WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation general provisions

  1. 21 CFR 179.25 - General provisions for food irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes...

  2. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... fish hatchery area. (e) Each person shall comply with the provisions of any special notices governing...

  3. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...

  4. 12 CFR 1261.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 1261.2 Section 1261.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.2 General provisions. (a...

  5. 30 CFR 847.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 847.2 Section 847.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... court of competent jurisdiction enters a judgment against or convicts a person under these provisions...

  6. 28 CFR 16.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.1 Section 16.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... administration of the Department of Justice. ...

  7. 31 CFR 281.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 281.9 Section 281.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.9 General...

  8. 15 CFR 748.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval of the Secretary of Commerce or of the Under Secretary for Industry and Security. (d) Electronic... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 748.1 Section 748.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU...

  9. 7 CFR 1956.57 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General provisions. 1956.57 Section 1956.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, and dower and courtesy rights, and specific...

  10. 15 CFR 301.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 301.1 Section 301.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS...

  11. 36 CFR 62.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 62.9 Section 62.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... governments, or other interested individuals or groups to assist in administering the National Natural...

  12. 15 CFR 700.70 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.70 Section 700.70 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  13. 15 CFR 700.60 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.60 Section 700.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  14. 15 CFR 700.50 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.50 Section 700.50 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  15. 28 CFR 16.40 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.40 Section 16.40 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION..., commission, service, or administration of the Department of Justice. (2) Request for access to a record means...

  16. 5th December 1990 - Royal Order amending the provisions of the General Regulations for protection at work, concerning the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Royal Order amending the 1946 General Regulations for the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation implements on a national level the European Community Directives No. 80/836 Euratom of 15 July 1980 laying down basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations and No. 84/466 Euratom of 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment [fr

  17. Radiation Safety (General) Regulations 1983 (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The provisions of the Regulations cover, inter alia, the general precautions and requirements relating to radiation safety of the public and radiation workers and registration of irradiating apparatus or premises on which such apparatus is operated. In addition, the Regulations set forth requirements for the operation of such apparatus and for the premises involved. (NEA) [fr

  18. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.900 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution including, but not limited to, visual... alternative provisions may be made which are adequately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric...) Blasting operations in the proximity of overhead power lines, communication lines, utility services, or...

  20. 42 CFR 412.200 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating... the prospective payment system for inpatient operating costs. Except as provided in this subpart, the... for § 412.60, which deals with DRG classification and weighting factors, the provisions of subparts D...

  1. 7 CFR 760.808 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... harvested production does not exist; (2) The loss is due to an ineligible cause of loss or practices, soil... provisions. (a) For calculations of loss, the participant's existing unit structure will be used as the basis... (2) For NAP covered crops, part 1437 of this title. (b) County average yield for loss calculations...

  2. 5 CFR 9901.361 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Introduction. As provided in § 9901.303(a)(2), the provisions of 5 U.S.C. chapter 55, subchapter V, and related... market supplements are treated the same as locality pay under 5 U.S.C. 5304 and are included in computing...

  3. 42 CFR 421.5 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S. Revised Statutes or any other provision of law that requires competitive bidding. (b.... (a) Competitive bidding not required for carriers. CMS may enter into contracts with carriers, or... certain administrative responsibilities that the law imposes. Accordingly, their agreements and contracts...

  4. 9 CFR 145.4 - General provisions for all participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.4 General provisions for all participants. (a) Records of purchases and sales and... Agency. (b) Products, records of sales and purchase of products, and material used to advertise products...

  5. 29 CFR 570.102 - General scope of statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended General § 570.... The most important of the child labor provisions are contained in sections 12(a), 12(c), and 3(l) of...

  6. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 49.123 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator. Agricultural activities means the usual and customary activities of cultivating the soil... method means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant as specified in the applicable... corresponding addresses noted below, or are available for inspection at EPA's Air and Radiation Docket and...

  8. 77 FR 46121 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; General Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... jurisdiction of surface coal mining and reclamation operations, petitions for rulemaking, and citizen suits... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Notice of Proposed Information Collection; General Provisions AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement...

  9. 47 CFR 1.101 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... its functions to a panel of commissioners, an individual commissioner, an employee board, or an individual employee. Section 0.201(a) of this chapter describes in general terms the basic categories of delegations which are made by the Commission. Subpart B of part 0 of this chapter sets forth all delegations...

  10. 29 CFR 1960.34 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General Services Administration (GSA) shall initiate a study of conflicts that may exist in their... use. These data will be used to develop detailed procedures to advise employees in the workplace of... needed. Examples of such services are: Workplace inspections, training, industrial hygiene surveys...

  11. 19 CFR 210.36 - General provisions for hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions for hearings. 210.36 Section 210.36 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Prehearing Conferences and Hearings § 210.36 General...

  12. 19 CFR 210.27 - General provisions governing discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions governing discovery. 210.27 Section 210.27 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process § 210.27 General...

  13. 78 FR 45617 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-1201 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disciplinary Action § 73.735-1201 General provisions. (a) Violations of the regulations contained in the Part may be cause for disciplinary action which could be in addition to any penalty prescribed by law. (For a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken and “The Code of Ethics for...

  15. 45 CFR 73a.735-501 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENT Financial Interests § 73a.735-501 General provisions. (a) No... activity employee (defined in § 73a.735-502), may have financial interests: (1) In an organization whose FDA-regulated activities are an insignificant part of its total operations, i.e., no more than 10...

  16. Generalization of Vaidya's radiation metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiser, R J; Kozameh, C N [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Instituto de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    1981-11-01

    In this paper it is shown that if Vaidya's radiation metric is considered from the point of view of kinetic theory in general relativity, the corresponding phase space distribution function can be generalized in a particular way. The new family of spherically symmetric radiation metrics obtained contains Vaidya's as a limiting situation. The Einstein field equations are solved in a ''comoving'' coordinate system. Two arbitrary functions of a single variable are introduced in the process of solving these equations. Particular examples considered are a stationary solution, a nonvacuum solution depending on a single parameter, and several limiting situations.

  17. Provision of general paediatric surgical services in a regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zgraj, O

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: In Ireland, specialist paediatric surgery is carried out in paediatric hospitals in Dublin. General surgeons\\/consultants in other surgical specialities provide paediatric surgical care in regional centres. There has been a failure to train general surgeons with paediatric skills to replace these surgeons upon retirement. AIM: To assess paediatric surgical workload in one regional centre to focus the debate regarding the future provision of general paediatric surgery in Ireland. METHODS: Hospital in-patient enquiry (HIPE) system was used to identify total number of paediatric surgical admissions and procedures. Cases assessed requiring hospital transfer. RESULTS: Of 17,478 surgical patients treated, 2,584 (14.8%) were under 14 years. A total of 2,154 procedures were performed. CONCLUSION: Regional centres without dedicated paediatric surgeons deliver care to large numbers of paediatric patients. The demand for care highlights the need for formal paediatric services\\/appropriate surgical training for general surgical trainees.

  18. 21 CFR 172.5 - General provisions for direct food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...

  19. 78 FR 48660 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management AGENCY: Federal Student... of Collection: Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management OMB Control Number... administration of 34 CFR 668 Subpart K Cash Management of the Student Assistance General Provisions. The...

  20. 40 CFR 1068.15 - What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making? 1068.15 Section 1068.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1068.15 What general provisions apply for EPA decision-making? (a) The Administrator...

  1. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  2. Provision of radiation safety at the designing of the industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, S.Yu.; Sevastyuk, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    The article presents the basic principles and criteria of the radiation safety provision, organization of the radiation control system, and dose calculation for the staff irradiation at the construction and operation of the Industrial complex of solid radwaste management (ICSRM)

  3. 28 CFR 30.13 - May the Attorney General waive any provision of these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Attorney General waive any... INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 30.13 May the Attorney General waive any provision of these regulations? In an emergency, the Attorney General may waive any provision of these...

  4. 17 CFR 200.735-3 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by law or regulation (including the provisions of this subpart), which would result in or might... section do not prohibit members and employees from the following: (i) The acceptance of food and refreshments, not lavish in kind, offered free in the course of a meeting or other group function, not...

  5. 20 CFR 71.1 - General administrative provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... term “compensation”. (6) The terms “disability”, “wages”, “child”, “grandchild”, “brother”, “sister... COMPENSATION FOR INJURY, DISABILITY OR DEATH OF CIVILIAN AMERICAN CITIZENS INCURRED WHILE DETAINED BY OR IN.... 1240) makes provision for the payment of benefits with respect to the injury, disability or death...

  6. Optimal portfolio selection for general provisioning and terminal wealth problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, K.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.

    2010-01-01

    In Dhaene et al. (2005), multiperiod portfolio selection problems are discussed, using an analytical approach to find optimal constant mix investment strategies in a provisioning or a savings context. In this paper we extend some of these results, investigating some specific, real-life situations.

  7. Optimal portfolio selection for general provisioning and terminal wealth problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, K.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Dhaene et al. (2005), multiperiod portfolio selection problems are discussed, using an analytical approach to find optimal constant mix investment strategies in a provisioning or savings context. In this paper we extend some of these results, investigating some specific, real-life situations. The

  8. 40 CFR 63.11150 - What General Provisions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What General Provisions apply to this... Area Sources Other Requirements and Information § 63.11150 What General Provisions apply to this... a gas cleaning system controlling PM and to a sulfuric acid plant in accordance with § 63.11148(a)(2...

  9. 76 FR 69333 - Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Management)); 75 FR 78185 (Dec. 15, 2010) (Core Principles J, K, L, and M (Information Management)); 75 FR... Parts 1, 21, 39 et al. Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles; Final... Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading...

  10. 30 CFR 206.452 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.452 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR group 3400...

  11. 30 CFR 206.253 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.253 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM under 43 CFR part 3400) from a...

  12. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

  13. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  14. General aspects of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabatake, T [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Radiation injury in living organisms was discussed. Physical effects of nuclear irradiation fell into two categories: early effects and late effects. The former occurred invariably by nuclear irradiation above a certain dose, but the latter occurred according to the probability based on the exposure dosage. Late effects included cancer and leukemia which had no specific pathology as compared with non-irradiation induced or leukemia, and their latent periods were long. Because of difficulty in clarifying the cause-and-effect relationship, etiological studies such as McKenzie's or Myrden's, were required. In their studies on the relationship between fluoroscopy and thoracic malignant tumors, prognoses of pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had or had not received multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment were followed. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups of patients. Nuclear radiation induced leukemia corresponded to the exposure dose. According to that, exposure dosage of radiological workers was reduced yearly. The latent period of people having low exposure was comparatively prolonged. Medical exposure in radiation therapy was confined to the affected areas and to a small number of patients, although the exposure dose was high. On the other hand, exposure for medical diagnosis was criticized because in spite of its low exposure dose, the exposed population was extremely large.

  15. 26 CFR 1.511-3 - Provisions generally applicable to the tax on unrelated business income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions, including penalties, as are applicable to fiduciaries in the case of the income tax of other... taxable income by organizations subject to the tax on such income, see section 6012, paragraph (e) of § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Provisions generally applicable to the tax on...

  16. 78 FR 52519 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management AGENCY: Federal Student... Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management. OMB Control Number: 1845-0049. Type of Review: Revision of an... Collection Clearance Division, Privacy, Information and Records Management Services, Office of Management...

  17. 78 FR 65767 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...

  18. General organisation of radiation protection in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, P.; Ndiaye, M.; Sow, M.L.; Ndao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Organization of radiation protection in Senegal is governed by three main texts that define the general principles and implement legal means for their actions. Efficient control of nuclear activities to ensure protection of workers, the environment and patients against ionizing radiation is subject to criminal penalties in case of breach of this legislation. (authors)

  19. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve

  20. 76 FR 54110 - Attorney General's Guidelines on Implementation of the Provisions of the Voting Rights Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... rule updates the Attorney General's interpretative guidelines under the language minority provisions of.... Also, on July 26, 2002, the Assistant Attorney General of the Civil Rights Division sent a letter to... of the then-existing Attorney General's interpretative guidelines, 28 CFR part 55. This rule conforms...

  1. 45 CFR 73a.735-401 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generally enhance his capability to better perform his current FDA duties. (ii) The part-time duties will be..., contractual or purchasing responsibilities (except normal “out-of-stock” requisitioning) and repacking and... giving the impression that: (a) His part-time actions, recommendations, opinions, or remarks are official...

  2. Provision of operational radiation protection services at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on establishing and maintaining a radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant that is consistent with the optimization process recommended in the Basic Safety Standards. This publication is written with a view to providing guidance to every person associated with the radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant and develops the theme that radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. 12 refs, 2 figs

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart N of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart N

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart N 1 Table 1 to Subpart N of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks Pt. 63, Subpt. N, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart N of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart N General provisionsreference Applies to subpart N Comment 63.1(a)(1) Yes...

  4. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppppp of... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart PPPPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., inspection Yes. § 63.6(g)(1)-(3) Alternative Standard Procedures for getting an alternative standard Yes... Applies to subpart PPPPP § 63.1(a)(1) Applicability General applicability of the General Provisions Yes. Additional terms defined in § 63.9375. § 63.1(a)(2)-(4) Applicability Applicability of source categories Yes...

  5. 21 CFR 174.5 - General provisions applicable to indirect food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1592 - Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POTW treatment plant? 63.1592 Section 63.1592 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works General Requirements § 63.1592 Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant? (a) Table 1 to this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Applicability of General Provisions to This Subpart XXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... This Subpart XXXX 17 Table 17 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 17 Table 17 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to This Subpart XXXX As stated in § 63.6013, you must comply with the applicable General...

  8. Generalized Morphea after Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kushi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who received external beam radiation for the treatment of breast cancer. Seven months later, she developed generalized morphea involving the area of irradiated skin of the breast as well as distant sites of the groin and distal lower extremity. Postirradiation morphea is an uncommon yet well-documented phenomenon, usually confined to the radiated site and the immediate surrounding tissue. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of morphea occurring distant from the radiation field. While most cases of postirradiation morphea have been shown to either resolve spontaneously or respond to topical corticosteroids, our patient required systemic therapy with methotrexate, which resulted in clinical improvement. With this paper, we hope to bring further awareness to this phenomenon and demonstrate a successful treatment response with the use of methotrexate in postirradiation generalized morphea.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jj of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart JJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart JJ 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... JJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJ of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart JJ Reference Applies to subpart JJ Comment 63.1(a) Yes 63.1(b)(1) No Subpart JJ specifies applicability. 63.1(b)(2) Yes...

  10. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.370 General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Except as provided in § 412.374, hospitals located in Puerto Rico are subject to the rules in this subpart governing the prospective payment...

  11. 42 CFR 412.87 - Additional payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions. (a) Basis. Sections 412.87 and 412... establish a mechanism to recognize the costs of new medical services and technologies under the hospital... that are new medical services and technologies, if the following conditions are met: (1) A new medical...

  12. 78 FR 45517 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; Comment Request; Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management AGENCY: Federal Student...--Subpart K--Cash Management. OMB Control Number: 1845-0106. Type of Review: An extension of an existing... Records Management Services, Office of Management. [FR Doc. 2013-18034 Filed 7-26-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart W of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart W 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Polyamides Production Pt. 63, Subpt. W, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart W of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart W Reference Applies to subpart W BLR WSR WSR alternative standard, and BLR equipment...

  14. 40 CFR 63.103 - General compliance, reporting, and recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.103 General compliance, reporting, and recordkeeping provisions. (a... during periods when the primary control device is out of service), records must be kept of whether the... both the Administrator and the owner or operator of a source, reports may be submitted on electronic...

  15. 77 FR 37283 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... directors of each Farm Credit System institution to adopt an operational and strategic business plan to... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 618 RIN 3052-AC66 General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective...

  16. 32 CFR 728.51 - General provisions-the “Economy Act.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions-the âEconomy Act.â 728.51 Section 728.51 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Beneficiaries of Other Federal Agencies § 728.51 General provisions—th...

  17. 47 CFR 15.209 - Radiated emission limits; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), fundamental emissions from intentional radiators operating under this section shall not be located in the... fundamental emission. For intentional radiators which operate under the provisions of other sections within... incorporated digital device. (g) Perimeter protection systems may operate in the 54-72 MHz and 76-88 MHz bands...

  18. Risks associated with radiation: General information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Pomroy, C.; Chatterjee, R.M.

    1995-07-01

    Employers have a general responsibility to explain occupational risks to their workers. This document has been prepared to assist employers in this task. Employers should inform their workers about radiation risks associated with their work by: identifying the source(s) of radiation exposure; identifying the risk of health effects due to exposure to these sources, including the risk to the embryo and foetus of pregnant female workers; explaining the relationship between regulatory dose limits and the risk of health effects; and, explaining a worker's personal dose in terms of risk. This publication provides basic information on these subjects in a form that is clear and easy to understand. For further information, a list of suggested additional reading is included at the end of the text. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Risks associated with radiation: General information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baris, D; Pomroy, C; Chatterjee, R M

    1995-07-01

    Employers have a general responsibility to explain occupational risks to their workers. This document has been prepared to assist employers in this task. Employers should inform their workers about radiation risks associated with their work by: identifying the source(s) of radiation exposure; identifying the risk of health effects due to exposure to these sources, including the risk to the embryo and foetus of pregnant female workers; explaining the relationship between regulatory dose limits and the risk of health effects; and, explaining a worker`s personal dose in terms of risk. This publication provides basic information on these subjects in a form that is clear and easy to understand. For further information, a list of suggested additional reading is included at the end of the text. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management... an information collection entitled, ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period to November 18, 2013 due to the public's inability to access...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart R of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart R

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart R 1 Table 1 to Subpart R of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pipeline Breakout Stations) Pt. 63, Subpt. R, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart R of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart R Reference Applies to subpart R Comment 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes...

  2. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    -product situation (whether to buy organic food or not). This design provides a possibility to detect whether any effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior or due to altruistic motives among trusters. The results show that generalized trust enhances recycling significantly whereas it only has a very......This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  3. Biparametric complexities and generalized Planck radiation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas-Centeno, David; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Complexity theory embodies some of the hardest, most fundamental and most challenging open problems in modern science. The very term complexity is very elusive, so the main goal of this theory is to find meaningful quantifiers for it. In fact, we need various measures to take into account the multiple facets of this term. Here, some biparametric Crámer-Rao and Heisenberg-Rényi measures of complexity of continuous probability distributions are defined and discussed. Then, they are applied to blackbody radiation at temperature T in a d-dimensional universe. It is found that these dimensionless quantities do not depend on T nor on any physical constants. So, they have a universal character in the sense that they only depend on spatial dimensionality. To determine these complexity quantifiers, we have calculated their dispersion (typical deviations) and entropy (Rényi entropies and the generalized Fisher information) constituents. They are found to have a temperature-dependent behavior similar to the celebrated Wien’s displacement law of the dominant frequency ν_max at which the spectrum reaches its maximum. Moreover, they allow us to gain insights into new aspects of the d-dimensional blackbody spectrum and the quantification of quantum effects associated with space dimensionality.

  4. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  5. Generalized indices for radiation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.A.; Demin, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to ensuring nuclear safety has begun forming since the early eighties. The approach based on the probabilistic safety analysis, the principles of acceptable risk, the optimization of safety measures, etc. has forced a complex of adequate quantitative methods of assessment, safety analysis and risk management to be developed. The method of radiation risk assessment and analysis hold a prominent place in the complex. National and international research and regulatory organizations ICRP, IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR, OECD/NEA have given much attention to the development of the conceptual and methodological basis of those methods. Some resolutions of the National Commission of Radiological Protection (NCRP) and the Problem Commission on Radiation Hygiene of the USSR Ministry of Health should be also noted. Both CBA (cost benefit analysis) and other methods of radiation risk analysis and safety management use a system of natural and socio-economic indices characterizing the radiation risk or damage. There exist a number of problems associated with the introduction, justification and use of these indices. For example, the price, a, of radiation damage, or collective dose unit, is a noteworthy index. The difficulties in its qualitative and quantitative determination are still an obstacle for a wide application of CBA to the radiation risk analysis and management. During recent 10-15 years these problems have been a subject of consideration for many authors. The present paper also considers the issues of the qualitative and quantitative justification of the indices of radiation risk analysis

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.420 - Can the Administrator of General Services waive the postpayment auditing provisions of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can the Administrator of General Services waive the postpayment auditing provisions of this subpart? 102-118.420 Section 102-118... Transportation Audits § 102-118.420 Can the Administrator of General Services waive the postpayment auditing...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Hhhhhh... - Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 1 Table 1 to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 1 to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Subpart HHHHHH of Part 63 Citation Subject Applicable to subpart HHHHHH Explanation § 63.1(a)(1)-(12) General Applicability Yes § 63...

  8. Nonstatic radiating spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.; Borgohain, P.; Sarma, R.

    1985-01-01

    The method of Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri of obtaining nonstatic solutions of Einstein's field equations to study the evolution of stellar bodies is applied to obtain two models of nonstatic radiating spheres from two well-known static solutions of field equations, viz., Tolman's solutions IV and V. Whereas Tolman's type-IV model is found to be contracting for the period under investigation, Tolman's type-V model shows a bounce after attaining a minimum radius

  9. The provision of technical assistance by the Agency with special reference to 1971. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-07-01

    Following its usual practice, the Board of Governors has requested the communication to the General Conference of the material it used in reviewing the provision of technical assistance by the Agency, with special reference to 1971; this material is accordingly reproduced in the present document. The review was carried out pursuant to paragraph 20 of the Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. 2. The use of the resources placed at the Agency's disposal, in the form of voluntary contributions, gifts in kind, UNDP(SF) and UNDP(TA) funds, for the provision of technical assistance is reviewed in this document; data on UNDP(SF) assistance in respect of projects for which the IAEA was the executing agent have been incorporated in the statistical tables and figures for the first time. This has been done to establish a broader basis for comparison of the data that will be included in the report to be submitted one year hence, in which special reference will be made to the technical assistance provided by the Agency in 1972, which will reflect the full integration of the Special Fund and Technical Assistance components of UNDP, In addition, information is given with regard to the UNDP(SF) projects for which the Agency served as sub-contractor in 1971 in Annex III. 3. The three principal elements of the technical assistance provided are expert services, equipment and fellowships. The main objectives of the assistance are to promote the transfer of skills and knowledge relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy, to support the efforts made by recipient countries to carry out their atomic energy activities more efficiently, and to ensure that the knowledge acquired can continue to be applied after Agency projects have been completed. The achievement of the latter objective, however, depends largely on the ability of Governments to make adequate facilities available and to recruit and retain the requisite

  10. The provision of technical assistance by the Agency with special reference to 1971. Report by the Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-15

    Following its usual practice, the Board of Governors has requested the communication to the General Conference of the material it used in reviewing the provision of technical assistance by the Agency, with special reference to 1971; this material is accordingly reproduced in the present document. The review was carried out pursuant to paragraph 20 of the Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. 2. The use of the resources placed at the Agency's disposal, in the form of voluntary contributions, gifts in kind, UNDP(SF) and UNDP(TA) funds, for the provision of technical assistance is reviewed in this document; data on UNDP(SF) assistance in respect of projects for which the IAEA was the executing agent have been incorporated in the statistical tables and figures for the first time. This has been done to establish a broader basis for comparison of the data that will be included in the report to be submitted one year hence, in which special reference will be made to the technical assistance provided by the Agency in 1972, which will reflect the full integration of the Special Fund and Technical Assistance components of UNDP, In addition, information is given with regard to the UNDP(SF) projects for which the Agency served as sub-contractor in 1971 in Annex III. 3. The three principal elements of the technical assistance provided are expert services, equipment and fellowships. The main objectives of the assistance are to promote the transfer of skills and knowledge relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy, to support the efforts made by recipient countries to carry out their atomic energy activities more efficiently, and to ensure that the knowledge acquired can continue to be applied after Agency projects have been completed. The achievement of the latter objective, however, depends largely on the ability of Governments to make adequate facilities available and to recruit and retain the requisite

  11. Generalized radiative corrections for hadronic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calan, C. de; Navelet, H.; Picard, J.

    1990-02-01

    Besides the radiative corrections theory at the order α 2 for reactions involving an arbitrary number of particles, this report gives the complete formula for the correction factor δ in dσ = dσ Born (1 + δ). The only approximation made here - unavoidable in this formulation - is to assume that the Born amplitude can be factorized. This calculation is valid for spin zero bosons. In the 1/2 fermion case, an extra contribution appears which has been analytically computed using a minor approximation. Special care has been devoted to the 1/v divergence of the amplitude near thresholds [fr

  12. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  13. Comonotonic approximations for a generalized provisioning problem with application to optimal portfolio selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, K.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss multiperiod portfolio selection problems related to a specific provisioning problem. Our results are an extension of Dhaene et al. (2005) [14], where optimal constant mix investment strategies are obtained in a provisioning and savings context, using an analytical approach

  14. Further results on a family of generalized radiation integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galue, Leda; Kiryakova, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we continue an investigation of a family of generalized radiation integrals. Several recurrence relations are presented. By differentiation of these integrals with respect to the parameters λ and μ we obtain also various integrals that include the logarithmic function in the integrand. Finally, we propose an algorithm for numerical evaluation of the generalized radiation integrals and illustrate it by tables of their values computed for selected values of the parameters. (author)

  15. Manual on radiation protection in hospital and general practice. Volume 4. Radiation protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, K; Wuehrmann, A H

    1977-01-01

    The nine chapters of this manual on radiation protection in dentistry discuss the following topics: the need for radiation protection; delegation of responsibility; radiographic equipment; radiographic film; radiographic techniques; film processing and handling; patient doses; general radiation protection and monitoring; and educational standards. (HLW)

  16. bhlight: GENERAL RELATIVISTIC RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH MONTE CARLO TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, B. R.; Gammie, C. F.; Dolence, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present bhlight, a numerical scheme for solving the equations of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics using a direct Monte Carlo solution of the frequency-dependent radiative transport equation. bhlight is designed to evolve black hole accretion flows at intermediate accretion rate, in the regime between the classical radiatively efficient disk and the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF), in which global radiative effects play a sub-dominant but non-negligible role in disk dynamics. We describe the governing equations, numerical method, idiosyncrasies of our implementation, and a suite of test and convergence results. We also describe example applications to radiative Bondi accretion and to a slowly accreting Kerr black hole in axisymmetry

  17. Provision of hormonal and long-acting reversible contraceptive services by general practices in Scotland, UK (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anusha; Watson, Margaret; Hannaford, Philip; Lefevre, Karen; Ayansina, Dolapo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, a large proportion of contraceptive services are provided from general practice. However, little is known about which contraceptive services are provided and to whom. Descriptive serial cross-sectional study of women aged 12-55 years, registered with 191 general practices in Scotland, UK between 2004 and 2009. Annual incidence of provision of hormonal and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) increased from 27.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2009. Amongst those women registered with a general practice for the full 5-year period the provision of LARCs increased from 8.8% to 12.5% (pemergency hormonal contraception (EHC) decreased from 5.2% to 2.6% (pcontraceptives and LARCs from general practices. It is important that a full range of contraceptive options remains easily available to women.

  18. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  19. [Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment

  20. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10 -9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Radiation protection office at the general direction of health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protection office at the general direction of health has the following functions: organisation and relations with decentralized services, legal aspects, relations with the direction of nuclear installation safety, nuclear medicine with licensing, radioactive wastes in relation with ANDRA, environment, trusteeship of OPRI in matter of measurements, dosimetry and epidemiology in relation with the Minister of work and training in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  2. Gravitational radiation and the validity of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The regular observation of gravitational radiation by a world-wide network of resonant and laser-interferometric detectors will usher in a new form of astronomy. At the same time, it will provide new and interesting tests of general relativity. We review the current empirical status of general relativity, and discuss three areas in which direct observation of gravitational radiation could test the theory further: polarization of the waves, speed of the waves, and back-reaction of the waves on the evolution of the source. (author)

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63—General Provisions to...

  4. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  5. Radiobiological basis of radiation protection and ICRP 2007 general recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    The ICRP 2007 General Recommendations are based on the detailed review of the new information on the biological effects and risk evaluation done during the last decade. Most of this information reinforces the validity of earlier findings. Since the publication of ICRP 60 general recommendations in 1991(ICRP 1991b), sufficient new information on the health effects of ionizing radiations has accrued based on radiobiological and epidemiological studies (UNSCEAR 2000, ICRP Publication 99). There is an improvement in understanding the mechanistic aspects of the induction of radiation damage at cellular level. Biophysical studies based on Monte Carlo track structure codes have provided information on the nature of critical damage to DNA leading to the radiation effects at cellular level. Experimental work with model animal systems has provided information on the role of post irradiation repair processes and the genes influencing the process of radiation carcinogenesis. Longer follow up of A-Bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provides a more reliable risk estimate based on the cancer incidence data and also a better model for the transfer of risk among different populations with varying frequency of background incidence. At present it is clear that the breast cancer contributes substantially to the radiation risk and provides quantitative risk estimates for brain and salivary glands. In the light of the new information, Tissue Weighting factors (WT) have been revised

  6. Provision of undergraduate otorhinolaryngology teaching within General Medical Council approved UK medical schools: what is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Saeed, S R

    2012-04-01

    Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.

  7. Gerald: a general environment for radiation analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Ch.; Oliveira, P.I.E. de; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Adams, M.L.; Galan, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper describes the status of the GERALD interactive workbench for the analysis of radiation transport problems. GERALD basically guides the user through the various steps that are necessary to solve a radiation transport problem, and is aimed at education, research and industry. The advantages of such workbench are many: quality assurance of problem setup, interaction of the user with problem solution, preservation of theory and legacy research codes, and rapid proto-typing and testing of new methods. The environment is of general applicability catering for analytical, deterministic and stochastic analysis of the radiation problem and is not tied to one specific solution method or code. However, GERALD is being developed as a portable, modular, open source framework which renders itself quite naturally to the coupling of existing computational tools through specifically developed plug-ins. By offering a common route for setting up, solving and analyzing radiation transport problems GERALD offers the possibility of methods intercomparison and validation. Such flexible radiation transport environment will also facilitate the coupling of radiation physics methods to other physical phenomena and their application to other areas of application such as medical physics and the environment. (authors)

  8. Liouville's equation and radiative acceleration in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines thoroughly the general motion of a material charged particle in the intense radiation field of a static spherically symmetric compact object with spherical emitting surface outside the Schwarzschild radius. Such a test particle will be pulled in by the gravitational attraction of the compact object and pushed out by the radiation pressure force, therefore the types of trajectory admitted will depend the gravitational field, the radiation field and the particle cross-section. The presence of a strong gravitational field demands a fully general relativistic treatment of the problem. This type of calculation is interesting not only as a formal problem in general relativity but also since it has important astrophysical implications, for example, application to astrophysical discs and jets. In chapter 1 we review the classical radiation force problem and outline the transition to a fully general relativistic scenario. We discuss the method for obtaining the radiation pressure force and calculating the particle trajectories. We review previous work in this area and outline the aims of the thesis. Then we consider some astrophysical applications and discuss how realistic our calculations are. In chapter 2 we give an introduction and overview of differential geometry as this is necessary for an accurate description of tensors on a curved manifold. Then we review the general theory of relativity and in particular obtain the Schwarzschild metric describing a static spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime. Chapter 3 deals with test particle motion through a curved spacetime. Liouville's equation describes the statistical distribution in phase space of a collection of test particles and is based upon a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamical system - this material also relies heavily upon the concepts of differential geometry introduced in chapter 2. In particular we are interested in photon transport and find the general solutions for some symmetric

  9. Radiation protection training for diverse general employee populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection training for the general employee at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has undergone a great deal of restructuring in the last two years. The number of personnel totally dedicated to nuclear facilities is less than a fifth of our employees and the percentage of contracted employees who are dedicated radiation workers is much smaller. However, the aging of our facilities and increasing emphasis on environmental control means that everyone needs to understand the basics of radiation protection. In accordance with changing DOE guidelines and internal ORNL policies, greater emphasis has been placed on keeping training focused on current issues, training the total workforce, and requiring some type of testing or feedback mechanism. This report describes efforts to instill respect, but not fear, of radiation in the work environment. Flexible tools are being developed to meet this objective for several diverse general employee populations. Continuing efforts include consideration of computer-based training for retraining, developing additional modules for specialized groups and jobs, and testing/documentation appropriate to each population segment. 6 refs

  10. Attitudes of general dental practitioners towards implant dentistry in an environment with widespread provision of implant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Hua, Bich Hue; Lang, Niklaus P; Lo, Edward C M; McGrath, Colman P J

    2013-03-01

    To determine attitudes of general dental practitioners in a community where provision dental implants is a well-known treatment modality; and to identify variations in the attitudes with respect to dentists' factors, training factors and implant provision factors. A questionnaire survey to a random sample of registered dentists In Hong Kong was performed. Attitudes towards implant dentistry with respect to (i) perceived superiority of implant therapy, (ii) perceived outcomes of dental implant therapy, (iii) perceived complications & maintenance issues and (iv) placement issues were ascertained. In addition, information was collected on dentists' factors, training factors and implant provision factors. Variations in attitudes towards implant dentistry were explored in bivariate and regression analyses. Among eligible practitioners (n = 246), the response rate was 46.3%. Dentists perceived implants to be superior to conventional prostheses for the replacement of a single missing posterior tooth (80%, 67) and likewise, for the replacement of a single missing anterior tooth (67%, 67), P attitudes with respect to attitudes exists with respect to dentists' factors (years in practice [P attitudes are not wholly in line with evidence-based knowledge. Variations in their attitudes existed with respect to dentist factors, training and experience issues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. General impact of robotics and automation in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghdari, A.; Salehi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Robotics and automation systems in nuclear environments require special design considerations. This paper presents an overview of selected robotic systems already designed and developed for use in nuclear applications at some U.S. laboratories. It will further emphasize on tasks identification, operational constraints, special considerations in materials selection, and a general guideline for robotic systems design in radiation environments. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  12. Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Radiation protection in dentistry. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, K [Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene, Oslo (Norway); Wuehrmann, A H [Alabama Univ., Birmingham (USA)

    1977-01-01

    The booklet deals with all aspects of the use of X rays in dentistry. The recommendations made are designed to reduce unnecessary exposure of the patient, will result in the production of superior radiographs and assist in eliminating unnecessary exposure of the operator himself. Separate chapters deal with the following topics: the need for radiation protection, delegation of responsibility, radiographic equipment, radiographic film, radiographic techniques, film processing and handling, patient doses (adults and children), general radiation protection and monitoring, educational standards.

  13. Basic knowledge from legal provisions of radiation protection for staff members in radiological facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Based on ICRP recommendations the GDR legislation of radiation protection is performed by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. The legal regulations of radiation protection in biomedical radiography and radiotherapy are specified. The main content of the atomic energy law and of the regulation on guarantee of nuclear safety and radiation protection is outlined. Basic principles such as radiation workers, operating personnel of nuclear facilities and the categories of their working conditions, areas of radiation protection and unusual events are defined. Responsibility, tasks of responsive staff members, measures of control by state and plant, guarantee of radiation protection, limitation of radiation doses and last not least regulations of sentences and fines, resp., are specified

  14. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  15. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [es

  16. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  17. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  18. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [fr

  19. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [ru

  20. Generalized Chaplygin gas and cosmic microwave background radiation constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sen, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    We study the dependence of the location of the cosmic microwave background radiation peaks on the parameters of the generalized Chaplygin gas model, whose equation of state is given by p=-A/ρ α , where A is a positive constant and 0<α≤1. We find, in particular, that observational data arising from Archeops, BOOMERANG, supernova and high-redshift observations allow constraining significantly the parameter space of the model. Our analysis indicates that the emerging model is clearly distinguishable from the α=1 Chaplygin case and the ΛCDM model

  1. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  2. Radiation Protection Ordinance 1989. Supplement with Radiation Protection Register Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. radiation passport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The addendum contains regulations issued supplementary to the Radiation Protection Ordinance: The Radiation Protection Register as of April 3, 1990 including the law on the setting up of a Federal Office on Radiation Protection; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 3, 1990 (AVV Radiation passport). The volume contains, apart from the legal texts, the appropriate decision by the Bundesrat, the official explanation from the Bundestag Publications as well as a comprehensive introduction into the new legal matter. (orig.) [de

  3. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Yu, Lifeng; Anastasio, Mark A; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M; Low, Daniel A; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-03-01

    In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube potentials for patient sizes

  4. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Yu, Lifeng [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. Methods: The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Results: Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube

  5. A Model for Hourly Solar Radiation Data Generation from Daily Solar Radiation Data Using a Generalized Regression Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting hourly solar radiation data using daily solar radiation averages. The proposed model is a generalized regression artificial neural network. This model has three inputs, namely, mean daily solar radiation, hour angle, and sunset hour angle. The output layer has one node which is mean hourly solar radiation. The training and development of the proposed model are done using MATLAB and 43800 records of hourly global solar radiation. The results show that...

  6. The twinning of Scottish general practices and Malawian clinics: the provision of email and internet services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Neville

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients and health care professionals in the developed world are uncomfortable about doing nothing in the face of the glaring inequities in health care between their own environment and that of Africa. In an effort to 'think global, act local' a Scottish GP practice used personal contacts to build a twinning link with a clinic serving a township in Malawi. This article describes the experience of establishing e-mail and internet services for Malawian health care staff to afford them the same level of access as developed world staff enjoy in accessing educational materials and professional supports. Using our twin link as an exemplar we are now matching other Scottish General Practices to Malawian Clinics around a common theme of modern communication media.

  7. What factors influence the provision of preventive care by general dental practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaraini, A

    2012-06-08

    What factors influence a general dental practitioner to offer preventive care to patients? A potential answer to this question is presented based on the findings of a qualitative study recently undertaken in general dental practice in Australia. A model of how practices come to be oriented towards preventive or restorative care is described, condensing all of the findings of the study into a single framework. Eight practices were studied and highlighted the interaction between two factors: leadership in practice and prioritisation of cultural, social and economic resources. In this model, dentists' leadership to reorient the prioritisation of resources towards preventive care was crucial. Ideally a whole practice changed to preventive philosophy, but change was also possible in a single dentist within a practice. Prioritisation of resources was also key and interacted with dentist leadership. Prioritisation could be seen in the reorganisation of space, routines and fee schedules. During this process, one key support factor for dentists was their external networks of trusted peers and respected practicing dentists. These peers were crucial for transferring preventive knowledge within small networks of dentists who trusted one another; their influence was reportedly more important than centrally produced guidelines or academic advice. In order to help dentists change their practices towards preventive care, the findings from our study suggest that it is important to intervene in these local networks by identifying local dental opinion leaders. During this study, the key conditions needed for practices to reorient to preventive care included the presence of a committed leader with a prevention-supportive peer network, and the reorientation of space, routines and fee schedules to support preventive practice.

  8. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay. Part 1: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    International Standard ISO 12790-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiation protection. ISO 12790 consists of the following parts, under the general title Radiation protection - Performance criteria for radiobioassay: Part 1: General principles; and Part 2: Rationale and specific applications This part of ISO 12790 provides criteria for quality assurance and control, evaluation of performance and the accreditation of radiobioassay service laboratories. Criteria and guidance for direct radiobioassay ( in vivo) and indirect radiobioassay ( in vitro) are given in separate clauses of this part of ISO 12790. This part of ISO 12790 addresses: a) the accuracy of direct ( in vivo) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test phantoms and indirect ( in vitro) measurements of activity and quantities of selected important radionuclides in test samples; b) methods for determining the minimum detectable amount; c) minimum testing levels and testing ranges; d) requirements for reporting radiobioassay results by service laboratories; e) quality assurance in service laboratories; f) quality control in service laboratories; g) protocol for reporting test evaluations by service laboratories to the testing laboratory; h) default procedures when the service laboratory customer does not specify the performance criteria. The scope of this part of ISO 12790 does not include: a) detailed radiochemical methods for separating radionuclides from biological samples; b) detailed procedures for in vivo and in vitro radioactivity measurements; c) metabolic data and mathematical models for converting radiobioassay results into absorbed dose and dose equivalent; d) procedures for the preparation and distribution of test samples and phantoms by the testing laboratories. Analytical methods for radiobioassay are not currently standardized, but are available in the literature. Guidance for converting

  9. Technical products for radiation shielding. Shield assembled from lead blocks for radiation protection. General technical requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The object of this standard description is the general technological requirements of 50 and 100 mm thick radiation protection shields assembled from lead blocks. The standard contains the definitions, types, parameters and dimensions of shields, their technical and acceptance criteria with testing methods, tagging, packaging, transportation and storage requirements, producer's liability. Some illustrated assembling examples, preferred parameters and dosimetry methods for shield inspection are given. (R.P.)

  10. General Labour Code (Act No. 2 of 1986), 5 April 1986. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau's General Labor Code, Act No. 2 of 1986, requires that employers adopt non-discriminatory procedures in dealing with their employees, disallowing discrimination based on gender, race, national origin, religion, political ideology or inclination, or on whether or not an employee is affiliated to a worker's union. Women are guaranteed equality with men in work opportunity and employment treatment; they are assured access to any type of job, profession, or position which does not pose any potential or actual threat to their genetic functioning. Additional legislation shall establish the conditions and prohibitions for contracting woman for heavy labor, for jobs performed under insalubrious conditions, for underground work, and for other types of jobs which might endanger a woman's genetic functioning. Job offers must not discriminate, unless the restrictions or specifications are essential to the nature of the job, rendering the job qualitatively differentiable when performed by a man or a woman. The employer must ensure that female workers have the same job opportunity and treatment for professional training and career development. Different specific job categories may not be created for men and women if a woman's salary is inferior to that of a man performing equivalent work in a corresponding professional category. Protection during pregnancy and delivery guarantees a woman the right to decline medically inadvisable tasks without loss of wages; to decline overtime work; to be absent from work when necessary for maternal medical care without loss of wages; to interrupt daily work to nurse her children for 1 hour or 2 for half-hour periods for up to 1 year without the loss of wages. Every female employee has the right to 60 days pregnancy and maternity leave, without loss of wages, for whatever clinical type of delivery, including for still births and for births where the infant died shortly thereafter.

  11. General Practitioners' views on the provision of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Robert

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT and a new drug, bupropion, are licensed in several countries as aids to smoking cessation. General practitioners (GPs play a crucial role in recommending or prescribing these medications. In the UK there has been discussion about whether the medications should be reimbursable by the National Health Service (NHS. This study assessed English GPs' attitudes towards reimbursement of NRT and bupropion. Methods Postal survey of a randomly selected national sample of GPs; 376 GPs completed the questionnaire after one reminder; effective response rate: 53%. There was no difference between the responses of GPs who responded to the initial request and those who responded only after a reminder suggesting minimal bias due to non-response. Results Attitudes of GPs were remarkably divided on most issues relating to the medications. Forty-three percent thought that bupropion should not be on NHS prescription while 42% thought that it should be (15% did not know; Fifty percent thought that NRT should not be on NHS prescription while 42% thought it should be (8% did not know. Requiring that smokers attend behavioural support programmes to be eligible to receive the medications on NHS prescription made no appreciable difference to the GPs' views. GPs were similarly divided on whether having the medications reimbursable would add unacceptably to their workload or offer a welcome opportunity to discuss smoking with their patients. A principal components analysis of responses to the individual questions on NRT and bupropion revealed that GPs' attitudes could be understood in terms of a single 'pro-con' dimension accounting for 53% of the total variance which made no distinction between the two medications. Conclusions GPs in England appear to be divided in their attitudes to medications to aid smoking cessation and appear not to discriminate in their views between different types of medication or different

  12. Application of the general principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristic feature of radiation protection is that of a unitary approach vis-a-vis a coherent set of concepts and general principles and the ensuing systems of standards. This situation creates favourable conditions for guaranteeing quality control. However, the benefit of radiation protection would be limited if the doctrine, principles and standards were merely a theoretical administrative and technocratic system: it is essential that these doctrines, principles and standards should lead to concrete action at all stages of development, from design right up to daily operational procedures. This requires on the part of all those involved, and at all levels, a spirit of discipline and openness where there must be both common sense and respect for the rules. It also requires the constraint of the regulation which is comprehensive, precise, clear and which cannot be evaded. In short, it must be enforceable. Even if the situation in the nuclear industry vis-a-vis radiological safety cannot be called ideal, it is totally satisfactory, both for members of the public and for workers. This is the main topic developed in the report

  13. Radiation protection regulations in Slovakia and application of BSS and EC council directives provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktory, D.

    2003-01-01

    Slovakia, a part of the former Czechoslovak Federation, has been on the map of Europe as an independent country for only 10 years. It is a relatively small country with 5,5 million of inhabitants. The use of radiation sources in medicine, industry and research is extensive, but it corresponds with the size of country and the number of inhabitants. Nowadays here are nearly 600 licensee holders in medicine and in industry and 5 000 radiation sources in national registry. The nuclear industry is relatively developed in Slovakia. In the former Czechoslovakia, the responsibilities for nuclear safety and radiation protection were divided between two authorities. The federal authority for nuclear safety and regional authorities - regional hygienist for the radiation protection were responsible. Regional health protection authorities were managed by two separate Ministries of the Health of Czech and Slovak federal Republics. After the splitting of Czechoslovakia the development differs slightly in both countries. In the Czech Republic both authorities have merged, in Slovakia the people in power were not able to carry out such a radical change, so here the model of two independent authorities have remained. This system has been working since 1950's. (author)

  14. The provision of Technical Co-operation: The model project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the IAEA's systematic effort to address the inadequate situation in many of its Member States with regard to radiation protection and safety. For this effort a special project was created and implemented in the past five years to create or strengthen existing radiation protection infrastructure in 52 countries where such infrastructure was non-existent or not appropriate for the type of practice involved. The implementation of this project focused on the development of qualified human resources, assistance for introduction of appropriate legislation and equipment for inspection and analysis. Workplans were tailored to the individual needs of each participating country and the elements of these workplans were grouped into five milestones -- regulatory framework, occupational exposure control, medical exposure control, public exposure control, and emergency preparedness and response capabilities. By the end of 2000 more than 70% of the participating countries had radiation protection laws promulgated and a regulatory authority established; 46% had regulations adopted and 42% had a system of notification, authorization and control of radiation sources operational. During the five years of implementation, 555 fellows received individual training, another 2278 participated in training courses, over 1000 expert missions were fielded and equipment worth about US $6 million was provided. The total cost was over US $17 million. (author)

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program

  16. Identifying current training provision and future training needs in allergy available for UK general practice trainees: national cross-sectional survey of General Practitioner Specialist Training programme directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jayne; Rafi, Imran; Smith, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-03-01

    There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provision for allergy in primary care. To identify current training provision in allergy to GP trainees and to understand how this could be enhanced. A cross-sectional survey of GP Speciality Training (GPST) programme directors was undertaken. Programme directors of the 174 GPST schemes were sent an online questionnaire which was informed by the content of the Royal College of General Practitioners curriculum. Quantitative data were descriptively analysed and a thematic analysis was undertaken of free text responses. We obtained responses from 146 directors representing 106 training programmes. Responses indicated that two-thirds (62%, 95% CI 53.1 to 71.5) of programmes were providing at least some allergy training, with the remaining third stating that they either provided no training or were unsure. Overall, one-third (33%, 95% CI 22.7 to 42.2) of programme directors believed that all the relevant allergy-related curriculum requirements were being met. Where provided, this training was believed to be best for organ-specific allergic disorders but was thought to be poorer for systemic allergic disorders, particularly food allergy where 67% (95% CI 57.5 to 76.5) of respondents indicated that training was poor. There was considerable interest in increasing the allergy training provided, preferably through eLearning modules and problem-based learning materials supported by those with relevant specialist knowledge. This UK-wide survey has identified important gaps in the training of GP trainees in relation to allergy care. Addressing these gaps, particularly in the management of systemic allergic disorders, should help to improve delivery of primary care-based allergy care.

  17. General survey of non-neoplastic radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 report of UNSCEAR analysed a large body of information on the non-tumourous consequences of irradiation after partial- and whole-body exposure. Based on that analysis this review discusses, for partial-body exposure, the major points relating to morphological and functional non-stochastic early effects such as induction mechanisms, relationships with dose, time and radiation quality, and specific nature of the effects in various tissues. The review specifically considers doses and effects that are likely to be critical under conditions of highly fractionated and long-term exposure. It shows that for organ irradiation the presence of a dose threshold is the most important characteristic of non-stochastic effects. The significance of the threshold in relation to mechanisms, its dependence on physical or biological variables and its practical significance are particularly commented upon. The review considers the distinctive features of early effects of whole-body irradiation and late effects of partial-body exposure and underlines their main interest under accident conditions and for medical treatment, respectively. As to late consequences of whole-body irradiation, lifespan shortening is the effect specifically considered. The review discusses the basic aspects of the life shortening action, such as general definitions, relationships to physiological ageing, technical and methodological assessment and relationships to other specific or non-specific effects of radiation. Data on life shortening in various animal species are briefly reviewed under the form of dose relationships for short-term and lifelong exposures with some discussion of human data. The conclusion is drawn that, in the light of present evidence, at the low doses and dose rates which are most important in practice, life shortening appears to be due essentially to the induction of tumours. (author)

  18. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  19. The general principles of radiation protection and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lecomte, J.F.; Barbier, G.; Crescini, D.; Biau, A.; Blain, A.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gonin, M.; Bergot, D.

    2003-01-01

    Seven articles constitute this chapter about the radiation protection and the regulation. Radiological risk, reduction of public exposure to ultraviolet radiations, regulation for the radon, evolution of the French legislation against the dangers of ionizing radiations, the medical follow up after the professional life, the information system to reproduce the dosimetric data of workers, proposition of a scale to classify the radiations incidents in function of their seriousness. (N.C.)

  20. General practitioners and carers: a questionnaire survey of attitudes, awareness of issues, barriers and enablers to provision of services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins Christine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one in ten of the UK population are unpaid carers supporting a family member or friend who could not manage without their help, saving the UK economy an estimated £87 billion. This role is known to sometimes have a negative impact on carers and to require support both informally and from statutory services. General practice is a first point of contact for carers but research investigating general practitioners' (GPs' attitudes towards carers and awareness of issues facing carers is rare. This study therefore aimed to identify GPs' attitudes, awareness of issues, and perceptions of the barriers and enablers to provision of services. Methods Using a self-completion questionnaire distributed at a series of workshops, this study investigates GPs' attitudes to carers; awareness and knowledge of carers' issues; services offered in general practice and barriers to supporting carers. Results Seventy eight out of a total of 95 GPs (82% response rate from a variety of areas in England completed the questionnaires. The GPs identified time, resources and lack of knowledge as barriers, but only 9% agreed with the statement that there is little support they can offer carers. However, nine in ten GPs (89% feel they have insufficient training here and approximately half of them (47% lack confidence that they are meeting carers' needs. Confidence in identifying carers is also low (45%. Issues that GPs would look out for amongst carers include emotional and physical health problems and financial and isolation difficulties. GPs specifically highlighted educational and isolation issues for young carers. Few services were described that targeted carers. Conclusions GPs recognise that they have an important role to play in supporting carers but would like training and support. Further investigation is needed both to determine how best to train and facilitate GPs and general practice teams in their role in supporting carers and to

  1. Deficiencies in provision of integrated multidisciplinary podiatry care for patients with inflammatory arthritis: a UK district general hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M; Price, E; Collins, D; Williamson, L

    2010-01-01

    Foot problems are highly prevalent in inflammatory arthritis (IA), especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Chronic inflammation can lead to permanent structural changes, deformity and disability. Early podiatry intervention in RA improves long term outcomes. National guidelines recommend that patients should be treated by a multidisciplinary team with dedicated podiatry services. In clinical practice funding constraints limit availability of these services. To assess prevalence of foot problems and quality and availability of foot care services at a UK district general hospital. 1200 IA patients in Swindon (Wiltshire, UK) were invited to complete an anonymised questionnaire regarding access to foot care services and education/information on foot problems. 448 patients. Prevalence of foot problems: 68%. Only 31% of patients had access to appropriate foot specialist. 24% had received foot assessment within 3 months of diagnosis of IA and 17% yearly review thereafter. Despite high prevalence of foot problems in our population we identified significant deficiencies in provision of integrated multidisciplinary podiatry care. The data we present could be used by others to support business cases to obtain funding to improve the links between rheumatology and podiatry services. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. General characterisation of the solar radiation behaviour in Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuamba, B.C. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique)]|[Action Group for Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development, Maputo (Mozambique); Chenene, M.L.; Mahumane, G. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique); Quissico, D.Z. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique)]|[National Institute of Meteorology, Maputo (Mozambique); Vasco, E. [National Institute of Meteorology, Maputo (Mozambique); Lovseth, J. [Solar Energy and Environmental Group, Department of Physics (LADE), Trondheim University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway); O' Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Just as with the other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, Mozambique faces severe and interrelated problems of energy and environment linked with the massive consumption of fuel wood biomass. The conventional power grid caters for less than 7% of the energy needs for the country's 17 million inhabitants, and about 83% of the energy consumed in the country comes from biomass. Areas around the major urban centres and along the main development corridors are the most affected by energy shortages. This hinders the country's economic and social development as it is generally acknowledged that no development can be sustainable without linking it to energy planning and environmental management. Renewable energy resources can play an important role in the process of development of the country. From the vast renewable energy resources available in the country, solar energy represents one of those with the highest potential. Thus the evaluation of its potential is of extreme importance. This paper represents a first attempt to systemise the solar radiation data being measured by the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM). The period considered for analysis is from 1970 to 2000. Results of the present work reveal that the country has substantial solar energy resources for a variety of solar energy technologies. (orig.)

  3. Cosmogenic radioberyllium and background radiation dose to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    To discover the causes of the presence of abnormal Be concentrations (anthropogenic or natural or cosmogenic source) in the area of the Kralicky Sneznik mountain massive (in the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude of about 800 m), concentrations of 7 Be and 10 Be were also assayed in selected environmental components in the years of 2005 - 2007. The 10 Be concentrations in soils (80.39x10 6 - 210.45x10 6 atom g -1 ) and activity concentrations of 7 Be in soils and wet deposition were very low (1.3 - 5.3 Bq kg -1 and 0.6 - 4.5 Bq l -1 , resp.). However, activities of 7 Be in birch leaves and grass (dry matter) reached relatively high values (up to 1000 Bq kg -1 ) and, in addition, showed out their significant seasonal growth. In the work the probable contribution of the cosmogenic 7 Be activities to background radiation dose to the general public is discussed. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40 CFR...

  5. Roles of General Practitioners in the Provision of Health Care Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A National Census in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chou, Ying-Ting; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of the present study were to explore the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) in the provision of health care services for people with intellectual disabilities and to analyse GPs' priorities in the delivery of health care services to this group of people in Taiwan. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design and was…

  6. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucicevic, M.; Sukalo, I.

    1989-01-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  7. General specifications for silicon semiconductors for use in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikner, G.; Grusell, E.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon semiconductor detectors used in radiation dosimetry have different properties, just as e.g. ionisation chambers, affecting the interaction of radiation with matter in the vicinity of the sensitive volume of the detector, e.g. wall materials, and also the collection of the charges liberated in the detector by the radiation. The charge collection depends on impurities, lattice imperfections and other properties of the semiconductor crystal. In this paper the relevant parameters of a silicon semiconductor detector intended for dosimetry are reviewed. The influence of doping material, doping level, various effects of radiation damage, mechanical construction, detector size, statistical noise and connection to the electrometer are discussed. (author)

  8. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucicevic, M; Sukalo, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  9. BALTORO a general purpose code for coupling discrete ordinates and Monte-Carlo radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazula, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The general purpose code BALTORO was written for coupling the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo /MC/ with the one-dimensional Discrete Ordinates /DO/ radiation transport calculations. The quantity of a radiation-induced /neutrons or gamma-rays/ nuclear effect or the score from a radiation-yielding nuclear effect can be analysed in this way. (author)

  10. Including 10-Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network under End-to-End Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Provisioned Quality of Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches...... are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers.......End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part...

  11. General principles of radiation protection in hospital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of radiation protection given by ICRP in term of justification, optimization, limitation are applicable in hospital media. The medical act has to be justified and, in France, it is not possible to use ionizing radiations without a prescription from a doctor. The acceleration of technologies development make non radiological techniques more employed than radiologic ones, in an aim of efficiency more than an aim radiation protection. The second principle of optimization means to give medical care with the minimum of ionizing radiations for the patients as well the operators. For the principle of limitation which applied only for operators, we have the new recommends of ICRP, but it would be reasonable to give the most part of decision to the works doctor to decide if somebody has the aptitude to work at an exposed place. The last points concern the quality of equipment, the safety of installations, the organization of works which are under laws and regulations. 3 tabs

  12. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, A.

    1998-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  13. A Generalized Radiation Model for Human Mobility: Spatial Scale, Searching Direction and Trip Constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogui Kang

    Full Text Available We generalized the recently introduced "radiation model", as an analog to the generalization of the classic "gravity model", to consolidate its nature of universality for modeling diverse mobility systems. By imposing the appropriate scaling exponent λ, normalization factor κ and system constraints including searching direction and trip OD constraint, the generalized radiation model accurately captures real human movements in various scenarios and spatial scales, including two different countries and four different cities. Our analytical results also indicated that the generalized radiation model outperformed alternative mobility models in various empirical analyses.

  14. Nuclear radiation and its role in general nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempaiah, A.; Ravi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is really nothing more than the emission of energy through space, as well as through physical objects. Nuclear radiations are emitted due to decay of nuclei of radioactive materials and damage cells and the DNA inside them through its ionizing effect. That causes melanoma and other cancers. Nuclear radiation has a number of beneficial uses especially in medical field with low levels of radioactive compounds, better than X-rays. There are some 440 nuclear reactors worldwide, people around will be under the effect of radiation. In nuclear medicine (medical imaging) small amount of radioactive materials were used to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of disease, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body it is painless and cost-effective techniques and provides information about both structure and function. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures called Gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation (Δ N eff ) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of Δ N eff . It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields, and leads to strict constraints on these models. Nevertheless, these constructions can in principle meet current DR bounds due to decays into gauge bosons alone. Further, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small `by accident', i.e. tuning, as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised by loops. In these constructions the DR axion and the QCD axion are the same field and we require a tuning of the initial misalignment to avoid Dark Matter overproduction. Furthermore, we analyse a closely related setting where the SM lives at a singularity but couples to the volume modulus through flavour branes. We conclude that some of the most natural LVS settings with natural values of model parameters lead to Dark Radiation predictions just below the present observational limits. Barring a discovery, rather modest improvements of present Dark Radiation bounds can rule out many of these most simple and generic variants of the LVS.

  16. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin; Choi, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y -1 ). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  17. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  18. General gamma-radiation test of TGC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Smakhtin, V P

    2004-01-01

    The TGC detectors are expected to provide the Muon trigger for the ATLAS detector in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. The TGC detectors have to provide a trigger signal within 25 ns of the LHC accelerator bunch spacing, with an efficiency exceeding 95%, while exposed to an effective)photon and neutron background ranging from 30 to 150 Hz/cm/sup 2/. In order to test TGC detectors in high rate environment every detector was irradiated at 2500 Cu Co-60 source in Radiation Facility of Weizmann Institute of Science at nominal operating voltage and at photon rate several times above the expected background. This radiation test was succeeded in diagnostics of the hot spots inside detectors. The present publication refers to the test results of 800 TGC detectors produced in the Weizmann Institute of Science. (1 refs).

  19. Quantum Radiation Properties of Dirac Particles in General Nonstationary Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum radiation properties of Dirac particles in general nonstationary black holes in the general case are investigated by both using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation and considering simultaneously the asymptotic behaviors of the first-order and second-order forms of Dirac equation near the event horizon. It is generally shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on both the time and different angles. Further, we give a general expression of the new extra coupling effect in thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Also, we reveal a relationship that is ignored before between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation in the case of scalar particles, which is that the chemical potential in thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of scalar particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  20. ACTIVITIES OF SAINT-PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV FOR PROVISION OF RADIATION SAFETY OF XXII WINTER OLYMPIC AND XI WINTER PARALYMPICS GAMES OF 2014 IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of the experience of Rospotrebnadzor radiological units’ activities for  radiation  safety  provision  of  the  participators  and  guests  of  XXII  Winter  Olympic  Games  in  Sochi  and  also of Sochi city inhabitants as during the period of preparations for the Games so during the period of the Olympic and Paralympics Games. Peculiarities of organization of activities of Rospotrebnadzor specialists are considered for  the  preparation  period  and  main  period,  the  occurred  problems  of  technical  and  methodical  provision  of radiation control which was carried out for the purpose of counteraction to possible actions of radiation terrorism are considered as well. The role is noted of the specialists of Radiation Hygiene Institute in the methodical and organizational provision of the whole complex of carried-out activities.

  1. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  2. Global existence of a generalized solution for the radiative transfer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Perthame, B.

    1984-01-01

    We prove global existence of a generalized solution of the radiative transfer equations, extending Mercier's result to the case of a layer with an initially cold area. Our Theorem relies on the results of Crandall and Ligett [fr

  3. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  4. A general purpose fiber optic link with radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In some applications it is necessary to send wide-band analog data, with good fidelity, between two stations separated by several hundred feet. This is particularly true for instrumentation in an accelerator environment, where the sensing equipment can be inside the tunnel, and the processing equipment outside. Aside from the distortion and loss introduced by low cost coaxial cables, this case is further complicated by the possibility of pick-up from environmental noise, and the possible radiation damage of the transmitting electronics. Fiber optics is be a viable alternative to the standard coaxial driver, particularly where video bandwidths are concerned. This paper discusses basic design, trade-offs, and performance of one such link developed primarily for the AGS-to-RHIC (ATR) Transfer line profile monitors

  5. Provision of a draft version for standard classification structure for information of radiation technologies through analyzing their information and derivation of its applicable requirements to the information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Yoo, Ji Yup; Shin, Woo Ho; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radiation technology is the one for developing new products or processes by applying radiation or for creating new functions in industry, research and medical fields, and its application is increasing consistently. For securing an advanced technology competitiveness, it is required to create a new added value by information consumer through providing an efficient system for supporting information, which is the infrastructure for research and development, contributed to its collection, analysis and use with a rapidity and structure in addition to some direct research and development. Provision of the management structure for information resources is especially crucial for efficient operating the system for supporting information in radiation technology, and then a standard classification structure of information must be first developed as the system for supporting information will be constructed. The standard classification structure has been analyzed by reviewing the definition of information resources in radiation technology, and those classification structures in similar systems operated by institute in radiation and other scientific fields. And, a draft version of the standard classification structure has been then provided as 7 large, 25 medium and 71 small classifications, respectively. The standard classification structure in radiation technology will be developed in 2015 through reviewing this draft version and experts' opinion. Finally, developed classification structure will be applied to the system for supporting information by considering the plan for constructing this system and database, and requirements for designing the system. Furthermore, this structure will be designed in the system for searching information by working to the individual need of information consumers

  6. Provision of a draft version for standard classification structure for information of radiation technologies through analyzing their information and derivation of its applicable requirements to the information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sol Ah; Kim, Joo Yeon; Yoo, Ji Yup; Shin, Woo Ho; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Radiation technology is the one for developing new products or processes by applying radiation or for creating new functions in industry, research and medical fields, and its application is increasing consistently. For securing an advanced technology competitiveness, it is required to create a new added value by information consumer through providing an efficient system for supporting information, which is the infrastructure for research and development, contributed to its collection, analysis and use with a rapidity and structure in addition to some direct research and development. Provision of the management structure for information resources is especially crucial for efficient operating the system for supporting information in radiation technology, and then a standard classification structure of information must be first developed as the system for supporting information will be constructed. The standard classification structure has been analyzed by reviewing the definition of information resources in radiation technology, and those classification structures in similar systems operated by institute in radiation and other scientific fields. And, a draft version of the standard classification structure has been then provided as 7 large, 25 medium and 71 small classifications, respectively. The standard classification structure in radiation technology will be developed in 2015 through reviewing this draft version and experts' opinion. Finally, developed classification structure will be applied to the system for supporting information by considering the plan for constructing this system and database, and requirements for designing the system. Furthermore, this structure will be designed in the system for searching information by working to the individual need of information consumers.

  7. Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)

  8. Radiating spheres in general relativity with a mixed transport energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, W.; Nunez, L.A.

    1989-10-01

    A seminumeric method by Herrera, Jimenez and Ruggeri is extended to handle the evolution of general relativistic spheres where diffusion and free streaming radiation processes coexist. It is shown when mixed-mode radiation is present a very different hydrodynamic picture emerges from the models previously considered in both radiation limits. Characteristic times for free streaming, hydrodynamics and diffusion processes are considered comparable. Hydrodynamics and radiation are strongly coupled and the particular equation of state of the model emerges as a very important element in the dynamic of the matter distribution. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs

  9. Radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks. I. General considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of heavy-particle tracks in dilute aqueous solution is considered in a unified manner. Emphasis is on the physical and chemical phenomena which are involved rather than on the construction of models to be used in actual calculations although the latter problem is discussed. A differential segment of a heavy-particle track is composed of two parts which we call core and penumbra; elementary considerations show that all properties of such a differential track can be uniquely specified in terms of a two-parameter system, and we choose energy per nucleon (E) and atomic numbers (Z) as independent parameters. The nature of heavy-particle-track processes varies with the magnitude of the energy deposit (LET), and we discuss three categories of track problems, for low-, intermediate-, and high-LET cases, respectively. Scavenger reactions normally terminate radical recombination in a track, and for heavy-particle tracks we find a criterion involving the scavenger concentration for a convenient separation of core and penumbra into essentially noninteracting parts which can be treated independently. Problems of the core expansion in the three regions are considered, and it is found that a versatile model can be constructed on concepts previously introduced by Ganguly and Magee. A model for the penumbra, based on the authors' electron-track theory, is presented and discussed

  10. General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.

  11. General aspects of nuclear power, radiation and environmental effects. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A general introduction to the principles of the functioning of a nuclear reactor and of power plants based on the reactor types at present in use, and likely to be used in the near future (PWR,BWR,FBR,HTGR and CANDU) is given. The general principles of a thermonuclear power plant are also briefly presented, and general safety aspects discussed. The physics of ionising radiations is briefly presented and natural and artificial sources of radiation are discussed. The fuel cycle, from mining to reprocessing and waste disposal and transport, is presented. The behaviour and effects of radioactive substances in the biosphere, radiation doses, and biological effects of ionising radiation are discussed. In conclusion there is an appendix in which the main characteristics of a number of elements which have important radioactive isotopes are presented. (JIW)

  12. What is risk perception in general and in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, David Te-Yao

    2000-01-01

    In view of the universal roll Risk Perception plays in our daily life, the author makes an effort to understand this notion better. For such a subtle task, it will be good to know something about the person, who undertakes such a challenge. Thus, he first makes a short description of himself in a number of relevant personal feature, emphasising rather what he is not: cadre of insurance company.... etc. He starts with a literal understanding of the idiom Risk Perception in English and in other languages (in Chinese). This formulation, still abstract, is framed with concrete objects, and materialised into touchable structures. He then puts life into these structures, and makes them accessible to emotion and experience. Now that this notion is animated, he follows it's way into life in the field of Radiation Protection, and find among others that the term Cost and Benefit correspond to the Chinese idiom, and that the system of Justification and Optimisation is as difficult to achieve objectively as an Upright Walk on the Confucian Path to-ward the Middle. One of the difficulties lies in the difference in the scale in estimating values. For instance, though the idea of Asian and Western Values are rather diffuse, their difference is never-the-less high enough to render it to be insurmountable, at least at present. These observation belong actually to common experience of Health physicists, and nothing new or spectacular is presented. The author emphasises only, again not a new idea of his own, only putting weight to, that perception depends on point of view, or rather on stand of viewing points, and rarely represent the whole story, the true situation. This leads, according to the author, to the well known and accepted term of Risk Residuum, in German, Rest Risiko. Despite of partialness of all perceptions, solid decisions are based on perception. We all know mournful consequences of unsound decision in our daily life. It is tragic, when this happens in history. The

  13. What is risk perception in general and in radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, David Te-Yao [CH-5400 Baden (Switzerland)

    2000-05-01

    In view of the universal role Risk Perception plays in our daily life, the author makes an effort to understand this notion better. For such a subtle task, it will be good to know something about the person who undertakes such a challenge. Thus, he first makes a short description of himself in a number of relevant personal feature, emphasising rather what he is not: cadre of insurance company.... etc. He starts with a literal understanding of the idiom Risk Perception in English and in other languages (in Chinese). This formulation, still abstract, is framed with concrete objects, and materialised into touchable structures. He then puts life into these structures, and makes them accessible to emotion and experience. Now that this notion is animated, he follows its way into life in the field of Radiation Protection, and find among others that the term Cost and Benefit correspond to the Chinese idiom, and that the system of Justification and Optimisation is as difficult to achieve objectively as an Upright Walk on the Confucian Path to-ward the Middle. One of the difficulties lies in the difference in the scale in estimating values. For instance, though the idea of Asian and Western Values are rather diffuse, their difference is never-the-less high enough to render it to be insurmountable, at least at present. These observation belong actually to common experience of Health physicists, and nothing new or spectacular is presented. The author emphasises only, again not a new idea of his own, only putting weight to, that perception depends on point of view, or rather on stand of viewing points, and rarely represent the whole story, the true situation. This leads, according to the author, to the well known and accepted term of Risk Residuum, in German, Rest Risiko. Despite of partialness of all perceptions, solid decisions are based on perception. We all know mournful consequences of unsound decision in our daily life. It is tragic, when this happens in history. The

  14. Electromagnetic radiation reaction force and radiation potential in general five-dimensional relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.Y.; Goldstein, G.R.; Napier, A.

    1989-01-01

    A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics to account for the radiation reaction force. A conjecture that the radiation reaction force and the Lorentz force should be distinct, but in unified forms, results in a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. It is found that a semicylindrical condition can reconcile the apparent differences between a five-dimensional physical space and our four-dimensional perceptions. Analysis of the geodesic equations results in the notion of gauge dynamics which manifests the influence of the unrestricted fifth variable. The element g 55 of the five-dimensional metric is identified as the radiation potential, which can directly determine the radiation reaction force. This gives a distinct physical origin for the radiation process in classical theory. The potential suggests that the electron can have excited states in quantum electrodynamics. This theory is supported with calculations which demonstrate that the motion of the fifth variable directly causes physical changes in the four-dimensional subspace

  15. Clouds-radiation interactions in a general circulation model - Impact upon the planetary radiation balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura D.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneously conducted observations of the earth radiation budget and the cloud amount estimates, taken during the June 1979 - May 1980 Nimbus 7 mission were used to show interactions between the cloud amount and raidation and to verify a long-term climate simulation obtained with the latest version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). The parameterization of the radiative, dynamic, and thermodynamic processes produced the mean radiation and cloud quantities that were in reasonable agreement with satellite observations, but at the expense of simulating their short-term fluctuations. The results support the assumption that the inclusion of the cloud liquid water (ice) variable would be the best mean to reduce the blinking of clouds in NCAR CCM.

  16. Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

  17. 17 June 1992 - Royal Order amending the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 laying down the General Regulations for protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Royal Order replaces certain provisions of the General Regulations for protection of the population and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations. The new provisions concern the monitoring of radioactivity in the national territory and population dose, as well as monitoring of the population as a whole. The purpose of this amendment is to conform without delay to the Opinion of the Commission of the European Communities; the amendment concerns mainly the monitoring of doses received by the population and the technical conditions for such monitoring. (NEA)

  18. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roldão da; Kuerten, A. M.; Herrera-Aguilar, A.

    2015-01-01

    From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities

  19. General approaches to the reconstruction of radiation monitoring systems at the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Garin, E.V.; Istomin, N.I.; Perminov, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of the Chernobyl NPP radiation monitoring systems and equipment to make them meet the latest safety requirements and take into account the radiation situation at the ChNPP site after the accident of 1986. The descriptions of the existing radiation monitoring systems are given. The appropriate modifications in the systems structure as the initial (first) stage in establishing a new radiation monitoring system (RMS) based on the NPP general radiation safety principles are proposed. It is noted that reconstruction shall include the number of technical means important for arranging the informational and analytical system in addition to the existing one without any violations in its features. Later, the system shall be extended due to the technological functions extension. 7 refs., 4 figs

  20. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  1. Radiation safety practice at nuclear power stations and estimation of dose burdens to the USSR general public in the context of the country's nuclear power development plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Turovskij, V.D.; Buldakov, L.A.; Lusev, N.G.; Pavlovskij, O.A.; Parkhomenko, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper sets forth the main features of the State system of health protection for staff and the general public, and likewise the essentials of environmental protection. The principles of standardizing radiation factors are given for power station personnel and for the general public, together with the main provisions of the health Standards and Rules for radiation protection at present valid in the USSR. Data are quoted on the radiation situation at nuclear power stations and on the size of releases of radioactive aerosols and liquid effluents to the environment. The paper pays particular attention to analyses of the radiation situation in districts where nuclear power stations are situated and also to the type and scope of monitoring of radioactive environmental contamination. An analysis of the coefficients achieved with Soviet pressurized water (WWER), high-power channel-type (RBMK) and fast (BN) reactors currently in large-scale use shows that in terms both of release levels of radioactive substances and of the dose burdens to staff and general public these reactors are comparable with the best foreign nuclear power installations. Values actually measured and values calculated for the basic parameters of the radiation situation in areas of the USSR where nuclear power stations are situated confirm the safety of these facilities as regards the health of the general public and the extremely low levels of their effects on the environment. In conclusion, the paper quotes estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent to the USSR population expected to result from implementation of the country's nuclear power programme up to the year 2000. Radiation safety problems associated with nuclear power production which still require solution are enumerated. (author)

  2. Impact of melting heat transfer and nonlinear radiative heat flux mechanisms for the generalized Burgers fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Khan

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Non-linear radiative flow, Magnetic field, Melting heat transfer

  3. Radiographic quality and radiation protection in general medical practice and small hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, B.D.P.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection and image quality were assessed in a survey of 22 general medical practices (GP) and the 24 smallest hospitals with x-ray facilities. Limited radiography, usually of extremities for trauma, was being performed in these facilities since access to regular radiology services was restricted, mainly for geographic reasons. An anthropomorphic phantom foot and ankle with two simulated fractures of the lateral and medical malleoli was presented at each facility for radiography, and the resulting films assessed for radiographic technique and basic diagnostic usefulness. The x-ray equipment was adequate for the range of procedures performed. While the standard of radiographic techniques was lower than in regular x-ray departments, most films of the phantom ankle were still diagnostically useful and only four were rejected entirely. The principal deficiency in general practice x-ray was in darkrooms and x-ray film processing. Consultation in this regard with registered medical radiation technologists is recommended. Generally, the x-ray equipment and working procedures complied with the National Radiation Laboratory Code of Safe Practice for the Use of X-rays in Diagnosis (Medical). Radiation doses to the phantom ankle ranged widely for effectively the same procedure, although none was excessive. Improved x-ray film processing, and tighter x-ray beam collimation, would result in a narrower range of doses to patients. Personnel exposures to radiation were satisfactorily low and special shieldings are not required in general practice. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braestrup, C.B.; Vikterloef, K.J.

    1974-01-01

    The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

  5. Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Morcrette

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an

  6. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  7. Diagnostic Dental Radiation Risk during Pregnancy: Awareness among General Dentists in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Pregnant women often do not receive proper dental care in emergency visits due to a lack of awareness of the effect of radiation doses and the involved risks for the fetus. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of general dentists practicing in Tabriz, Iran, of the risks involved during exposure to diagnostic dental radiation in pregnant women. Materials and methods. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, 250 general dentists, who had attended continuing education courses under the supervision of the Faculty of Dentistry, filled out questionnaires on their awareness of radiation risks. Data was analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficient test. Results. The mean of correct answers was 6.47±1.66, with the least and highest correct answers of 2 and 10, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of awareness were related to the use of a lead apron (92% and a long rectangular collimator (3.2%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the age of practitioners and awareness of radiation risks (P=0.02. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between job experience (P=0.25 and the number of continuing education courses attended (P=0.16 and awareness of radiation risks. Conclusion. The studied population of dentists does not seem to have the sufficient knowledge regarding the diagnostic dental radiation risk during pregnancy. Further educational courses and pamphlets are recommended for increasing their awareness of this subject.

  8. Monte Carlo closure for moment-based transport schemes in general relativistic radiation hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Francois

    2018-04-01

    General relativistic radiation hydrodynamic simulations are necessary to accurately model a number of astrophysical systems involving black holes and neutron stars. Photon transport plays a crucial role in radiatively dominated accretion discs, while neutrino transport is critical to core-collapse supernovae and to the modelling of electromagnetic transients and nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. However, evolving the full Boltzmann equations of radiative transport is extremely expensive. Here, we describe the implementation in the general relativistic SPEC code of a cheaper radiation hydrodynamic method that theoretically converges to a solution of Boltzmann's equation in the limit of infinite numerical resources. The algorithm is based on a grey two-moment scheme, in which we evolve the energy density and momentum density of the radiation. Two-moment schemes require a closure that fills in missing information about the energy spectrum and higher order moments of the radiation. Instead of the approximate analytical closure currently used in core-collapse and merger simulations, we complement the two-moment scheme with a low-accuracy Monte Carlo evolution. The Monte Carlo results can provide any or all of the missing information in the evolution of the moments, as desired by the user. As a first test of our methods, we study a set of idealized problems demonstrating that our algorithm performs significantly better than existing analytical closures. We also discuss the current limitations of our method, in particular open questions regarding the stability of the fully coupled scheme.

  9. Extending generalized Kubelka-Munk to three-dimensional radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher; Kim, Arnold D

    2015-08-10

    The generalized Kubelka-Munk (gKM) approximation is a linear transformation of the double spherical harmonics of order one (DP1) approximation of the radiative transfer equation. Here, we extend the gKM approximation to study problems in three-dimensional radiative transfer. In particular, we derive the gKM approximation for the problem of collimated beam propagation and scattering in a plane-parallel slab composed of a uniform absorbing and scattering medium. The result is an 8×8 system of partial differential equations that is much easier to solve than the radiative transfer equation. We compare the solutions of the gKM approximation with Monte Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer equation to identify the range of validity for this approximation. We find that the gKM approximation is accurate for isotropic scattering media that are sufficiently thick and much less accurate for anisotropic, forward-peaked scattering media.

  10. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  11. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1995-03-01

    Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.

  12. Attitude and awareness of general dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, B S; Joy, E Tatu; Kiran, M Shashi; Sherubin, J Eugenia; Sajesh, S; Manchil, P Redwin Dhas

    2016-10-01

    The aim and objective is to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation hazards and safety practices among general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Postanswering the questions, a handout regarding radiation safety and related preventive measures was distributed to encourage radiation understanding and protection. Statistical analysis were done by assessing the results using Chi-square statistical test, t -test, and other software (Microsoft excel + SPSS 20.0 trail version). Among 300 general practitioners (247 females and 53 males), 80.3% of the practitioners were found to have a separate section for radiographic examination in their clinics. Intraoral radiographic machines were found to be the most commonly (63.3%) used radiographic equipment while osteoprotegerin was the least (2%). Regarding the practitioner's safety measures, only 11.7% of them were following all the necessary steps while 6.7% clinicians were not using any safety measure in their clinic, and with respect to patient safety, only 9.7% of practitioners were following the protocol. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable. However, implementation of their knowledge with respect to patient and personnel safety was found wanting. Insisting that they follow the protocols and take necessary safety measures by means of continuing medical education programs, pamphlets, articles, and workshops is strongly recommended.

  13. Opportunities Missed: A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Provision of Smoking Cessation Care to Pregnant Women by Australian General Practitioners and Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev, Yael Bar; Bonevski, Billie; Twyman, Laura; Watt, Kerrianne; Atkins, Lou; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Gould, Gillian S

    2017-05-01

    Similar to other high-income countries, smoking rates in pregnancy can be high in specific vulnerable groups in Australia. Several clinical guidelines exist, including the 5A's (Ask, Advice, Assess, Assist, and Arrange), ABCD (Ask, Brief advice, Cessation, and Discuss), and AAR (Ask, Advice, and Refer). There is lack of data on provision of smoking cessation care (SCC) of Australian General Practitioners (GPs) and Obstetricians. A cross-sectional survey explored the provision of SCC, barriers and enablers using the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the associations between them. Two samples were invited: (1) GPs and Obstetricians from a college database (n = 5571); (2) GPs from a special interest group for Indigenous health (n = 500). Dimension reduction for the Theoretical Domains Framework was achieved with factor analysis. Logistic regression was carried out for performing all the 5A's and the AAR. Performing all of the 5A's, ABCD, and AAR "often and always" was reported by 19.9%, 15.6%, and 49.2% respectively. "Internal influences" (such as confidence in counselling) were associated with higher performance of the 5A's (Adjusted OR 2.69 (95% CI 1.5, 4.8), p workplace routine) were associated with higher performance of AAR (Adjusted OR 1.7 (95% CI 1, 2.8), p = .035). Performance in providing SCC to pregnant women is low among Australian GPs and Obstetricians. Training clinicians should focus on improving internal influences such as confidence and optimism. The AAR may be easier to implement, and interventions at the service level should focus on ensuring easy, effective, and acceptable referral mechanisms are in place. Improving provision of the 5A's approach should focus on the individual level, including better training for GPs and Obstetricians, designed to improve specific "internal" barriers such as confidence in counselling and optimism. The AAR may be easier to implement in view of the higher overall performance of this approach. Interventions on a more

  14. Percutaneous radiation therapy for localized and generalized stages of prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Schnepper, E.; Castrup, W.

    1981-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with prostatic cancer, who underwent megavoltage therapy of the carcinoma or of its metastases, are reported. The majority of the patients had advanced disease (Stage C or D according to Flocks) when they came to be treated, and thus the general prognosis was bad. Radiation therapy, however, represents on the whole an important constituent of therapy in prostatic cancer, with regard to the practicability as well as to palliative treatment of metastases to the skeleton. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  16. Impact of cloud microphysics on cloud-radiation interactions in the CSU general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, L.D.; Randall, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Our ability to study and quantify the impact of cloud-radiation interactions in studying global scale climate variations strongly relies upon the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate the coupling between the spatial and temporal variations of the model-generated cloudiness and atmospheric moisture budget components. In particular, the ability of GCMs to reproduce the geographical distribution of the sources and sinks of the planetary radiation balance depends upon their representation of the formation and dissipation of cloudiness in conjunction with cloud microphysics processes, and the fractional amount and optical characteristics of cloudiness in conjunction with the mass of condensate stored in the atmosphere. A cloud microphysics package which encompasses five prognostic variables for the mass of water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, rain, and snow has been implemented in the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM) to simulate large-scale condensation processes. Convection interacts with the large-scale environment through the detrainment of cloud water and cloud ice at the top of cumulus towers. The cloud infrared emissivity and cloud optical depth of the model-generated cloudiness are interactive and depend upon the mass of cloud water and cloud ice suspended in the atmosphere. The global atmospheric moisture budget and planetary radiation budget of the CSU GCM obtained from a perpetual January simulation are discussed. Geographical distributions of the atmospheric moisture species are presented. Global maps of the top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation and planetary albedo are compared against Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) satellite data.

  17. HEROIC: 3D general relativistic radiative post-processor with comptonization for black hole accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Zhu, Yucong; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Saḑowski, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    We describe Hybrid Evaluator for Radiative Objects Including Comptonization (HEROIC), an upgraded version of the relativistic radiative post-processor code HERO described in a previous paper, but which now Includes Comptonization. HEROIC models Comptonization via the Kompaneets equation, using a quadratic approximation for the source function in a short characteristics radiation solver. It employs a simple form of accelerated lambda iteration to handle regions of high scattering opacity. In addition to solving for the radiation field, HEROIC also solves for the gas temperature by applying the condition of radiative equilibrium. We present benchmarks and tests of the Comptonization module in HEROIC with simple 1D and 3D scattering problems. We also test the ability of the code to handle various relativistic effects using model atmospheres and accretion flows in a black hole space-time. We present two applications of HEROIC to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs. One application is to a thin accretion disc around a black hole. We find that the gas below the photosphere in the multidimensional HEROIC solution is nearly isothermal, quite different from previous solutions based on 1D plane parallel atmospheres. The second application is to a geometrically thick radiation-dominated accretion disc accreting at 11 times the Eddington rate. Here, the multidimensional HEROIC solution shows that, for observers who are on axis and look down the polar funnel, the isotropic equivalent luminosity could be more than 10 times the Eddington limit, even though the spectrum might still look thermal and show no signs of relativistic beaming.

  18. An overview on the national radiation monitoring network of the A.R.E. -general description, installation, calibration and operation of the first phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, M F [Arab Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 402, 1004 (Tunisia); Boraei, K M [Civil Defence Directorate, (Kuwait); Abdelghany, A H; Abdel Wahab, M; Amer, H A [National Centre of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Due to the far-reaching consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the IAEA formally approved and adopted a convention on the assistance in the case a nuclear accident and another convention on the early notification in case of a nuclear accident. Along the same line, many countries made provisions to enable the measurement of the environmental radiation field and radioactivity in air, water, earth... etc. In Egypt, the environmental radioactivity monitoring program involved the establishment of {beta}- and gamma-field and radioactivity monitoring system consisting of stations housing the appropriate sensors distributed in sites carefully chosen all over the country and connected to a central station, in the network directorate, used for data processing and display of In the present work, a general description of the first phase of the environmental radioactivity monitoring system is given together with the main problems encountered during its establishment. 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. An overview on the national radiation monitoring network of the A.R.E. -general description, installation, calibration and operation of the first phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Boraei, K.M.; Abdelghany, A.H.; Abdel Wahab, M.; Amer, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the far-reaching consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the IAEA formally approved and adopted a convention on the assistance in the case a nuclear accident and another convention on the early notification in case of a nuclear accident. Along the same line, many countries made provisions to enable the measurement of the environmental radiation field and radioactivity in air, water, earth... etc. In Egypt, the environmental radioactivity monitoring program involved the establishment of β- and gamma-field and radioactivity monitoring system consisting of stations housing the appropriate sensors distributed in sites carefully chosen all over the country and connected to a central station, in the network directorate, used for data processing and display of In the present work, a general description of the first phase of the environmental radioactivity monitoring system is given together with the main problems encountered during its establishment. 18 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  1. Generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xuan Hui

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a step-by-step presentation of a generalized transmission line method to study the far-zone radiation of antennas under a multilayer structure. Normally, a radiation problem requires a full wave analysis which may be time consuming. The beauty of the generalized transmission line method is that it transforms the radiation problem for a specific type of structure, say the multilayer structure excited by an antenna, into a circuit problem that can be efficiently analyzed. Using the Reciprocity Theorem and far-field approximation, the method computes the far-zone radiation due to

  2. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  3. A generalized linear-quadratic model incorporating reciprocal time pattern of radiation damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhibin; Mayr, Nina A.; Lo, Simon S.; Wang, Jian Z.; Jia Guang; Yuh, William T. C.; Johnke, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It has been conventionally assumed that the repair rate for sublethal damage (SLD) remains constant during the entire radiation course. However, increasing evidence from animal studies suggest that this may not the case. Rather, it appears that the repair rate for radiation-induced SLD slows down with increasing time. Such a slowdown in repair would suggest that the exponential repair pattern would not necessarily accurately predict repair process. As a result, the purpose of this study was to investigate a new generalized linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating a repair pattern with reciprocal time. The new formulas were tested with published experimental data. Methods: The LQ model has been widely used in radiation therapy, and the parameter G in the surviving fraction represents the repair process of sublethal damage with T r as the repair half-time. When a reciprocal pattern of repair process was adopted, a closed form of G was derived analytically for arbitrary radiation schemes. The published animal data adopted to test the reciprocal formulas. Results: A generalized LQ model to describe the repair process in a reciprocal pattern was obtained. Subsequently, formulas for special cases were derived from this general form. The reciprocal model showed a better fit to the animal data than the exponential model, particularly for the ED50 data (reduced χ 2 min of 2.0 vs 4.3, p = 0.11 vs 0.006), with the following gLQ parameters: α/β = 2.6-4.8 Gy, T r = 3.2-3.9 h for rat feet skin, and α/β = 0.9 Gy, T r = 1.1 h for rat spinal cord. Conclusions: These results of repair process following a reciprocal time suggest that the generalized LQ model incorporating the reciprocal time of sublethal damage repair shows a better fit than the exponential repair model. These formulas can be used to analyze the experimental and clinical data, where a slowing-down repair process appears during the course of radiation therapy.

  4. EDF - The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a first chapter in which the Inspector General states his own vision of facts and results regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection for 2012, the next chapters address the following topics: the contrasted results of nuclear operating safety, the need to remain vigilant in nuclear safety management, the challenge of occupational safety, the need of new ambitious goals for radiation protection, an updated training which must be better led by line management, maintenance as a strategic issue, the long road ahead for nuclear technical information system (SDIN), the need of better attention to chemistry in operations, the new impetus of EPRs, plant life extension conditioned by nuclear safety, the mobilization of nuclear operators after Fukushima, and noteworthy operating events

  5. On the thermal stability of a radiating gas under general differential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1988-02-01

    The thermal stability of a radiating gas in a semi-infinite space is studied under a general differential approximation. The fluid is bounded on the axis z'=0 by a horizontal infinite wall maintained at a temperature T 0 which is high enough for radiative heat transfer to be significant. At z'=∞, the fluid is at uniform temperature T ∞ such that T 0 >T ∞ . The equations of motion under small perturbation theory reduce to a set of linear homogeneous equations with a variable coefficient subject to homogeneous boundary conditions when the unperturbed temperature is adopted as the independent variable. The solution is effected via a finite difference scheme and the Rayleigh number is determined by Newton's iterative method. (author). 8 refs

  6. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  7. Track 8: health and radiological applications. Isotopes and radiation: general. 2. Radiation Pasteurization for Diverse Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Whittaker, A.D.; McLellan, M.; Waltar, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    After a lengthy and controversial development period, radiation-pasteurized products that can be easily recognized by consumers are starting to make it to a few grocery store shelves. Of course, certain spices used in packaged products and a wide variety of nonfood products have been irradiated for many years. However, the involvement of radiation processing in these products has generally gone unrecognized by the consumers. More recently, the approval of irradiated poultry and red meat, which would bear a clear label indicating radiation treatment, has provided an opportunity to confirm the consumers' acceptance of irradiated products. The early indications are that consumers not only accept, but they actually prefer, the irradiated product when it is available. In spite of extensive efforts of antinuclear activists to convince the public that there are unknown but potentially serious hazards associated with radiation-processed food, along with some misleading reports in the news media suggesting that retailers had withdrawn irradiated products from their shelves, it appears that those retailers who received irradiated meat sold their complete inventory in short order. Further, they did so at substantial price premiums relative to equivalent un-irradiated products. Apparently, the combination of more than 40 yr of research showing no credible evidence of hazards produced by irradiation, augmented by greater public awareness of the risks of some food-borne pathogens, has convinced some consumers that use of radiation-processed products is in their personal best interest. Furthermore, the reluctance of many producers and retailers to introduce irradiated products for fear of adverse publicity is being countered by recognition that if an un-irradiated product is found to be responsible for a significant incidence of food-borne illness, their liability may be high because they did not use the 'best available technology for minimizing risk', namely, irradiation

  8. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  9. Protection against Ionizing Radiation, No. 1420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of national legislative and regulatory provisions on radiation protection in force on 15 November 1978. In addition to the in extenso texts on the subject, only the relevant provisions in laws and regulations with a more general scope have been reproduced. This comprehensive compilation expands and updates a previous collection by the Official Gazette of the French Republic which covered only decrees and orders on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr

  10. Germany (Federal Republic). Ministry of the Interior. Order on protection against damage due to ionising radiation. Radiation Protectin Order. StrlSchV 20 Oct. 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The order is arranged in parts, entitled: introductory provisions; control provisions (handling radioactive matter, the carriage of radioactive matter, the import and export of radioactive matter, the construction and operation of installation for generating ionising radiation, employees and other persons working under supervision, design approval); safety regulations (general regulations, protection of the population and the environment against the hazards of ionising radiation, occupational exposure to radiation, radiation protection areas, physical protection and control, medical supervision, instruments for measuring radiation, other safety regulations); fines; and final provisions. (U.K.)

  11. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Bo [Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  12. Extension and validation of ARTM (atmospheric radionuclide transportation model) for the application as dispersion calculation model in AVV (general administrative provision) and SBG (incident calculation bases); Erweiterung und Validierung von ARTM fuer den Einsatz als Ausbreitungsmodell in AVV und SBG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Reinhard; Bruecher, Wenzel; Richter, Cornelia; Sentuc, Florence; Sogalla, Martin; Thielen, Harald

    2012-02-15

    In the medium-term time scale the Gaussian plume model used so far for atmospheric dispersion calculations in the General Administrative Provision (AVV) relating to Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrISchV) as well as in the Incident Calculation Bases (SGB) relating to Section 49 StrISchV is to be replaced by a Lagrangian particle model. Meanwhile the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transportation Model (ARTM) is available, which allows the simulation of the atmospheric dispersion of operational releases from nuclear installations. ARTM is based on the program package AUSTAL2000 which is designed for the simulation of atmospheric dispersion of nonradioactive operational releases from industrial plants and was adapted to the application of airborne radioactive releases. In the context of the research project 3608S05005 possibilities for an upgrade of ARTM were investigated and implemented as far as possible to the program system. The work program comprises the validation and evaluation of ARTM, the implementation of technical-scientific extensions of the model system and the continuation of experience exchange between developers and users. In particular, the suitability of the model approach for simulations of radiological consequences according to the German SBG and the representation of the influence of buildings typical for nuclear power stations have been validated and further evaluated. Moreover, post-processing modules for calculation of dose-relevant decay products and for dose calculations have been developed and implemented. In order to continue the experience feedback and exchange, a web page has been established and maintained. Questions by users and other feedback have been dealt with and a common workshop has been held. The continued development and validation of ARTM has strengthened the basis for applications of this model system in line with the German regulations AVV and SBG. Further activity in this field can contribute to maintain and

  13. A general method for the inclusion of radiation chemistry in astrochemical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N; Herbst, Eric

    2018-02-21

    In this paper, we propose a general formalism that allows for the estimation of radiolysis decomposition pathways and rate coefficients suitable for use in astrochemical models, with a focus on solid phase chemistry. Such a theory can help increase the connection between laboratory astrophysics experiments and astrochemical models by providing a means for modelers to incorporate radiation chemistry into chemical networks. The general method proposed here is targeted particularly at the majority of species now included in chemical networks for which little radiochemical data exist; however, the method can also be used as a starting point for considering better studied species. We here apply our theory to the irradiation of H 2 O ice and compare the results with previous experimental data.

  14. Application of generalized estimating equations to a study in vitro of radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Carter, R.L.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Ban, Sadayuki.

    1993-08-01

    We describes an application of the generalized estimating equation (GEE) method (Liang K-Y, Zeger SL: Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 73:13-22, 1986) for regression analyses of correlated Poisson data. As an alternative to the use of an arbitrarily chosen working correlation matrix, we demonstrate the use of GEE with a reasonable model for the true covariance structure among repeated observations within individuals. We show that, under such a split-plot design with large clusters, the asymptotic relative efficiency of GEE with simple (independence or exchangeable) working correlation matrices is rather low. We also illustrate the use of GEE with an empirically estimated model for overdispersion in a large study of radiation sensitivity where cluster size is small and a simple working correlation structure is sufficient. We conclude by summarizing issues and needs for further work concerning efficiency of the GEE parameter estimates in practice. (author)

  15. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's view of 2016; 2 - Operational safety: encouraging results; 3 - High-profile focus on safety; 4 - Risk prevention: effort must be intensified; 5 - Team skills and commitment; 6 - Simplification; 7 - Maintenance quality; 8 - Nuclear fuel; 9 - New build; 10 - Protection against site security threats; 11 - Appendices

  16. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds. - Highlights: • A Markov chain formalism is developed for Generalized Radiative Transfer theory. • Angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with spatial variability. • The positions of cloudbows and glories in scattering angle are relatively unchanged.

  17. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's view of 2013 2 - Safety in operation: good standing of results; 3 - Management of safety priority; 4 - Occupational safety: managers mobilization is necessary in France; 5 - Radiation protection: a new dynamics to initiate; 6 - Maintenance: regaining the essentials for the great careening; 7 - Fostering occupations to improve safety; 8 - A new momentum to the EPRs; 9 - Nuclear fuel, a major contribution to safety; 10 - Research-development: a lever to anticipate; 11 - Japan: safety under reconstruction; 12 - Noteworthy operational events; 13- Appendices: Results for the nuclear fleets (EDF SA, EDF Energy; Maps of the nuclear power plants(EDF SA, EDF Energy); Key dates for the nuclear units (EDF SA, EDF Energy); Abbreviations

  18. Council directive of 1 June 1976 laying down the revised basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    As provided for in the Euratom Treaty, and in particular Article 30 thereof, basic standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations, must be established to enable each Member State in accordance with Article 33 of the Euratom Treaty to lay down provisions by legislation, regulation or administrative action to ensure compliance with each standards, to take the necessary measures with regard to teaching, education and vocational training and to make these provisions in harmony with the provisions applicable in this field in the other Member States. On 2 February 1959, the Council has adopted a directive establishing basic safety standards. These were modified partially by the directives of 5 March 1962 and 27 October 1966. The present edition reproduces the complete text of the directive amending the basic safety standards for the health protection of the population and work against the dangers of ionizing radiation adopted by the Council on 31 May 1976. These new standards take into consideration the increasing scientific knowledge in the fields of radiological protection and radiobiology and the practical experience of applying these directives in national laws

  19. Generalized atomic processes for interaction of intense femtosecond XUV- and X-ray radiation with solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschaud, B.; Peyrusse, O.; Rosmej, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized atomic processes are proposed to establish a consistent description from the free-atom approach to the heated and even up to the cold solid. It is based on a rigorous introduction of the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Pauli blocking factors and on the respect of the principle of detailed balance via the introduction of direct and inverse processes. A probability formalism driven by the degeneracy of the free electrons enables to establish a link of atomic rates valid from the heated atom up to the cold solid. This allows to describe photoionization processes in atomic population kinetics and subsequent solid matter heating on a femtosecond time scale. The Auger effect is linked to the 3-body recombination via a generalized 3-body recombination that is identified as a key mechanism, along with the collisional ionization, that follows energy deposition by photoionization of inner shells when short, intense and high-energy radiation interacts with matter. Detailed simulations are carried out for aluminum that highlight the importance of the generalized approach. (authors)

  20. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: by-laws, decisions, non-codified decrees / Collection of legal and statutory provisions relative to radiation protection. Part 2: by-laws and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Robert; Feries, Jean; Marzorati, Frank; Chevalier, Celine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    This second part gathers texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to ionizing radiations (general measures for the protection of the population, exposure to natural radiations, general regime of authorizations and declarations, purchase, retailing, importation, exportation, transfer and elimination of radioactive sources, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical or forensics purposes, situations of radiological emergency and of sustained exposure to ionizing radiations, control), to the safety of waters and food products, and to the control of medical devices, to the protection of patients. It also contains extracts for the Labour Code related to workers protection. This document is an update of the previous version from March 2011

  1. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  2. EDF - The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a first chapter in which the Inspector General states his own vision of facts and results regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection for 2009, the relationship with the ASN (Nuclear safety authority), and also gives his own impression on the whole EDF nuclear system, the next chapters more particularly address the following topics: safety management, radiation protection of interveners, abilities and education for new challenges, the exploitation quality, the implementation of new regulatory arrangements, the extension of exploitation duration, the EPR project, the doctors as actors of safety management, service providing or subcontracting companies and fleet performance, prevention and struggle against fire, the activity of British Energy which is part of the EDF group, events which occurred within the EDF group (exposure of an intervener, incidents involving fuel components, biases in work monitoring, a fire on a turbo generator, an incident in Dungeness), lessons drawn from other industrial events (in a Russian hydroelectric station and in a refinery in Texas), and visits in China and in Japan

  3. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-11-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds.

  4. A case of generalized peritonitis due to a rupture of the bladder caused by radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitake, Shin-ichi; Nozaki, Hideki; Shimizu, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Susumu [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the department of gastroenterology in our hospital with a diagnosis of adhesive ileus following operation for a uterine cancer on July 22, 1997. Conservative therapy was started, but three days later, peritoneal signs appeared and white blood cell count and CRP level increased. An emergency operation was performed. Upon laparotomy, there were a large volume of ascites and a rupture of the bladder of which wall had become fragile. It was thought that the cause of rupture might result from radiation cystitis because she received irradiation after operation for the uterine cancer. Ruptured site of the bladder was sutured. Possible causes of the ileus were thought to be intestinal paralysis due to generalized peritonitis and a narrowing of the ileum where inflammatory change was remarkable. For this, an excision of the ileum with ileostomy was performed. Thereafter a closure of the ileostomy and ileocolostomy were carried out. The patient had difficulty in management of evacuation for a while, but she was discharged on March 2, 1998. Spontaneous rupture of the bladder is rare. This paper presents such a rare case caused by radiation cystitis, together with 14 cases reported in Japan. It is thought that surgeons who manage acute abdomen may encounter the disease. (author)

  5. [Use of hypnosis in radiotherapy as an alternative to general anesthesia in pediatric radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Line; Morelle, Magali; Mancini, Sandrine; Duncan, Anita; Sebban, Henri; Carrie, Christian; Marec-Berard, Perrine

    2016-11-01

    General anesthesia (GA) is often needed for radiotherapy (RT) in young children. This study aimed to evaluate the place of the rituals and/or hypnosis in pediatric in a reference center in pediatric radiation oncology in Rhône-Alpes Auvergne. This observational study retrospectively collected data on AG in childrenhypnosis systematically. Explanatory analyses of AG were performed using logistic regression. One hundred and thirty-two children benefited from RT in that period and were included (70 patients until 2008, 62 after 2008). Fifty-three percent were irradiated under GA. There was significant reduction (Phypnosis can be used instead of GA in about half of patients under 5 years, even also with high-technicity RT requiring optimal immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of personal exposure to UV radiation of workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisto, R.; Borra, M.; Casale, G. R.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to meteorological conditions variability and to the variability of exposure patterns, which can be largely different during a working day, personal dosemeters use can be necessary to obtain a correct quantitative evaluation of the radiation dose absorbed by an exposed worker. Different classes of personal dosemeters exist and, among them, electronic dosemeters and poly-sulphone film dosemeters. An experimental campaign is presented conduced in a cultivated area of Tuscany and some aspects are discussed about an experimental campaign performed on a population of volunteers on a central Italy beach near Rome. The aim of the present work is to show some relevant issues in a dosimetric approach to the exposure evaluation of outdoor workers and, in general, of the public during recreational activities. (authors)

  7. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's view of 2017; 2 - Nuclear safety results; 3 - Nuclear safety priority affirmed; 4 - Risk prevention: important to remain vigilant; 5 - Adapting people skills; 6 - Operating experience: contrasting approaches; 7 - Operations fundamentals to be reaffirmed; 8 - Importance of working closely with contract partners; 9 - Engineering support for the French fleet and new-build projects; 10 - Spares: an area for greater engagement by owners on-site; 11 - Appendices

  8. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's view of 2014; 2- Contrasting trends in nuclear safety in different sets of plants; 3 - Making safety culture central to management; 4 - Towards an integrated approach to risk management; 5 - Relying on professional unified operations; 6 - The quest for robust maintenance; 7 - Nuclear engineering: a major asset for the operator; 8 - Nuclear managers - confidence builders; 9 - on course for reactor operation beyond 40 years in France; 10 - Service life challenges in the UK; 11 - Preparing the future: from the EPR to other new models; 12 - Noteworthy operational events; 13- Appendices: Results for the nuclear fleets (EDF SA, EDF Energy; Maps of the nuclear power plants(EDF SA, EDF Energy); Key dates for the nuclear units (EDF SA, EDF Energy); Abbreviations

  9. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's view of 2015; 2 - Operational safety: mixed results; 3 - Nuclear safety clearly prioritised; 4 - Risk prevention: progress in France; 5 - Reinforced emergency preparedness post-Fukushima; 6 - Fire prevention: still a weak link; 7 - Continuous investment in training and careers; 8 - Using maintenance to leverage improved operational quality; 9 - Chemistry in France: a transition in need of strong support; 10 - Decommissioning projects are progressing; 11 - EPRs in China, France and the UK; 12 - Preparing for the future; 13 - A window on the world; 14 - Appendices: Results for the nuclear fleets (EDF SA, EDF Energy; Maps of the nuclear power plants(EDF SA, EDF Energy); Key dates for the nuclear units (EDF SA, EDF Energy); Abbreviations

  10. Factories Act 1961, Ionizing Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1968, Certificate of Approval No.1 (General)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Under the Ionising Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations No. 780 of 1968, the Chief Inspector of Factories has wide powers to ensure the protection of workers. By this Certificate he approved, for the purpose of measuring radiation doses, any radiation dosemeter, based on the phenomenon of radiation-induced thermoluminescence, supplied by an approved laboratory. (NEA) [fr

  11. The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report, written for the Chairman of EDF, gives the Inspector General's assessment of nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. The report is also intended for all those in the company who contribute in any way to nuclear safety and radiation protection through their day-to-day actions and decisions. It also aims to identify any early warning signs and recommend areas for improvement. It therefore focuses on difficulties and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress. It is based on information gathered and observations made during the year, both in France and the UK, whether from workers in the field, or during visits to plants and meetings with the main stakeholders: managers, staff representatives, members of the medical profession, chairmen of local information commissions in France and of Site stakeholder groups (British equivalent of the French Local Information Commissions) in the UK, and contractors. It also makes use of visits and comparisons with other international players on the nuclear scene, and of dialogue with WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) and the nuclear safety authorities. Content: 1 - the Inspector General's analysis and conclusions at the end of 2008; 2 - Nuclear safety management; 3 - Radiation protection; 4 - A changing relationship with the nuclear safety authority; 5 - Support for the nuclear plants in service; 6 - Succeeding with the EPR; 7 - Operating the installations for longer; 8 - Further opening up to the outside world; 9 - Renewal of skills; 10 - Labour relations; 11 - The driving forces of cultural change; 12 - Promote change and regulate its pace; 13 - The contribution of the medical staff; 14 - Relations with contractors; 15 - The fire hazard; 16 - Nuclear fuel; 17 - Decommissioning; 18 - Emergency response management; 19 - Events at EDF; 19.1 - The Tricastin nuclear power plant fuel assemblies; 19.2 - Steam generator behaviour; 19.3 - Reactor building evacuation; 20 - Visits

  12. A general description of the Swedish radiation protection regulations of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staalnacke, C.-G.

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of ionizing radiation in Sweden is based on both the Radiation Protection Act and Ordinance from 1998. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) acts as the regulatory authority for radiation safety and issues detailed regulations in specific areas. The report summarizes how the SSI controls radiation sources, including orphan sources for which a process for analyzing their occurrence has started in Sweden. A number of proposed procedures for the control and follow-up of sealed radioactive sources is provided. (author)

  13. Ionising radiations. Joint consultative document. Supplementary proposals for provision on radiological protection and draft advice from the National Radiological Protection Board to the Health and Safety Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The consultative document is in two parts. Part 1 indicates the amendments to the first consultative document which would be required in order to implement (in the United Kingdom) the 1978 Draft Euratom Directive (on Basic Safety Standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionising radiations). Part 2 deals with the system of dose limitation contained within the Euratom Directive. This aspect is discussed, in relation to the Articles of the Directive, under the following headings: limitation of doses for controllable exposures, limits of doses for exposed workers, limitation of doses for apprentices and students, planned special exposures, dose limits for members of the public. The Commission of the European Communities proposals for a draft Directive on Radiological Protection are reproduced as an Appendix, without Annexes. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  15. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  16. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  17. Classical theory of the Kumakhov radiation in axial channeling. 2. General case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokonov, M.K.; Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    The influence of the non-dipole character of radiation on the spectral characteristics of the Kumakhov radiation has been analysed. It was shown that if ..gamma..psiL < or approx. 1, (where ..gamma.. is the Lorentz factor, psiL is the critical channeling angle) the non-dipole character can lead to an increase of the spectral intensity of radiation in its maximum. In heavy crystals the strong non-dipole character of radiation ..gamma..psiL > 1 leads to sharply expressed maximum in spectral distribution of the radiated energy. The influence of the non-dipole character on the temperature dependence of radiation is investigated.

  18. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 KGy. The latter value shold not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  19. Codex general standard for irradiated foods and recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission was established to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. The purpose of this programme is to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. At its 15th session, held in July 1983, the Commission adopted a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and a Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Foods. This Standard takes into account the recommendations and conclusions of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committees convened to evaluate all available data concerning the various aspects of food irradiation. This Standard refers only to those aspects which relate to the processing of foods by ionising energy. The Standard recognizes that the process of food irradiation has been established as safe for general application to an overall average level of absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The latter value should not be regarded as a toxicological upper limit above which irradiated foods become unsafe; it is simply the level at or below which safety has been established. The Standard provides certain mandatory provisions concerning the facilities used and for the control of the process in the irradiation plants. The present Standard requires that shipping documents accompanying irradiated foods moving in trade should indicate the fact of irradiation. The labelling of prepackaged irradiated foods intended for direct sale to the consumer is not covered in this Standard

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  1. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. © The

  2. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, K.; Endo, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable web sites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner

  3. Radiation hygienic annual report 2012. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, T.; Bernkopf, J.; Klement, R.; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg

    2013-01-01

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2012 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  4. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided

  5. Gender-related differences in the organization and provision of services among general practitioners in Europe: a signal to health care planners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Background: the number of women entering general practice is rising in many countries. Thus, gender differences in work situation preferences and practice activities are important for future planning. Objectives: this article describes the differences between male and female general practitioners

  6. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  7. A new approach to the theory of Cherenkov radiation based on relativistic generalization of the Landau criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefranov, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic generalization of the Landau criterion is obtained which, in contrast to the classical Tamm-Frank and Ginzburg theories, determines the primary energy mechanism of emission of nonbremsstrahlung Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that Cherenkov radiation may correspond to a threshold energetically favorable conversion of the condensate (ultimately long-wavelength) elementary Bose perturbations of a medium into transverse Cherenkov photons emitted by the medium proper during its interaction with a sufficiently fast charged particle. The threshold conditions of emission are determined for a medium with an arbitrary refractive index n, including the case of isotropic plasma with n < 1 for which the classical theory of Cherenkov radiation prohibits such direct and effective nonbremsstrahlung emission of these particular transverse high-frequency electromagnetic waves. It is established that these conditions of emission agree with the data of well-known experiments on the threshold for observation of Cherenkov radiation, whereas the classical theory only corresponds to the conditions of observation of the interference maximum of this radiation. The possibility of direct effective emission of nonbremsstrahlung Cherenkov radiation, not taken into account in the classical theory, is considered for many observed astrophysical phenomena (type III solar radio bursts, particle acceleration by radiation, etc.)

  8. SABS helps with radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The General Physics Division of the SABS is mainly concerned with two branches of Physics, i.e. ionized radiation and temperature. The branch concerned with ionizing radiation is largely responsible for the provision of a radiation monitoring service for people working with X-ray machines and radioactive material. Dosemeters are regularly sent out to X-ray workers and people working with radioactive materials. The radiation dose to which these workers have been exposed over a period of time can then be determined

  9. Ordinance of 12 January 1972 on Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Ordinance made under the 1969 Act on Radiation Protection aims to supplement the Act with many detailed provisions on protection against ionizing radiation. It is divided into 4 parts: the first covers definitions on radiation protection, which are generally the same as those of the 1969 Act; the second relates to radiation-emitting equipment, in particular X-ray devices and particle accelerators; the third concerns radioactive materials and the fourth nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  10. EDF - The Inspector General's report on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandonnet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This report is destined for the President of EDF with the purpose of informing him of the judgement the Inspector General has about the nuclear safety and radiation protection within the EDF Group. It is also intended for all who, in any way, play a role at EDF in improving nuclear safety. It may also prove useful to those outside the company who work in the nuclear field or indeed any branch of industry where there are risks to be managed and who wish to participate in the debate. It also contributes to the pool of information shared with the other nuclear operators under the auspices of WANO. The continuous improvement of nuclear safety results is a fundamental commitment of the EDF Group. This is notably reflected in a policy of transparency, whether in France, Britain, America or China. This document constitutes an example of this, offering an independent view of the operational situation. It is based on facts and findings derived in EDF's contacts with field staff and meetings with the decision makers, managers, medical personnel and players on both sides of this industry as well as outside stakeholders, especially contractor companies. The resulting snapshot of the situation in the field is particularly instructive. This report therefore concentrates more on problems and weaknesses rather than strengths and progress, except as concerns happenings outside France, where the focus is more on good practices than difficulties. Contents: 1 - The view from the Inspector General of EDF about the nuclear safety in the EDF group; 2 - A panorama of 2011: The management, The state of the installations, Maintenance of the French nuclear power plants, Relations with the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), The EPR projects, The players in the fields of health and safety, Radiation protection, Fire prevention and fire fighting, Increasing nuclear power plant security, Decommissioning; 3 - Nuclear safety management; 4 - The Fukushima Daiichi accident; 5 - Training to

  11. General problems associated with the control and safe use of radiation sources (199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    There are problems at various levels in ensuring safety in the use of radiation sources. A relatively new problem that warrants international action is the smuggling of radioactive material across international borders. An international convention on the control and safe use of radiation sources is essential to provide a universally harmonized mechanism for ensuring safety

  12. Beyond bixels: Generalizing the optimization parameters for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, Jerry; Low, Daniel A.; Beavis, Andrew W.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2002-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems optimize fluence distributions by subdividing the fluence distribution into rectangular bixels. The algorithms typically optimize the fluence intensity directly, often leading to fluence distributions with sharp discontinuities. These discontinuities may yield difficulties in delivery of the fluence distribution, leading to inaccurate dose delivery. We have developed a method for decoupling the bixel intensities from the optimization parameters; either by introducing optimization control points from which the bixel intensities are interpolated or by parametrizing the fluence distribution using basis functions. In either case, the number of optimization search parameters is reduced from the direct bixel optimization method. To illustrate the concept, the technique is applied to two-dimensional idealized head and neck treatment plans. The interpolation algorithms investigated were nearest-neighbor, linear and cubic spline, and radial basis functions serve as the basis function test. The interpolation and basis function optimization techniques were compared against the direct bixel calculation. The number of optimization parameters were significantly reduced relative to the bixel optimization, and this was evident in the reduction of computation time of as much as 58% from the full bixel optimization. The dose distributions obtained using the reduced optimization parameter sets were very similar to the full bixel optimization when examined by dose distributions, statistics, and dose-volume histograms. To evaluate the sensitivity of the fluence calculations to spatial misalignment caused either by delivery errors or patient motion, the doses were recomputed with a 1 mm shift in each beam and compared to the unshifted distributions. Except for the nearest-neighbor algorithm, the reduced optimization parameter dose distributions were generally less sensitive to spatial shifts than the bixel

  13. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.; Slater, C.O.

    1990-01-01

    A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concerned

  14. Radiation sensors for medical, industrial and environmental applications: how to engage with schools and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, B.; Campos Rivera, N.; Gray, R.; Powell, A.; Thomson, F.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation, radiation detection and radiation protection are topics in physics and its applications which generate a wide interest in the public. This interest is either generated through medical procedures, applications of nuclear energy or nuclear accidents. The technical nature of these topics usually means that they are not well covered in the normal education stream, opening many opportunities to engage with schools and the general public to showcase the latest developments and their applications. The detection of radiation is at the very heart of understanding radiation, its fascination and associated fears. The outreach group of the nuclear physics group at the University of Glasgow demonstrates a number of successful outreach activities centred around radiation detection and described in this paper, focusing on activities delivered to a variety of audiences and related to applied nuclear physics work within our group. These concentrate on the application of novel sensor technologies for nuclear decommissioning, medical imaging modalities and the monitoring of environmental radioactivity. The paper will provide some necessary background material as well as practical instructions for some of the activities developed.

  15. The international project of radiation and hydrochemical investigation and monitoring of general Caspian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, H.D.; Barber, D.S.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K; Solodukhin, V.P.; Chernykh, E.E.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Valyaev, A.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Stepanetts, O.V; Vernadsky, V.I.; Alizade, A.A.; Gutiev, I.S.; Mamedov, R.F.; Nadareishvili, K.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chubaryan, E. V; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Puskyulyan, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community of six countries (USA, Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) has developed the ecological project 'Joint International Researches and Creation of the General System of Radiation and Hydro-chemical Monitoring of Rivers of the Caspian Sea Basin.' The purpose of this project is to investigate and characterized contamination by radionuclides and toxic and chemically hazardous elements and create a valid system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of the main river basins of the Caspian region: the Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura. The basins of these rivers cover large parts of Europe and Asia, including parts of Russia, West Kazakhstan and the South Caucasus and including territories of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The total area of the basins of these rivers exceeds combined area of such large European states as France, Spain and Germany, and comprises 1631 sq. km. All these rivers are the main life-supporting water arteries for the region's inhabitants, a population that comprises tens of millions of people Also, the outlets of these rivers determine the condition of the aquatic environment of the Caspian Sea. The ecological condition of the aquatic environment of all the rivers of the Caspian Sea is to a great extent due to contamination, the main components of which are anthropogenic radioactive elements, heavy metals and oil products. At present, information about contamination levels of these rivers is not known and is occasionally contradictory. In this connection there is an obvious need of qualified investigation of contamination levels and its character in the basins of these rivers and in creating a common monitoring system to assess the quality of the aquatic environment. The present project is devoted to this matter. 1. The project provides for the following main tasks: 1. Wide-ranging investigation of the level and character of contamination by radionuclides and toxic elements of the river basins

  16. Contribution of chemical radiation research to the general theory of oxidation of organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, B.Ya.; Saraev, V.V.; Revin, A.A.; Zimina, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper studies mechanisms and main elementary stages of liquid-phase oxidation of organic compounds at thermal and radiation initiation of this reaction. The results of investigations into radiation and chemical conversion of organic compounds at presence of oxygen and without it are discussed on the ground of data obtained by means of pulse radiolysis and EPR-spectroscopy. The bach-Engler theory of slow oxidation of organic compounds with participation of peroxides used as intermediate compounds is shown to be proved essentially and to enjoy further development due to the conducted radiation and chemical investigations. 68 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. General Eulerian formulation of the comoving-frame equation of radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riffert, H.

    1986-01-01

    For a wide range of problems in radiation hydrodynamics the motion of the matter is best described in an Eulerian coordinate system, and here a comoving-frame equation of radiation transfer in such fixed coordinates is derived, using the radiation quantities measured in the comoving frame. The choice of coordinates is arbitrary, and the equation is given explicitly for an arbitrary diagonal metric, correct to all orders in v/c. All comoving frame equations derived earlier are included as special cases. An example is given for the case of a spherically symmetric flow in a Schwarzschild metric. 9 references

  18. European Legalisation on Protection Against Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, M.

    1999-01-01

    Specific provisions on protection of aircrew against cosmic radiation have been laid down for the first time at EU level as part of the Basic Safety Standards for the Health Protection of the General Public and Workers against the Dangers of Ionizing Radiation (Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996). These provisions, focusing mainly on health and radiological surveillance, are minimal requirements; therefore the Directive leaves significant discretion to the Member States as regards actions to be taken; Member States have to transpose these provisions into national law before 13 May 2000. Further harmonisation of Community regulations on civil aviation safety will be needed in the field of protection against cosmic radiation. This is to obtain a high level of radiation protection for the aircrew and to maintain fair competition under the common transport policy. Additionally, particular requirement are foreseen for detection and monitoring devices as well as for working instructions (Operations Manual). (author)

  19. General trend and local variations of neutron resonance cascade gamma-decay radiative strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Furman, W.I.; Khitrov, V.A.; Jovancevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    A new hypothesis on the dependence of the form of the radiative strength functions of electric and magnetic dipole gamma transitions in a heated nucleus on the excited level density was suggested and tested experimentally. For this purpose, the region of possible values of random values of the level density and radiative strength functions which precisely reproduced experimental intensity of two-step cascades for 41 nuclei from 40K to 200Hg was determined. It was obtained that the suggested hypothesis can provide the maximal increase of radiative strength functions values by order of magnitude in comparison with existing notations as a result of collective effects enhancement. This result points to the necessity to take into account this possibility in existing and future models of radiative strength functions

  20. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, Valerji

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  1. Satellite orbits perturbed by direct solar radiation pressure: general expansion of the disturbing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.

    1977-01-01

    An expression is derived for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function on an Earth satellite orbit which takes into account the variation of the solar radiation flux with distance from the Sun's centre and the absorption of radiation by the satellite. This expression is then expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the satellite and solar orbits using Kaula's method (Astr. J.; 67:300 (1962)). The Kaula inclination functions are replaced by an equivalent set of modified Allan (Proc. R. Soc. A.; 288:60 (1965)) inclination functions. The resulting expression reduces to the form commonly used in solar radiation pressure perturbation studies (e.g. Aksnes, Cel. Mech.; 13:89 (1976)), when certain terms are neglected. If, as happens quite often in practice, a satellite's orbit is in near-resonance with certain of these neglected terms, these near-resonant terms can cause changes in the satellite's orbital elements comparable to those produced by the largest term in Aksnes's expression. A new expression for the solar radiation pressure disturbing function expansion is suggested for use in future studies of satellite orbits perturbed by solar radiation pressure. (author)

  2. Royal Order of 5 December 1975 amending the Royal Order of 11 May 1971 embodying the general Military Regulations for Protection Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Royal Order amends the Royal Order on general Military Regulations for Protection against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations to bring it into line with the Royal Order of 23 December 1970, amending the general Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963, subject to certain adaptations specific to military activities. (NEA) [fr

  3. A k-distribution-based radiation code and its computational optimization for an atmospheric general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Miho; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2008-01-01

    The gas absorption process scheme in the broadband radiative transfer code 'mstrn8', which is used to calculate atmospheric radiative transfer efficiently in a general circulation model, is improved. Three major improvements are made. The first is an update of the database of line absorption parameters and the continuum absorption model. The second is a change to the definition of the selection rule for gas absorption used to choose which absorption bands to include. The last is an upgrade of the optimization method used to decrease the number of quadrature points used for numerical integration in the correlated k-distribution approach, thereby realizing higher computational efficiency without losing accuracy. The new radiation package termed 'mstrnX' computes radiation fluxes and heating rates with errors less than 0.6 W/m 2 and 0.3 K/day, respectively, through the troposphere and the lower stratosphere for any standard AFGL atmospheres. A serious cold bias problem of an atmospheric general circulation model using the ancestor code 'mstrn8' is almost solved by the upgrade to 'mstrnX'

  4. Thermophoretic diffusion and nonlinear radiative heat transfer due to a contracting cylinder in a nanofluid with generalized slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abbas

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the generalized slip condition and MHD flow of a nanofluid due to a contracting cylinder in the presence of non-linear radiative heat transfer using Buongiorno’s model. The Navier-Stokes along with energy and nanoparticle concentration equations is transformed to highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These similar differential equations are then solved numerically by employing a shooting technique with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Dual solutions exist for a particular range of the unsteadiness parameter. The physical influence of the several important fluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction is discussed and shown through graphs and table in detail. The present study indicates that as increase of Brownian motion parameter and slip velocity is to decrease the nanoparticle volume fraction. Keywords: Nanofluid, Contracting cylinder, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Generalized slip condition, Numerical solution

  5. On the variably-charged black holes in general relativity: Hawking's radiation and naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibohal, Ng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper variably-charged non-rotating Reissner-Nordstrom and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are discussed. Such a variable charge e with respect to the polar coordinate r in the field equations is referred to as an electrical radiation of the black hole. It is shown that every electrical radiation e(r) of the non-rotating black hole leads to a reduction in its mass M by some quantity. If one considers such electrical radiation taking place continuously for a long time, then a continuous reduction of the mass may take place in the black-hole body and the original mass of the black hole may be evaporated completely. At that stage, the gravity of the object may depend only on the electromagnetic field, not on the mass. Immediately after the complete evaporation of the mass, if the next radiation continues, there may be creation of a new mass leading to the formation of a negative mass naked singularity. It appears that this new mass of the naked singularity would never decrease, but might increase gradually as the radiation continues forever. A similar investigation is also discussed in the case of a variably-charged rotating Kerr-Newman black hole. Thus, it has been shown by incorporating Hawking's evaporation of radiating black holes in the form of spacetime metrics, every electrical radiation of variably-charged rotating and non-rotating black holes may produce a change in the mass of the body without affecting the Maxwell scalar

  6. A Generalized Approach to Model the Spectra and Radiation Dose Rate of Solar Particle Events on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; McDole, Thoren; Kühl, Patrick; Appel, Jan C.; Matthiä, Daniel; Krauss, Johannes; Köhler, Jan

    2018-01-01

    For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contribute to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra, as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs, including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events. Based on the statistical study of more than 30 significant solar events, we have obtained an empirical model for estimating the surface dose rate directly from the intensities of a power-law SEP spectra.

  7. Standards and general criteria for the planning and certification of need of megavoltage radiation oncology units in health care facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Minimum standards and guidelines to be applied by State agencies and New Jersey health systems agencies in the examination of certificate-of-need applications and in the development of planning activities for radiation oncology units in health care facilities are presented. Radiation oncology is a medical discipline devoted to education and research in the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of neoplastic disease. The proper application of radiation can be directed at either curative or palliative intent. It is an important and effective technique for the management of cancer. Radiotherapy equipment in clinical use is divided into four main categories: superficial, orthovoltage, megavoltage, and treatment planning facilities. Particular attention is given to megavoltage equipment which emits or generates rays over 1,000 kilovolts. These high energy rays effect better penetration of human tissue and are skin-sparing in nature, thus allowing for better tumor-to- skin dose ratios. The regionalization of megavoltage therapy services is discussed. Data on hospital megavoltage facilities in New Jersey for 1974, 1975, and 1976 are provided. The standards and guidelines pertain to utilization, personnel, and general criteria. A form for use by megavoltage radiation therapy units is appended

  8. The OENORM S 5200 'Radioactivity in building materials' as a tool for radiation protection of the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunsch, B.

    1989-04-01

    This report comprises two papers, one which is announced in the title, i.e. B. Kunsch, F. Steger, E. Tschirf: The OENORM S 5200 'Radioactivity in building materials' as a tool for radiation protection of the general population; and in addition a paper by F. Steger, H. Stadtmann, P. Kindl, L. Breitenhuber: Radon in dwellings: investigations and measurements. The two papers are treated separately. (qui)

  9. The general principles and consequences of environmental radiation exposure in relation to Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1989-09-01

    This document reviews the general principles and biological consequences of environmental radiation exposure. Particular attention was paid to the ICRP principle that if individual humans are adequately protected, then populations of other living organisms are likely to be sufficiently protected. The data reviewed in this document suggest that this principle is usually valid, although some theoretical concerns were noted with respect to effects of bioaccumulation of certain radionuclides in aquatic organisms

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 310 - Provisions of the Privacy Act From Which a General or Specific Exemption May Be Claimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General exemption for criminal law enforcement records. Yes No (k)(1) Exemption for classified material. N... for law enforcement purposes. No No (8) Disclosures under emergency circumstances. No No (9... access to records. Yes Yes (2) Amending records. Yes Yes (3) Review of the Component's refusal to amend a...

  11. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  12. Assumptions used in determining the radiation exposure according to the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance, and required adjustments in the General Administrative Regulation relating to paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of the amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the need arises to also amend the General Administrative Regulation on calculation of the radiation exposure due to radioactivity release with gaseous or liquid effluents, for the purpose of verification of compliance with the dose limits given in section 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The General Administrative regulation has to be harmonized with European legislation, EURATOM Directive 96/29. The required consultations for decision making have been a task of the working group for 'Anpassung der radiooekologischen Berechnungsgrundlage', of the Radioecology Committee of the SSK. The paper discusses the resulting draft document for amendment presented to and accepted by the SSK Committee. The document is awaiting discussion for final decision among members of the SSK, and between the SSK and representatives of Land governments as well as various bodies representing interests. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Modeling of clouds and radiation for development of parameterizations for general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, D.; Toon, B.; Jensen, E.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Walker, A.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) includes radiative transfer modeling, cirrus cloud microphysics, and stratus cloud modeling. These efforts are designed to provide the basis for improving cloud and radiation parameterizations in our main effort: mesoscale cloud modeling. The range of non-convective cloud models used by the ARM modeling community can be crudely categorized based on the number of predicted hydrometers such as cloud water, ice water, rain, snow, graupel, etc. The simplest model has no predicted hydrometers and diagnoses the presence of clouds based on the predicted relative humidity. The vast majority of cloud models have two or more predictive bulk hydrometers and are termed either bulk water (BW) or size-resolving (SR) schemes. This study compares the various cloud models within the same dynamical framework, and compares results with observations rather than climate statistics

  14. Multiple barriers against successful care provision for depressed patients in general internal medicine in a Japanese rural hospital: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitoh Akiyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A general internist has an important role in primary care, especially for the elderly in rural areas of Japan. Although effective intervention models for depressed patients in general practice and primary care settings have been developed in the US and UK medical systems, there is little information regarding even the recognition rate and prescription rate of psychotropic medication by general internists in Japan. The present study surveyed these data cross-sectionally in a general internal medicine outpatient clinic of a Japanese rural hospital. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited and evaluated for major depressive disorder or any mood disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Physicians who were blinded to the results of the PHQ were asked to diagnose whether the patients had any mental disorders, and if so, whether they had mood disorders or not. Data regarding prescription of psychotropic medicines were collected from medical records. Results Among 312 patients, 27 (8.7% and 52 (16.7% were identified with major depressive disorder and any mood disorder using the PHQ, respectively. Among those with major depressive disorder, 21 (77.8% were recognized by physicians as having a mental disorder, but only three (11.1% were diagnosed as having a mood disorder. Only two patients with major depressive disorder (7.4% had been prescribed antidepressants. Even among those (n = 15 whom physicians diagnosed with a mood disorder irrespective of the PHQ results, only four (26.7% were prescribed an antidepressant. Conclusions Despite a high prevalence of depression, physicians did not often recognize depression in patients. In addition, most patients who were diagnosed by physicians as having a mood disorder were not prescribed antidepressants. Multiple barriers to providing appropriate care for depressed patients exist, such as recognizing depression, prescribing appropriate medications, and appropriately referring

  15. Relativistic generalization of the Van-Cittert-Zernike theorem and coherent properties of rotating star radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandjos, A.V.; Khmil', S.V.

    1979-01-01

    The formula is derived for the complex coherence degree of radiation from the surface moving arbitrarily in the gravitational field. The calculations are carried out referina to the rotating star observed at the spectral line by the interferometric method. The possibility of determining interferometrically the star rotational velocity and axis orientation is grounded

  16. A general method for computing the total solar radiation force on complex spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F. K.

    1981-01-01

    The method circumvents many of the existing difficulties in computational logic presently encountered in the direct analytical or numerical evaluation of the appropriate surface integral. It may be applied to complex spacecraft structures for computing the total force arising from either specular or diffuse reflection or even from non-Lambertian reflection and re-radiation.

  17. Surface phenomena and the evolution of radiating fluid spheres in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Jimenez, J.; Esculpi, M.; Ibanez, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method used to study the evolution of radiating spheres (Herrera, Jimenez, and Ruggeri) is extended to the case in which surface phenomena are taken into account. The equations have been integrated numerically for a model derived from the Schwarzschild interior solution, bringing out the effects of surface tension on the evolution of the spheres. 17 refs

  18. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Adam D; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M; Garden, Adam S; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Court, Laurence E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: -11.6%-23.8%) and 14.6% (range: -7.3%-27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: -6.8%-40.3%) and 13.1% (range: -1.5%-52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: -11.1%-20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography images and facilitate improved treatment management.

  19. A strategy for testing the impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budge of general circulation models: A prototype for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cess, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud-climate interactions are one of the greatest uncertainties in contemporary general circulation models (GCMs), and this study has focused on one aspect of this. Specifically, combined satellite and near-surface shortwave (SW) flux measurements have been used to test the impact of clouds on the SW radiation budgets of two GCMs. Concentration is initially on SW rather than longwave (LW) radiation because, in one of the GCMs used in this study an SW radiation inconsistency causes a LW inconsistency. The surface data consist of near-surface insolation measured by the upward facing pyranometer at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower. The satellite data consist of top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo data, collocated with the tower location, as determined from the GOES SW spin-scan radiometer. Measurements are made every half hour, with hourly means taken by averaging successive measurements. The combined data are for a 21-day period encompassing 28 June through 18 July 1987 and consist of 202 combined albedo/insolation measurements

  20. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (I). General knowledge and handling technique for bacterial identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part I in this title series describes the basic knowledge and technique for identification of bacteria in the radiation sterilization of medical devices, where the radiation dose can be decided from the number and radio-resistance of the bioburden (bacteria on the device). Four essential, actual technologies for identification are described: isolation and storage of bacteria; decision of bacterial natures, involving 3 Gram staining methods, morphology by microscopy and/or phase-contrast microscopy, spore-forming bacteria, and size measurement by micrometry; Other test items for identification of genus, involving motility, oxygen demand, catalase, oxidase, acid production from glucose, and OF (oxidation or fermentation for glucose degradation) test; and colony observation. Media, identification kits and record forms for these are presented. (N.I.)

  1. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply...

  2. Radiation protection of workers in the mining and milling of radioactive ores. Code of practice and technical addendum. 1983 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Code of Practice sets forth the means of ensuring protection against ionizing radiation for workers engaged in mining and milling of radioactive ores: general provisions outlining the responsibilities of the employer and the worker, limits of radiation exposure, administrative organization of radiation protection, radiation surveillance, engineering and administrative protective measures and medical surveillance. It is designed to facilitate the preparation and adoption of national and local regulations and factory rules for radiation protection in mining and milling of radioactive ores.

  3. Transport methods: general. 1. The Analytical Monte Carlo Method for Radiation Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative Monte Carlo method for solving the coupled equations of radiation transport and material energy. This method is based on incorporating the analytical solution to the material energy equation directly into the Monte Carlo simulation for the radiation intensity. This method, which we call the Analytical Monte Carlo (AMC) method, differs from the well known Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method of Fleck and Cummings because there is no discretization of the material energy equation since it is solved as a by-product of the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport equation. Our method also differs from the method recently proposed by Ahrens and Larsen since they use Monte Carlo to solve both equations, while we are solving only the radiation transport equation with Monte Carlo, albeit with effective sources and cross sections to represent the emission sources. Our method bears some similarity to a method developed and implemented by Carter and Forest nearly three decades ago, but there are substantive differences. We have implemented our method in a simple zero-dimensional Monte Carlo code to test the feasibility of the method, and the preliminary results are very promising, justifying further extension to more realistic geometries. (authors)

  4. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  5. Three-dimensional radiative transfer in an isotropically scattering, plane-parallel medium: generalized X- and Y-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.W.; Crosbie, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this work is the generalized X- and Y-functions of multidimensional radiative transfer. The physical problem considered is spatially varying, collimated radiation incident on the upper boundary of an isotropically scattering, plane-parallel medium. An integral transform is used to reduce the three-dimensional transport equation to a one-dimensional form, and a modified Ambarzumian's method is used to derive coupled, integro-differential equations for the source functions at the boundaries of the medium. The resulting equations are said to be in double-integral form because the integration is over both angular variables. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational characteristics of the formulation

  6. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition); Texto Revisado de Los Principios Rectores n Normas Generales de Ejecucion Para la Prestacion de Asistencia Tecnica por el Organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [Spanish] El 21 de febrero de 1979 la Junta de Gobernadores aprobo el texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion para la prestacion de asistencia tecnica por el Organismo. Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe dicho texto. En el Anexo del texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion se transcriben tambien las disposiciones prescritas por la Junta de Gobernadores el 24 de septiembre de 1977 acerca de la aplicacion de salvaguardias en relacion con la asistencia tecnica.

  7. A comparison of the provision of the My Choice Weight Management Programme via general practitioner practices and community pharmacies in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, J; Langley, C; Mills, S; Hindle, L

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a novel, community-based weight management programme delivered through general practitioner (GP) practices and community pharmacies in one city in the United Kingdom. This study used a non-randomized, retrospective, observational comparison of clinical data collected by participating GP practices and community pharmacies. Subjects were 451 overweight or obese men and women resident in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (82% from black and minority ethnic groups, 86% women, mean age: 41.1 years, mean body mass index [BMI]: 34.5 kg m(-2)). Weight, waist circumference and BMI at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 9 months were measured. Costs of delivery were also analysed. Sixty-four per cent of participants lost weight after the first 12 weeks of the My Choice Weight Management Programme. There was considerable dropout. Mean percentage weight loss (last observation carried forward) was 1.9% at 12 weeks and 1.9% at final follow-up (9 months). There was no significant difference in weight loss between participants attending GP practices and those attending pharmacies at both 12 weeks and at final follow-up. Costs per participant were higher via community pharmacy which was attributable to better attendance at sessions among community pharmacy participants than among GP participants. The My Choice Weight Management Programme produced modest reductions in weight at 12 weeks and 9 months. Such programmes may not be sufficient to tackle the obesity epidemic. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  9. The repair-fixation model: general aspects and the influence of radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Loebrich, M.

    1992-01-01

    To explain the shape of cell survival curves after radiation action it is assumed that initial lesions are transient in nature and subject to repair or fixation. Since the underlying processes are controlled by enzymes, Michaelis-Menten kinetics are assumed. No qualitative differences between repair and fixation are postulated, the only differences being the kinetic parameters. This model yields a mathematical expression which is formally equivalent to the ''lethal-potentially-lethal'' (LPL) model. It is demonstrated that both mammalian as well as microbial survival data can be fitted. The inclusion of linear energy transfer (LET) effects is shown to be possible and is discussed qualitatively. (author)

  10. Generalized solutions of the radiative transfer equations in a singular case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Perthame, B.

    1985-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the radiative transfer equations (TR). First, we prove a global existence theorem, which allows a blow-up of the opacity σsub(ν)(E) when E → 0. Thus, it extends Mercier's previous result. This proof relies mainly on a non linear version of Hille-Yosida theorem. Then, we prove the uniqueness of the semigroup solving (TR), and some regularity results (in the class of functions with bounded variation). Finally, we prove the convergence of some splitting algorithms associated to (TR)

  11. Radiation protection requirements for organizations practising mining activities which can bring about exposure of personnel, public, or the environment. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication consists of the following articles: (1) Scope of State Office for Nuclear Safety recommendations; (2) Glossary of terms; (3) Radiation protection quantities; (4) General requirements for radiation protection and responsibilities of organizations; (5) Exposure limits; (6) Organizational and technical provisions of radiation protection; (7) Monitoring, measurement, evaluation, and recording of radiation protection-related quantities, parameters, and facts; (8) Utilization of monitoring data. Provisions to keep professional and public exposure within tolerable limits; (9) Decommissioning of workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; (10) Waste handling; and (11) Transport of material arising from mining activities. The text is supplemented with 5 tabular annexes. (P.A)

  12. ["Epistemic Negotiations" and the Pluralism of the Radiation Protection Regime: The Determination of Radiation Protection Standards for the General Population in the Early Years After World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Radiation protection standards for the general population have constituted one of the most controversial subjects in the history of atomic energy uses. This paper reexamines the process in which the first such standards evolved in the early postwar period. While the existing literature has emphasized a "collusion" between the standard-setters and users, the paper seeks to examine the horizontal relationship among the standard-setters. It first examines a series of expert consultations between the United States and the United Kingdom. Representing a different configuration of power and interest, the two failed to agree on the assessment of genetic damage and cancer induction whose occurrence might have no threshold and therefore be dependent on the population size. This stalemate prevented the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), established in 1950, from formulating separate guidelines for the general public. Situations radically changed when the Bikini incident in 1954 led to the creation of more scientific panels. One such panel under the U.S. Academy of Sciences enabled the geneticists to bridge their internal divide, unanimously naming 100 mSv as the genetically permissible dose for the general population. Not to be outdone, ICRP publicized its own guidelines for the same purpose. The case examined in this paper shows that the standard-setting process is best understood as a series of "epistemic negotiations" among and within the standard-setters, whose agendas were determined from the outset but whose outcomes were not.

  13. 76 FR 78009 - Information Collection; Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...] Information Collection; Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision AGENCY: General Services... collection requirement regarding Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision. Public comments... Information Collection 3090- 0294, Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision, by any of the...

  14. Access control infrastructure for on-demand provisioned virtualised infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Smari, W.W.; Fox, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud technologies are emerging as a new way of provisioning virtualised computing and infrastructure services on-demand for collaborative projects and groups. Security in provisioning virtual infrastructure services should address two general aspects: supporting secure operation of the provisioning

  15. A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of our group to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into sections entitled: Radiation Model Testing Activities, General Circulation Model Testing Activities, Science Team Activities, and Publications, Presentations and Meetings. The section on Science Team Activities summarizes our participation with the science team to further advance the observation and modeling programs. Appendix A lists graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project. Reports on the activities during each of the first two years are included as Appendix B. Significant progress has been made in: determining the ability of line-by-line radiation models to calculate the downward longwave flux at the surface; determining the uncertainties in calculated the downwelling radiance and flux at the surface associated with the use of different proposed profiling techniques; intercomparing clear-sky radiance and flux observations with calculations from radiation codes from different climate models; determining the uncertainties associated with estimating N* from surface longwave flux observations; and determining the sensitivity of model calculations to different formulations of the effects of finite sized clouds

  16. Luminosity profiles and the evolution of shock waves in general relativistic radiating spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.A.

    1989-10-01

    A method recently proposed by the authors to study the evolution of discontinuities in radiating spherically symmetric distributions of matter is systematically applied to model the evolution of a composite radiant sphere. The matter configuration, free of singularities, is divided in two regions by a shock wave front, and at each side of this interface a different equation of state is considered. Solutions are matched across the shock via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions while the outer region metric joins the Vaidya solution at the boundary surface. The influence on the evolution of these composite spheres of different shapes of neutrino outburst profiles, and particular neutrino-transfer processes from the inner core to the outer mantel is explored. Prospective applications to supernova scenarios are discussed. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  18. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  19. Generalized Laws of Black Hole Thermodynamics and Quantum Conservation Laws on Hawking Radiation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S. Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Hawking's relation $ S=A/4 $ is exactly recovered.

  20. Generalized laws of black-hole thermodynamics and quantum conservation laws on Hawking radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black-hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Haw king's relation S=A/4 is exactly recovered

  1. 9 CFR 82.4 - General provisions.

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    2010-01-01

    ...) Dressed carcasses of birds and poultry, and other dead birds and dead poultry, including any parts of the... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END... following articles may not be moved interstate from a quarantined area: (1) Dead birds and dead poultry...

  2. 15 CFR 744.1 - General provisions.

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    2010-01-01

    ... exports and reexports of any item subject to the EAR to Russian entities, included in Supplement No. 4 of...-use and end-user prohibition described in this part to learn the scope of these prohibitions. (2...

  3. 32 CFR 505.2 - General provisions.

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    2010-07-01

    ... individual exercises his or her rights guaranteed by the First Amendment (freedom of religion, freedom of political beliefs, freedom of speech and press, freedom of peaceful assemblage, and petition) unless...

  4. 14 CFR 212.3 - General provisions.

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    2010-01-01

    ... certificated or foreign air carrier and the charterer prior to the operation of the flights involved. The written agreement shall include: (i) The name and address of either the surety whose bond secures advance... operating a U.S.-originating passenger charter shall be responsible to return to his or her point of origin...

  5. 23 CFR 750.108 - General provisions.

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    ... and derivation of such conversion factors. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under... to the following: (1) Excluding products or byproducts of the cash commodity hedged. If the regular... cash positions for bona fide hedging (as defined in § 1.3(z) of this chapter), the same shall be...

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    ... analyze program cost and utilization data appropriate for preparation of budgets, fiscal planning, and as otherwise needed to carry out CHAMPUS programs and missions. (9) Arrange for the facilities logistical and.... Authorized costs associated with the use of the facility will be financed through CHAMPUS under normal cost...

  9. 12 CFR 220.3 - General provisions.

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    ... when cash or securities are used for purposes of meeting requirements in another account. (2... corrective action. (i) Foreign currency. (1) Freely convertible foreign currency may be treated at its U.S. dollar equivalent, provided the currency is marked-to-market daily. (2) A creditor may extend credit...

  10. 36 CFR 30.2 - General provisions.

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    ... nonconformity determined by a Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) or by recall (in-use) testing. However, in the... nonconformity determined by a Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) or by recall (in-use) testing. However, in the... not be used to remedy nonconformity determined by a Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) or by recall (in...

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    ... establish an ongoing relationship with installation security authorities on all matters of asset protection... advertising, mailings or telecommunications to reach their customers. (6) Advertising in government-funded... Account (ITGA) depository), the financial institution shall satisfy the risk management standard...

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    ...-support due to a physical or mental incapacity that existed prior to reaching the age of 21; or (iii) Has...) Forward the request to the Chief of Naval Operations (OP-61), with a copy to the Commander, Naval Medical... financial responsibility for costs of hospitalization and travel. (2) The Chief of Naval Operations (OP-61...

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  1. 42 CFR 423.504 - General provisions.

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    ..., beginning on the date the entity notified CMS of the intention to non-renew the most recent previous... inspect any books, contracts, and records of the Part D plan sponsor that pertain to— (A) The ability of...

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    ... account shall record and conduct all financial relations with respect to such security future and related... security future on behalf of a customer in a futures account shall record and conduct all financial... and consolidation of accounts. (1) The requirements for security futures and related positions in one...

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    ... conduct all financial relations with respect to such security future and related positions in accordance... customer in a futures account shall record and conduct all financial relations with respect to such... authorities of which the security futures intermediary is a member. (b) Separation and consolidation of...

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    ... MA organization's corporation into another corporation or the consolidation of the MA organization... effective date of the change. The MA organization must also provide updated financial information and a discussion of the financial and solvency impact of the change of ownership on the surviving organization. (2...

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  11. 78 FR 48048 - Student Assistance General Provisions

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  12. 22 CFR 706.11 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... request. This regulation does not apply to requests for records under the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a. OPIC's regulations governing Privacy Act requests are located at 22 CFR part 707. (d) OPIC Internet site. OPIC maintains an Internet site at www.opic.gov. This site contains information on OPIC functions...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.801 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government (or one of its political subdivisions) for the purpose of reducing emissions. The exemption does not apply where the sponsoring government specifies that inclusion in the retrofit program is not... 1042.801 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS...

  14. 18 CFR 35.30 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities to the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) at the average system cost (ASC... determined by BPA in accordance with 18 CFR part 301. (b) Effectiveness of rates. (1) During the period... requirements. Within 15 business days of the date of issuance of the BPA report on a utility's ASC, the utility...

  15. 29 CFR 1960.36 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and assist an agency's safety and health program. These committees assist agencies to maintain an open channel of communication between employees and management concerning safety and health matters in agency workplaces. The committees provide a method by which employees can utilize their knowledge of workplace...

  16. 32 CFR 518.19 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amended; the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 and the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act, as amended... operations and activities of DA or DoD. (iii) The contribution to an understanding of the subject by the... capability and intention to disseminate the information to the public. Mere assertions of plans to author a...

  17. 18 CFR 35.32 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prudent investor would use in the same circumstances. The term “prudent investor” means a prudent investor... separate account of the Commission-jurisdictional monies shall be maintained. (2) The utility may provide.... Washington, DC or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.501 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable emission standards. If your locomotive uses sulfur-sensitive technology, you may not use an in-use... 40 CFR part 1065. If your locomotive does not use sulfur-sensitive technology, we may allow you to... testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act. (i) For passenger locomotives that can generate hotel power from...

  19. 40 CFR 75.80 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) shall retire or permanently discontinue use of the continuous emission monitoring system, any component... and: (i) A valid, quality-assured hour of Hg concentration data (in µgm/scm) has not been measured and...

  20. 31 March 1992 - Royal Order amending Section 133(1) of the General Regulation on safety at Work concerning protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A Royal Order of 31 March 1992 amends certain provisions of the Regulations on safety at work with respect to protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation, amended in 1990. The purpose of the amendment is to avoid that certain international and national civil servants be hindered in their control duties. The following inspectors are concerned: the International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors; the persons designated as responsible for surveillance under the Euratom Treaty and the Act of 1955 on State security in the nuclear field; the inspectors designated by the Act of 1972 on inspections at work. (NEA)

  1. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  3. Generalized concept for the estimation of body dose for radiation workers exposed to external #betta#-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Boehm, J.; Heinzelmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    In radiation protection monitoring the need exists for an estimation of body dose due to external #betta#-rays, for instance if the #betta#-dose rate at the working area is expected to be high according to the data of source activity or room contamination, the indicated dose values of a personal dosemeter exceed the operational limit for the organ or tissue depth of interest, or a person was exposed to a significant dose. On behalf of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Republic of Germany, a guideline is now under preparation which offers a standardized concept of the estimation of #betta#-doses in personnel monitoring. The calculation models discussed here will be used as a basis for any case of external #betta#-irradiation where, in connection with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, the ICRP dose equivalent limits are reached or the dosemeter readings are not representative for an individual exposure. The generalized concept discussed in the paper relates to: the calculation of #betta#-dose on the basis of source activity or spectral particle fluence and takes into account the special cases of point sources, area sources and volume sources; the estimation of body dose on the basis of calculated data or measured results from area or personnel monitoring, taking into account the dose equivalent in different depths of tissue, in particular the dose equivalent to the skin, the lens of the eye and other organs; and finally the estimation of skin dose due to the contamination of the skin surface. Basic reference data are presented in order to estimate the dose equivalent of interest which varies significantly in the #betta#-radiation field as a function of the maximum #betta#-energy, distance to the source, size of the source, activity per area for surface contamination and activity per volume for air contamination

  4. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.

  5. The provision of radiological protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This publication is a code of practice for the provision or radiological protection services for establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It was prepared with the help of an international panel of experts and representatives of international organizations which have an interest in this field and was promulgated by the Director General of the Agency under the authority of the Board of Governors of the Agency as a code of practice in the framework of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Board of Governors also authorized the Director General to recommend to Member States that the code of practice be taken into account in the formulation of national regulations or recommendations. The Appendix to the code contains a number of examples of the organization of radiological protection services that have been provided by the members of the panel of experts. These examples do not form a part of the code of practice, but are intended to illustrate the methods of organization which have been adopted in different countries.

  6. Renormalization and radiative corrections to masses in a general Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M.; Grimus, W.; Löschner, M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a model with arbitrary numbers of Majorana fermion fields and real scalar fields φa, general Yukawa couplings and a ℤ4 symmetry that forbids linear and trilinear terms in the scalar potential. Moreover, fermions become massive only after spontaneous symmetry breaking of the ℤ4 symmetry by vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the φa. Introducing the shifted fields ha whose VEVs vanish, MS¯ renormalization of the parameters of the unbroken theory suffices to make the theory finite. However, in this way, beyond tree level it is necessary to perform finite shifts of the tree-level VEVs, induced by the finite parts of the tadpole diagrams, in order to ensure vanishing one-point functions of the ha. Moreover, adapting the renormalization scheme to a situation with many scalars and VEVs, we consider the physical fermion and scalar masses as derived quantities, i.e. as functions of the coupling constants and VEVs. Consequently, the masses have to be computed order by order in a perturbative expansion. In this scheme, we compute the self-energies of fermions and bosons and show how to obtain the respective one-loop contributions to the tree-level masses. Furthermore, we discuss the modification of our results in the case of Dirac fermions and investigate, by way of an example, the effects of a flavor symmetry group.

  7. New radiation protection legislation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jender, M.; Persson, Lars

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Worry About the Health Harms of Medical Imaging Radiation in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Gold, Geoffrey S; Baser, Raymond E; Hricak, Hedvig; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, there have been dramatic increases in medical imaging use and increasing media attention to increased exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States. Patient perspectives on medical imaging radiation (MIR) use is understudied, but could guide primary care discussions. This study examines prevalence of worry about the health harms from MIR in the US general population. This cross-sectional study used the 2012-2013 Health Information National Trends Survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute. A nationally representative sample (N = 3532) was drawn from the US general population to observe prevalence of worry about MIR as well as potential covariates, including demographic, medical, and psychological factors, health information-seeking, physician trust in providing cancer information, and cancer fatalism. About 65% of the sample population reported experiencing at least some worry about MIR. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions indicate higher rates of MIR worry among women, racial/ethnic minorities, those with lower educational attainment, foreign-born Americans, those who self-report poorer health, and those with a personal history of cancer. Lower trust in cancer information from physicians and greater attention to cancer information from popular media were each associated with higher rates of worry about health harms of MIR. An accurate assessment of public worry about MIR will aid primary care providers' efforts to understand patient responses to medical imaging and identify addressable knowledge gaps regarding benefits and risks of medical imaging. These data may improve risk communication regarding medical imaging among referring primary care physicians, radiologists, and patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Radiation protection in the diagnostic radiology. General viewpoint including CT; Strahlenschutz in der diagnostischen Radiologie. Allgemeine Sichtweise einschliesslich CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, Patric [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection in radiology has received public attention due to reports in the media on radiation hazards due to CT. The contribution covers the issues radiation protection in radiology, including the documentation of dose information, the responsibility of radiologists for their patients, new developments with respect to dose intensive CT and the changes due to the new radiation protection law.

  10. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume II: Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: DNA repair and mutagenesis; biological effects at low radiation doses; combined effects of radiation and other agents; epidemiological evaluation of radiation-induced cancer and exposure effects of the Chernobyl accident

  11. Radiation Act, promulgated on May 8,1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Act was passed by the Estonian Parliament on 23 Apr 1997 and promulgated by the President on 8 May 1997. It is the principal legal instrument in the field of radiation protection for workers, the public and the environment. The Act is based on the concepts, principles, terminology and dose limits stipulated in the Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Series No. 115-1) and the EC Directive 96/29/EURATOM. The Radiation Act defines the institutional framework for, and establishes the rules applicable to, the use of ionising radiation, the detention of radiation sources, the transport of radioactive materials, radioactive waste disposal and other activities which cause or may cause harm to health or to the environment. It also contains some general provisions on radioactive waste management, import and export of such wastes and the prohibition against importing radioactive waste for disposal purposes. The Act deals solely with radiation protection; all other nuclear activities are to be covered by other specific laws. The Estonian Radiation Protection Centre is empowered under the Act to inspect sources of radiation exposure and to register dose and source data. It is generally responsible for enforcing the provisions of the Act, although the details of the medical checks for radiation workers are governed by rules established by the Minister for Social Affairs. Chapter 3 of the Radiation Act contains detailed provisions on dose limits for the following categories of exposure to ionising radiation. The Act provides that Government and nominated Ministers be empowered to enact implementing regulations on exemption levels, requirements to ensure observance of the stipulated dose limits, qualification procedures for radiation workers, medical checks of radiation workers, medical applications of ionising radiation, packaging and safety procedures for radiation sources and rules for handling radioactive waste

  12. Tuesday 28 January 2014 - K. E. Huthmacher Ministerialdirektor Provision for the Future - Basic and Sustainability Research Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) visiting the stands with R. Heuer CERN Director-General on the occasion of the Inauguration of the Industrial Exhibition Germany@CERN and visiting the ATLAS Cavern with D. Charlton ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson and R. Voss Head of International Relations.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Tuesday 28 January - K. E. Huthmacher Ministerialdirektor Provision for the Future - Basic and Sustainability Research Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) visiting the stands with R. Heuer CERN Director-General on the occasion of the Inauguration of the Industrial Exhibition Germany@CERN and visiting the ATLAS Cavern with D. Charlton ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson and R. Voss Head of International Relations.

  13. Automated contouring error detection based on supervised geometric attribute distribution models for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Dolly, Steven; Kavanaugh, James; Harold Li, H.; Altman, Michael; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade L.; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua; Anastasio, Mark A.; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets

  14. Automated contouring error detection based on supervised geometric attribute distribution models for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Dolly, Steven; Kavanaugh, James; Harold Li, H.; Altman, Michael; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade L.; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets

  15. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: dose assessment methodologies; exposure from natural sources; exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation and occupational radiation exposures

  16. The general principles of radiation protection and regulation; Les principes generaux de la radioprotection et la reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 34 - Montpellier (France); Cesarini, J P [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, Section Rayonnements non ionisants, 75 - Paris (France); Lecomte, J F; Barbier, G; Crescini, D; Biau, A [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, 92 (France); Blain, A [FRAMATOME, Dir. Combustible Nucleaire, Dept. Radioprotection Securite, 69 - Lyon (France); Bailloeuil, C; Gonin, M [Electricite de France, EDF-SCAST, 75 - Paris (France); Bergot, D [Ministere des Affaires Sociales, du Travail et de la Solidarite, Dir. des Relations du Travail, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Seven articles constitute this chapter about the radiation protection and the regulation. Radiological risk, reduction of public exposure to ultraviolet radiations, regulation for the radon, evolution of the French legislation against the dangers of ionizing radiations, the medical follow up after the professional life, the information system to reproduce the dosimetric data of workers, proposition of a scale to classify the radiations incidents in function of their seriousness. (N.C.)

  17. Radiating low back pain in general practice : Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon,

  18. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  19. 26 CFR 509.102 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... reason of any alteration of law in relation to internal revenue. (b) Retroactivity of regulations or...

  20. The influence of cirrus cloud-radiative forcing on climate and climate sensitivity in a general circulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, U.; Roeckner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Six numerical experiments have been performed with a general circulation model (GCM) to study the influence of high-level cirrus clouds and global sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations on climate and climate sensitivity. The GCM used in this investigation is the third-generation ECHAM3 model developed jointly by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology and the University of Hamburg. It is shown that the model is able to reproduce many features of the observed cloud-radiative forcing with considerable skill, such as the annual mean distribution, the response to seasonal forcing and the response to observed SST variations in the equatorial Pacific. In addition to a reference experiment where the cirrus emissivity is computed as a function of the cloud water content, two sensitivity experiments have been performed in which the cirrus emissivity is either set to zero everywhere above 400 hPa ('transparent cirrus') or set to one ('black cirrus'). These three experiments are repeated identically, except for prescribing a globally uniform SST warming of 4 K. (orig.)

  1. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  2. General treatment of the interplay between fluid and radiative transport phenomena in symmetric plasmas: the sulphur lamp as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, Harm van der; Mullen, Joost van der

    2002-01-01

    A general ray-trace method for calculating the effects of radiative transfer in a control volume (CV) fluid code is presented. The method makes use of the structured CV grid of the fluid code, and is suited for geometries with a point or axis of symmetry. In particular, the specific equations for spherical and cylindrical (without z dependence) configurations are developed. The application of this method to local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE plasma models is discussed. Various opportunities for sacrificing precision for calculation speed are pointed out. As a case study, the effects of radiative transfer in a sulphur lamp are calculated. Since an LTE description of the molecular radiation yields a computed spectrum that differs significantly from a measured one, the possibility of a non-LTE vibrational distribution of the radiating S 2 -B state is investigated. The results indicate that the vibrational populations may be inversed. (author)

  3. 10 CFR 600.381 - Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research... Organizations Additional Provisions § 600.381 Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants. (a) General. This section contains provisions applicable to the Small Business Innovation Reserach...

  4. Decree N0 75-306 of 30 April 1975 on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation in large nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Decree supplements French regulations on radiation protection established by the Decree of 20 June 1966 on general radiation protection principles and that of 15 March 1967 on protection of workers against ionizing radiation hazards in other types of nuclear installation. This Decree refers to the provisions of the above-mentioned Decrees concerning maximum permissible dose equivalents and maximum permissible concentrations of the different radionuclides to be complied with in workplaces. It also lays down the provisions the head of the establishment must implement at administrative, technical and medical levels to ensure radiation protection in such premises. (NEA) [fr

  5. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  6. Provision of RPA advice to users of minor radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.; Anderson, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problems of providing cost effective Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS) training and appropriate storage for minor radioactive sources are discussed. Threshold limits of radioactive holdings are proposed, above which an RPS should be formally trained and specialised source storage facilities provided. Proposals are made for the provision of practical radiation protection advice without need of a detailed hazard assessment. (author)

  7. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  8. Radiation protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA) [fr

  9. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.

  10. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure

  11. 44 CFR 17.625 - Exception provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception provision. 17.625 Section 17.625 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.625 Exception...

  12. Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Devices; Classification of the Ultraviolet Radiation Chamber Disinfection Device. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is classifying the ultraviolet (UV) radiation chamber disinfection device into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the UV radiation chamber disinfection device classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  13. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  14. 48 CFR 828.106-72 - Contract provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provision. 828... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 828.106-72 Contract provision. Insert 852.228-72, Assisting Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.106 - Relationship to other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....106 Section 9701.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.106 Relationship to other provisions....S.C. 5545(d); (iv) Recruitment, relocation, and retention payments under 5 U.S.C. 5753-5754; (v...

  16. A gas radiation property model applicable to general combustion CFD and its demonstration in oxy-fuel combustion simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Singh, Shashank; Romero, Sergio Sanchez

    2017-01-01

    As a good compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy, the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM) is often used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of combustion processes for evaluating gas radiative properties. However, the WSGGMs still have practical limitations (e...

  17. Page | 138 JUDICIAL REVIEW OF OUSTER CLAUSE PROVISIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    ouster of jurisdiction of the courts on pre-election matters and impeachment of the executive do constitute an ... NAUJILJ 9 (1) 2018. Page | .... Ouster clauses are general provisions, which preclude an organ of government from exercising its.

  18. A review to determine the appropriatness and adequacy of existing provisions for the measurement of ionizing radiation in Australia: proceedings of a workshop held at the National Standards Commission on 13 May 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Current arrangements for the physical measurement of ionizing radiation in Australia are reviewed. Topics covered include the roles of the National Standards Commission, the National Association of Testing Authorities, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the Australian Radiation Laboratory. Legal units for ionizing radiation and Australia's measurement standards are discussed. The role of the radiologist and industrial radiographer are examined. Existing codes standards and legislation at both Federal and State government levels are briefly outlined

  19. Hereditary effects of radiation: new advances from the Scientific annex of UNSCEAR 2001 Report to the General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, Diana L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the advances in the estimation of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. Insights gained into the molecular aspects of naturally occurring human genetic diseases, used together with mouse-data on radiation-induced mutations are allowing the framework for risk estimation to be restructured. The five important changes that are introduced include: revision of the baseline frequency of Mendelian diseases; the use of human data on spontaneous mutation rates and mouse data on induced mutation rates for Doubling Dose (DD) calculation; the development of the Mutation Component (MC) concept for predicting the impact of an increase in mutation rate on disease frequency for the different classes of genetic diseases; the introduction in the risk equation of the Potential Recoverability Correction Factor ( PRCF ) to bridge the gap between the rates of induced mutations determined in mouse studies and the risks of inducible genetic diseases in human live birth; the introduction of the concept that radiation-induced genetic damage in humans is more likely to be manifest as multisystem developmental abnormalities rather than a single-gene diseases in the progeny of irradiated parents. (author)

  20. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, F E; Webb, G A M

    1976-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom publishe...

  1. An idealized radiative transfer scheme for use in a mechanistic general circulation model from the surface up to the mesopause region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, Rahel; Becker, Erich

    2011-01-01

    A new and numerically efficient method to compute radiative flux densities and heating rates in a general atmospheric circulation model is presented. Our method accommodates the fundamental differences between the troposphere and middle atmosphere in the long-wave regime within a single parameterization that extends continuously from the surface up to the mesopause region and takes the deviations from the gray limit and from the local thermodynamic equilibrium into account. For this purpose, frequency-averaged Eddington-type transfer equations are derived for four broad absorber bands. The frequency variation inside each band is parameterized by application of the Elsasser band model extended by a slowly varying envelope function. This yields additional transfer equations for the perturbation amplitudes that are solved numerically along with the mean transfer equations. Deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium are included in terms of isotropic scattering, calculating the single scattering albedo from the two-level model for each band. Solar radiative flux densities are computed for four energetically defined bands using the simple Beer-Bougert-Lambert relation for absorption within the atmosphere. The new scheme is implemented in a mechanistic general circulation model from the surface up to the mesopause region. A test simulation with prescribed concentrations of the radiatively active constituents shows quite reasonable results. In particular, since we take the full surface energy budget into account by means of a swamp ocean, and since the internal dynamics and turbulent diffusion of the model are formulated in accordance with the conservation laws, an equilibrated climatological radiation budget is obtained both at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface.

  2. GARLIC — A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code — GARLIC — is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus. - Highlights: • High resolution infrared-microwave radiative transfer model. • Discussion of algorithmic and computational aspects. • Jacobians by automatic/algorithmic differentiation. • Performance evaluation by intercomparisons, verification, validation

  3. Fundamentals of negative refractive index optical trapping: forces and radiation pressures exerted by focused Gaussian beams using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E

    2010-11-04

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), this paper reveals, for the first time in the literature, the principal characteristics of the optical forces and radiation pressure cross-sections exerted on homogeneous, linear, isotropic and spherical hypothetical negative refractive index (NRI) particles under the influence of focused Gaussian beams in the Mie regime. Starting with ray optics considerations, the analysis is then extended through calculating the Mie coefficients and the beam-shape coefficients for incident focused Gaussian beams. Results reveal new and interesting trapping properties which are not observed for commonly positive refractive index particles and, in this way, new potential applications in biomedical optics can be devised.

  4. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  5. Design provisions for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages

  6. Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Commission of the European Communities. Luxembourg

    Application of the council directive of 15 July 1980 laying down the Euratom basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation

  7. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations and general advice on nuclear medicine; issued on April 28, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    These regulations and general advice are applicable to nuclear medicine within human medical care. The regulations are also applicable to activities where radioactive substances are administered to individuals in connection to medical or biomedical research and medical examinations for insurance or legal purposes

  8. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations and general advice on nuclear medicine; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations and general advice are applicable to nuclear medicine within human medical care. The regulations are also applicable to activities where radioactive substances are administered to individuals in connection to medical or biomedical research and medical examinations for insurance or legal purposes.

  9. Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Bogorad, V.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

  10. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  11. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  12. Development of quick scan whole body monitor for in-vivo monitoring of radiation workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhla, Rajesh; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whole body monitoring of radiation workers at nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement and is recommended for assessment of internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides. Additionally, nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, Fukushima and radiological accidents like Goiania have clearly highlighted the need for in-vivo monitoring of the members of the public during and/or after such accidents. To cater to these requirements, a high throughput, fast screening, standing linear geometry Quick Scan Whole Body Monitor (QS-WBM) is designed, fabricated and commissioned to measure internal contamination due to gamma emitting radio nuclides (E γ >200keV) incorporated in the human body. The system is designed to achieve sensitivity comparable with conventional WBM for 1 - 2 minutes counting time and to accommodate different body sizes of Indian occupational workers. It is calibrated using BARC reference Bottle Mannequin Absorption (BOMAB) type phantom and also using a family of BOMAB type phantoms representative of different age groups namely 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 20- years. The developed system will also be highly useful during emergency situations when large numbers of persons are to be monitored in short interval of time. (author)

  13. European Communities (Foodstuffs treated with ionising radiation) Regulations, 2000. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 297 of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)

  14. 2015 annual report of the managing director of the CEA general and nuclear inspection for nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    After an introduction by the managing director of the CEA general and nuclear inspection about activities and events of 2015, this report proposes some key figures and indicators to illustrate these activities and events. The next parts discuss, present and comment how a culture of safety is at the heart of the continuous progress approach by the CEA. The next chapters propose overviews and comments of lessons learned from nuclear inspections within the frame of audit programme or within the frame of centres' safety audits, and from reactive inspections. The last parts address the follow-up of recommendations, and progress orientations and perspectives

  15. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom published systematically

  16. 26 CFR 1.42-11 - Provision of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Against Tax § 1.42-11 Provision of services. (a) General rule. The furnishing to tenants of services other... for purposes of section 42(g). (b) Services that are optional—(1) General rule. A service is optional... low-income building with a common dining facility, the cost of meals is not included in gross rent for...

  17. Decree No 90-222 of 9 March 1990 supplementing the general regulations on extractive industries set by Decree No 80-331 of 7 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Decree completes the transfer into national legislation of Euratom Directive No. 80-836 on radiation protection. It inserts in the General Regulations on extractive industries laid down by a Decree No. 80-331 of 1980 a Part 2 relating to environmental protection. Its provisions determine the annual permissible exposure limits to ionizing radiation during management of radioactive products, the monitoring of releases and the environment and the controls set up by the authorities [fr

  18. New legislative regulations for ensuring radiation protection using ionizing radiation sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.

    2018-01-01

    European Commission Directive No. 2013/59 / EURATOM laying down basic safety requirements for the provision of radiation protection regulates the provision of radiation protection for workers with radiation sources and residents in all areas of use of ionizing radiation sources. This Directive also addresses radiation protection in the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine. The European Commission Directive regulates the requirements for radiation protection but also extends to its scope and provisions on the use of medical radiation sources (so-called m edical exposure ) in the scope of further legislation in the field of health care, which has to be amended and modified or possibly issued new. It was necessary in the preparation of the new act on radiation protection to amend simultaneously Act no. 576/2004 on the provision of health care and services related to provision of health care and Act no. 578/2004 on Health care Providers, Health care Professionals and Organizations in Health Care and to prepare a series of implementing regulations not only to the Law on Radiation Protection but also to the Laws governing the Provision of Health Care. The paper presents changes to existing legislation on radiation protection in medical radiation and new requirements for the construction and operation of health workplaces with radiation sources, the protection of the health of patients, the requirements for instrumentation used for medical radiation and radiological instrumentation tests. (authors)

  19. Experience in Strengthening Cooperation Between Radiation Safety Regulators in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, S.

    2016-01-01

    HERCA is a voluntary association in which the Heads of Radiation Protection Authorities in Europe work together in order to develop common regulatory approaches in terms of practical implementation. HERCA addresses topics generally covered by provisions of the EURATOM Treaty and its work program is based on significant regulatory issues of common interest. HERCA was established in 2007 and brings together 51 radiation protection Authorities from 31 European countries. The current HERCA work program focuses on Medical and Veterinary Applications, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Non-Medical Sources and Practices, Radon and Euratom BSS Transposition as well as Education and Training.

  20. New Finnish radiation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  1. Precautions against radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations likely to cause hazards in a chemical laboratory are considered. Quantities and units of radiation are described. The general principles of radiation protection, precautions against radiation hazards, ICRP standards and recommendations and the legislation relating to the control of radiation hazards in the UK are discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Report upon inquiry into radiation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In this report the committee has provided its assessment of the need and justification for the law to provide for the control of the provision of radiation apparatus, the planning needs for the provision of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, the location of such facilities, the appropriateness or otherwise of existing legislation, the necessity for any further legislative needs and the criteria governing the provision of such radiation apparatus

  3. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  4. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies ...

  5. Royal Order of 22 April 1974 on Establishment of Fees in Implementation of Regulations on Protection at Work, Protection against Hazardous Equipment and Ionizing Radiations and amending the General Regulations on Protection at Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 3 December 1969 empowering the King to establish fees in application of regulations on protection at work, dangerous equipment and ionizing radiations. In particular, it sets fees for the licensing procedure for establishment classified according to the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963. (NEA) [fr

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  7. A study of the provision of hospital based dental General Anaesthetic services for children in the North West of England: Part 2--the views and experience of families and dentists regarding service needs, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A; Sanders, Caroline

    2015-04-09

    Patterns of service delivery and the organisation of Dental General Anaesthesia (DGA) have been found to differ across hospitals. This paper reports on qualitative research aimed to understand the impact of such variation by exploring views and experiences of families receiving care in different hospital sites, as well as dentists involved in referral and delivery of care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 people comprising parents (n = 15), dentists working in primary care (n = 6) and operating dentists (n = 5) in relation to DGA. Participants were recruited from areas across the North West of England to ensure a variety referral and treatment experiences were captured. Field notes were made during visits to all settings included in the study and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. A variety of positive and negative impacts on children and parents throughout the referral process and operation day were apparent. Key themes established were clustered around three key topics: 1. Organisational and professional concerns regarding referrals, delivery of treatment and prevention. 2. The role of hospital environment and routine on the emotional experiences of children. 3. The influence of the wider social context on dental health. These findings suggest the need and perceived value of: tailored services for children (such as play specialists) and improved information, such as clear guidance regarding wait times and what is to be expected on the day of the procedure. These features were viewed to be helpful in alleviating the stress and anxiety often associated with DGA. While some elements will always be restricted in part to the hospital setting in which they occur, there are several aspects where best practice could be shared amongst hospitals and, where issues such as wait times have been acknowledged, alternative pathways can be explored in order to address areas which can impact negatively on children.

  8. A policy study in strengthening the national infrastructure for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Il [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jaik Won; Lee, Choon Sik [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Ki Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Public attitude declined further toward against the nuclear technology and eventually caused undue societal costs. Since the general public are aware of, or even afraid of, effects of radiation, it is hard to expect successful nuclear program without making them ease about radiation. In order to make the public feel easy and think that they get adequate protection, the infrastructure for radiation protection should be strengthened to the level corresponding to the utilization of nuclear/radiation technologies in the country. Public confidence in the role of the regulatory body is utmost important. The objectives of this study are to figure out a good model of regulatory body for radiation protection in Korea and to promulgate a draft legislations including provisions on the competent authority, the national policy and programs for upgraded infrastructure for radiation protection. As an appropriate form for the regulatory body in Korea, 'board of nuclear and radiation regulation', an independent and specialized organization under the direction of the prime minister, was proposed. It is expected that disadvantages dominate if the organization for radiation protection is separated from one for nuclear regulation. The proposed draft radiation protection acts consist of 8 chapters and 55 articles and some supplementary provisions. Copious footnotes provide explanations of the articles including the basis, considerations. justification.

  9. General Purpose Fortran Program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Emitting Layered Media: An Update of DISORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Stamnes, Knut; Wiscombe, Warren; Laszlo, Istvan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This update reports a state-of-the-art discrete ordinate algorithm for monochromatic unpolarized radiative transfer in non-isothermal, vertically inhomogeneous, but horizontally homogeneous media. The physical processes included are Planckian thermal emission, scattering with arbitrary phase function, absorption, and surface bidirectional reflection. The system may be driven by parallel or isotropic diffuse radiation incident at the top boundary, as well as by internal thermal sources and thermal emission from the boundaries. Radiances, fluxes, and mean intensities are returned at user-specified angles and levels. DISORT has enjoyed considerable popularity in the atmospheric science and other communities since its introduction in 1988. Several new DISORT features are described in this update: intensity correction algorithms designed to compensate for the 8-M forward-peak scaling and obtain accurate intensities even in low orders of approximation; a more general surface bidirectional reflection option; and an exponential-linear approximation of the Planck function allowing more accurate solutions in the presence of large temperature gradients. DISORT has been designed to be an exemplar of good scientific software as well as a program of intrinsic utility. An extraordinary effort has been made to make it numerically well-conditioned, error-resistant, and user-friendly, and to take advantage of robust existing software tools. A thorough test suite is provided to verify the program both against published results, and for consistency where there are no published results. This careful attention to software design has been just as important in DISORT's popularity as its powerful algorithmic content.

  10. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  11. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Co. Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  12. Radiation education in Bangladesh: status need and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, Delawar

    1999-01-01

    Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent state, the provisions of radiation education and training have expanded greatly. Still then, since it is a developing country with high population growth rate, low literacy level and located thousands of miles away from the developed ones, it is difficult to transfer and disseminate knowledge, particularly about the subject of radiation at a speed and spread as required to meet the challenge of future. So, not only professional training but also institutional and formal academic knowledge and skill development is essential in the process of acquisition and transfer of such knowledge. Accordingly the courses on radiation and radioactivity including risk perception in general have to be vigorously pursued for the sake of safety and attaining basic concepts about health effects of different levels of radiation. (author)

  13. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    -profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  14. Models of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....

  15. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  16. The white paper on radiation protection at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, P.

    1996-01-01

    The general public is increasingly interested in questions concerning the environment, and people are particularly sensitive to the consequences arising from the operation of nuclear power plants. Radiation protection standards are becoming increasingly stringent: recommendations drafted in 1990 by ICRP (ICRP 60) will soon be applied on a general scale. In this context, EDF became aware of a deterioration in the results of dosimetry monitoring in its plants (an increase in the collective dose per nuclear power unit from 1989). This encouraged the company to undertake a critical analysis of the situation, and to comprehensively rethink all the questions linked to radiation protection. This work led to the publication of the White Paper on Radiation Protection in mid-1993. The White Paper deals with various aspects: - medical and biological fundamentals, - worker protection, -protection of the public and the environment, - information provision and training, - emergency situations. (author)

  17. S.I. No 125 of 2000 Radiological Protection Act 1991 (ionising radiation) Order 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This statutory instrument provides for the implementation of Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. It also incorporates the provisions of Council Directive 90/641/Euratom of 4 December 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. It replaces the provisions of the European Communities (Ionising Radiation) Regulations, 1991 (S.I. No. 43 of 1991), the Radiological Protection Act, 1991 (General Control of Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Devices and Irradiating Apparatus) Order, 1993 (S.I. No. 151 of 1993) and the European Communities (Protection of Outside Workers from Ionising Radiation) Regulations, 1994 (S.I. No. 144 of 1994). The main changes introduced in this Order are: the inclusion of work activities involving exposure to natural sources of radiation, stricter application of existing radiation protection principles through the introduction of lower dose limits, the use of dose constraints in keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable (i.e. optimisation process) and extended application of justification principles, the introduction of radiation protection principles for intervention in cases of radiological emergencies or lasting exposures. (author)

  18. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  19. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its emphasis...

  20. Radiation and toxix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.V.; Belkin, V.I.; Davydov, B.I.; Kustov, V.V.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    General radiobiological concepts in aviation medicine related to the biological effect of ionizing radiation on flying factors are presented. Principles of standartization, permissible doses, general principles of radiation protection and prophylaxis of aviation personnel are described. Characteristics of radio emission, microwaves, procedure of their measurements are given. Pathophysiology of electromagnetic radiation is presented. Problems on radiation protection, technical and organization problems on electromagnetic radiation protection, as well as technology in aviation are discussed

  1. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  2. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper execution of budgets of subsidies and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to carry out these provisions. This rule is applied to the grant of subsidies for the expenses of installing and operating radiation monitoring equipment in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities, redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring, radiation monitoring works, place of business and expected date of beginning operation, etc. The Director General of the Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to appropriate for all or a part of expenses required for the redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring and radiation monitoring works. Subsidies are given to those prefectures, where atomic power generating facilities are established or expected to be established, or the prefectures in their neighborhood, and to each place of business as a unit. The term of grant is stipulated for each of these places of business. The amount of subsidies for one place of business ranges from 224.4 million yen for the whole period to 20 million yen for each fiscal year according to the kinds of business. Prefectures which intend to request the grant of subsidies shall file to the Director General specified application attaching operation plans and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities. The decision and the conditions of delivery, the reports on operation and business results, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  3. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-06-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavour multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero-metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modelling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70 M⊙ star.

  4. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-04-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavor multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modeling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70M⊙ star.

  5. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with the Law on Health and Safety at Work (Law No. 57, 1972) the regulations require any employer who runs an undertaking performing radiation-related works (hereinafter called ''the employer'') to protect his employees from ionizing radiation hazards. Chapter 1 (general provisions) gives the definitions of such technical terms as the ionizing radiations, the radioactive substances and the radiation-related works. Chapter 2 defines the controlled areas and the tolerance doses of radiation exposures. The controlled areas mean the areas within which the employer is required: to control the radiation doses; to prohibit access thereto of anyone other than who are necessary there; not to cause any person who is engaged there in the radiation-related works to be exposed to the radiation dose more than 3 rem within 3 months and any other person who has access regularly thereto to be exposed to more than 1.5 rem within a year; and to build special rooms for containing prescribed radiation-related appliances or apparatus. Chapter 4 requires the employer to build special working rooms for the treatment of such radioactive substances that are not sealed up tightly, and also prescribes the requirements concerning the construction of such rooms. (Matsushima, A.)

  6. 76 FR 16613 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast Region, NMFS (Assistant Regional Administrator), has made a.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: An application for an EFP was submitted by the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) on February 18, 2011, in support of a project preliminarily selected under the New England and...

  7. 75 FR 58352 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Issuance of an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... fishing. SUMMARY: The Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast Region, NMFS, has issued a revised EFP in support of a drop chain small mesh net study conducted by the University of Rhode... temporarily retained for data collection purposes. Field work for this project began in April 2010, and 8 of...

  8. 78 FR 21114 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... for Sustainable Fisheries, Northeast Region, NMFS (Assistant Regional Administrator), has made a... University Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, NY. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... limits to conduct onboard sampling. This project proposes to evaluate bottom trawl modifications as a...

  9. 77 FR 5492 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... the Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog Georges Bank Closure Area. This would continue research to... testing to obtain additional data in locations where toxin levels may be higher than were present during the pilot phase of the study. NMFS has made a preliminary determination that the exempted fishing...

  10. 76 FR 65698 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog Georges Bank Closure Area to continue testing the safety and efficacy of... research project that has been ongoing since 2006. NMS has made a preliminary determination that the...: http://www.nero.noaa.gov/sfd/clams . This project is a pilot program with the goal of determining if...

  11. 78 FR 34039 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...) Georges Bank winter flounder. Sec. 648.86(l) Zero retention of Atlantic wolffish. Sec. 648.86(o..., fecundity, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), food habits, and genetic research. The yellowtail... (GOM), Georges Bank (GB), Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic (SNE/MA)), or 1,200 fish total from each...

  12. 78 FR 21115 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... monkfish for sale, but the sampling locations are determined by CCE. To conduct compensation fishing in... as to how the waiver could influence fishing behavior, and if it could increase the likelihood of an... white hake and witch flounder, which would be landed for commercial sale. All catch of Northeast...

  13. 78 FR 38692 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... the influence of temperature on monkfish distribution and abundance. Regulations under the Magnuson... goal of this study is to investigate the influence of temperature on monkfish distribution and... use standard commercial gear and land monkfish for sale. Monkfish EFPs that waive possession limits...

  14. 76 FR 22875 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... millimeter); sex; shell hardness; culls and shell damage; external gross pathology (including shell disease... lobster stock biomass in waters off New Jersey, in relation to overall commercial landings of lobster in... recording their size, sex, and presence of shell disease, before being promptly released back into the ocean...

  15. 76 FR 12715 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... and marketing evaluation and strategies; and outreach and implementation of the project results. The... devise strategies and means to efficiently harvest the redfish resource in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) while... in terms of their potential effects on results. Sources of variability include: Area fished; seasonal...

  16. 78 FR 32375 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 02543-1026, or online at: www.nefsc.noaa.gov/nefsc/publications/ . The revised EFP would exempt vessels.... Category F vessels would be charged monkfish RSA DAS at a higher pro- rated rate of 2.909:1 RSA DAS for... tail-to-whole-weight conversion factor from 3.32 to 2.91, which essentially reduced the whole weight...

  17. 78 FR 32374 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... surfclam/ocean quahog cage, and would allow project participants to test alternatives to the industry... applicant stated that offloading into cages can be burdensome and dangerous and the extra handling and the... proposed research and have minimal impacts that do not change the scope or impact of the initially approved...

  18. 78 FR 46922 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... methods: Email: [email protected] . Include in the subject line ``Comments on CFRF Lobster EFP.'' Mail... fishing activity, with one or two scientist(s) from the University of Rhode Island onboard each vessel. Gear would be set for a 5-day soak during regular commercial fishing trips, without a scientist onboard...

  19. 75 FR 15684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... all of the required information and warrants further consideration. Study Fleet projects are managed by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth School of Marine Science and Technology (SMAST). The EFP... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9177. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  20. 78 FR 38693 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens..., 978-281-9177. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine... preliminary determination that an exempted fishing permit application contains all of the required information...

  1. 78 FR 21913 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens... preliminary determination that an exempted fishing permit application contains all of the required information....'' Fax: (978) 281-9135. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jason Berthiaume, Fishery Management Specialist...

  2. 76 FR 65181 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The School for Marine Science and Technology at the University of Massachusetts... would be conducted by the School for Marine Science and Technology at the University of Massachusetts... preliminary determination that an exempted fishing permit application contains all of the required information...

  3. 78 FR 32375 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ..., Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology. Regulations under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, School for Marine Science and Technology... study and examining the influence of temperature. To facilitate compensation fishing in support of this...

  4. 75 FR 38458 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... structure and have planned experiments to compare settlement behavior of different larval stages between... larval settlement by comparing settlement behavior of inshore and offshore lobster populations being..., six egg-bearing, legal-sized, female lobsters. The researchers are studying settlement behavior of...

  5. 76 FR 17109 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Extension for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... tagging, and model development to better evaluate the growth and reproductive performance of the... to initial logistical delays and additional time to complete research and funding components of this... study remain consistent with the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan. If approved, the...

  6. 75 FR 67083 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Research program. The primary objective of this study is to assess the effects of different stressors on... Reflex Action Mortality Predictors (RAMP) under different stressors to assess the discard mortality rates... research landings from the VTRs in their ACE accounting, in addition to the vessel's dealer-recorded...

  7. Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

  8. [Limitations to the physician's discretionary and therapeutic freedom and to the provision of health care for the general population by a shortage of financial and human resources--the rules of Section 2 Para. 1 and 4 of the Medical Professional Code of conduct and how much they are really worth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Jörg-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Up to the early 1990's the health care system was essentially characterised through:--the insured' right of choice of therapist,--therapeutic freedom of patients and physicians, and--the freedom of establishment for medical doctors.--In accordance with the Hospital Funding Act the hospital system was--in compliance with federal constitutional law using capacity requirements--based on the "fire-fighting" principle, i.e. that if required, every patient should have access to a suitable hospital bed within about 15 minutes.--The responsibility for ensuring the provision of general and specialist health care services had been conferred by the government to the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (1955) in the legal form of a public corporation. In the face of a foreseeable rise in expenses as a result of advances in medicine and a higher demand for health care services because of the demographic development (long-life society) the Advisory Council for Concerted Action in Health Care concludes in its Annual Report that maintaining this level of health care for all people is not financially viable any longer. This is why the state--on the basis of the Health Care Reform Act of 2002 and the Statutory Health Insurance System Modernisation Act of 2004--retreated from the provision of services in the ambulatory and inpatient setting by privatising these sectors and by proclaiming competition (introduction of diagnosis-related groups). Presently, the once liberal performance tradition is more and more turning into a centrally planned system in the spirit of "From Therapeutic Freedom to Therapeutic Programmes". The guidelines that on the basis of the methods of evidence-based medicine were developed by the international community of physicians for the treatment of patients with defined diagnoses and intended to be decision aids for individual treatment decisions are now used to implement disease management programmes for the provision of health care to

  9. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  10. Bereavement Care Provision in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla

    2015-01-01

    The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...

  11. 75 FR 9281 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...); Actitis hypoleucos (Common Sandpiper) is listed as Tringa hypoleucos (J & R); Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) is listed as Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (R); Anas americana (American Wigeon) is listed as Mareca... Cuculus optatus (AOU 2006); Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Parakeet Auklet) becomes Aethia psittacula (AOU...

  12. 50 CFR 27.31 - General provisions regarding vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designated routes of travel, as indicated by the appropriate traffic control signs or signals and in... wildlife refuge or portion thereof is located shall govern traffic and the operation and use of vehicles... arrives at the scene of the accident, unless such vehicle constitutes a traffic or safety hazard. (l) A...

  13. 45 CFR 73.735-401 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees to be a matter of their own concern. However, employees shall not by failure to meet their just... each just financial obligation in a proper and timely manner. A “just financial obligation” is one... official time, or (2) It appears that financial difficulties are impairing the employee's efficiency on the...

  14. 45 CFR 73.735-701 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... undertakings. There are certain types of outside work, however, which give rise to a real or apparent conflict... include all possible conflicts of interest. In all instances, good judgment must be used to avoid a conflict between an employee's Federal responsibilities and outside activities. (b) An employee shall not...

  15. 16 CFR 3.31 - General discovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bureaus or Offices of the Commission that investigated the matter, including the Bureau of Economics. The... Constitution, any applicable act of Congress, or the principles of the common law as they may be interpreted by...

  16. 40 CFR 79.51 - General requirements and provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460. (iv) As part of a written response to a notice... equipment (including vehicle model and/or engine, or Evaporative Emissions Generator specifications, as...

  17. 28 CFR 68.18 - Discovery-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.18..., including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any books, documents, or...

  18. 7 CFR 59.201 - General reporting provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY...

  19. 7 CFR 59.10 - General administrative provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY...

  20. 13 CFR 115.12 - General program policies and provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or indirectly, construction, operation, renovation or improvement of a casino or other gambling... NAICS codes: (i) 713210—“Casinos (Except Casino Hotels)”; (ii) 721120—“Casino Hotels”; (iii) 713290...

  1. 15 CFR 921.1 - Mission, goals and general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or state authority (e.g., threatened/endangered species or significant historical or cultural.../unintentional species composition changes—introduced and exotic species). In those areas proposed or designated..., draft management plan preparation and conduct of basic characterization studies. Acquisition and...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for any part of the contract work shall require any laborer or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety. (b) Accident prevention responsibilities. (1) It shall be the...

  3. 78 FR 65843 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius, becomes Blue Rock-Thrush (Clements 2007); Clay-colored Robin, Turdus... (1). Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola solitarius Blue Rock-Thrush, Monticola (8). solitarius (8). Rufous... cycle to coincide with updates to the Birds of Conservation Concern, thus balancing the frequency of...

  4. 76 FR 23427 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... most aspects of the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and..., transportation, sale, purchase, barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. An accurate and up-to... Solicitor has determined that the proposed rule would not unduly burden the judicial system and meets the...

  5. 40 CFR 75.57 - General recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units utilizing a common stack and common monitoring systems, pursuant to §§ 75.16 through 75.18, or... provisional certification; (5) The current monitoring plan as specified in § 75.53, beginning with the initial... a common stack and a common monitoring system or utilizing a common pipe header and common fuel...

  6. 77 FR 25577 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... diversity and inclusion within the institution's workforce and management. In addition, the business plan of... simply address diversity, inclusion, affirmative action, and management succession, or that the marketing... included in the human capital plan or marketing plan component of the business plan, the institution can...

  7. 29 CFR 1960.66 - Purpose, scope and general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Executive Order, must be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy shall be recorded... workers' compensation or any other benefits. The requirements of this part do not diminish or modify in... the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA), 5 U...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1439 - General recordkeeping and reporting provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.... (B) Annually after initial installation. (C) After any change to the programming or equipment...

  9. 36 CFR 292.15 - General provisions-procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assigned to land use categories as shown on the Land Use Category Map, dated December 15, 1973, as amended... of scenic, natural, historic, pastoral, wildlife, and other values. (b) Land use categories. Land use...) Agriculture. All properties outside designated communities not placed in a residential or commercial land use...

  10. 76 FR 30280 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... of agriculture practiced, and market segment; and Strategies and actions to provide the institution's... and inclusion within each market segment, and an assessment of the progress the institution is making... activities and education efforts that market to underserved populations regarding business and financial...

  11. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  13. Using generalized equivalent uniform dose atlases to combine and analyze prospective dosimetric and radiation pneumonitis data from 2 non-small cell lung cancer dose escalation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Yorke, Ellen D; Belderbos, José S A; Borst, Gerben R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lebesque, Joos V; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate≥20% were plotted. The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proposed general amendments to the atomic energy control regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Act defines the powers and responsibilities of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Among these is to make regulations to control the development, application and use of atomic energy. In these proposed general amendments to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations substantial changes are proposed in the designation of the authority of AECB staff, exemptions from licensing, international safeguards, duties of licensees and atomic radiation workers, security of information, and provision for hearings. The scope of the control of atomic energy has been redefined as relating to matters of health, safety, security, international safeguards, and the protection of the environment

  15. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    The subject is dealt with under the following headings: environmental radiation (natural sources; power production by nuclear fission for civil programmes and the nuclear fuel cycle; nuclear explosions; exposures due to nuclear research, the use of radioisotopes and other uses of atomic energy); medical radiation exposure (diagnostic radiology equipment; doses from specific x-ray procedures); occupational exposure (nuclear fuel cycle; research, industrial, medical and defence establishments); miscellaneous sources of radiation. (U.K.)

  16. Security framework for virtualised infrastructure services provisioned on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, C.; Membrey, P.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is developing as a new wave of ICT technologies, offering a common approach to on-demand provisioning computation, storage and network resources which are generally referred to as infrastructure services. Most of currently available commercial Cloud services are built and organized

  17. the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of this notion in South African law and its meaning in general is ... be it of a private or public law nature, can escape the test of constitutionality. ... to international authorities and definitions of these concepts are developed. ... The Constitutional Court has determined that, although no express provision to this ...

  18. 19 CFR 351.511 - Provision of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 351.511 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... services. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case where goods or services are provided, a benefit exists to... import duties. (b) Time of receipt of benefit. In the case of the provision of a good or service, the...

  19. Optimal provision of public goods with rank dependent expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Erling

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the theory of rank-dependent expected utility (RDEU) is substituted for the theory of expected utility (EU) in a model of optimal provision of public goods. The substitution generalizes the Samuelson rule, previously modified to include deadweight loss and tax evasion loss.

  20. 26 CFR 1.422-5 - Permissible provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture and not transferable...) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-5 Permissible provisions. (a) General rule. An option that otherwise qualifies as an incentive stock option does not fail to be an incentive stock option merely...

  1. An Academic Literacies Argument for Decentralizing EAP Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2016-01-01

    English-medium universities have generally adopted centralized models of in-sessional English language provision, where expertise resides and is often delivered within language development units or as part of larger cognate departments, typically TESOL or Applied Linguistics departments. This arrangement might be seen as reflecting a…

  2. 7 CFR 457.133 - Prune crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... roadside stand, farmer's market, and permitting the general public to enter the field for the purpose of... (except where otherwise provided in the Special Provisions); (d) That are grown in an orchard that, if... not been controlled or pruning debris has not been removed from the orchard; (3) Wildlife; (4...

  3. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants d'origine medicale. Propositions pour la mise en place et le developpement d'activites de surveillance epidemiologique en population generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  4. Examination of aerosol distributions and radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea region during ICARB using satellite data and a general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cherian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse aerosol loading and its direct radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal (BoB and Arabian Sea (AS regions for the Integrated Campaign on Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB undertaken during 2006, using satellite data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, the Aerosol Index from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board the Aura satellite, and the European-Community Hamburg (ECHAM5.5 general circulation model extended by Hamburg Aerosol Module (HAM. By statistically comparing with large-scale satellite data sets, we firstly show that the aerosol properties measured during the ship-based ICARB campaign and simulated by the model are representative for the BoB and AS regions and the pre-monsoon season. In a second step, the modelled aerosol distributions were evaluated by a comparison with the measurements from the ship-based sunphotometer, and the satellite retrievals during ICARB. It is found that the model broadly reproduces the observed spatial and temporal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD over BoB and AS regions. However, AOD was systematically underestimated during high-pollution episodes, especially in the BoB leg. We show that this underprediction of AOD is mostly because of the deficiencies in the coarse mode, where the model shows that dust is the dominant component. The analysis of dust AOD along with the OMI Aerosol Index indicate that missing dust transport that results from too low dust emission fluxes over the Thar Desert region in the model caused this deficiency. Thirdly, we analysed the spatio-temporal variability of AOD comparing the ship-based observations to the large-scale satellite observations and simulations. It was found that most of the variability along the track was from geographical patterns, with a minor influence by single events. Aerosol fields were homogeneous enough to yield a good statistical agreement

  5. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications

  6. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test... for administration to humans. The general safety test is required in addition to other specific tests...

  7. Intraoral radiology in general dental practices. A comparison of digital and film-based X-ray systems with regard to radiation protection and dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anissi, H.D. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dentistry; Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Surgery

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. Materials and Methods: 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). Results: 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Conclusion: Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. (orig.)

  8. Intraoral radiology in general dental practices - a comparison of digital and film-based X-ray systems with regard to radiation protection and dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissi, H D; Geibel, M A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. ► Responsible use of digital intraoral radiology results in a significant

  9. Intraoral radiology in general dental practices. A comparison of digital and film-based X-ray systems with regard to radiation protection and dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anissi, H.D.; Geibel, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. Materials and Methods: 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). Results: 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Conclusion: Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. (orig.)

  10. Radiation protection at new reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, A.

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  11. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  12. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  13. 24 CFR 1000.8 - May provisions of these regulations be waived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May provisions of these regulations be waived? 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.8 May provisions of these...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.32 - May exceptions be made to the conflict of interest provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conflict of interest provisions? 1000.32 Section 1000.32 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.32... conflict of interest provisions set forth in § 1000.30(b) on a case-by-case basis when it determines that...

  15. 29 CFR 783.21 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption...'s Provisions § 783.21 Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions. It is clear... it applies (Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U...

  16. Evaluation of general-purpose collimators against high-resolution collimators with resolution recovery with a view to reducing radiation dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT: A preliminary phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Saint, Kimberley J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing focus on reducing radiation dose to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging. This preliminary phantom study aims to evaluate the use of general-purpose collimators with resolution recovery (RR) to allow a reduction in patient radiation dose. Images of a cardiac torso phantom with inferior and anterior wall defects were acquired on a GE Infinia and Siemens Symbia T6 using both high-resolution and general-purpose collimators. Imaging time, a surrogate for administered activity, was reduced between 35% and 40% with general-purpose collimators to match the counts acquired with high-resolution collimators. Images were reconstructed with RR with and without attenuation correction. Two pixel sizes were also investigated. Defect contrast was measured. Defect contrast on general-purpose images was superior or comparable to the high-resolution collimators on both systems despite the reduced imaging time. Infinia general-purpose images required a smaller pixel size to be used to maintain defect contrast, while Symbia T6 general-purpose images did not require a change in pixel size to that used for standard myocardial perfusion SPECT. This study suggests that general-purpose collimators with RR offer a potential for substantial dose reductions while providing similar or better image quality to images acquired using high-resolution collimators.

  17. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Data available on the biological effects of radiation on man are reviewed, with emphasis on dose response to low LET and high LET radiation sources, and the effects of dose rate. Existing guides for radiation protection were formulated largely on the basis of tumor induction in the bone of radium dial painters, but the ICRP/NCRP annual dose guides of 5 rem/yr are of the same general magnitude as the doses received in several parts of the world from the natural radiation environment. Because of the greater sensitivity of rapidly dividing cells and the assumption that radiation occupations would not begin before the age of eighteen, maximum exposure levels were set as 5 (N-18) rem/yr, where N is the exposed worker's age in years. However, in the case of the natural radiation environment, exposure commences, in a sense, with the exposure of the ovum of the individual's mother; and the ovum is formed during the fetal development of the mother. In occupational exposures, the professional health physicist has always practiced the as low as practical philosophy, and exposures have generally averaged far below the guidelines. The average annual exposure of the radiation worker in modern plants and laboratories is approximately equal to the average natural radiation environment exposure rate and far lower than the natural radiation environment in many parts of the world. There are numerous complications and uncertainties in quantifying radiation effects on humans, however, the greatest is that due to having to extrapolate from high dose levels at which effects have been measured and quantified, to low levels at which most exposures occur but at which no effects have been observed

  18. Royal Order of 24 May 1977 amending the Royal Order of 28 February 1963 on General Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Royal Order amends the Royal Order of 28 February 1963, as revised, embodying the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations. The amendment refers in particular to the conditions for the direct supply by manufacturers or importers of unsealed radioactive substances, radioisotopes or preparations containing them, to duly authorized physicians, veterinary surgeons and chemists. It also refers to the conditions of use of devices and substances emitting ionizing radiations, as well as to the licensing conditions for holders of isotopes and the qualifications of users. (NEA) [fr

  19. Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982 (South Australia) No.49 of 29 April 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of activities related to radioactive substances and radiation apparatus as well as for protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It also amends the Health Act, 1935-1980 by deleting certain provisions concerning, inter alia, radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. The Act states as its general objective that the competent authorities in the exercise of their duties and any person carrying on activities involving radioactive substances and equipment emitting ionizing radiation shall try to ensure that exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is kept as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (the ALARA principle recommended by the International Commission on radiological Protection). (NEA) [fr

  20. Improving the provision of public transport information for persons with disabilities in the developing world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available will be completed in August 2005) aims to design and test appropriate low-cost technologies for information provision in services provided by public transport vehicles in India and South Africa. This project is seeking to address information provision issues... that they use or with a companion if desired. 2.2 Methods of provision Methods of information provision include the following: � Information given directly to the disabled traveller (e.g. from speaking signs, a staffed telephone help-line) � General...