is limited to biological data available. This bulletin encompasses the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which laser radiation can be produced including: ultraviolet (UV...

  5. Upgrading environmental radiation data: health physics society committee report HPSR-1 (1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This report is a collection of nine individual Health Physics Society subcommittee reports on different aspects of environmental radiation data associated with nuclear power plants. The subcommittee reports include: Environmental Radiation Monitoring Objectives, Definition of Critical Pathways and Radionuclides for Population Radiation Exposure at Nuclear Power Stations, Propagation of Uncertainties in Environmental Pathway Dose Models, Detection of Changes in Environmental Levels Due to Nuclear Power Plants, Quality Assurance for Environmental Monitoring Programs, Reporting of Environmental Radiation Measurements Data, Statistical Methods for Environmental Radiation Data Interpretation, Effective Communication with the Public, Environmental Radiological Surveillance-Mechanisms for Information Exchange

  6. Ginsenoside Rh2 Improves Cardiac Fibrosis via PPARδ–STAT3 Signaling in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsiang Lo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2 is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer, a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced model of type-1 diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats, the increased fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW ratio were substantially alleviated by Rh2. Moreover, Rh2 improved cardiac performance in STZ-diabetic rats. Histological results from Masson staining showed that Rh2 attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-diabetic rats. The effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 at a dose sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ in STZ-diabetic rats. The role of PPARδ was subsequently investigated in vitro. Rh2 restored the decreased PPARδ expression level in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, increased protein levels of fibrotic signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 and fibronectin, were reduced by Rh2 in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 or siRNA specific for PPARδ Taken together, PPARδ activation may inhibit STAT3 activation to reduce CCN2 and fibronectin expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, Rh2 improves cardiac function and fibrosis by increasing PPARδ signaling. Therefore, Rh2 is suitable to develop as an alternative remedy for cardiac fibrosis.

  7. Improving of health and safety contribution of OECD/NEA Radiation Protection Committee and Public Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2004-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear energy Agency, has, since 1957, been addressing issues in radiological protection through its Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). The Committee is made up of regulators and radiation protection experts, with the broad mission to provide timely identification of new and emerging issues, to analyse their possible implications and to recommend or take action to address these issues to further enhance radiation protection regulation and implementation. The regulatory and operational consensus developed by the CRPPH on these emerging issues supports policy and regulation development in Member countries, and disseminates good practice. To best serve the needs of its Member countries, the CRPPH has been focusing its work in recent years on a few key topic areas. These induce the evolution of the system of radiological protection, the advancement of preparedness for nuclear emergency accidents, and the improvement of occupational exposure management at nuclear power plants. With the International Commission on Radiological Protection about to issue new recommendations, due out in 2005, the CRPPH will take advantage of the radiological protection community's recent focus on emerging policy and strategic issues to develop a new CRPPH Collective Opinion. This document, to be published in 2005, will serve the Committee as a guide for its programme of work for the coming 5 to 10 years. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Comparison of long GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare long GnRH agonist with GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders. Materials and Methods: Medical charts of 531 poor responder women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF cycle at Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children’s Hospital, IVF Center were retrospectively analysed. Those who received at least 300 IU/daily gonadotropin and had ≤3 oocytes retrieved were enrolled in the study. Poor responders were categorized into two groups as those who received long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist regimen. Results: Treatment duration and total gonadotropin dosage were significantly higher in women undergoing the long GnRH agonist regimen compared with the GnRH antagonist regimen (p<0.001 for both. Although the number of total and mature oocytes retrieved was similar between the groups, good quality embryos were found to be higher in the GnRH antagonist regimen. The day of embryo transfer and number of transferred embryos were similar in the groups. No statistically significant differences were detected in pregnancy (10.5% vs 14.1%, clinical pregnancy (7.7% vs 10.6% and early pregnancy loss rates (27.2% vs 35% between the groups. Conclusion: GnRH antagonist regimen may be preferable to long GnRH regimen as it could decrease the cost and treatment duration in poor responders.

  9. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  10. The BEIR 3 report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    In 1980, a report was compiled by the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation (BEIR-III Report). A general background is given of the implications of this report on the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. First, the reasons for having advisory committees on radiation and why the BEIR Committee and its current report are somewhat different from the others are briefly outlined. This is followed by discussions on 1) the important biological effects of low-level radiation; 2) what we know and do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation; 3) the uncertainties in the dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer; 4) the controversy over the estimation of the cancer risk from low-level radiation; 5) the sources of epidemiological data for the estimation of excess cancer risk in exposed human populations; 6) the risk estimates of radiation-induced cancer in man; and 7) the implications of numerical risk estimation for radiation protection and public health policy. (UK)

  11. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  12. Late health effects of radiation. Knowledge gained through 60 years experience in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings begin with Preface by World Health Organization (WHO) and Message from Nagasaki University, and contain the topics of Health studies on atomic bomb survivors, WHO programs on radiation and health, Round-table discussion, and Special articles. The first topic involves the Radiation effects studies of RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, the Japanese-US research organization focused on the study of health effects of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), Activities at the atomic bomb survivors health care commission, Late health effects of atomic bomb survivors, Late medical effects of atomic bombs still persisting after over sixty years, Solid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors/ preliminary data from a second follow-up, and Multiple primary cancers in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The second; Key radiation projects at the WHO, The role of the WHO in strengthening capacity of the member states for preparedness and response to radiation emergencies, and Diagnostic imaging in a global perspective. A moderator and 8 discussants concerned with topics above give their issues in the third topic. Special articles describe about Historical role of L. S. Taylor in American radiation safety and protection, and Responsibility beyond 60 years. (T.I.)

  13. Non-ionizing radiations : physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Workshop was a project of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA and comprised a series of educational lectures and demonstrations intended to give a comprehensive overview of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: physical characteristics, sources of concern, levels of exposure, mechanisms of interaction and reported effects of these fields and radiations with biological tissues, human studies, health risk assessment, national and international standards and guidelines, and protective measures

  14. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  15. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  16. 78 FR 19268 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  17. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  18. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  19. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  20. 78 FR 38346 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  1. 77 FR 15761 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  2. 78 FR 732 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  3. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  4. 78 FR 62635 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  5. 75 FR 39029 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  6. 76 FR 77235 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  7. Study of national registration systems for health records of radiation workers. National radiation dose registration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Haruo; Kanda, Keiji

    1999-01-01

    A national radiation dose registration system is proposed in this paper. In Japan, only one radiation dose registration system is partly effective. It is applied for workers in nuclear power plants which are under control of regulatory laws for nuclear reactors. The total system was proposed previously by the Committee for Compensation Claims of Nuclear Accidents. The reason for the delay in establishing a registration system for all radiation workers is supposedly a lack of effort to adjust differences among items in radiation protection laws and the promotion of public acceptance to atomic power. Items about dose recordings, record keeping and dose-record reporting in all of the radiation regulatory laws are compared to each other, and items were extracted for revision. (author)

  8. Hypersensitivity reaction with intravenous GnRH after pulsatile subcutaneous GnRH treatment in male hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, V.; Milosević, Z.; Djukanović, R.; Micić, D.; Nesović, M.; Manojlović, D.; Djordjević, P.; Mićić, J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic pulsatile subcutaneous administration of low doses of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is an effective therapy for men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Hypersensitivity reactions to GnRH are rare. We wish to report hypersensitivity reactions with intravenous GnRH after low dose subcutaneous pulsatile GnRH treatment in two men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism due to suprasellar disease.

  9. Polymorphism in the Mr 32,000 Rh protein purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, A.M.; Smith, B.L.; Agre, P.

    1988-01-01

    A M r 32,000 integral membrane protein has previously been identified on erythrocytes bearing the Rh(D) antigen and is thought to contain the antigenic variations responsible for the different Rh phenotypes. To study it on a biochemical level, a simple large-scale method was developed to purify the M r 32,000 Rh protein from multiple units of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Erythrocyte membrane vesicles were solubilized in NaDodSO 4 , and a tracer of immunoprecipitated 125 I surface-labeled Rh protein was added. The Rh protein was purified to homogeneity by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by preparative NaDodSO 4 /PAGE. Approximately 25 nmol of pure Rh protein was recovered from each unit of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Rh protein purified from both Rh phenotypes appeared similar by one-dimensional NaDodSO 4 /PAGE, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences for the first 20 residues were identical. Rh proteins purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood were compared by two-dimensional iodopeptide mapping after 125 I-labeling and α-chymotrypsin digestion. The peptide maps were very similar. These data indicate that a similar core Rh protein exists in both Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes, and the Rh proteins from erythrocytes with different Rh phenotypes contain distinct structural polymorphisms

  10. Basic topical problems on health hazards from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Merkle, W.; Lechle, M.; Matthies, M.; Messerer, P.; Schindel, F.; Wirth, E.; Eisfeld, K.

    In the framework of this research contract, a number of important questions have been considered which have been of basic interest in radiological protection against low doses of ionizing radiation. In particular, research concentrated on the various statistical concepts for the evaluation of epidemiological data for the purpose of radiation risk analysis, derivation of dose-time-effect-relationships for certain somatic effects, time dependence of selected dose-conversion factors, radiation hazards of carbon-14, tritium, and of radon daughter products. The essential results have been reported in separate publications, and therefore will only be shortly summarized here. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Radiation protection medicine - a special field of health care and industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.

    1988-01-01

    The definition of the term radiation protection medicine is followed by a brief account of the pathophysiology of radiation effects. Developments in the special field of general and occupational health are also described together with relevant GDR regulations. Information is provided on what is done at present at various levels in the GDR, in the context of peaceful use of nuclear energy, to provide adequate services in radiation protection medicine for all radiation workers and the population, with reference to the scope of activities of the Institute of Medicine attached to the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, the network of works medical officers in charge of radiation protection and the system for clinical treatment of acute radiation damage. (author)

  12. Low-dose ionizing radiation – is it harmful to health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, A. H. [CERN Radiation Protection Group (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN))

    1987-09-15

    A conference on the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation organized in London earlier this year by the British Nuclear Energy Society brought together epidemiologists who have been investigating the mortality of workers from the nuclear industry in an attempt to put low-level radiation risk estimates on a scientific basis.

  13. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed

  14. Effect of radiation on the health of workers associated with oil drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Zafar, M.M.; Zafar, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Study of the radiation effects on the health of employees involved in the oil drilling are reported in this paper. The data obtained from different oil fields of Pakistan shows that some of the workers activity engaged in oil drilling suffer from vomiting fever, leukemia and lung cancer, most probably due to the effects of radiation on the body. (author)

  15. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes

  16. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  17. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Human Health (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The detrimental and beneficial effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the UVB and UVA ranges are discussed. The main benefit of UV radiation is promoting the synthesis of vitamin D from precursors in the skin. Detrimental effects include acute sun damage in the form of sunburn and chronic sun damage leading to photoageing and possibly to cutaneous malignancies. Other detrimental effects of UV exposure include photosensitivity reactions to ingested drugs and rare examples of genetically determined photosensitivies. (author)

  18. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Human Health (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKie, R.M

    2000-07-01

    The detrimental and beneficial effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the UVB and UVA ranges are discussed. The main benefit of UV radiation is promoting the synthesis of vitamin D from precursors in the skin. Detrimental effects include acute sun damage in the form of sunburn and chronic sun damage leading to photoageing and possibly to cutaneous malignancies. Other detrimental effects of UV exposure include photosensitivity reactions to ingested drugs and rare examples of genetically determined photosensitivies. (author)

  19. Environment and health: 3. Ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gruijl, F.R.; Van der Leun, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is responsible for a variety of familiar photochemical reactions, including photochemical smog, bleaching of paints and decay of plastics. Conjugated bonds in organic molecules such as proteins and DNA absorb the UV radiation, which can damage these molecules. By a fortunate evolutionary event, the oxygen produced by photosynthesis forms a filter in the outer reaches of our atmosphere that absorbs the most energetic and harmful UV radiation, with wavelengths below 240 nm (in the UVC band [wavelength 100-280 nm]). In the process, the oxygen molecules split up and recombine to form ozone (Fig. 1). This ratified ozone layer (spread out between 10 and 50 Ion in the stratosphere but only 3 mm thick were it compressed at ground level) in turn efficiently absorbs UV radiation of higher wavelengths (tip to about 310 nm). A part of the UV radiation in the UVB band (wavelength 280-315 nm) still reaches ground level and is absorbed in sufficient amounts to have deleterious effects on cells. The less energetic radiation in the UVA band (wavelength 315-400 nm, bordering the visible band [wavelength 400-800 nm]) is not absorbed by ozone and reaches ground level without much attenuation through a clear atmosphere (i.e., no clouds, no air pollution). Although not completely innocuous, the UVA radiation in sunlight is much less photochemically active and therefore generally less harmful than UVB radiation. Life on earth has adapted itself to the UV stress, particularly UVB stress, fbr example by forming protective UV-absorbing surface layers, by repairing cell damage or by replacing damaged cells entirely. Human skin shows all of these adaptive features. Our eyes are less well adapted, but dicy, are shielded by the brows and by squinting. (author)

  20. ASA conference on radiation and health. Coolfont V. Final report. Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The conference included presentations on four major topics related to radiation and health: dose assessment, measurement error, dose-response, and dosimetry. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations

  1. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  2. Preparation and Thermoelectric Characteristics of ITO/PtRh:PtRh Thin Film Thermocouple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongmin; Zhao, Zixiang; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Hongchuan

    2017-12-15

    Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) can provide more precise in situ temperature measurement for aerospace propulsion systems without disturbance of gas flow and surface temperature distribution of the hot components. ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC with multilayer structure was deposited on alumina ceramic substrate by magnetron sputtering. After annealing, the TFTC was statically calibrated for multiple cycles with temperature up to 1000 °C. The TFTC with excellent stability and repeatability was realized for the negligible variation of EMF in different calibration cycles. It is believed that owing to oxygen diffusion barriers by the oxidation of top PtRh layer and Schottky barriers formed at the grain boundaries of ITO, the variation of the carrier concentration of ITO film is minimized. Meanwhile, the life time of TFTC is more than 30 h in harsh environment. This makes ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC a promising candidate for precise surface temperature measurement of hot components of aeroengines.

  3. XANES and XMCD studies of FeRh and CoRh nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smekhova, A; Wilhelm, F; Rogalev, A [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38043 (France); Atamena, N; Ciuculescu, D; Amiens, C [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR 8241-CNRS, Toulouse Cedex 04, 31077 (France); Lecante, P, E-mail: smeal@esrf.f [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011-CNRS, Toulouse Cedex 04, 31055 (France)

    2010-01-01

    Element-selective magnetic properties of new core-shell bimetallic MRh (M=Fe or Co) nanoparticles (NP{sub S}) of 50/50 composition with either M-Rh or Rh-M core/shell order and an average diameter of {approx}2 nm have been investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES) and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) technique. XANES spectra at the Rh L{sub 2,3} edges exhibit the same characteristic features for all systems having the Rh metal enriched shell. XMCD experiments at the same edges have shown that 4d states of Rh atoms acquire a magnetic moment as a result of hybridization with iron or cobalt 3d states. As expected the value of this induced moment depends on the 3d transition metal and on the core/shell chemical order in the nanoparticle.

  4. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  5. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  6. Health risks (early, delayed and genetic) from the present radiation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    A general survey is given of the risks of early, delayed and genetic injuries from present radiation environment. Brief data is presented on some industrial and medical accidents. It is stated that in Norway there are 5-10 incidents per year in industrial radiography, none of which have led to radiation syndrome. Delayed radiation effects are discussed and figures quoted for risk due to mining, industrial and medical radiography and natural sources. Genetic effects are similarly discussed and genetically significant doses from similar sources are quoted. It is concluded that the health risk from the radiation environment is very small compared with other risks. (JIW)

  7. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

  8. Human exposure to non-ionizing radiation and potential adverse health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.; Maric, B.; Zivkovic, D.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of protection from the non-ionizing radiation has presented an actual subject in the last twenty years both worldwide and in our country. Great attention has been paid to this problem throughout the world and there is not almost a field of human activities that disregards the effect of non-ionizing radiation to the human health.The object of this work is to point concisely, on the basis of numerous domestic and foreign referential data, to the potential adverse health effects caused by uncontrolled exposure to non-ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Sobehart, L J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, t...

  10. Health surveillance of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation: Guidance for occupational physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Report is intended mainly for occupational physicians, as well as for occupational health service personnel, to assist them in routine practice by specifying the features of work under radiation conditions, the general rules of radiological protection for occupational exposure and the organization of the medical surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to radiation. The Report is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection presented in its Publication 60 (1990) and with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources published by the IAEA in 1966. It supersedes Safety Series No.83 (Radiation Protection in Occupational Health: Manual for Occupational Physicians) published by the IAEA in 1987

  11. Understanding and characterisation of the risks to human health from exposure to low levels of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation can lead to a wide variety of health effects. Cancer is judged to be the main risk from radiation at low doses and low dose rates, and controlling this risk has been the main factor in developing radiation protection practice. Conventional paradigms of radiobiology and radiation carcinogenesis have served to guide extrapolations of epidemiological data on exposed human populations, so as to estimate risks at low doses and low dose rates, to other types of ionising radiation and to non-uniform exposures. These paradigms are founded on a century of experimental and theoretical studies, but nevertheless there remain many uncertainties. Major assumptions and simplifications have been introduced to achieve a practical system of additive doses (and implied risks) for radiation protection. Advancing epidemiological studies and experimental research continue to reduce uncertainties in some areas while, in others, they raise new challenges to the generality and applicability of the conventional paradigms. (authors)

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RH TRU waste preoperational checkout: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report documents the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) Waste Preoperational Checkout. The primary objective of this checkout was to demonstrate the process of handling RH TRU waste packages, from receipt through emplacement underground, using equipment, personnel, procedures, and methods to be used with actual waste packages. A further objective was to measure operational time lines to provide bases for confirming the WIPP design through put capability and for projecting operator radiation doses. Successful completion of this checkout is a prerequisite to the receipt of actual RH TRU waste. This checkout was witnessed in part by members of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) of the state of New Mexico. Further, this report satisfies a key milestone contained in the Agreement for Consultation and Cooperation with the state of New Mexico. 4 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Xu, Zhengping

    2010-01-27

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  14. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  15. High background radiation area: an important source of exploring the health effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin

    1997-01-01

    Objective: For obtaining more effective data from epidemiological investigation in high background radiation areas, it is necessary to analyze the advantages, disadvantages, weak points and problems of this kind of radiation research. Methods: For epidemiological investigation of population health effects of high background radiation, the author selected high background radiation areas of Yangjiang (HBRA) and a nearby control area (CA) as an instance for analysis. The investigation included classification of dose groups, comparison of the confounding factors in the incidence of mutation related diseases, cancer mortalities and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations between HBRA and CA. This research program has become a China-Japan cooperative research since 1991. Results: The confounding factors above-mentioned were comparable between HBRA and CA, and within the dose groups in HBRA, based on a systematic study for many years. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased with the increase of cumulative dose, but not for children around or below 10 years of age. The relative risks (RR) of total and site-specific cancer mortalities for HBRA were lower or around 1.00, compared with CA. The incidence of hereditary diseases and congenital deformities in HBRA were in normal range. The results were interpreted preliminarily by the modified 'dual radiation action' theory and the 'benefit-detriment competition' hypothesis. Conclusions: The author emphasizes the necessity for continuing epidemiological research in HBRA, especially for international cooperation. He also emphasizes the importance of combination of epidemiology and radiobiology

  16. Risk estimation and decision making: the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Presented is a background for an understanding of the potential health effects in populations exposed to low-level radiation. Discussed is the knowledge about the health effects of low-level radiation. Comments on how the risks of radiation-induced cancer and genetically-related ill-health in man may be estimated, the sources of the scientific and epidemiological data, the dose-response models used, and the uncertainties which limit precise estimates of excess risks from radiation. Also discussed are the implications of numerical risk estimation for radiation protection and decision-making for public health policy

  17. [Mobile phones radiate--risk to the health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Kari; Auvinen, Anssi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    The mobile phones radiate electromagnetic energy which is partly absorbed into the tissues in the vicinity of the phone. The minor heating, in maximum up to 0.3 degrees C, may cause some alterations in the expression of genes and proteins similar to physiological response to other stimuli. Biophysical studies at the cellular and molecular level have not revealed any well established interaction mechanism, through which mobile phone radiation could induce toxic effects below the thermal effect level. Research results on various biological effects in vitro and in vivo are continuously published but there is no consistent evidence on well established harmful effects. The mobile phone radiation is not carcinogenic for experimental animals or genotoxic for cells. According to epidemiological studies and psychophysiological brain function studies the use of mobile phones does not seem to increase the risk of tumors in the head and brain or disturb the function of central nervous system. However, there is a need for more research on the long-term effects of mobile phone radiation particularly on children.

  18. Biological effects of radiation human health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The biological hazards of nuclear energy usage are a growing source of public concern. The medical profession may well be expected to contribute to public debate on the issue. This document, therefore, attempts a balanced review of the known and suspected human biological consequences of exposure to different types of ionizing radiation, emphasizing in particular the nuclear industry

  19. Radiation health and safety aspects in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    This presentation deals mainly with radiation levels associated with the uranium milling operations, including yellowcake production. The regulation of uranium mills has not received much attention in the past because radiation levels have been generally low, and uranium milling has been substantially free of occupational illness. More attention is being directed towards minimizing exposures, and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board is working on new regulations which will reflect the recommendations of various hearings and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Emphasis is now being placed on improving monitoring methods. At the beginning of 1982 a gamma dosimetry program will be put into effect for all uranium mine and mill workers. An improved method is also being sought to determine radon daughter exposures more accurately. It is expected that a better knowledge of monitoring and assessing thoron daughter levels in mine and mill facilities will be obtained soon. This radiation contribution will be included when calculating a combined radiation exposure factor for individual workers. Programs are underway to better monitor and assess uranium dust inhalation. Initial studies indicate that the present precautions taken to avoid dust inhalation at the mills are effective. A more complete study will be undertaken in 1982

  20. Possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, W.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1988-12-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the results of an investigation into the possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation. First the concept 'psychic health' is circumscribed. Subsequently the possible effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health are entered by outlining two cause-effect chains, in which various variables are distinguished. Thus the framework in which the remainder of the report has been written, is described (ch.2). Ch. 3 deals with the measurability of psychic health and of the various variables in two cause-effect chains. In ch. 4 the found empirical evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health is described. This chapter is especially based upon study of literature. In ch. 5 interviews with users of various radiation sources are reported. In ch. 6 the question of standardization of ionizing radiation with regard to possible (psychic) damage is entered. It is looked if one can speak in terms of 'standards' in case of psychic damage. As far as standardization does not seem to be possible practical alternatives are presented with which eventual psychic damage from ionizing (radiation) sources may be limited. Finally in ch. 7 a comparison is made between the theoretical framework of the (possible) effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health and the measurability of the therein distinguishable variables on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the empirical materials obtained from the study of the literature and the interviews. (H.W.) 103 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Absolute calibration of the Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m reaction rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.H.; Murphy, M.F.; March, M.R. [Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1979-05-15

    The uncertainties in determining the absolute values of the Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m reaction rate (which is widely used as a neutron damage flux monitor) have been reduced to {approx}{+-}5%. This has been achieved with the use of a calibrated source of Pd-103-Rh-103m activity supplied by the I.A.E.A. Agreement to within 3% between measured and calculated values of the reaction rate (normalised to the U-238 fission rate) has been achieved. (author)

  2. Improvement of castable refractories for RH snorkel; RH shinshitsukanyo futeikeizai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, K.; Obana, T.; Fijii, T.; Shimizu, I. [Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Relating to corrosion of RH submerged nozzle, resistance against iron oxide of monolithic refractories was examined. Corrosion and seepage of refractories were measured by rotating corrosion, refractories include alumina-spinel castable, which is applied to RH under tank, and alumina-magnesia castable, which is generally used for RH, submerged nozzle. Alumina-spinel castable is superior in resistance against iron oxide than alumina-magnesia castable, and the resistance decreased with increase of stainless fiber addition to castable. Alumina-spinel castable without stainless fiber was suitable for bottom end of the dipping pipe. (NEDO)

  3. Absolute calibration of the Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.H.; Murphy, M.F.; March, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The uncertainties in determining the absolute values of the Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m reaction rate (which is widely used as a neutron damage flux monitor) have been reduced to ∼±5%. This has been achieved with the use of a calibrated source of Pd-103-Rh-103m activity supplied by the I.A.E.A. Agreement to within 3% between measured and calculated values of the reaction rate (normalised to the U-238 fission rate) has been achieved. (author)

  4. Urban forest influences on exposure to UV radiation and potential consequences for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the literature on ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in the planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures, especially for high use pedestrian areas and school play...

  5. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Use of health physics in radiation medicine and its status in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastva, R.N.L.; Jauhari, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Science of health physics has assumed importance in the use of complicated radiation equipment and procedure of radiotherapy. In India there are training facilities in health physics available at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and in Bombay University. They are described (R.G.)

  7. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no death or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious disease. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. (author)

  9. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries, ant...

  10. Preparation of a 102Rh tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, B.; Heinig, W.

    1986-01-01

    Electronic emission detectors used in reactors for the control of the neutron flux density contain rhodium as an emitter material. By dissolving the emitter material in a mixture of hydrobromic acid and bromine it is possible to get 102 Rh labelled solutions of the spent detectors. The preparation and purification of the solutions are described. (author)

  11. Atomic and molecular adsorption on Rh(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Rempel, J.; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of the chemisorption of both atomic (H, O, N, S, C), molecular (N-2, CO, NO), and radical (CH3, OH) species on Rh(111) has been performed. Self-consistent, periodic, density functional theory (DFT-GGA) calculations, using both PW91 and RPBE functionals, have been employed to de...

  12. Risks to health from radiation at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Osborne, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Our focus is on whether, using a balance-of-evidence approach, it is possible to say that at a low enough dose, or at a sufficiently low dose rate, radiation risk reduces to zero in a population. We conclude that insufficient evidence exists at present to support such a conclusion. In part this reflects statistical limitations at low doses, and in part (although mechanisms unquestionably exist to protect us against much of the damage induced by ionizing radiation) the biological heterogeneity of human populations, which means these mechanisms do not act in all members of the population at all times. If it is going to be possible to demonstrate that low doses are less dangerous than we presently assume, the evidence, paradoxically, will likely come from studies of higher dose and dose rate scenarios than are encountered occupationally. (author)

  13. Effects of radiation on health and safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, J.K.; Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The most striking aspect of the effects of ionizing radiation on the living organisms at various levels of organization, is the grave damage produced by relatively trivial amounts of absorbed energy. At the physical level the reason for this lies in the fact that the energy is deposited in concentrated packets along the tracks of the ionizing particles. Injury to living tissue results from the transfer of energy to atoms and molecules in the cellular structure. Ionizing radiation causes atoms and molecules to become ionized or excited. These excitations and ionizations produce free radicals causing breakage of chemical bonds, production of new chemical bonds and cross-linkage between macromolecules and molecules in a critical structure (e.g. DNA, RNA, membrane or other organelle). It initiates in the fraction of seconds from subatomic level eventually effects complete biosphere

  14. {sup 103}Rh NMR investigation of the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T., E-mail: t-koyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kanda, K.; Motoyama, G.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Kohara, T. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Nakamura, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We present {sup 103}Rh NMR studies for the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15} (T{sub c} 5.4 K). We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to four different Rh sites in the cubic unit cell and deduced the temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shift components in Rh 24m site whose point symmetry is not axial. The isotropic part of the Knight shift K decreases with T in the normal state, indicating the negative hyperfine coupling and the enhancement of the spin susceptibility at lower T. The sudden change of K below T{sub c} is an indication of the spin-singlet Cooper paring.

  15. A simple model for discounting radiation health effects risks with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    In estimating human health effects resulting from ionizing radiation exposures, it is often assumed that the age of the person at the time of exposure and the latency period for the appearance of any associated health effects are values that maximize the consequences of the exposure. Such assumptions are obviously conservative, but they can result in distortions and errors when nondiscounted radiation-related health effects arising from nonradiation-related risks. Human life expectancy obviously decreases with age, and the latency period for radiation-related health effects can range from a few years to several decades. For example, if a man is 45 yr old at the time of exposure and this exposure results in a lethal health effect 20 yr after exposure, then the expected number of years of life loss is ∼5 yr and not 70 yr, as is commonly assumed in radiation risk assessment studies. If one full-health effect is equivalent to 70 person-yr, then this example exposure results in only 0.07 full-health effects

  16. Remarks on the 103Rh(n,n') sup(103m)Rh excitation curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, A.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Jozsa, I.; Bacso, J.

    1975-01-01

    The cross sections of the 103 Rh(n,n')sup(103m)Rh reaction have been measured at 2.7MeV and 14.8MeV neutron energies as well as for neutron spectra of 252 Cf and 239 Pu-α-Be sources; the results are 999+-111mb, 216+-26mb, 757+-53mb and 918+-64mb, respectively. (author)

  17. Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lim, Wan Young; Lee, Dal Nim; Kim, Jung Un; Cha, Eun Shil; Bang, Ye Jin; Lee, Won Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2018-03-30

    The cancer risk of radiation exposure in the moderate-to-high dose range has been well established. However, the risk remains unclear at low-dose ranges with protracted low-dose rate exposure, which is typical of occupational exposure. Several epidemiological studies of Korean radiation workers have been conducted, but the data were analysed retrospectively in most cases. Moreover, groups with relatively high exposure, such as industrial radiographers, have been neglected. Therefore, we have launched a prospective cohort study of all Korean radiation workers to assess the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure. Approximately 42 000 Korean radiation workers registered with the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission from 2016 to 2017 are the initial target population of this study. Cohort participants are to be enrolled through a nationwide self-administered questionnaire survey between 24 May 2016 and 30 June 2017. As of 31 March 2017, 22 982 workers are enrolled in the study corresponding to a response rate of 75%. This enrolment will be continued at 5-year intervals to update information on existing study participants and recruit newly hired workers. Survey data will be linked with the national dose registry, the national cancer registry, the national vital statistics registry and national health insurance data via personal identification numbers. Age-specific and sex-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios will be calculated for overall comparisons of cancer risk. For dose-response assessment, excess relative risk (per Gy) and excess absolute risk (per Gy) will be estimated with adjustments for birth year and potential confounders, such as lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. This study has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (IRB No. K-1603-002-034). All participants provided written informed consent prior to enrolment. The findings

  18. Public health response to radiation emergencies and the role of the Helsinki Project Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the public health element of nuclear emergency preparedness, defined as the mitigation of the long-term effects of radiation on exposed populations, as opposed to dealing with the health consequences of an exposure in an individual (termed medical aspects). The paper also approaches to the role of the Helsinki Project Office which is concerned with the protection of public health through effective response to nuclear emergencies, and falling into two categories, namely contingency planning or preparedness, and response

  19. Occupational doses of radiation workers in Nuclear Medicine Department, Ministry of Health, Oman: a dose analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kindy, Sharifa; Al-Isaee, Nadia; Arun Kumar, L.S.; Al-Shanfari, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in the Sultanate of Oman is increasing with the proliferation of hospitals and clinics. The great benefits of increased and improved diagnostic services have improved the quality of life for those in Oman. The World Health Organisation in 2000 applauded the quality, efficiency and delivery of health care to the population and ranked the Oman's health care system eighth in the world

  20. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  1. Inconsistencies and open questions regarding low-dose health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, R.H.; Koehnlein, W.

    1994-01-01

    The state of knowledge of health effects from low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation has recently been reviewed in extensive reports by three prestigious national and international commissions of scientific and medical experts with partially overlapping membership, known by their acronyms UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation), and ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Publication of these reports was followed by a number of summaries in scientific journals, authored by recognized radiation experts, that purport to present a scientific consensus of low-dose effects in a more accessible format for health professionals. A critical comparison between various presentations of accepted views, however, reveals inconsistencies regarding open-quotes establishedclose quotes facts and unsettled questions

  2. Studies of health effects of low dose radiation and its application to medicare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Ishida, Kenji; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Koana, Takao; Magae, Junji; Watanabe, Masami; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    2008-01-01

    The articles contain following 7 topics of low dose radiation effects. Studies of Health Effects of Low dose Radiation and Its Application to Medicare'', describes the indication of Rn therapy and investigations of its usefulness mechanism mainly in Misasa Spa, Okayama Pref. ''Challenges for the Paradigm Shift (CRIEPI Studies)'', introduces studies against the paradigm that radiation dose is linearly and proportionally hazardous. ''Studies of High Background Radiation Area (CRIEPI Studies)'', describes global HBRA studies on chromosome affection and effect of smoking in HBRA. ''Is the Radiation Effect on Man Proportional to Dose? (CRIEPI Studies)'', describes studies of immature sperm irradiated at low dose against Linear-Non-threshold Theory (LNT) hypothesis. ''Induction of Radiation Resistance by Low Dose Radiation and Assessment of Its Effect in Models of Human Diseases (CRIEPI Studies)'', explains the adoptive response in radiation effect, suppression of carcinogenesis and immune regulation by previous low dose radiation in the mouse, and improvement of diabetes in the db/db mouse. ''Modulation of Biological Effects of Low Dose Radiation: Adoptive Response, Bystander Effect, Genetic Instability and Radiation Hormesis'', summarizes findings of each item. ''Cancer Treatment with Low dose Radiation to the Whole Body'', describes basic studies in the mouse tumor in relation to suppression of carcinogenesis and metastasis, immune activation and treatment, and successful clinical studies in patients with ovary, colon cancers and malignant lymphoma where survival has been significantly improved: a base of recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) clinical trials. The mechanism is essentially based on immune activation of patients to cure the disease. (R.T.)

  3. Origin of room temperature ferromagnetic moment in Rh-rich [Rh/Fe] multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kande, Dhishan; Laughlin, David; Zhu Jiangang

    2010-01-01

    B2 ordered FeRh thin films switch from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state on heating above 350 K and switch back on cooling, with a hysteresis. This property makes FeRh a very attractive choice as a write-assist layer material for low temperature heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) media. Studies have shown that as we decrease the thickness of the FeRh films, the B2 phase is no longer AFM even below 350 K and there is a thickness dependant FM stabilization of the B2 phase. It was also proved that slightly Rh-richer compositions (>50 at. % Rh) were more preferable to stabilize the AFM phase. The current study focuses on growing highly ordered FeRh films by alternate layer rf sputtering of thin layers of iron and rhodium onto a heated substrate. It has been shown that films with rhodium content beyond 55 at. % contain a disordered bcc FM phase which gives rise to residual moment at room temperature even for thicker films.

  4. Effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on reproductive and child health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienefeld, M.K.; McLaughlin, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence regarding the effects of occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation on reproductive health is limited. However, exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. The resulting uncertainty about the effects of occupational exposures has caused concern among some workers, therefore, we have designed a study to examine this question among Canadian medical radiation technologists. A short mailed questionnaire will be sent to all CAMRT members to obtain information about reproductive history, and a sample of respondents will receive a second questionnaire requesting information about other important exposures. Occupational dose records will be retrieved from the National Dose Registry. Using this information, relative risks for each outcome will be calculated for different radiation dose levels. This article provides a brief review of the literature on ionizing radiation exposure and reproductive outcomes, and an outline of the proposed study

  5. RH knowledge and service utilization among unmarried rural-to-urban migrants in three major cities, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large numbers of unmarried migrants are on the continuous move from rural-to-urban areas within China mainland, meanwhile their Reproductive Health (RH is underserved when it is compared with the present urban RH policies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services among unmarried migrants. Methods A cross-section survey was performed in three cities in China-Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Wuhan. A total of 3,450 rural-to-urban unmarried migrants were chosen according to a purposive sampling method. Around 3,412 (male: 1,680, female: 1,732 were qualified for this study. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, which focused on the knowledge concerning "fertility, contraception and STD/AIDS," as well as RH service utilization. Results Among unmarried migrants the RH knowledge about pregnancy-fertilization (29.4% and contraception (9.1% was at its lowest level. Around 21% of unmarried migrants had pre-marital sexual experience and almost half (47.4% never used condoms during sexual intercourse. The most obtained RH services was about STD/AIDS health education (female: 49.6%, male: 50.2% and free prophylactic use of contraceptives and/or condoms (female: 42.5%, male: 48.3%. As for accessing RH checkup services it was at its lowest level among females (16.1%. Those who migrated to Shenzhen (OR = 0.64 and Guangzhou (OR = 0.53 obtained few RH consultations compared to those in Wuhan. The white collar workers received more RH consultations and checkup services than the blue collar workers (all group P Conclusion RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services amongst unmarried migrants remain insufficient in the three studied major cities. This study reveals the important gaps in the RH services' delivery, and highlights the requirements for tailored interventions, including further research, to address more effectively the demands and the needs of the unmarried migrant

  6. Alternative interpretations of statistics on health effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Four examples of the interpretation of statistics of data on low-level radiation are reviewed: (a) genetic effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, (b) cancer at Rocky Flats, (c) childhood leukemia and fallout in Utah, and (d) cancer among workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Aggregation of data, adjustment for age, and other problems related to the determination of health effects of low-level radiation are discussed. Troublesome issues related to post hoc analysis are considered

  7. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs

  8. A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Radiation in complex exposure situations. Assessing health risks at low levels from concomitant exposures to radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from exposures to ionizing radiation are in general the result of complex multi-step reaction chains involving changes and responses on the level of molecules, cells, tissues and organisms. In environmental low dose exposure situations ionizing radiation only contributes a small fraction to the life-long attack on DNA by other exogenous and endogenous genotoxins. Nevertheless, efforts to assess and quantify deleterious effects at low exposure levels are directed mainly towards radiation as a single isolated agent, and rarely towards the concomitant presence of other natural and anthropogenic toxicants. Only these combined exposures may lead to observable health risk effects. In addition they might differ from those expected from simple addition of the individual risks due to interaction. The existing data base on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. Therefore, any risk assessment will have to consider the question whether combined effects, i.e. interaction between two or more agents will influence the health outcome from specific exposure situations in such a way that predictions derived from simple standard exposure situations would have to be revised. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Agents will have to be grouped depending on their physical or chemical mode of action at the molecular and cellular level, to generalize and predict the outcome of combined exposures at low exposure levels and the possibility of interactions. (author)

  10. Late health effects of radiation for Eustachian tube dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verduijn, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    A non-concurrent cohort study is described in which the effects of the Crowe therapy were examined with regard to the health of a population of persons who were irradiated in their youth. 284 refs.; 16 figs.; 45 tabs

  11. Project on 'contaminations - radiation - ecosystems - health' in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botov, N.G.; Kozulin, S.P.; Mironova, N.I.; Dubov, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    This project has two purposes: 1. To determine the influence of the radiation factor among other factors that are increasing human disease and death rate, and are determining industrial impacts to the environment, ecosystems, and people's lives; 2. To ascertain the ecological, medical and social wellbeing of certain contaminated areas in Russia, monitoring and management of radioactive pollution, radioactive waste storage, heavy metals and other contaminants. In our report we present the following: a few experimental data on radioactive contamination; problems of information, experiments and metrology; scientific and technical methods and approaches; financial, equipmental and other needs, that are necessary for successful completion of this Project

  12. Ionizing radiation - an unknown factor?. Assessment of health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    For a large part of the population, radioactivity is a strange thing they know nothing about, except that it may be dangerous, and this of course is disquieting. This is why the subject of nuclear energy raises emotions, if not fear among people, also because they are not aware that radioactivity is a natural phenomenon just like the sunlight or the weather. The author explains radioactivity in the light of other risks of life and shows that the application of ionizing radiation, or the peaceful uses of atomic energy, involve risks ranking rather at the bottom of the list of man-made hazards. (orig.) [de

  13. Health physics measurements of laser radiation: Experience and competence wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the parameters required for an analysis of hazards involved is a complex task in terms of measuring techniques and calibration, and a costly procedure at that. Although part of the evaluation work can be done with the support of computers, evaluation and interpretation of measured information requires the experience and competence of the human expert. It is to be hoped that the computer industry will soon have developed turn-key solutions of universal applicability for analytical tasks of this kind, so that in the near future determination of the source terms, especially for LED or IRED radiation, will be an easy task. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Regulation on radiation protection health care of workers exposed to ionizing radiation. - Regulation on radiation protection health care - of the 25 Mar 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The present regulation will be in force on 1 July 1986 and supersedes a regulation from 29 September 1970. It regulates the medical surveillance with regard to radiation protection for all kinds of workers with an increased risk of being exposed to ionizing radiation such as e.g. reactor operators and miners. Examinations have to be performed according to directions of the SAAS including further measures if necessary regarding clinical occupational and radiation protection medicine. The task of the firms, the managers, the medical officers, and the SAAS are distinctly marked

  15. Health effects in women exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-06-01

    There are three delayed health effects of radiation which appear at the present time to have importance to women in radiation protection. These are: (1) the probability of cancer-induction at low doses and low-dose rates; (2) the consideration of those cancers in women, notably the breast and the thyroid, attributable to radiation exposure; and (3) the probability of induction of developmental abnormalities in the newborn following low-dose exposure in utero. The bases for the concern over these effects are discussed

  16. Better health care: Ghana uses radiation technology to sterilize medical items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    Infections acquired from improperly sterilized equipment are recognized as a major impediment to safe health care delivery, with consequences that are often deadly for patients. Radiation technology plays a major role in many countries in making medical equipment safer. “The use of nuclear applications, such as exposing medical items to gamma radiation, helps Ghana protect its people from avoidable sicknesses that can occur if items like syringes are not properly sterilized,” said Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Manager of the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in Accra.

  17. Health status of radiation exposed residents living near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site based on health assessment by interview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Kawano, Noriyuki; Ohtaki, Megu; Harada, Yuka; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hadara, Hironori; Muldagaliyev, Talgat; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the aftereffects of radiation exposure on residents of villages near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Our Hiroshima University (Japan) research team began field research in 2002 by means of health assessments conducted via interviews. We focus on persons who responded to questions concerning their medical conditions and symptoms. In this paper, we summarize and analyze, using multiple linear logistic regression analysis, the answers obtained by questionnaire survey. The results show: 31% of the residents reported that they felt bad or were in very poor health. Residents living in villages having higher radiation levels were more likely to report having poor or very poor health, minor complaints such as loss of sleep, headaches, nighttime sweating and swollen arms or legs, and the need for nursing care in performing activities of daily living. Symptoms reported by over 40% of the respondents included high blood pressure, heart disease and arthralgia/lower back pain/arthritis. Our results suggest that radiation exposure in the Semipalatinsk area is one of the causes of poor health in general among residents. There is also a possibility that radiation exposure has influenced the incidence of some specific medical conditions. (author)

  18. Health status of radiation exposed residents living near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site based on health assessment by interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Kawano, Noriyuki; Ohtaki, Megu; Harada, Yuka; Harada, Hironori; Muldagaliyev, Talgat; Apsalikov, Kazbek; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the aftereffects of radiation exposure on residents of villages near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Our Hiroshima University (Japan) research team began field research in 2002 by means of health assessments conducted via interviews. We focus on persons who responded to questions concerning their medical conditions and symptoms. In this paper, we summarize and analyze, using multiple linear logistic regression analysis, the answers obtained by questionnaire survey. The results show: (1) 31% of the residents reported that they felt bad or were in very poor health. (2) Residents living in villages having higher radiation levels were more likely to report having poor or very poor health, minor complaints such as loss of sleep, headaches, nighttime sweating and swollen arms or legs, and the need for nursing care in performing activities of daily living. (3) Symptoms reported by over 40% of the respondents included high blood pressure, heart disease and arthralgia/ lower back pain/ arthritis. Our results suggest that radiation exposure in the Semipalatinsk area is one of the causes of poor health in general among residents. There is also a possibility that radiation exposure has influenced the incidence of some specific medical conditions.

  19. Nuclear energy and health: and the benefits of low-dose radiation hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Pollycove, Myron

    2009-01-01

    Energy needs worldwide are expected to increase for the foreseeable future, but fuel supplies are limited. Nuclear reactors could supply much of the energy demand in a safe, sustainable manner were it not for fear of potential releases of radioactivity. Such releases would likely deliver a low dose or dose rate of radiation, within the range of naturally occurring radiation, to which life is already accustomed. The key areas of concern are discussed. Studies of actual health effects, especially thyroid cancers, following exposures are assessed. Radiation hormesis is explained, pointing out that beneficial effects are expected following a low dose or dose rate because protective responses against stresses are stimulated. The notions that no amount of radiation is small enough to be harmless and that a nuclear accident could kill hundreds of thousands are challenged in light of experience: more than a century with radiation and six decades with reactors. If nuclear energy is to play a significant role in meeting future needs, regulatory authorities must examine the scientific evidence and communicate the real health effects of nuclear radiation. Negative images and implications of health risks derived by unscientific extrapolations of harmful effects of high doses must be dispelled.

  20. Radiation exposure assessment for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, R. D.; Taulbee, T. D.; Chen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures of 13,475 civilian nuclear shipyard workers were investigated as part of a retrospective mortality study. Estimates of annual, cumulative and collective doses were tabulated for future dose-response analysis. Record sets were assembled and amended through range checks, examination of distributions and inspection. Methods were developed to adjust for administrative overestimates and dose from previous employment. Uncertainties from doses below the recording threshold were estimated. Low-dose protracted radiation exposures from submarine overhaul and repair predominated. Cumulative doses are best approximated by a hybrid log-normal distribution with arithmetic mean and median values of 20.59 and 3.24 mSv, respectively. The distribution is highly skewed with more than half the workers having cumulative doses 95% having doses <100 mSv. The maximum cumulative dose is estimated at 649.39 mSv from 15 person-years of exposure. The collective dose was 277.42 person-Sv with 96.8% attributed to employment at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. (authors)

  1. Choosing populations to study the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, N.A.; Loughlin, J.E.; Friedlander, E.R.; Clapp, R.W.; Fahey, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    In January 1978, the United States Congress requested information about the utility of additional epidemiologic studies for quantifying the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. In our judgment, no single population can be recommended for study on purely scientific grounds, since the largest group offers only a small chance to obtain a definitive result. On the other hand, if social pressures and regulatory agencies mandate that such studies be attempted, we would recommend prospective cohort studies of occupational populations. We propose that a national worker registry be developed using ionizing radiation as the prototype for studying other occupational exposures. The problems related to studying low-level radiation are not unique, but apply equally to investigations dealing with a great variety of toxic agents. A national plan for collecting information on workers' exposure and health could provide a cost-efficient means to answer public health questions posed by the Congress, scientists and the public

  2. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  4. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  5. Perceptions and practices regarding women's vaginal health following radiation therapy: A survey of radiation oncologists practicing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachnic, Lisa A; Bruner, Deborah W; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Russo, Gregory A

    Vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized complication of pelvic and vaginal radiation therapy (RT). A 26-item survey assessing the signs/symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and impact of VS on women's sexual health was distributed to radiation oncologists. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests examined differences in categorical responses. A total of 233 (10.5%) participants completed the entire survey. Twelve percent, 21%, and 68% report treating gynecologic (GYN) tumors only, non-GYN pelvic tumors only, or both, respectively. Regarding risk factors, 78% believed that VS can be caused by pelvic RT alone, 91% by vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 98% by combined pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy. Approximately one-half of respondents felt that being postmenopausal and having a hysterectomy before radiation therapy were risk factors for VS, whereas the other half felt that these were not risk factors. All respondents agreed that VS is a clinical diagnosis. Respondents indicated that VS symptoms include dyspareunia, vaginal pain, dryness, and/or bleeding (100%, 90%, 85%, and 72%, respectively); 65% indicated all 4. The most commonly recommended treatment for VS is vaginal dilator use. Radiation oncologists who treat GYN-only versus non-GYN cancers were more likely to perform a vaginal examination, to distribute written instructions regarding vaginal dilator use (P = .002), to have vaginal bleeding reported after RT (P = .001), and to refer patients to a sexual counselor (P = .007). Most providers (73%) expressed willingness to participate in prospective research on the diagnosis and treatment of VS. This is the first large-scale survey of radiation oncologists' perceptions and practices regarding VS. There is agreement among providers regarding the signs/symptoms of VS and strategies for its prevention/treatment using vaginal dilators. Further prospective and observational research is needed. This survey shows a willingness on

  6. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  7. The sun burns: New advice of the Dutch National Health Council on ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the advice of the Dutch National Health Council is to outline the consequences of the depleted ozone layer, and as a result the increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation, on the public health and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the effect of UV radiation on the immune system, the increased occurrence of carcinomas, melanomas and other forms of skin cancer, the impact on the development of eye defects, and the impact on different levels of ecosystems. A brief overview is given of preventive measures. 5 figs., 1 ref

  8. 10 years after Chernobyl, radiation exposure, health effects, safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report sums up the various conferences and symposia which were prompted by the tenth anniversary of the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl. It was shown that by the accident up to now 31 casualties among the emergency and rescue personal at the site. Offsite no increased number of casualties caused by the accident was observed up to now. In the countries with the highest impact Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, however, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer is observed which is substantially higher than after the nuclear detonations over Japanese cities. Contrary to often published media reports, however, up to now no increases in leukemia or other malignant deceases were observed, neither in the population of the concerned regions nor among the liquidators. The high 137 Cs activity concentration in the environment close to the power plant result in exclusion zone even today. The deposition values in Kiev, however, amount to only 30 kBq/m 2 , in large areas of Ukraine they are below the average values in Austria of 22 kBq/m 2 . For these areas as well as those outside the former Soviet Union the average doses were less than 1 mSv in the first year, a value which is less than one third of natural annual radiation exposure. Since the reactor accident the activity concentration has significally decreased resulting in an exposure as consequence of the reactor accident of less than 0,8 % of the exposure in the first year. In Austria the exposure in 1996 amounts to less than 0,3 % of natural radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Measurement of 103mRh produced by the 103Rh(γ,γ')103mRh reaction with liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Yoshihara, Kenji; Pavlicsek, I.; Lakosi, L.; Veres, A.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid scintillation counting technique was applied to measure the isotope 103m Rh (half life = 56.12 min) which is difficult to detect because its γ-ray is of low energy and low emission probability. Tris-(2,4-pentanedionato)rhodium(III) (Rh(acac) 3 ) was irradiated with bremsstrahlung of accelerated 3.2 MeV electrons by LINAC. The method has given a reliable calibration curve for the determination of 103m Rh radioactivity below Rh(acac) 3 concentrations of 2 mM. The integrated cross section of 103 Rh(γ,γ') 103m Rh determined by this method was found to be 6.8±3.4 μb MeV at 3.2 MeV. (author) 8 refs.; 5 figs

  10. Radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, security. Global Chernobyl mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.; Bazyka, D.; Volovik, S.; Loganovsky, K.; Sushko, V.; Siedow, J.; Cohen, H.; Ginsburg, G.; Chao, N.; Chute, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: Ionizing radiation is a primordial terrestrial and extraterrestrial background and archetypal environmental stress-factor for life origin, evolution, and existence. We all live in radiation world inevitably involving nuclear energy production, nuclear weapon, nuclear navy, radioactive waste, pertinent medical diagnostics and treatment, etc with connected certain probability of relevant accidents and terrorist attack, space and jet travels, high natural background radiation, etc - actual and potential sources of radiation exposures and effects. State-of- the art integral fundamental research on radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, and security (REMHESS) is nowadays paramount necessity and challenge. Methods and results: In given generalized conceptual framework unique 20 years Chernobyl multidimensional research and databases for radiation effects on man's all organism systems represent invaluable original basis and resources for mapping Chernobyl data and REMHESS challenge. Granted by DOE brand new Chernobyl Research and Service Project based on 'Sarcophagus-II' (Object 'Shelter') workers only one in radiation history baseline cohort, corresponding biorepository prospective dynamic data, integrated conceptual database system, and 'state of the art' 'omics' (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis is designed specifically for coherent addressing global REMHESS problems. In this connection 'Sarcophagus-II' is only one unique universal model. Conclusions: The fundamental goals of novel strategic Project and global Chernobyl mapping are to determine specific 'omics' signatures of radiation for man depending of exposure peculiarity to understand ultimate molecular mechanisms of radiation effects, gene environment interactions, etiology of organisms systems disorders and diseases, and to develop new biomarkers and countermeasures to protect man health in the framework of global REMHESS challenge

  11. Public health protection after nuclear and radiation disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Liqing; Liu Qiang; Fan Feiyue

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan combined with massive earthquake and immense tsunami, Some crucial lessons were reviewed in this paper, including emergency response for natural technological disasters, international effects, public psychological health effects and communication between the government and public. (authors)

  12. Style et rhétorique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Eva de la Fuente

    2006-01-01

    En se forgeant un style presque inimitable, qui paraît ébauché, Rembrandt a suscité l'admiration de ses contemporains. Au-delà son apparente spontanéité, ce style fait certainement écho aux préoccupations des théoriciens de l'art contemporains qui attendaient de la peinture, comme de la rhétorique...

  13. Health transitions, fast and nasty: the case of Marshallese exposure to nuclear radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nancy J

    2002-09-01

    The concept of health transitions assumes that health status improves with the introduction of western medicine. In this paper I demonstrate that the health of the people of Rongelap, Marshall Islands, has undergone serious damage as a result of nuclear testing, and that women in particular have suffered unduly. Exposure to nuclear radiation over a period of almost fifty years has been recognised by US authorities as a major contributory cause to the high rates of cancers and birth defects suffered by the Rongelap people. Women's reproduction has been severely affected, as evidenced by the many stillbirths and small stature of children born alive. Two generations have been exposed to both background radiation and to radiation ingested with the local foods on which they rely in the absence of other food sources. Clean up has commenced only after this and other communities sought compensation from the United States. The Rongelap people will live with the effects of radiation for generations to come. This transition to ongoing health problems is thus a negative outcome of modern health transition.

  14. Regional economic development programs related to the registration systems for the health records of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Haruo; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    The two policies, 'Promotion of Health Care for Elderly Person' and Completion of Health Care System' are important for regional economic development. If we apply the Health Records Registration Systems for Radiation Workers to the Regional Health Care System, we can get a more effective plan for regional economic development. In Japan, most of the electric power companies depend on radiation works to the external labor. As the chance of employment usually depends on the time and the period of outage of nuclear power stations, the employment of radiation works lacks its stability. From the analysis on the mobility of radiation workers, we can see the stability of employment increases in proportion to the number of reactors. This paper proposes the need for such a registration system to be granted under three laws governing special accounts for power supply municipalities and to set up the system within regional medical information systems. It also proposes the founding of an Overall Health Insurance Cooperative, managed by contractors safety union in the municipalities as soon as the condition of founding, 3, 000 people, is satisfied. (author)

  15. Reports of the Public Health and Safety Task Force on public health and safety summary, health physics and dosimetry, radiation health effects, behavioral effects, and public health and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The general objectives of the Health Physics and Dosimetry Task Group included: (1) to determine the radiation dose to the people living within the area of 50 miles around the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during the period of March 28 to April 15, 1979; (2) to determine the radiation dose to the workers at the nuclear power plant during the deadline of the Commission's report; and (3) to evaluate federal, state, and utility company programs concernd with the protection of human populations and their environment from the possible hazards of ionizing radiation, and the efficacy of these radiation protection programs during the nuclear accident at TMI

  16. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A.; Ourly, F.; Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin_ext/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  17. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, Leonardo J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, the United Kingdom Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases and the United States Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program are described. (author)

  18. Epidemiological and radio-biological studies in high background radiation areas of Kerala coast: implications in radiation protection science and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Birajalaxmi

    2018-01-01

    Till date, Linear No Threshold hypothesis (LNT) is well accepted in radiation protection science in spite of its limitations. However, dose response studies using multiple biological end points from high-background radiation areas have challenged the linearity. Radio-biological and epidemiological studies from high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast showed non-linearity as well as efficient repair of DNA damage in HLNRA indicating that dose limits for public exposure needs to be revisited which may have implications in radiation protection science, human health and low dose radiation biology. However, further studies using high throughput approach is required to identify chronic radiation signatures in human population exposed to elevated level of natural background radiation

  19. Rh-Ni and Rh-Co Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming of Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeongyu; Lee, Daehyung; Kim, Yongmin; Lee, Jinhee; Nam, Sukwoo; Choi, Daeki; Yoon, Chang Won [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Rh doped Ni and Co catalysts, Rh-M/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.2 wt % of Rh; M = Ni or Co, 20 wt %) were synthesized to produce hydrogen via autothermal reforming (ATR) of commercial gasoline at 700 .deg. C under the conditions of a S/C ratio of 2.0, an O/C ratio of 0.84, and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 20,000 h{sup -1}. The Rh-Ni/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (1) exhibited excellent activities, with H{sub 2} and (H{sub 2}+CO) yields of 2.04 and 2.58 mol/mol C, respectively. In addition, this catalyst proved to be highly stable over 100 h without catalyst deactivation, as evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental analyses. Compared to 1, Rh-Co/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (2) exhibited relatively low stability, and its activity decreased after 57 h. In line with this observation, elemental analyses confirmed that nearly no carbon species were formed at 1 while carbon deposits (10 wt %) were found at 2 following the reaction, which suggests that carbon coking is the main process for catalyst deactivation.

  20. Electrosmog, celluar phones, sunbeds etc. - adverse health effects from radiation? Health aspects of non-ionizing radiation; Elektrosmog, Handys, Solarien usw. - Gesundheitsrisiken durch Strahlung? Gesundheitliche Aspekte nichtionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    2005-01-15

    This review supplies a survey of the three physical influences, i.e. UV radiation, high-frequency electromagnetic fields of radio telephone systems and other wireless radio applications as well as low-frequency fields of electric power supply. The exposure to UV radiation must be considered to be by far the highest health risk. The annual rate of about 2000 deaths from skin cancer in Germany, mainly caused by extensive exposure to solar UV radiation, demands protective measures. Teaching reasonable behaviour is the supreme issue. Recommended protective measures in the order to their effectiveness are protection by adaptation of behaviour, by clothes, sun hats and sunglasses as well as by sun creams. Children are the most important target group. With regard to UV tanning appliances it is recommended not to use artificial UV radiation for cosmetic purposes because of the related health risks. For the assessment of health impairments caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields, direct field reactions due to induced electric body currents, reactions on the surface of the body or heating effects should be separated from indirect field reactions (e.g. electric shocks and burns) due to contact currents or interference with electronic body aids and implants. Risk assessment has led to recommendations of threshold values which - in agreement with international research results - exclude all impairments of health caused by direct field reactions scientifically proven to date. Contrary to public concerns, which are mostly related to base transmitters of radio telephone systems, exposure due to handheld radio telephones (cellular phones) should rather be considered from the viewpoint of precautionary health protection, since it is more likely that their use can lead to high exposure of the user. Due to the protective measures provided so far and observance of the threshold values based on scientific results, exposures do not lead to health impairments - not even in children

  1. Studies on the health effects of a-bomb radiation exposure appeared in health examinations of adult survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    2006-01-01

    The Research Foundation has conducted the health examinations in the title since 1958, based on which studies of a cohort type have been performed, and their results at present are summarized in this paper. Subjects have included a cohort of about 120000 cases in total. They have been those 4993 initial cases (the center group) exposed to estimated radiation doses of 4 -6 Gy within the distance of 2 km from the hypocenter and with acute exposure symptoms either in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and 19961 cases (exposed ones within 2 km from the hypocenter but without the symptoms, exposed residents in the city 3 km far from the hypocenter, or ones absent in the city at explosion) matched to the above center group in the city, age and sex. Lower statures and weights are noted in some of the center group who were in growing ages at exposure. Increases of prevalence or incidence rate are suggested in malignant tumors, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid, uterine myoma, chronic liver diseases, cataract, circulatory diseases, abnormal hemoglobin value, and psychological states. Relative risk at 1 Gy for incidence of non-cancer diseases is calculated and presented. Results are not always consistent with those of such population exposed to <6 Gy as that of Chernobyl Accident, of radiation technologist and of people accidentally exposed to environmental radiation. The Foundation is to continue the study and more profound results of radiation effects are expected to be obtainable. (T.I)

  2. Electronic structure of Rh-based CuRh0.9Mg0.1O2 oxide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmercati, P.; Martin, E.; Cheney, C. Parks; Bondino, F.; Magnano, E.; Parmigiani, F.; Sasagawa, T.; Mannella, N.

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of the Rh-based CuRh0.9Mg0.1O2 oxide thermoelectric compound has been studied with a multitechnique approach consisting of photoemission, x-ray absorption, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. The data indicate that the region of the valence band in the proximity of the Fermi level is dominated by Rh-derived states. These findings outline the importance of the electronic structure of the Rh ions for the large thermoelectric power in CuRh0.9Mg0.1O2 at high temperature.

  3. Economic analyses in health care: an introduction to the methodology with an emphasis on radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James; Weeks, Jane; Mauch, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Payers are increasingly interested in knowing whether they are receiving value for the dollars they spend on health care. Because economic analyses will be used as a means of evaluating radiation therapy, it is important that radiation oncologists understand the basic methodology employed in such analyses. This review article describes the four basic types of economic analyses: cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cost utility, and cost benefit. Specification of alternative therapies, choice of perspective of the analysis, measurements of costs and benefits, and the role of discounting and sensitivity analyses are discussed. Published economic analyses that pertain directly to treatment with radiation therapy are reviewed. Finally, we close with a brief discussion of the potential areas for future economic outcomes research in radiation oncology

  4. Combining Radiation Epidemiology With Molecular Biology-Changing From Health Risk Estimates to Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers.

  5. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on health and immune function of operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-zhong; Chen, Shao-hua; Zhao, Ke-fu; Gui, Yun; Fang, Si-xin; Xu, Ying; Ma, Zi-jian

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the physiological indices and immune function of operators. The general conditions and electromagnetic radiation awareness rate of 205 operators under electromagnetic radiation were evaluated using a self-designed questionnaire. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and routine urine test were performed in these operators. Peripheral blood was collected from the operators under electromagnetic radiation for blood cell counting and biochemical testing, and their peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for determination of chromosomal aberrant frequency and micronucleus frequency. The data from these operators (exposure group) were compared with those of 95 ordinary individuals (control group). The chief complaint of giddiness, tiredness, dizziness, and amnesia showed significant differences between the exposure group and control group (P electromagnetic radiation damage was significantly higher in the exposure group than in the control group. The difference in bradycardia was significant between the two groups (P Electromagnetic radiation may lead to the changes in physiological indices, genetic effects, and immune function and affect the health and immune function in operators. The adverse effects are increased as the working years increase. So it is important to strengthen occupational protection of operators under electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Radiation pathways and potential health impacts from inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    Radiation exposure pathways and potential health impacts were estimated as part of the evaluation of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the sites of inactive mills in eight western states. The purpose of this report is to describe in detail the methodology used in performing the pathway analysis and health effects estimations. In addition, specific parameters are presented for each of the 22 uranium mill sites that were evaluated. A computer program, RADAD, developed as part of this program, is described and listed

  7. Analysis of the contended health risks due to digitally modulated mobile phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesenkoetter, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the public discussion regarding the health risks of mobile phone system radiation, it is emphasized that the pulse slope of digital modulation, as defined in the GSM-Standard, will cause biological effects. In contrast, the high field strength of broadcasting and television radiation is not considered to be relevant. This paper compares quantitatively the slope of the digital GSM pulses with that of the synchronizing pulse of the television signal. The result shows clearly that the pulse spectrum of the television signal contains that of the GSM signal; in addition, the synchronizing impulse of television exhibits a much steeper slope. Considering the countrywide normal radiation intensities of television and mobile phone systems, it can be stated that the worldwide exposure to the common television signals over more than 50 years can disprove the contention of adverse biological health effects of the pulse slope of digitally modulated radiofrequency. (orig.) [de

  8. Public education on the health effects of low dose radiation. Why the government underestimated the risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakiyama, Hisako

    2012-01-01

    Here the education on the health effects of radiation, which has not been taken up in the report of the National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC), is mentioned: The atomic power policy for the education on the health effects of radiation, the correspondence of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology after the Fukushima accident, the side readers on the radiation, Is there the clear evidence on the correlation of dose rate under 100 mSv to diseases?, the ploblem of dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor, the fluctuation range of the death rate 0.5% from cancer, the influence and assistance of the electric enterprise union to ICRP members, etc. (M.H.)

  9. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yumin; Fu Baohua; Han Lin; Wang Xi'ai; Zhao Fengling

    2012-01-01

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)

  10. Preparation and evaluation of self-microemulsions for improved bioavailability of ginsenoside-Rh1 and Rh2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feifei; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Xiao; Yu, Stephanie Kyoungchun; Liu, Chunyu; Pan, Ruile; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xinmin; Liao, Yonghong

    2017-10-01

    Due to intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux, poor oral bioavailability hinders ginsenoside-Rh1 (Rh1) and ginsenoside-Rh2 (Rh2) from clinical application. In this study, Rh1 and Rh2 were incorporated into two self-microemulsions (SME-1 and SME-2) to improve oral bioavailability. SME-1 contained both CYP450 and P-gp inhibitory excipients while SME-2 only consisted of P-gp inhibitory excipients. Results for release, cellular uptake, transport, and lymph node distribution demonstrated no significant difference between either self-microemulsions in vivo, but were elevated significantly in comparison to the free drug. The pharmaceutical profiles in vivo showed that the bioavailability of Rh1 in SME-1 (33.25%) was significantly higher than that in either SME-2 (21.28%) or free drug (12.92%). There was no significant difference in bioavailability for Rh2 between SME-1 (48.69%) or SME-2 (41.73%), although they both had remarkable increase in comparison to free drug (15.02%). We confirmed that SME containing CYP450 and P-gp inhibitory excipient could distinctively improve the oral availabilities of Rh1 compared to free drug or SME containing P-gp inhibitory excipient. No notable increase was observed between either SME for Rh2, suggesting that Rh2 undergoes P-gp-mediated efflux, but may not undergo distinct CYP450-mediated metabolism.

  11. Health (Radiation Safety) Regulations 1984 (Victoria), No. 191 of 8 May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These Regulations promulgated pursuant to the Health Act 1958, as amended, repeal the Irradiating Apparatus and Radioactive Substances Regulations 1959. The provisions of the Regulations are designed to safeguard the public, patients and employees of registered premises from harmful effects of radiation. (NEA) [fr

  12. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  13. Using Ionizing Radiation Detectors. Module 11. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on using ionizing radiation detectors. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming and telling the function…

  14. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  15. Good Medicine, Good Health: The IAEA Promotes Radiation Protection of Patients and Health Professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure in the form of computed tomography scans, X-rays, fluoroscopy and positron emission tomography scans are the greatest source of exposure to man-made sources of ionizing radiation. According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), more than 10 million diagnostic radiology procedures and 100 000 diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are performed every day. In addition, around five million radiotherapy treatments are given annually. The use of radiation in medicine is one of the greatest medical discoveries of the past 120 years. Its use has vastly improved our understanding of the body’s processes and functions, as well as our ability to diagnose and cure diseases

  16. Orthopaedic surgeries - assessment of ionising radiations exposure in health care workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, E.S.; Uva, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: 1. Objectives: The health care workers are exposed to ionizing radiations during their activities. In the operating rooms, the ionizing radiations are used in orthopaedic surgery and the dose depends on some factors, like the characteristics of the equipment. This study aims to: Estimate the occupational dose of ionizing radiations exposure of the orthopaedic doctors and nurses during the orthopaedic surgeries, in a Portuguese operating room; Sensitize the health care workers to use the individual dosimeter and to adopt radiation preventive measures. 2. Population and methods The study was conducted on nine Orthopaedic doctors and two nurses of an operating room of a hospital in Lisbon neighborhoods. We made a risk evaluating concerning: the radiations dose in different points, corresponding to gonads, hands and crystalline lens levels of all the professionals, during the surgeries; the average period of radiation in the orthopaedic surgeries; the number of annual orthopaedic surgeries, looking for that in the surgeries registers, to estimate the annual ionizing radiations dose of each orthopaedic doctor and nurse. 3. Results The annual doses estimated at different levels for orthopaedic doctors were the following: gonads: between 20,63 and 68,75 mGy; hands: 4,95 16,50 mGy; crystalline lens: 8,25 27,50 mGy). For the orthopaedic nurses: gonads: 130,63 151,25 mGy; hands: 31,35 36,30 mGy; crystalline lens 52,25 60,25 mGy. 4. Conclusions Although the location and positions of health care workers are not the same during the different surgeries and the equipment has an automatic control of the X ray emission, the annual ionizing radiations dose exposure for health care workers is an important one. The risk rating justifies the use of individual dosimeters for better individual dose assessment as part of an ionizing radiations prevention program. As a matter of fact preventive measures begin with a good quantitative risk assessment of

  17. Radiation protection instrumentation at the Andalusian health service; Instrumentalizacion de la proteccion radiologica en el servicio Andaluz de salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrador Cordoba, M [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia Rotllan, J [Servicios Centrales del Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Sevilla (Spain)

    1997-11-01

    In Andalusia the contributions of radiological risks in the nuclear industry and of natural radiation are small and the same holds for medical applications of individuals and research. The performance models in radiation protection is monitored by the Andalusian Health Service through the public health institutions. This short communication describes the model and results obtained. 3 refs.

  18. Radiation environment assessment, measurement and its impact on health and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Panwar, Brijandra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Present paper deals with Radiation Environment Assessment, Measurement and its Impact on Health, its meaning and in particular with sustainable development perspective. Health and Environment appears to be different subjects and concepts, but in reality they are interrelated and interdependent. One cannot exist without the other. For good health hygienic environment is a sine qua non. Article 3 of Universal Declaration of Human Right 1948 incorporates the right to life. It has been interpreted by the international court that the word life does not means simply to live but it means to live with dignity and in well and pollution and radiation free environment which is a gift of nature on this universe. There is no doubt about the nuclear revolution that has taken place and has made life of human beings worth living on this earth with comfort. It is growing development of the nation. But in the process the development that has been done at the cost of human life, public health and environment which will prove fatal in the long run. So there is a need for Sustainable Development of the human and environment of the world. Precisely and concisely, the sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. A hygienic and redaction free environment will ensure the better Health of the people. Environment and nuclear power plant can coexist. The harmonization of the two needs has led to the concept of Radiation Environment Assessment and sustainable development, so much so that it has become the most significant and focal point of environmental legislation relating to the same. Sustainable development, simply put, is a process in which development can be sustained over generations effects of radiation on humans and on the environment. Finally, this paper deals with the impact of radiation on environment and the need of sustainable development for achieving a better human. (author)

  19. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  20. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  1. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  2. Health and low-level radiation: turning good news into bad news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Wallis, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper has a dual purpose. On the one hand, congratulations are in order; the 25th Hanford Life Sciences Symposium celebrates four decades of important research at Hanford. This research has helped provide a better understanding of ionizing radiation effects on man and his environment. Researchers at Hanford and those at other locations can take pride in the fact that today we know more about the major characteristics and potential health effects of ionizing radiation than we do for any other biological hazard. Ionizing radiation's present mysteries, important as they are, involve subtleties that are difficult to explore in detail because the effects are so small relative to other health effects. It will also be a pleasure to add our tribute, along with many others, to Herb Parker, a friend, colleague, and pioneer in the radiation protection field. Building on the work of early pioneers such as Herb and those who have and will follow in their footsteps, we will develop an even broader understanding--an understanding that will clarify the effects of low-level radiation exposure, an area of knowledge about which sound explanations and predictions elude us today. The second purpose of this paper is to remind those in the radiation protection field that they have been less than successful in one of their most important tasks--that of effective communication. The task is not an easy one because the content of the message depends upon the dose. At high doses, above 1 Sv, where the deleterious effects of radiation are predictable, there is agreement on the message that must be delivered to the public: avoid it. There is no confusion in the public sector about this message. At the much lower doses resulting from beneficial activities, the message we must convey to the public is different

  3. Radiation management and health management at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Tateishi, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the measures taken by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the accident in April 1986 to date, compares them with the situation of the current Fukushima nuclear accident, and introduces the contents of the authors' visit and coverage in October 2013, including the report of radiation damage. At the Chernobyl site, a new sarcophagus is under construction since 2012. The health care of the workers working at the new and old sarcophaguses of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is carried out at a national level of Ukraine, which is an important management for decommissioning work. Health diagnosis is also applied to the workers in the new sarcophagus, and radiation-related disease is not reported at present. The number of the persons who died from acute radiation exposure diseases after the accident was 28. It was reported that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) appeared significantly when the radiation exceeded 100 mSv. The workers who wish to work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant must pass the test and obtain national qualifications, and then they are able to work for the first time. In the check-in medical control, about half of applicants were rejected. Workers who work at the new sarcophagus are subject to comprehensive health management under the Ukrainian law. There were 58 people who reached annual exposure dose limit of 20 mSv or more among 7,529 people, the cause of which may be the work at the areas of high radiation dose. Even in Fukushima, it is important to perform high quality management based on centralized medical examination, and to further analyze the effects of low-dose exposure to radiation. (A.O.)

  4. Health effects assessment of staff involved in medical practices of radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, I.A.; Lacob, O. [Institute of Public Health Iasi, Radiation Hygiene Lab. (Romania); Roman, I.; Havarneanu, D. [Institute of Public Health Iasi, Occupational Medicine Dept. (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed, starting from new national recommendation appearance, to detect health effects of medical staff from six counties of Moldavia region involved in radiation practices and to create a national register data for radiation-induce cancer. Staff involved in medical ionizing radiation uses in Romania - health care level I are monitored on recent new recommendations for three years. The micro nuclei high levels and morphological lymphocytes changes vs. clinical diagnostic can be considered as early possible malignant signs. The micro nuclei test, although unspecific, as a new exam in our legislation can bring useful information on staff exposure and provides a guidance to occupational physician in making his medical recommendations. This cytogenetic test does not seem to correlate with smoking habit or length of exposure. Micro nuclei test both in oral mucous epithelial cells and peripheral culture lymphocytes can be considered of much specificity and correlates with a recent acute exposure level. The conclusions of individual health status surveillance and assessment of personal dose equivalent are very useful data for recording in the radiation cancer-induced register.

  5. Radiation in pediatric health care: current situation and challenges in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Maria Gladys R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation exposure to human health has been the topic of much research to date, focusing particularly on children as they are especially vulnerable and have longer life span to develop log term health effects. Taking into account the higher vulnerability of children, prevention of unnecessary radiation exposure is critical in pediatric patients. Issues such as pediatric patient receive a higher dose than necessary has been identified because adult computed tomography (CT) settings are used for children. Assessment of population exposures resulting from medical use of radiation is mainly available in industrialized countries, while in developing countries such as the Philippines, data are scarce. This information is very much scarce in the field of pediatric medical exposures and appropriate national surveys including frequency of pediatric procedures and children doses are still lacking. A broader and more effective participation of the regulatory authorities in such surveys could contribute to children risk assessment. The presentation explains the current situation, approach and challenges in the Philippines in dealing with radiation in pediatric health care. (author)

  6. The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoprotection messages and ‘SunSmart’ programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

  7. Health effects assessment of staff involved in medical practices of radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.A.; Lacob, O.; Roman, I.; Havarneanu, D.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed, starting from new national recommendation appearance, to detect health effects of medical staff from six counties of Moldavia region involved in radiation practices and to create a national register data for radiation-induce cancer. Staff involved in medical ionizing radiation uses in Romania - health care level I are monitored on recent new recommendations for three years. The micro nuclei high levels and morphological lymphocytes changes vs. clinical diagnostic can be considered as early possible malignant signs. The micro nuclei test, although unspecific, as a new exam in our legislation can bring useful information on staff exposure and provides a guidance to occupational physician in making his medical recommendations. This cytogenetic test does not seem to correlate with smoking habit or length of exposure. Micro nuclei test both in oral mucous epithelial cells and peripheral culture lymphocytes can be considered of much specificity and correlates with a recent acute exposure level. The conclusions of individual health status surveillance and assessment of personal dose equivalent are very useful data for recording in the radiation cancer-induced register

  8. Research on determination of bio-burden for radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinfang

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization, determination of bio-burden on 148 kinds of health care products from 52 manufacturers were carried out. The culture of microorganisms, different elution technology, and correction coefficient of the microbiological methods have been used for determination of bio-burden. Frequent distribution of bio-burden was established. 5 kinds of elution processes were checked. Actual data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization was gotten. (authors)

  9. rhBMP-2 for posterolateral instrumented lumbar fusion: a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, R John; Alexander, David; Bailey, Stewart; Mahood, James; Abraham, Ed; McBroom, Robert; Jodoin, Alain; Fisher, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Multicenter randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) on radiographical fusion rate and clinical outcome for surgical lumbar arthrodesis compared with iliac crest autograft. In many types of spinal surgery, radiographical fusion is a primary outcome equally important to clinical improvement, ensuring long-term stability and axial support. Biologic induction of bone growth has become a commonly used adjunct in obtaining this objective. We undertook this study to objectify the efficacy of rhBMP-2 compared with traditional iliac crest autograft in instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Patients undergoing 1- or 2-level instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion were randomized to receive either autograft or rhBMP-2 for their fusion construct. Clinical and radiographical outcome measures were followed for 2 to 4 years postoperatively. One hundred ninety seven patients were successfully randomized among the 8 participating institutions. Adverse events attributable to the study drug were not significantly different compared with controls. However, the control group experienced significantly more graft-site complications as might be expected. 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Oswestry Disability Index, and leg/back pain scores were comparable between the 2 groups. After 4 years of follow-up, radiographical fusion rates remained significantly higher in patients treated with rhBMP-2 (94%) than those who received autograft (69%) (P = 0.007). The use of rhBMP-2 for instrumented posterolateral lumbar surgery significantly improves the chances of radiographical fusion compared with the use of autograft. However, there is no associated improvement in clinical outcome within a 4-year follow-up period. These results suggest that use of rhBMP-2 should be considered in cases where lumbar arthrodesis is of primary concern.

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  11. The relationship between aortic calcification on chest radiography and ionizing radiation in RERF's Adult Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Suzuki, G.; Masunari, N.; Kasagi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aortic calcification has been reported to be an indicator of atherosclerosis and a predictor of coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between aortic calcification and conventional coronary risk factors or recently reported coronary risk factors including ionizing radiation, which is one kind of oxidative stress, has not been established. Objective: To investigate the relationship between aortic calcification and ionizing radiation in a longitudinal study design. The study cohort comprises the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Adult Health Study participants which include atomic-bomb survivors and sex- and age-matched controls. A total of 522 men and 938 women identified as not having aortic calcification based on plain chest X-ray examinations at baseline examination between 1991 and 1993 were assessed regarding the presence of aortic calcification (mild/ severe calcification) about 10 years later. The relationship between cumulative incidence of aortic calcification and atomic-bomb radiation was analyzed using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for sex, age, and other coronary risk factors such as blood pressure, total cholesterol, and inflammation markers. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence of aortic calcification showed a possible increase with atomic-bomb radiation dose for both total aortic calcification and severe aortic calcification. But after adjusting for other coronary risk factors such as smoking, SBP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and leukocyte neutropils, radiation dose was not a significant predictor of cumulative incidence of severe aortic calcification. Age-adjusted increase of cumulative incidence of aortic calcification with atomic-bomb radiation dose suggests ionizing radiation is one predictor of atheroscelerosis. Nevertheless, its predictive impact may not be as significant as conventional coronary risk factors

  12. Effects of the Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. For radiation dosimetry, we used an ALNOR scintillator that can measure gamma radiation. The simulation was performed by MATLAB software, and data from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were used to verify the simulation. We investigated the risks that result from the waves, according to a report by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to every organ of the body is defined by the beam and electromagnetic radiation from this electronic device on people. The results showed that the maximum personal dose over a 15-min period working at the mentioned HVPS did not exceed 0.31 μSV/h (with an aluminum shield). So, according to other sources of radiation, continuous working time of the system should not be more than 10 hours. Finally, a characteristic curve for secure working with modules at different frequencies was reported. The RF input signal to the body for maximum penetration depth (δ) and electromagnetic energy absorption rate (SAR) of biological tissue were obtained for each tissue. The results of this study and International Commission of Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reports showed the people who spend more than 50 minutes a day using a cell phone could have early dementia or other thermal damage due to the burning of glucose in the brain.

  13. Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. Methods In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. For radiation dosimetry, we used an ALNOR scintillator that can measure gamma radiation. The simulation was performed by MATLAB software, and data from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were used to verify the simulation. Results We investigated the risks that result from the waves, according to a report by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to every organ of the body is defined by the beam and electromagnetic radiation from this electronic device on people. The results showed that the maximum personal dose over a 15-min period working at the mentioned HVPS did not exceed 0.31 μSV/h (with an aluminum shield). So, according to other sources of radiation, continuous working time of the system should not be more than 10 hours. Finally, a characteristic curve for secure working with modules at different frequencies was reported. The RF input signal to the body for maximum penetration depth (δ) and electromagnetic energy absorption rate (SAR) of biological tissue were obtained for each tissue. Conclusion The results of this study and International Commission of Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reports showed the people who spend more than 50 minutes a day using a cell phone could have early dementia or other thermal damage due to the burning of glucose in the brain. PMID:27382458

  14. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sistema de informações hospitalares do sistema único de saúde (SIH-SUS: uma avaliação preliminar do seu desempenho no monitoramento da doença hemolítica perinatal Rh(D The Hospital Information System of the Brazilian National Unified Health System: a preliminary evaluation of performance in monitoring RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lobato

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a utilização de bases administrativas na vigilância epidemiológica, propõe-se aqui avaliar a adequação do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH-SUS na identificação dos casos de doença hemolítica perinatal ocorridos no Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/FIOCRUZ, entre 1998 e 2003. Foram analisadas informações disponibilizadas pelo Serviço Neonatal, pelo Arquivo Médico e os dados da Autorização de Internação Hospitalar (AIH consolidados no SIH-SUS. A identificação dos casos de doença hemolítica perinatal se deu através dos campos Diagnóstico Primário, Diagnóstico Secundário e Procedimento Realizado. Nesse período, 194 neonatos foram diagnosticados com doença hemolítica perinatal. No Arquivo Médico, 148 casos foram registrados, porém apenas 147 AIHs foram emitidas e 145 consolidadas no SIH-SUS. Entre essas, 84 AIHs arrolavam a doença hemolítica perinatal como Diagnóstico Primário; considerando também o Diagnóstico Secundário, mais 38 casos foram identificados; e nenhum caso adicional foi recuperado pelo Procedimento Realizado. Assim, o SIH-SUS identificou apenas 122 (62,9% dos 194 neonatos com doença hemolítica perinatal assistidos no IFF/FIOCRUZ. Mesmo que ainda requerendo uma reavaliação em outros hospitais, a utilização do SIH-SUS no monitoramento da doença hemolítica perinatal não parece recomendável. Estudos ancilares são necessários quando do emprego de dados secundários nesse contexto.This study aimed to evaluate the adequacy of the Hospital Information System of the National Unified Health System (SIH-SUS in identifying cases of RhD hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN at the Fernandes Figueira Institute (IFF/FIOCRUZ from 1998 to 2003. Neonatal records, data from the Medical Archives, and AIH (Hospital Admissions Authorization Form data consolidated in the SIH-SUS were analyzed. Cases were identified according to the

  16. Ajinomoto joins GO and NGO in promoting RH / nutrition in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Project (IP) on Reproductive Health/Nutrition (RH/N) in Batangas Province in the Philippines was launched on December 2, 1999. This project is a new form of collaboration, joining government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and corporate forces to promote a RH/N project in six municipalities in Batangas. The Ajinomoto Company, one of the largest food companies in Japan, decided to support the project because of its emphasis on training of trainers such as local leaders, community health workers, and volunteers, which is the key to self-sustainability. Another reason for support was that nutrition education is considered an integral part of the IP in the Philippines, which in some way is in line with the company's mission to contribute to the improvement of the people's quality of life. The IP on RH/N is designed to expand the successful IP model achieved in villages in the municipalities of Malvar and Balayan during the past 6 years, while reinforcing the capacities of these model areas to lead in transferring their lessons and experience with successful IP to four other municipalities in Batangas. Attention will also be given to promoting the use of integrated information, education, and communication materials for RH/N.

  17. Dissecting plant chromosomes by the use of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation treatment of genomes is used to generate chromosome breaks for numerous applications. This protocol describes the preparation of seeds and the determination of the optimal level of irradiation dosage for the creation of a radiation hybrid (RH) population. These RH lines can be used to gene...

  18. Radiation protection organisation in the health establishments: evaluation and official report in Ile de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, M.; Soula, M.C.; Gauron, C.; Biau, A.

    2002-01-01

    This inquiry underlines the difficulty to apply the radiation protection in health care establishments. two factors are bringing to light: the difficulties encountered by the expert persons to practice their mission and the lack of training felt by the industrial physician to practice their adviser part.Beyond the technical skill it seems necessary to consolidate the ability to act of the expert person in order to improve the risk evaluation in the field. The partnership industrial physician- expert person must have as objective to study the most exposing activities in order to propose the technical and medical surveillance means adapted to the level and kind of risk. The training obligation for physician practicing radiological acts is an important step to improve the physician receptivity face to ionizing radiation risk and will underline the three great principles of radiation protection such justification principle, optimization principle and doses limitation principle. (N.C.)

  19. The research on the health effects of low-level radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Professor Don Luckey identified the phenomenon of 'radiation hormesis' and he described it in a paper in the Health Physics Society Journal, in 1982. (He also authored two books on this subject.) CRIEPI initiated a research program on radiation hormesis following this publication to confirm, 'Is it true or not?' After nearly ten years of research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many universities, we are realizing the scientific truth of bio-positive effects caused by low-level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in the following five groups: rejuvenation of cells, such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability; moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes; suppression and therapy of adult diseases, e.g., diabetes and hypertension; suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems, such as lymphocytes; suppression of cancer and radio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. (author)

  20. Health risk for workers who work with different ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Pavlovic, S.; Milacic, S.; Radisavljevic, B.; Tisma, J.; Celeketic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This is retrospective study in which laboratory parameters are monitored and compared within subjects occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and in comparison with control group. Data are collected from files for periodical exams for 2005 year. The average annual absorbed dose, measured by TDL dosimeters, for all groups did not exceed 2mSv. Collected results show changes in number of erythrocytes, white blood cells and lymphocytes in peripheral blood in some groups. Soil decontamination of poor uranium did not have influence in relative radiation risk. The highest occupational risk appears to be for the subjects who work in radioisotope production. Found changes pointing out the need for continued health control of subjects who are professionally exposed to ionizing radiation in the same time dynamic. (author) [sr

  1. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra Pratap, E-mail: bpsingh0783@gmail.com; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepak; Punia, Monika; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10{sup −3} and 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10{sup −3} and 2.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10{sup −3} and 8.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from

  2. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min; Jung, Hae Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm"2 and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure

  3. Set up and operation for medical radiation exposure quality control system of health promotion center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Kim, Jung Min [Korea University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, standard model of medical radiation dosage quality control system will be suggested and the useful of this system in clinical field will be reviewed. Radiation dosage information of modalities are gathered from digital imaging and communications in medicine(DICOM) standard data(such as DICOM dose SR and DICOM header) and stored in database. One CT scan, two digital radiography modalities and two mammography modalities in one health promotion center in Seoul are used to derive clinical data for one month. After 1 months research with 703 CT scans, the study shows CT 357.9 mGy·cm in abdomen and pelvic CT, 572.4 mGy·cm in brain without CT, 55.9 mGy·cm in calcium score/heart CT, screening CT at 54 mGy·cm in chest screening CT(low dose screening CT scan), 284.99 mGy·cm in C-spine CT and 341.85 mGy·cm in L-spine CT as health promotion center reference level of each exam. And with 1955 digital radiography cases, it shows 274.0 mGy·cm{sup 2} and for mammography 6.09 mGy is shown based on 536 cases. The use of medical radiation shall comply with the principles of justification and optimization. This quality management of medical radiation exposure must be performed in order to follow the principle. And the procedure to reduce the radiation exposure of patients and staff can be achieved through this. The results of this study can be applied as a useful tool to perform the quality control of medical radiation exposure.

  4. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  5. {sup 103}Rh-NMR studies in the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T; Kanda, K; Ueda, K; Mito, T; Kohara, T [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Nakamura, H, E-mail: t-koyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 103}Rh nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed in the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15} with the transition temperature T{sub C}=5.4 K. The observed {sup 103}Rh-NMR spectrum shows an asymmetric shape with several peaks, reflecting the local symmetry around each Rh site. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to four different Rh sites and obtained the temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shift of 24m site. The isotropic part of the Knight shift K{sub iso} decreases with decreasing T, indicating the existence of the electron correlation in Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}. In the superconducting state, the resonance lines shift to higher frequencies owing to a decrease of the spin part of the Knight shift with negative hyperfine coupling.

  6. The preventive effect of recombinant human growth factor (rhEGF) on the recurrence of radiodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kim, Yeun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Wook; Hong, Joon-Pio

    2010-01-01

    The effects of topical application of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on wound healing and the recurrence of radiodermatitis were assessed in the irradiated skin of BALB/c Nu/Nu mice. Mice irradiated with 45 Gy of radiation were divided into 5 groups and treated with 10, 50, and 100 μg/g rhEGF ointment, vehicle alone, or no treatment (control) for 6 months. Wounds were observed initially in all groups and complete healing time (HT 100 ) for initial wound repair did not differ significantly among groups. However, the rate of recurrence over 6 months was significantly lower in the EGF-treated groups than in the control group (p<0.05). Histological examination showed that treatment with the optimum dose of EGF (50 μg/g) accelerated normal wound healing when compared with the higher dose of EGF (100 μg/g), vehicle alone, or no treatment, with the latter group showing irregular epidermal thickness, poor definition of epidermis and dermis, and unstable dermal structure. Collagen distribution was also significantly increased in mice treated with 50 μg/g rhEGF (p<0.05) compared with the control or vehicle-treated group. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment with exogenous EGF (50 μg/g dose) can enhance radiation-induced wound repair while preserving structural tissue stability and preventing the recurrence of radiodermatitis. (author)

  7. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  8. Blood Groups Distribution and Gene Diversity of the ABO and Rh (D Loci in the Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Canizalez-Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh (D antigens and, additionally, investigate gene diversity and the structure of Mexican populations. Materials and Methods. Blood groups were tested in 271,164 subjects from 2014 to 2016. The ABO blood group was determined by agglutination using the antibodies anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D for the Rh factor, respectively. Results. The overall distribution of ABO and Rh (D groups in the population studied was as follows: O: 61.82%; A: 27.44%; B: 8.93%; and AB: 1.81%. For the Rh group, 95.58% of people were Rh (D, and 4.42% were Rh (d. Different distributions of blood groups across regions were found; additionally, genetic analysis revealed that the IO and ID allele showed an increasing trend from the north to the center, while the IA and Id allele tended to increase from the center to the north. Also, we found more gene diversity in both loci in the north compared with the center, suggesting population structure in Mexico. Conclusion. This work could help health institutions to identify where they can obtain blood products necessary for medical interventions. Moreover, this piece of information contributes to the knowledge of the genetic structure of the Mexican populations which could have significant implications in different fields of biomedicine.

  9. Human health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation: the BEIR III controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Controversy in the BEIR III Subcommittee on Somatic Effects concerning human health effects of low doses of low-LET radiation has centered on (a) the appropriate dose-response relationship by which extrapolation to low doses of data obtained at relatively high doses should be governed, and (b) the appropriate human evidence which should be the basis of estimation of lifetime cancer risk from radiation exposure. It is shown that the use of the linear no-threshold dose-response relationship for extrapolation purposes is an excellent approximation that is in agreement with widely accepted fundamental radiobiological principles. The appropriate human data for derivation of cancer risks are the composite age-specific risks derived from all epidemiologic studies of human cancer resulting from partial-body and whole-body radiation exposure; this composite is in good agreement with the currently available cancer incidence dose-response data obtained from the Nagasaki Tumor Registry. The current version of BEIR III significantly underestimates the radiation-induced cancer risk because it ignores the effect of high-dose-rate, low-LET radiation on cell survival in relation to cancer induction probability, and because it emphasizes cancer mortality rather than cancer incidence. The controversy and the way in which it was resolved raises important questions about how the public and its representatives can in the future obtain objective scientific evaluations of issues that may have significant economic, social, and political implications

  10. Health physics experience in commissioning and operation of radiation and air activity monitoring system at FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Viswanathan, S.; Bala Sundar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Suriyamurthy, N.; Ravi, T.; Subramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation and Air Activity Monitoring System (RAAMS) at Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is meant to monitor and record the radiation and air activity levels at various potentially active areas in FBTR complex. Health Physics Group, FBTR was associated during commissioning of RAAMS in fixing the alarm settings for the monitors, their relocation and in formulating the surveillance procedures. The areas were surveyed to check for any release of activity for confirming the observed readings during operation of the reactor. In such cases, augmentation of shielding was recommended and was promptly implemented by the station management. The details of the long and fruitful experience gained by the Health Physics Group, FBTR are described in this paper. (author)

  11. The Negative Impact of Stark Law Exemptions on Graduate Medical Education and Health Care Costs: The Example of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Anscher, Barbara M.; Bradley, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To survey radiation oncology training programs to determine the impact of ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists on these training programs and to place these findings in a health policy context based on data from the literature. Methods and Materials: A survey was designed and e-mailed to directors of all 81 U.S. radiation oncology training programs in this country. Also, the medical and health economic literature was reviewed to determine the impact that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists may have on patient care and health care costs. Prostate cancer treatment is used to illustrate the primary findings. Results: Seventy-three percent of the surveyed programs responded. Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is a widespread phenomenon. More than 50% of survey respondents reported the existence of these arrangements in their communities, with a resultant reduction in patient volumes 87% of the time. Twenty-seven percent of programs in communities with these business arrangements reported a negative impact on residency training as a result of decreased referrals to their centers. Furthermore, the literature suggests that ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists is associated with both increased utilization and increased costs but is not associated with increased access to services in traditionally underserved areas. Conclusions: Ownership of radiation oncology facilities by non-radiation oncologists appears to have a negative impact on residency training by shifting patients away from training programs and into community practices. In addition, the literature supports the conclusion that self-referral results in overutilization of expensive services without benefit to patients. As a result of these findings, recommendations are made to study further how physician ownership of radiation oncology facilities influence graduate

  12. The prospective study of the effect of the low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shicheng; Jing Luwei; Tian Guang; Liu Linxiu; Wu Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the long term low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members in order to provide a scientific basis for the rational protective measures to be taken. Methods: Dynamic observations were made for 15 years of the conditions of the staff members exposed to radiation. The inherent changes and the affecting factors were analyzed. Group of people free from radiation were chosen to the control group. Results: Sighs of nervous breakdown, damages of the eye crystal, hand skin and nails are much more frequently seen among medical radiation workers than these in the control group. There are differences between radiation workers and the control in the positive rates of the objective indices such as leukocytes, erythrocytes, blood platelets, immune functions, the minute nuclei and the chromosome fission. Conclusion: Persistent low-dose radiation can cause damages to the health of radiation workers in many respects, Measures of radiation protection and persistant health monitoring should be taken. Thisis of great importance in implementing the state's relative laws and regulations to protect the health of the radiation workers. (authors)

  13. The health after effects on children exposed to Chernobyl radiation fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the long-term health consequences that are now being detected in Ukrainian adolescents who, as children, were exposed to Chornobyl radiation fallout fifteen years ago. The information presented will emphasize the importance of ensuring that nuclear power plants are built and operated with all the safeguards needed to prevent a recurrence of the Chornobyl disaster

  14. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  15. Crystal structure of PrRh4.8B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Iwami; Shishido, Toetsu; Takei, Humihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    1988-01-01

    The crystal structure of a new rare earth ternary boride PrRh 4.8 B 2 was investigated, by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. PrRh 4.8 B 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Immm with a = 9.697(4), b = 5.577(2), c = 25.64(3) A, Z=12. The intensity data were collected on a four-circle diffractometer with graphite-monochromatized Mo Kα radiation. The structure was solved by the Patterson method and refined with a full-matrix least-squares program to an R value (equal to Σvertical strokeΔFvertical stroke/Σvertical strokeF 0 vertical stroke) of 0.055 for 1176 reflections. (orig.)

  16. Panel discussion on health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. Scientific findings and non-threshold hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This is a record of a panel discussion in the IAEA Interregional Training Course. In current radiation work, protection measures are taken on the assumption that any amount of radiation, however small, entails a risk of deleterious effects. This so-called non-threshold assumption of radiation effects, on the one hand, creates public distrust of radiation use. However, because the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation are difficult to verify, wide views ranging from the non-threshold hypothesis to one which sees small amounts of radiation as rather useful and necessary are presented. In this panel discussion, how the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation should be considered from the standpoint of radiation protection was discussed. Panelists included such eminent scientists as Dr. Sugahara and Dr. Okada, who are deeply interested in this field and are playing leading parts in radiobiology research in Japan, and Dr. Stather, deputy Director of NRPB, UK, who, in UNSCEAR and ICRP, is actively participating in the international review of radiation effects and the preparation of reports on radiation protection recommendations. They agreed with each other that although it is reasonable, under the current scientific understanding, to follow the recommendation of ICRP, research in this area should be strongly promoted hereafter, for basing radiation protection on firm scientific grounds. Many participants actively asked about and discussed problems in their own field. (author)

  17. Guidelines for approved medical officers on health surveillance of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donovan, N.; Hone, C.

    1988-11-01

    As a result of the adoption of the Council of the European Communities Directive No. 80/836 Euratom which lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, there is a need for nominating Approved Medical Officers whose functions in respect of hospital workers are outlined in the Department of Health Circular, Oct. 1983 (Appendix 1), and which are considered applicable to all other workers. This document outlines the role of the Approved Medical Officer and proides information to aid him/her in this work (author)

  18. Assessment of the human health impact of changes in ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Although several major health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are established, precise quantification of this effect is difficult. New Zealand has the most southerly located major human population in the world, and has a particular contribution to make to worldwide progress. However, current information on the frequency of the relevant health problems is unsatisfactory. Major developments in research in New Zealand are needed. UVR is an established causal factor for malignant melanoma, other types of skin cancer, cataracts and some other eye problems and has been implicated in some immunological effects. (author). 5 refs

  19. Health physics experience with nondestructive X-radiation facilities in the US Air Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.; Piltingsrud, H.V.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation safety experience in the construction and use of enclosed nondestructive inspection (NDI) facilities in the US Air Force, has reaffirmed the constant need for the health physicist to continually monitor and assit in upgrading these facilities. Health physics contributions include evaluation of initial shielding requirements, proper selection of construction material, insuring that adequate safety devices are installed and adequate personnel dosimetry devices are available, surveying the facility, and assisting in the safety education program. There is a need to better define NDI warning/safety devices, using the National Bureau of Standards, (NBS) Handbook 107 as the most applicable guide

  20. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  1. Health and low-level radiation: turning good news into bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B; Wallis, L R

    1988-08-01

    This paper has a dual purpose. On the one hand, congratulations are in order; the 25th Hanford Life Sciences Symposium celebrates four decades of important research at Hanford. This research has helped provide a better understanding of ionizing radiation effects on man and his environment. Researchers at Hanford and those at other locations can take pride in the fact that today we know more about the major characteristics and potential health effects of ionizing radiation than we do for any other biological hazard. Ionizing radiation's present mysteries, important as they are, involve subtleties that are difficult to explore in detail because the effects are so small relative to other health effects. It will also be a pleasure to add our tribute, along with many others, to Herb Parker, a friend, colleague, and pioneer in the radiation protection field. Building on the work of early pioneers such as Herb and those who have and will follow in their footsteps, we will develop an even broader understanding--an understanding that will clarify the effects of low-level radiation exposure, an area of knowledge about which sound explanations and predictions elude us today. The second purpose of this paper is to remind those in the radiation protection field that they have been less than successful in one of their most important tasks--that of effective communication. The task is not an easy one because the content of the message depends upon the dose. At high doses, above 1 Sv, where the deleterious effects of radiation are predictable, there is agreement on the message that must be delivered to the public: avoid it. There is no confusion in the public sector about this message. At the much lower doses resulting from beneficial activities, the message we must convey to the public is different. Unfortunately, the only message about radiation that the public seems to remember is "avoid it." We know the proper message is not being received when the medical profession resorts

  2. Social Crowding during Development Causes Changes in GnRH1 DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian G; Lenkov, Kapa; Williams, Blake; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Gestational and developmental cues have important consequences for long-term health, behavior and adaptation to the environment. In addition, social stressors cause plastic molecular changes in the brain that underlie unique behavioral phenotypes that also modulate fitness. In the adult African cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni, growth and social status of males are both directly regulated by social interactions in a dynamic social environment, which causes a suite of plastic changes in circuits, cells and gene transcription in the brain. We hypothesized that a possible mechanism underlying some molecular changes might be DNA methylation, a reversible modification made to cytosine nucleotides that is known to regulate gene function. Here we asked whether changes in DNA methylation of the GnRH1 gene, the central regulator of the reproductive axis, were altered during development of A. burtoni. We measured changes in methylation state of the GnRH1 gene during normal development and following the gestational and developmental stress of social crowding. We found differential DNA methylation within developing juveniles between 14-, 28- and 42-day-old. Following gestational crowding of mouth brooding mothers, we saw differential methylation and transcription of GnRH1 in their offspring. Taken together, our data provides evidence for social control of GnRH1 developmental responses to gestational cues through DNA methylation.

  3. Large magnetoresistance in Er7Rh3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Sampathkumaran, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The compound Er 2 Rh 3 has been known to order antiferromagnetically below (T N =14K), and to exhibit a change in the sign of temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity (ρ) in the paramagnetic state around 120 K. Here we report the influence of external magnetic field (H) on the ρ(T) behavior of this compound (1.8-300 K). While the ρ behavior in the paramagnetic state, qualitatively speaking, is found to be robust to the application of H, the magnitude of the magnetoresistance (MR) is significant for moderate applications of H, even at temperatures for above T N untypical of metallic systems. In addition, large values are observed in the magnetically ordered state. (author)

  4. Organization of medical physics and radiation protection: return on experience from some French and foreign health establishments. Report nr 306

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badajoz, C.; Bataille, C.; Drouet, F.; Schieber, C.

    2009-04-01

    After having recalled the French legal context related to the missions of experts in radiation protection and of experts in medical radio-physics, as well as to the organization of medical physics and radiation protection, this report proposes a global analysis of the organization noticed in several visited units (in different health establishments in France, Switzerland and Spain) and of their actions regarding workers' and patients' radiation protection. Good practices have been identified and recommendations are made

  5. Photoelectrochemical properties of LaRhO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, B.; Narayanan, S.R.; Viswanath, R.P.; Varadrajan, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of LaRhO 3 at different values of pH were studied by current-voltage measurements and cyclic voltammetry and the results obtained are compared with those obtained for LaRhO 3 , a potential photoelectrode. (author)

  6. GnRH injection before artificial insemination (AI) alters follicle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... releasing hormone (GnRH) injection on day 6 of the estrous cycle. The estrous cycles ... follicle at the time of GnRH injection (Silcox et al., 1993;. Twagiramungu .... Waves and their Effect on pregnancy rate in the Cow. Reprod.

  7. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P<.0001). With a >16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation

  8. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael T; Todd, Kimberly E; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A; Rotondo, Ronny L; Morris, Christopher G; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Indelicato, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of "$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) - (CCLS expense to payer/N)]" per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N equals the number of children aged 3 to 12

  9. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael T.; Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P 16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N

  10. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  11. Psychological distress and the perception of radiation risks: the Fukushima health management survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623

  12. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP. To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8% answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0% residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1% residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5% residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2% residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5% residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  13. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  14. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Gu

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD, which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  15. Concept design on RH maintenance of CFETR Tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuntao; Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi; Li, Jiangang; Ye, Minyou; Zheng, Jinxing; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Wenlong; Wei, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We discussed the concept design of the RH maintenance system based on the main design work of the key components for CFETR. •The main design work for RH maintenance in this paper was carried out including the divertor RH system, the blanket RH system and the transfer cask system. •The technical problems encountered in the design process were discussed. •The present concept design of remote maintenance system in this paper can meet the physical and engineering requirement of CFETR. -- Abstract: CFETR which stands for Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is a superconducting Tokamak device. The concept design on RH maintenance of CFETR has been done in the past year. It is known that, the RH maintenance is one of the most important parts for Tokamak reactor. The fusion power was designed as 50–200 MW and its duty cycle time (or burning time) was estimated as 30–50%. The center magnetic field strength on the TF magnet is 5.0 T, the maximum capacity of the volt seconds provided by center solenoid winding will be about 160 VS. The plasma current will be 10 MA and its major radius and minor radius is 5.7 m and 1.6 m respectively. All the components of CFETR which provide their basic functions must be maintained and inspected during the reactor lifetime. Thus, the remote handling (RH) maintenance system should be a key component, which must be detailedly designed during the concept design processing of CFETR, for the operation of reactor. The main design work for RH maintenance in this paper was carried out including the divertor RH system, the blanket RH system and the transfer cask system. What is more, the technical problems encountered in the design process will also be discussed

  16. Comparison of dental health of patients with head and neck cancer receiving IMRT vs conventional radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Victor M; Liu, Yuan F; Rafizadeh, Sassan; Tajima, Tracey; Nabili, Vishad; Wang, Marilene B

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the dental health of patients with head and neck cancer who received comprehensive dental care after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with radiation therapy (RT). Historical cohort study. Veteran Affairs (VA) hospital. In total, 158 patients at a single VA hospital who were treated with RT or IMRT between 2003 and 2011 were identified. A complete dental evaluation was performed prior to radiation treatment, including periodontal probing, tooth profile, cavity check, and mobility. The dental treatment plan was formulated to eliminate current and potential dental disease. The rates of dental extractions, infections, caries, mucositis, xerostomia, and osteoradionecrosis (ORN) were analyzed, and a comparison was made between patients treated with IMRT and those treated with RT. Of the 158 patients, 99 were treated with RT and 59 were treated with IMRT. Compared with those treated with IMRT, significantly more patients treated with RT exhibited xerostomia (46.5% vs 16.9%; P radiation treatment (32.2% vs 11.1%; P = .002; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.65-8.73). Patients who were treated with IMRT had fewer instances of dental disease, more salivary flow, and fewer requisite posttreatment extractions compared with those treated with RT. The number of posttreatment extractions has been reduced with the advent of IMRT and more so with a complete dental evaluation prior to treatment.

  17. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Petojan, I.; Buldakov, L.A. [and others

    1992-06-01

    This report addresses one of the tasks agreed upon in the area of Environmental Transport and Health Effects (Working Group 7.2) of the JCCCNRS, i.e. to hold a workshop on the topic of the role of radiation dose rate effects on stochastic risks for low LET radiation. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, released a very large quantity of radionuclides, and the populations were exposed primarily to low LET radiation from {sup 131}I, {sup 134,137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The workshop provided an opportunity for radiobiologists and epidemiologists to review and discuss the epidemiological data and the lessons from laboratory studies and reach conclusions on low level risk assessment resulting from the fundamental knowledge and theoretical models. Brief presentations were made by the attendees, and these are summarized herein. In addition many of the attendees prepared manuscripts which are included in this report. The discussion centered on a set of questions and insights into three general areas of low radiation dose rate science: epidemiological, experimental and theoretical. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  19. Health protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavalic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health condition of workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The results for 1406 workers exposed to ionising radiations, who were regularly examined in 2004, were analysed using Statistica 5.0. The analysis included workers' case histories, frequency of illnesses and causes of temporary or permanent work disability. Of 1406 workers, 16 (1.13%) were found permanently disabled; in 11 the cause of disability was lens opacity, in 2 persistent trombocitophenia, and in 2 malignant tumour. Twenty-four workers were temporarily disabled, of whom 5 due to pregnancy. Thrombocytopenia was found in 12 men and only one woman. Anaemia was found in 4 women; dicentric chromosomes were the cause of temporary disability in one person, and tuberculosis in one person. Medical examinations of Croatian workers confirm low occupational exposure to ionising radiation. With this type of radiation, the established lens impairments could not be characterised as occupational. The two malignant tumours however were recognised as occupational diseases.(author)

  20. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depalo Raffaella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in “in Vitro” Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol to Benzene and Cyclohexane on Rh(111) and Rh(211) Surfaces: Insights from Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pintos, Delfina; Voss, Johannes; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe the C-O cleavage of phenol and cyclohexanol over Rh (111) and Rh (211) surfaces using density functional theory calculations. Our analysis is complemented by a microkinetic model of the reactions, which indicates that the C-O bond cleavage of cyclohexanol is easier than that of...

  2. Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation and Public Health: Basic Concepts and Safety Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda-Maeso, A.; Vargas-Marcos, F.; Trillo-Ruiz, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential health effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in public and residential environments are a source of increasing concern for both the public and authorities on environmental health. This work briefly summarizes the theoretical and experimental bases supporting the safety levels proposed by international committees. It also reviews the recent scientific literature on bioeffects on non-ionizing radiation that may prove potentially relevant to the validation or modification of present exposure limits. Because of their social interest, special consideration will be given to power frequency fields (50-60 Hz) and to the radio communication signals of mobile phones. We will also describe how interpretations of scientific evidence from sources other than international committees have generated some controversy and provided basis for more restrictive limits, such as those adopted in Europe by Switzerland and Italy. In addition, this work identifies some gaps in the present scientific knowledge of bioelectromagnetics. Such gaps are largely responsible for the existing controversy and differences in risk perception. This is why more research aimed at broadening and deepening our understanding of biological responses to non-ionizing radiation is urgently needed. (author)

  3. Surveillance of the exposure to ionizing radiations of the University health staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasina, F.; Sponton, F.; Pintado, C.; Laborde, A.; Blanco, D.; Stolovas, N.; Satragno, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The surveillance program for the workers exposed to ionizing radiations involves personal dosemeters of exposed workers, and their assessment and comparison with the reference values, which allow prioritizing and taking effective preventive action. Objectives To present the occupational health surveillance program for university workers exposed to ionizing radiations during the 2003-2006 period.Methods Longitudinal and descriptive study. Dosimetric data were obtained from secondary source, on the basis of the dosimetric surveillance program in the University of the Republic. The exposure was evaluated through film dosimetry. The personal dosimetric value records were analyzed within the surveillance program in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.Results It was observed that the dosimetric values did not exceed the reference values accepted as annual maximum figures. The annual maximum dose received was 15,72 milisieverts in the diagnosis and specialized treatment areas of the university hospital. Conclusions Surveillance of exposure to radiations allowed directing the specific systematic medical check-ups as well as stretching the taking of radioprotective measures. In this regard, the Department of Occupational Health is carrying out educational tasks and disseminating the surveillance program in order to reinforce preventive measures.

  4. A registry for the study of the health of radiation workers employed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    Factors to be considered in formulating a study of the health of radiation workers are discussed, and a proposal is made for the establishment of such a study in relation to the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. By setting up a registry of AECL radiation workers, data could be accumulated suitable for the long-term followup of their health, and for preparing periodic interim reports on mortality and morbidity. (author)

  5. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nigeria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Toba Anifowoshe

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study provides information on the distribution/frequency of ABO/Rh(D blood group and their corresponding allelic proportion in a large Nigeria study. It also revealed how the Nigerian populations in the North, South, West and East vary with respect to genetic traits. This vital information will be important for population genetics and anthropology studies and may be helpful in planning for future health strategy and blueprint, particularly planning with regards to disease management and blood transfusion medicine.

  6. ABO and Rh (D group distribution and gene frequency; the first multicentric study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The study was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D blood group distribution and gene frequency across India. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,000 healthy blood donors donating in blood banks situated in five different geographical regions of the country (North, South, East and Center were included in the study. ABO and Rh (D grouping was performed on all these samples. Data on the frequency of ABO and Rh(D blood groups was reported in simple numbers and percentages. Results: The study showed that O was the most common blood group (37.12% in the country closely followed by B at 32.26%, followed by A at 22.88% while AB was the least prevalent group at 7.74%. 94.61% of the donor population was Rh positive and the rest were Rh negative. Regional variations were observed in the distribution. Using the maximum likelihood method, the frequencies of the I A , I B and I O alleles were calculated and tested according to the Hardy Weinberg law of Equilibrium. The calculated gene frequencies are 0.1653 for I A (p, 0.2254 for I B (q and 0.6093 for I O (r. In Indian Population, O (r records the highest value followed by B (q and A (p; O > B > A. Conclusion: The study provides information about the relative distribution of various alleles in the Indian population both on a pan-India basis as well as region-wise. This vital information may be helpful in planning for future health challenges, particularly planning with regards to blood transfusion services.

  7. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Content Codes (RH-Trucon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC). The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: (1) A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. (2) A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is ''3''. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  8. Health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources: Biomonitoring and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Horvat, D.; Cerovac, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the complete results of periodical health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources, conducted according to established law regulations in Croatia. The report comprises a total of 21 examinees (11 female, 10 male), mean age 43,19 ± 9,85 years, originating from different professional groups and working in a radiation zone 14,7 ± 8,27 years on the average. Within the framework of this study, the results of their biomonitoring, including haematological parameters (whole blood count), ophthalmological findings (fundus oculi), cytogenetic test (conventional structural chromosomal aberration analysis) and peripheral blood flow survey (capillaroscopy and dermothermometry) will be presented. Filmdosimetric data for the referred period will also be reported. (author)

  9. The health status of grandchildren of subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation. Communication 2. Morphofunctional parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Musatkova, O.B.

    1996-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigation of the parameters of physical development and specific features in the development of psychomotor habits and peripheral blood parameters in children aged 0 to 7 grandchildren of exposed individuals. A dynamic follow-up of physical and psychomotor development, as well as regular check-ups of peripheral blood were carried out in 877 grandchildren of test subjects occupationally exposed to chronic radiation before conception. Multifactorial analysis did not show a correlation between the deviations in the physical development of children in the studied cohort and exposure of their grandparents and/or parents. Factors other than radiation (poor health status of mother, gestosis) did influence the studied parameters. The mean levels of hemoglobin, red cells, platelets, and leukocytes in the test group were virtually the same as in controls and coincided with published data [ru

  10. Directives and recommendations of the European Communities on health protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The CNEN has published a third edition, with comments, of the Directives and Recommendations of the European Communities on health protection against ionizing radiations, following their revision in 1976. This revision takes account of recent developments in the ICRP recommendations which serve as guidelines in the legislation of many countries for establishing general radiation protection principles as well as basic criteria and technical standards. The new Directive, while keeping to the basic principles established in 1959, introduces new methods for improved medical surveillance of workers; also, the previous difference between occupationally exposed workers and those occasionally exposed is eliminated. Finally, a new concept of critical groups is introduced as regards protection of the population, as a basis for its protection. (NEA) [fr

  11. Health status of radiation workers in an institute of nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, F.; Paunescu, G.; Stroe, F.; Andrei, N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of the changes in health condition of workers from an institute of nuclear research. Thirty-five workers (25 male and 10 female) radiation exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation were admitted in the Radiopathology Centre Bucharest, after a selection performed during the annual check-up. The workers have had different professions: nuclear fuel processor, engineer laboratory technician, electrician, instrument technician. The time of exposure to ionizing radiation was between 6 to 25 years. Medical specialists in occupational health, dermatology, ophthalmology, O.R.L., endocrinology, haematology, neurology and psychology investigated them. The following lab tests were performed: haematological examination, biochemical examination, immunology tests, alergology skin tests, functional lung tests and cardiogram. No special problems concerning the exposure to ionizing radiation were found, but the following diseases were detected in some extent: neurasthenia, high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, digestive system disorders, endocrinology disorders and anaemia. High blood pressure, ischemic heart disease and digestive system disorders were related with stress or job strain. Anaemia occurred in connection with gynaecological disorders. Some thyroid dysfunction appeared because of low dietary iodine content in the Sub-Carpathian region. The focus of the psychological exam was the identification of the effect of different factors (exogenous, endogenous or multidimensional) over a person, that could influence the psychological potential. The psychological exam reveals the following disturbances: asthenia, tiredness, chronic fatigue, psycho-emotional impairment, lapses of attention, anxiety. These disturbances may be in relation both with job strain (especially a substantial stress factor for nuclear fuel processor and engineer laboratory technician) and the syndrome of workplace. (author)

  12. Health status of radiation workers in an institute of nuclear research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, F.; Paunescu, G.; Stroe, F. [Inst. of Public Health, Bucharest (Romania); Andrei, N.

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was the identification of the changes in health condition of workers from an institute of nuclear research. Thirty-five workers (25 male and 10 female) radiation exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation were admitted in the Radiopathology Centre Bucharest, after a selection performed during the annual check-up. The workers have had different professions: nuclear fuel processor, engineer laboratory technician, electrician, instrument technician. The time of exposure to ionizing radiation was between 6 to 25 years. Medical specialists in occupational health, dermatology, ophthalmology, O.R.L., endocrinology, haematology, neurology and psychology investigated them. The following lab tests were performed: haematological examination, biochemical examination, immunology tests, alergology skin tests, functional lung tests and cardiogram. No special problems concerning the exposure to ionizing radiation were found, but the following diseases were detected in some extent: neurasthenia, high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, digestive system disorders, endocrinology disorders and anaemia. High blood pressure, ischemic heart disease and digestive system disorders were related with stress or job strain. Anaemia occurred in connection with gynaecological disorders. Some thyroid dysfunction appeared because of low dietary iodine content in the Sub-Carpathian region. The focus of the psychological exam was the identification of the effect of different factors (exogenous, endogenous or multidimensional) over a person, that could influence the psychological potential. The psychological exam reveals the following disturbances: asthenia, tiredness, chronic fatigue, psycho-emotional impairment, lapses of attention, anxiety. These disturbances may be in relation both with job strain (especially a substantial stress factor for nuclear fuel processor and engineer laboratory technician) and the syndrome of workplace. (author)

  13. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is involved in the development of new uranium mines from the early planning stages through the development of the mine-mill facility. As a result, new facilities are designed and developed to a much higher standard of both conventional and radiation health and safety than previously. Radiation is not the most significant cause of injury to the uranium miner, and public attitudes toward radiation may result in overemphasizing these aspects to the detriment of conventional health and safety conditions in the mines. The AECB believes that one dead miner is one too many and bases its regulatory efforts on this belief

  14. Selective interactions among Rh, ABO, and sex ratio of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C Y; Walton, R

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that the Rh and ABO blood systems behave like the HLA system in relation to mother-conception tolerance-rejection mechanisms was tested in 25,501 mother-infant pairs. According to this hypothesis, heterozygotes carrying a paternal gene that is not present in their mothers should be better tolerated than homozygotes. Significantly more BO infants born to AO mothers. AO infants born to BO mothers, Rh(+) heterozygotes born to Rh(-) mothers, and less significantly AO infants born to OO mothers confirm the hypothesis. Fewer homozygotes occurred in Rh(-) infants born to Rh(+) mothers and in O infants born to non-O mothers. Deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium found in the ABO system were modified by the Rh and sex of the infant. These data strongly support the hypothesis that at least two feto-maternal systems influence the destiny of pregnancies: the classical known incompatibility system which operates late in pregnancy and a new one which is based on the induction of maternal tolerance early in pregnancy: maternal tolerance seems to be better elicited by heterozygous eggs or embryos carrying a gene not present in the mother. The data also support the hypothesis that the sex ratio is influenced by feto-maternal tolerance-rejection mechanisms associated with the ABO and Rh systems.

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 181 Summary: Prevention of Rh D Alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1). The routine use of Rh D immune globulin is responsible for the reduced rate of red cell alloimmunization in more economically developed countries. First introduced in the 1970s, the postpartum administration of Rh D immune globulin reduced the rate of alloimmunization in at-risk pregnancies from approximately 13-16% to approximately 0.5-1.8% (2, 3). The risk was further reduced to 0.14-0.2% with the addition of routine antepartum administration (2, 3). Despite considerable proof of efficacy, there are still a large number of cases of Rh D alloimmunization because of failure to follow established protocols. In addition, there are new data to help guide management, especially with regard to weak D phenotype women. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of patients at risk of Rh D alloimmunization.

  16. Practice Bulletin No. 181: Prevention of Rh D Alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1). The routine use of Rh D immune globulin is responsible for the reduced rate of red cell alloimmunization in more economically developed countries. First introduced in the 1970s, the postpartum administration of Rh D immune globulin reduced the rate of alloimmunization in at-risk pregnancies from approximately 13-16% to approximately 0.5-1.8% (2, 3). The risk was further reduced to 0.14-0.2% with the addition of routine antepartum administration (2, 3). Despite considerable proof of efficacy, there are still a large number of cases of Rh D alloimmunization because of failure to follow established protocols. In addition, there are new data to help guide management, especially with regard to weak D phenotype women. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of patients at risk of Rh D alloimmunization.

  17. Hydroformylation of 1-Hexene over Rh/Nano-Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Suvanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanostructured supports on the activity of Rh catalysts was studied by comparing the catalytic performance of nano- and bulk-oxide supported Rh/ZnO, Rh/SiO2 and Rh/TiO2 systems in 1-hexene hydroformylation. The highest activity with 100% total conversion and 96% yield of aldehydes was obtained with the Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst. The Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst was found to be more stable and active than the corresponding rhodium catalyst supported on bulk ZnO. The favorable morphology of Rh/nano-ZnO particles led to an increased metal content and an increased number of weak acid sites compared to the bulk ZnO supported catalysts. Both these factors favored the improved catalytic performance. Improvements of catalytic properties were obtained also with the nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2 supports in comparison with the bulk supports. All of the catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, BET, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and NH3- temperature-programmed desorption (TPD.

  18. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  20. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  1. Estimation of health effects due to elevated radiation exposure levels in structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings were used as landfill for many years in the United States before the health risk associated with such use was recognized. Occupants of buildings erected on or adjacent to contaminated landfills may experience radiation exposures sufficient to warrant remedial action. Estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the remedial measures may be provided using a combination of occupancy data, appropriate risk coefficients and projected costs. This effort is in support of decisions by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct remedial action at such locations. The methods used in this project, with examples of their application, will be presented in this paper

  2. Potential health effects of climatic change: Effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, F.

    1991-01-01

    There is scientific evidence that stratospheric ozone concentration has declined over the Northern Hemisphere in the past 20 years, and projections based on various assumption s about future release of chlorofluorocarbon gases and other contaminants suggest that this decline will continue into the next century. The effects on human health secondary to increase in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation are expected to consist of increases in nonmelanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma of the skin, possible alteration of immune response, and development of lens cataracts. The recent and projected increases in skin cancer and changes in human immune responses are discussed. 19 refs

  3. Health problems in connection with radiation from radioactive matter in fertilizers, soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laag, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under the last world congress of the International Society of Soil Science in Hamburg in August 1986, the working group ''Soil and Geomedicine'' was set up. The symposium on health problems in connection with radiation from radioactive matter in fertilizers, soils and rocks was a joint arrangement of this working group and a permanent committe of The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The book presents the full text of 13 of the papers presented at the symposium. Separate abstacts have been submitted for 12 of these papers

  4. Putting radiation in perspective. Appendix A. Savannah River Chapter, Health Physics Society, public lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofer, C.H.

    1981-06-01

    The Savannah River Chapter of the Health Physics Society has prepared and presented lectures to more than 20 civic groups in the Central Savannah River Area during the last half of 1980. The purpose of the lectures is to improve public understanding of the risks associated with ionizing radiation. Methods of preparation and presentation of the lectures are discussed along with methods used to obtain speaking invitations. Excerpts from the lectures, response to the lectures, and some typical questions from the question and answer sessions are also included

  5. An integrated architecture for the ITER RH control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, David Thomas; Tesini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Control system architecture integrating ITER remote handling equipment systems. ► Standard control system architecture for remote handling equipment systems. ► Research and development activities to validate control system architecture. ► Standardization studies to select standard parts for control system architecture. - Abstract: The ITER remote handling (RH) system has been divided into 7 major equipment system procurements that deliver complete systems (operator interfaces, equipment controllers, and equipment) according to task oriented functional specifications. Each equipment system itself is an assembly of transporters, power manipulators, telemanipulators, vehicular systems, cameras, and tooling with a need for controllers and operator interfaces. From an operational perspective, the ITER RH systems are bound together by common control rooms, operations team, and maintenance team; and will need to achieve, to a varying degree, synchronization of operations, co-operation on tasks, hand-over of components, and sharing of data and resources. The separately procured RH systems must, therefore, be integrated to form a unified RH system for operation from the RH control rooms. The RH system will contain a heterogeneous mix of specially developed RH systems and off-the-shelf RH equipment and parts. The ITER Organization approach is to define a control system architecture that supports interoperable heterogeneous modules, and to specify a standard set of modules for each system to implement within this architecture. Compatibility with standard parts for selected modules is required to limit the complexity for operations and maintenance. A key requirement for integrating the control system modules is interoperability, and no module should have dependencies on the implementation details of other modules. The RH system is one of the ITER Plant systems that are integrated and coordinated through the hierarchical structure of the ITER CODAC system

  6. Radiation safety and operational health physics of hospital based medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Compact, low energy, high current Medical Cyclotrons are now primarily used to produce large activities of short lived, neutron deficient, positron- emitting radioisotopes. These isotopes constitute the key ingredients of important PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The PET-radioisotope producing Medical Cyclotrons are now increasingly installed in modern urban hospitals in many countries of the world. Modern Medical Cyclotrons run at a very high beam current (∼100-200 micro Amp) level and thereby produce intense fields of parasitic gamma rays and neutrons, causing the activation of cyclotron components, ambient air and radiation exposure to patients and members of the public. This report highlights the important operational aspects and the characteristics of the radiation fields produced by Medical Cyclotrons. The pathways of personnel radiation exposure are also analyzed. The above information constitutes the scientific basis of a sound operational health physics service, which is manifested in an effective dose reduction and an enhanced radiological safety of the Medical Cyclotron facility within the framework of ALARA

  7. Computerization aspects of the Health Physics' Radiation Control Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolecek, Elwyn H.

    1978-01-01

    Greater public awareness of the potential hazards of ionizing radiation and the more stringent governmental compliance programs have made accountability of radioactive materials an item of increasingly major concern for all radionuclide users. For low-volume (radioisotopically) organizations, manual record keeping techniques may suffice without requiring significant work-hour allocations. When considering high-volume users, the workload contingent with manual inventory is usually excessive from an employee time-allocation standpoint. Therefore, various automation systems are employed, usually with the aid of an in-house or time-purchase computer system. The computer programs developed for these systems often do not allow for future modification without major rewriting. Therefore, to facilitate in program concept, modification, and implementation the Health Physics Section at Argonne National Laboratory chose to design and code its computer program(s) and has instituted a Radiation Administrative Program (RAP) as a major component of the Section's laboratory-wide radiation control program. Coded in ANSI PL/I, RAP provides both flexibility in present concept and allowance for future growth. It requires less than 300K words of computer memory and can be easily incorporated at other organizations with minimal modifications. The modular design provides run cost benefits and versatility of report generation and modification. Through the use of this type of information processing and retrieval system, one can manipulate large amounts of radionuclide data, providing control and identification, while still maintaining commitment of computer costs and employee time at a reasonable level. (author)

  8. The research on the health effects of low-level radiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Professor Don Luckey identified the phenomenon of 'radiation hormesis' and he described it in a paper in the Health Physics Society Journal, in 1982. (He also authored two books on this subject.) CRIEPI initiated a research program on radiation hormesis following this publication to confirm, 'Is it true or not?' After nearly ten years of research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many universities, we are realizing the scientific truth of bio-positive effects caused by low-level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in the following five groups: rejuvenation of cells, such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability; moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes; suppression and therapy of adult diseases, e.g., diabetes and hypertension; suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems, such as lymphocytes; suppression of cancer and radio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. (author)

  9. Health risks of exposure to non-ionizing radiation--myths or science-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Maila

    2006-01-01

    The non-ionizing radiation (NIR) contains large range of wavelengths and frequencies from vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Biological effects of electromagnetic (EM) radiation depend greatly on wavelength and other physical parameters. The Sun is the most significant source of environmental UV exposure, so that outdoor workers are at risk of chronic over-exposure. Also exposure to short-wave visible light is associated with the aging and degeneration of the retina. Especially hazardous are laser beams focused to a small spot at the retina, resulting in permanent visual impairment. Exposure to EM fields induces body currents and energy absorption in tissues, depending on frequencies and coupling mechanisms. Thermal effects caused by temperature rise are basically understood, whereas the challenge is to understand the suspected non-thermal effects. Radiofrequency (RF) fields around frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz are of special interest because of the rapid advances in the telecommunication technology. The field levels of these sources are so low that temperature rise is unlikely to explain possible health effects. Other mechanisms of interaction have been proposed, but biological experiments have failed to confirm their existence.

  10. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  11. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders' Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders' exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. In this case-control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers' wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders' wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm(2), respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  12. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and public health : review of safety levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, A.; Trillo, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential health effects of the exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation are a source of increasing interest on the part of the public and the authorities. This article summarizes the theoretical-experimental basis supporting the safety levels proposed by international committees, and reviews the recent scientific literature on non-ionizing radiation's bioeffects that are relevant to the validation or modification of the present exposure limits. Because of its social interest, special consideration is given to power frequency fields (50-60Hz) and to the radio communication signals of mobile telephony. The paper also describes how interpretations of the scientific evidence, other than those of the international committees, have generated some controversy and have provided a basis for more restrictive limits, like those adopted in Europe by Switzerland and Italy. The article also identifies some gaps in the present scientific knowledge on the bioelectromagnetics discipline and proposes that additional research is needed to complete our present knowledge on the biological responses to non-ionizing radiation. (Author) 80 refs

  13. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  14. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  15. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  16. Ionizing radiation and radionuclides in the environment: sources, origin, geochemical processes and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangic, A.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation related to the radioactivity and radionuclides appears to be ones of most dangerous environmental risks to the human health. The paper considers appearance and importance of radionuclides, both natural (cosmogenic and Earth's) and anthropogenic, mode of their entering into and movement through the environment. Most risk to the population are radionuclides related to the geological-geochemical systems - in Serbia, high concentrations of radionuclides related to these sources were indicated at a number of localities. Movement of radionuclides through the environment is regulated by the geochemical processes i.e. the geochemical cycles of the elements. For the discovering of radionuclides in the nature, the assessment of the health risks to the population and the related protection are necessary multilayer geochemical studies. (author)

  17. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB11501* Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidice Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB11501* to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD+ RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB11501* as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW, CD1(ICR, and NSA(CF-1. DRB11501* mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB11501* mice immunized with RhD+ erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB11501* mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB11501* transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed.

  18. The Design, Synthesis and Study of Mixed-Metal Ru,Rh and Os, Rh Complexes with Biologically Relevant Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A series of mixed-metal bimetallic complexes [(TL)2M(dpp)RhCl2(TL)]3 (M = Ru and Os, terminal ligands (TL) = phen, Ph2phen, Me2phen and bpy, terminal ligands (TL) = phen, bpy and Me2bpy ), which couple one Ru or Os polyazine light absorber (LA) to a cis-RhIIICl2 center through a dpp bridging ligand (BL), were synthesized using a building block method. These are related to previously studied trimetallic systems [{(TL)2M(dpp)2RhCl2]5+, but the bimetallics are synthetically more complex to prepa...

  19. Methanol electro-oxidation and direct methanol fuel cell using Pt/Rh and Pt/Ru/Rh alloy catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho; Park, Kyung-Won; Park, In-Su; Nam, Woo-Hyun; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2004-01-01

    Pt-based binary or ternary catalysts containing Rh for use as anodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) were synthesized by borohydride reduction method combined with freeze-drying. The resulting catalysts had a specific surface area of approximately 65-75 m 2 /g. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the catalysts were well alloyed and the average size of alloy catalysts was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Pt/Rh (2:1) and Pt/Ru/Rh (5:4:1) alloy catalysts showed better catalytic activities for methanol electro-oxidation than Pt or Pt/Ru (1:1), respectively

  20. Proceedings of the colloquium on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Point, Sebastien; Boulenguez, Pierre; Martinsons, Christophe; Carre, Samuel; Torriglia, Alicia; Jaadane, Imene; Behar-Cohenz, Francine; Savoldelliz, Michele; Jonetz, Laurent; Chahory, Sabine; Dore, Jean-Francois; Clavel, Jacqueline; Boniol, Mathieu; Greinert, Ruediger; Gandini, Sara; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Dieudonne, Mael; Lagroye, Isabelle; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Veyret, Bernard; Macrez, Nathalie; Ruffie, Gilles; Haro, Emmanuelle; Hurtier, Annabelle; Taxile, Murielle; Masuda, Hiroshi; Bontempi, Bruno; Nicole, Olivier; Seze, Rene de; Cagnon, Patrice; Thuroczy, Georges; Mauger, Samuel; Mazet, Paul; Agnani, Jean-Benoit; Gaudaire, Francois; Caudeville, Julien; Selmaoui, Brahim; Percherancier, Yann; Veyret, B.; Kohler, Sophie; Leveque, P.; Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Thomas, Alex W.; Goulet, Daniel; Plante, Michel; Ostiguy, Genevieve; Souques, Martine; Lambrozo, Jacques; Deschamps, Francois; Magne, Isabelle; Remy, Emmanuel; Souques, Martine; Duburcq, Anne; Bureau, Isabelle; Gercek, Cihan; Kourtiche, Djilali; Scmitt, Pierre; Roth, Patrice; Nadi, Mustapha; Korpinen, Leena

    2014-10-01

    This colloquium was organized by the 'non-ionizing radiations section' of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Its goal is to review the works carried out in France regarding the electromagnetic fields risk, the wave-matter interactions and the medical applications. This conference day is the occasion for the scientific actors of the domain to exchange and encourage the pluri-disciplinary collaborations on the biological, clinical, epidemiological, dosimetric and regulatory aspects of the exposure to non-ionizing radiations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Retinal risk in blue light: standard requirements for LED lighting systems (S. Point); 2 - RETINALED: in-vivo study of blue light-related risk - towards a better understanding of retinal pathologies and a better risk assessment (P. Boulenguez); 3 - Can solar UV radiations have a beneficial effect for some cancers? The HeLME-UV project: domestic exposure to solar UV light and malignant lymphoid homeopathies of the child (J.F. Dore); 4 - A major public health problem: UV tanning devices should be prohibited (J.F. Dore); 5 - Is electro-hypersensitivity the result of a nocebo effect? (M. Dieudonne); 6 - Effects of repeated Wi-Fi signal exposure on glial and micro-glial activation in the mouse (I. Lagroye); 7 - RF residential exposure measurements in the French program of the Operative Committee (R. De Seze); 8 - Real-time study of RF fields global cellular effects (Y. Percherencier); 9 - Electromagnetic fields and neuro-degenerative diseases (I. Lagroye); 10 - Example of direct biophysical effect in the domain of ultra-low frequencies: the perception of magnetic phosphenes (A. Legros); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field: update of the Expers study (I. Magne); 12 - Cardiac implants immunity with respect to 50/60 Hz electric fields (C. Gercek); 13 - Cardiac implants and

  1. Comparative frequency and allelic distribution of ABO and Rh (D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gourab Dewan

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... desh and having borders with India and Myanmar (Fig. 1). It is a hilly area with ..... calculated allelic frequencies for ABO/Rh systems previously. Therefore, allelic .... in backward caste population of Uttar Pradesh, India. Not Sci.

  2. Frequency distribution 0f ABO, RH blood groups and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... blood genotypes among the cell biology and genetics students of ... problem in some pregnancies when the mother is Rh – negative and the foetus ... electrophoresis technique was used to determine haemoglobin genotype.

  3. Ontogenic and sexual differences in pituitary GnRH receptors and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization induced by GnRH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Lux-Lantos, V; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    The present experiments were designed in order to elucidate the participation of the developing hypophysis in determining the changing sensitivity of gonadotrophins to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during ontogeny in the rat. To that end, we chose two well defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of hypophyseal sensitivity to GnRH, 15 and 30 d. In order to study sex differences and the role of early sexual organization of the hypothalamus, experiments were carried out in males, females, and neonatally androgenized females (TP females). We evaluated (1) the characteristics of pituitary GnRH receptors, and (2) associated changes in GnRH-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ (a second messenger involved in gonadotropins exocytosis). We measured binding characteristics of the GnRH analog D-Ser(TBu)6-des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide in pituitary homogenates. We found that Kds did not vary among the different sex groups. Total number and concentration of receptors decreased in the female rat from 15-30 d of age, whereas in the male and TP female, receptors/pituitary increased, and the concentration/mg tissue did not change. Also, at 30 days of age, males presented higher content and concentration of receptors than females, and higher content than TP females. In order to evaluate if developmental and sexual differences in pituitary sensitivity to GnRH might be expressed through variations in the intracellular Ca2+ signal, we studied the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ induced by GnRH (1 x 10(-8) to 1 x 10(-11) M) in a suspension of dispersed pituitary cells in the six groups. In cells from 15-d-old females, Ca2+ response was greater than in 30-d-old females at the doses of 10(-8) to 10(-10) M, indicating that in the infantile female rat activation of highly concentrated GnRH receptors is reflected in an increase in signal transduction mediated by Ca2+. In males and in female rats androgenized at birth, there was also

  4. Interagency task force on the health effects of ionizing radiation: report of the work group on public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The health effects of ionizing radiation recently have been the focus of increased public concern. In response to this concern, in a May 9, 1978, memorandum the White House requested the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to coordinate an interagency program that would, among other things, ensure public awareness and knowledge of the health effects of ionizing radiation. As a result, the Interagency Task Force on Ionizing Radiation was formed. The Information Work Group of the Task Force was asked to outline a public information program to meet the needs of the general public, the health and scientific community, workers, and other persons exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation in the past and at present or who may be exposed in the future. The Work Group is composed of 16 members, each representing an agency participating on the Interagency Task Force on Ionizing Radiation. The Work Group members used the draft Reports of the Science Work Group, the Radiation Exposure Reduction Work Group, the Care and Benefits Work Group, and the Privacy Work Group as a basis for developing the Information Report. In addition, the Information Work Group conducted a preliminary review of existing federal information programs. Meetings were held with representatives of environmental and trade groups, unions, and professional societies to help define the dimensions and priorities of a public information program

  5. Use of a radiation therapy treatment planning computer in a hospital health physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    An onsite treatment planning computer has become state of the art in the care of radiation therapy patients, but in most installations the computer is used for therapy planning a diminutive amount of the day. At St. Mary's Hospital, arrangements have been negotiated for part time use of the treatment planning computer for health physics purposes. Computerized Medical Systems, Inc. (CMS) produces the Modulex radiotherapy planning system which is programmed in MUMPS, a user oriented language specially adapted for handling text string information. St. Mary's Hospital's CMS computer has currently been programmed to assist in data collection and write-up of diagnostic x-ray surveys, meter calibrations, and wipe/leak tests. The computer is setup to provide timely reminders of tests and surveys, and billing for consultation work. Programs are currently being developed for radionuclide inventories. Use of a therapy planning computer for health physics purposes can enhance the radiation safety program and provide additional grounds for the acquisition of such a computer system

  6. A trial epidemiological study on health effects of long term and low level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Kazuho

    1980-01-01

    As a trial evaluation of applicability of multivariate model in an analysis of health effects of radiation workers, the multiple logistic function method was applied to the data of occupational exposure record and long term absence record obtained from 593 employees of two institutions both of which practice R and D relating nuclear power. In order to estimate parameters of multiple logistic function by maximum likelihood method, followings were defined as variables: age, length of employment and cumulative exposure dose of radiation as independent variables, and the fact that whether the individual worker had the experience of absence lasting more than a week or not as a dependent variable. As the results, due to shortage of amount of data, only the age of workers shows a significant relationship with the absence data, the other variables do not have any significant results in the association with absence. In this preliminary trial, the applicability of multiple logistic function model in risk estimation of long term occupational exposure was not clearly demonstrated because of data shortage. To testify the applicability, further investigations will be needed, accumulating plenty of data concerning exposure and health effects. (author)

  7. Magnitude estimate of occupational risks located in a radiative facility and its main health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice dos Santos; Gerulis, Eduardo; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2014-01-01

    The work routine of Radiopharmacy Center (CR) personnel of the Institute of Energy Research and Nuclear (IPEN / CNEN-SP) includes singularities not exist in other professions. Relevant examples to this study can be cited: exposure to physical, chemical, biological hazards, to accidents and ergonomic risks. The objective of this study is to conduct a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of occupational exposure existing in the workplace and its impact on the health of occupationally exposed individuals (IOE's). The proposed methodology was based on systematic observation and a questionnaire to the managers of each practice held at CR. The evaluation process involved three steps: a) characterization of exposure; b) identification of the main points of exposure and possible routes of exposure; c) quantifying of exposure. Seventeen occupational agents related to the tasks of different groups of IOE's were identified. Ionizing radiation (physical risk) and the situations that cause stress (ergonomic risk) had the highest frequencies. According to the applied methodology risks was considered mostly acceptable. Quantification of exposure was basically referring to physical risk agent (Ionizing radiation), because it is a radioactive installation. Based on the records analyzed, not was observed health risks to workers arising from the activities undertaken

  8. Effects of radiation emitted from visual display terminals on the oral health status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazem, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to radiation emitted from visual display terminals (VDTs) on the oral health status; a cross sectional study was carried out on 100 participants both males and females with age ranging between 22- 40 years working in various places in Cairo. They were divided into two groups; the first consists of 50 subjects working in front of VDTs eight hours min. daily, min. 5 days/ week, 2 years or more, and the other group 50 subjects working away from any VDTs. Both groups were subjected to both oral and dental examinations, including soft tissues assessment by using gingival index (GI) and hard tissues assessment by using decayed, missed, filled (DMF) index. Saliva analysis was done including ph analysis by ph meter cyberscan 500 and trace elements analysis by ion chromatography and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis by ELISA, body temperature by using digital thermometer. The values were compared between both groups and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. The results demonstrated that the difference in the mean values of either GI or DMF or ph or anions and cations or sIgA levels between exposed and non exposed groups or even between before and after exposure in the exposed group was found to be statistically insignificant. On the other hand there were significant changes in the mean values of body temperature between exposed and non-exposed group and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. Accordingly, within the limits of this study we can conclude that radiation emitted from VDTs affects body temperature, but do not have any effect on oral health including; hard or soft tissues or salivary components. This might be explained by the radiation with very low energy emitted from VDTs

  9. Effects of radiation emitted from visual display terminals on the oral health status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazem, H H [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to radiation emitted from visual display terminals (VDTs) on the oral health status; a cross sectional study was carried out on 100 participants both males and females with age ranging between 22- 40 years working in various places in Cairo. They were divided into two groups; the first consists of 50 subjects working in front of VDTs eight hours min. daily, min. 5 days/ week, 2 years or more, and the other group 50 subjects working away from any VDTs. Both groups were subjected to both oral and dental examinations, including soft tissues assessment by using gingival index (GI) and hard tissues assessment by using decayed, missed, filled (DMF) index. Saliva analysis was done including ph analysis by ph meter cyberscan 500 and trace elements analysis by ion chromatography and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis by ELISA, body temperature by using digital thermometer. The values were compared between both groups and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. The results demonstrated that the difference in the mean values of either GI or DMF or ph or anions and cations or sIgA levels between exposed and non exposed groups or even between before and after exposure in the exposed group was found to be statistically insignificant. On the other hand there were significant changes in the mean values of body temperature between exposed and non-exposed group and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. Accordingly, within the limits of this study we can conclude that radiation emitted from VDTs affects body temperature, but do not have any effect on oral health including; hard or soft tissues or salivary components. This might be explained by the radiation with very low energy emitted from VDTs.

  10. Regulation versus modulation in GnRH receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolman, J.C.; Theodoropoulos, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration after exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicates that an instantaneous increase occurs in the rate of release of LH directly from the anterior pituitary, as measured dynamically during superfusion in vitro. On the other hand, estradiol-17 beta (E2) alone shows no such instantaneous effect on LH release rate (at least for the first four hours), in either physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations. At the same time, brief (ten to 30 minute) exposure of isolated anterior pituitary plasma membranes to physiologic concentrations of E2 significantly alters the binding of a fully biologically active 125 I-GnRH to its plasma membrane receptor protein. In order to characterize the effect of E2 on GnRH binding further, dispersed bovine anterior pituitary cells were preincubated for six hours in the presence or absence of physiologic concentrations of E2 (10(-10)M). Following preincubation in the presence of E2, the cell suspension was incubated for 30 minutes with physiologic concentrations (5 x 10(-11) - 5 x 10(-10)M) of a fully biologically active 125 I-GnRH. The treatment, at least, doubled the number of biologically important high affinity GnRH binding sites (Kd's . 7.5 x -10(-11) - 4.5 x 10(-10)M), and changed the binding capacity of some of the binding sites up to three fold, which altered the cooperativity of GnRH-receptor interaction. Thus, the interaction of E2 with GnRH at the level of GnRH receptor is mandatory for the short-term pituitary effect of E2 on LH release in vitro and in vivo

  11. Reorientation precession measurements of quadrupole moments in 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.; Herskind, B.; Kalish, R.; Neiman, M.

    1976-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the 3/2 - and 5/2 - states in 103 Rh have been determined by measuring the precession of the gamma-ray angular distribution following Coulomb excitation; 16 O and 32 S beams have been used. The structure of the negative-parity states in 103 Rh is found to be in agreement with the model of Arima and Iachello. (orig.) [de

  12. The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaik Younis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles′ frequencies amongst males (M and females (F in Gaza city in Palestine. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method. Results: The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05. However, no significance (P > 0.05 was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC

  14. Observation of changing of the internal conversion coefficient under Moessbauer effect at magnetic transition in Rh-Fe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic disorder-order transition in the Rh-Fe alloy is studied by conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. The drastic increase of the area under the Moessbauer spectrum at the transition from the paramagnetic to the magnetic state could be explained by diminishing the internal conversion coefficient. Thus our experimental results directly confirm the theory of the collective effect in the system of radiating developed by Yukalov

  15. Low-dose extrapolation of radiation health risks: some implications of uncertainty for radiation protection at low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E

    2009-11-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known and well-quantified human cancer risk factor, based on a remarkably consistent body of information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. Typical examples of risk estimation include use of Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to estimate future risk from radiation-related cancer among American patients receiving multiple computed tomography scans, persons affected by radioactive fallout, or persons whose livelihoods involve some radiation exposure, such as x-ray technicians, interventional radiologists, or shipyard workers. Our estimates of radiation-related risk are uncertain, reflecting statistical variation and our imperfect understanding of crucial assumptions that must be made if we are to apply existing epidemiological data to particular situations. Fortunately, that uncertainty is also highly quantifiable, and can be presented concisely and transparently. Radiation protection is ultimately a political process that involves consent by stakeholders, a diverse group that includes people who might be expected to be risk-averse and concerned with plausible upper limits on risk (how bad could it be?), cost-averse and concerned with lower limits on risk (can you prove there is a nontrivial risk at current dose levels?), or combining both points of view. How radiation-related risk is viewed by individuals and population subgroups also depends very much on perception of related benefit, which might be (for example) medical, economic, altruistic, or nonexistent. The following presentation follows the lead of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary 14, NCRP Report 126, and later documents in treating radiation protection from the viewpoint of quantitative uncertainty analysis.

  16. Geosciences help to protect human health: estimation of the adsorbed radiation doses while flight journeys, as important step to radiation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anatolii; Shabatura, Olexandr

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the adsorbed radiation dose while flight journeys is a complex problem, which should be solved to get correct evaluation of equivalent effective doses and radiation risk assessment. Direct measurements of the adsorbed dose in the aircrafts during regional flights (3-10 hours) has shown that the radiation in the plane may increase 10-15 times (to 2-4 mSv/h) compared to the values on the surface of the Earth (0.2-0.5 mSv/h). Results of instrumental research confirmed by the other investigations. It is a fact that adsorbed doses per year while flight journeys are less than doses from medical tests. However, while flight journeys passengers get the same doses as nuclear power plant staff, people in zones of natural radiation anomalies and so should be evaluated. According to the authors' research, flight journeys are safe enough, when solar activity is normal and if we fly under altitude of 18 km (as usual, while intercontinental flights). Most of people travel by plane not so often, but if flight is lasting in dangerous periods of solar activity (powerful solar winds and magnetic field storms), passengers and flight crew can adsorb great amount of radiation doses. People, who spend more than 500 hours in flight journeys (pilots, business oriented persons', government representatives, etc.) get amount of radiation, which can negatively influence on health and provoke diseases, such as cancer. Authors consider that problem actual and researches are still going on. It is revealed, that radiation can be calculated, using special equations. Great part of radiation depends on very variable outer-space component and less variable solar. Accurate calculations of doses will be possible, when we will take into account all features of radiation distribution (time, season of year and exact time of the day, duration of flight), technical features of aircraft and logistics of flight (altitude, latitude). Results of first attempts of radiation doses modelling confirmed

  17. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Gender difference in the health risk perception of radiation from Fukushima in Japan: the role of hegemonic masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Rika

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of gender difference in the perception of radiation risk in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan. In-depth interviews were conducted with the residents of Fukushima and other parts of Japan in November 2011 and July 2012. Compared to mothers, fathers in general expressed less concern for radiation. Fathers prioritized their responsibilities as the breadwinner for their families and saw radiation risk as a threat to economic stability and masculine identity. As a result, mothers' health concerns were dismissed, and they were prevented from taking preventive actions. The social norms in the dominant institutions such as corporations and the government influenced men's perception of radiation risk. The findings illustrate the importance of sociocultural context in which meanings of health risk are constructed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Svendsen, Erik Robert

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. (author)