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Sample records for radiation bowen ratio

  1. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  2. Bowen ratio over the Norway spruce stand

    Taufarová, Klára; Dvořáková, Marcela; Czerný, Radek; Pokorný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), s. 131-136 ISSN 1803-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Bowen ratio * evapotranspiration * transpiration * eddy covariance technique Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  3. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  4. Technical note: Using distributed temperature sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    Schilperoort, Bart; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Willem; Jiménez Rodríguez, César; Cisneros Vaca, César; Savenije, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology now allow its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by ) is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS), to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Bowen ratio is derived from DTS-measured vertical profiles of the air temperature and wet-bulb temperature. However, in previous research the measured temperatures were not validated, and the cables were not shielded from solar radiation. Additionally, the BR-DTS method has not been tested above a forest before, where temperature gradients are small and energy storage in the air column becomes important. In this paper the accuracy of the wet-bulb and air temperature measurements of the DTS are verified, and the resulting Bowen ratio and heat fluxes are compared to eddy covariance data. The performance of BR-DTS was tested on a 46 m high tower in a mixed forest in the centre of the Netherlands in August 2016. The average tree height is 26 to 30 m, and the temperatures are measured below, in, and above the canopy. Using the vertical temperature profiles the storage of latent and sensible heat in the air column was calculated. We found a significant effect of solar radiation on the temperature measurements, leading to a deviation of up to 3 K. By installing screens, the error caused by sunlight is reduced to under 1 K. Wind speed seems to have a minimal effect on the measured wet-bulb temperature, both below and above the canopy. After a simple quality control, the Bowen ratio measured by DTS correlates well with eddy covariance (EC) estimates (r2 = 0.59). The average energy balance closure between BR-DTS and EC is good, with a mean underestimation of 3.4 W m-2 by the BR-DTS method. However, during daytime the BR-DTS method overestimates the available energy, and during night-time the BR-DTS method estimates the available energy to be more negative. This difference could be

  5. Technical note: using Distributed Temperature Sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    Schilperoort, B.; Coenders, Miriam; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Jimenez Rodriguez, C.D.; Cisneros Vaca2, C.; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology now allows its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by Euser [Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2021–2032 (2014)] is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS),

  6. Interannual variation of the Bowen ratio in a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeast China, 2003-2012.

    Yakun Tang

    Full Text Available The interannual variation of the Bowen ratio, through its effect on the warming extent of available energy to the ecosystem land surface air, heavily influences the ecosystem microclimate and affects the hydrological cycle at both regional and global scales. Although the precipitation amount in southeast China is not expected to change greatly as a result of climate change, the precipitation frequency may be altered in the future. We explored the interannual variation of the Bowen ratio and its affecting mechanisms based on eddy covariance measurements in a subtropical plantation in southeast China during 2003-2012. The results indicated that the annual mean Bowen ratio was 0.35 ± 0.06, with a range of 0.29-0.45. The Bowen ratio during the dry season (July-October positively correlated with the annual Bowen ratio (R(2 = 0.85, p<0.001. The effective precipitation frequency during the dry season, through its positive effect on shallow soil water content, indirectly and negatively affected the annual Bowen ratio. Between 2003 and 2012, the annual Bowen ratio exhibited a marginally significant decreasing trend (p = 0.061, meanwhile the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season increased significantly (p<0.001. The annual Bowen ratio may decrease further if the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season follow similar trends in the future. The warming effect of available energy to the surface air of our studied plantation may decline with the decreasing annual Bowen ratio.

  7. Anomalously high intercombination line ratios in symbiotic stars; extreme Bowen pumping?

    Kastner, S.O.; Bhatia, A.K.; Feibelman, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    We assemble International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ratio of the O III intercombination lines near 1660 A, showing that the observed ratios in symbiotic stars are significantly higher than the theoretically predicted optically thin limit of 2.5. The presence of an enhancing physical process is thereby indicated. It is suggested that Bowen pumping of the lower level of the 1666.2 A line in an 'external saturation' limit, coupled with appreciable optical depth, could logically explain the high ratios. Some tentative evidence for this is presented and the relevance of far-infrared observations of the O III 51.8 and 88.3 μm lines in symbiotic sources is emphasized. (author)

  8. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  9. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  10. Análise das necessidades hídricas da vegetação Tamarisk através da razão de Bowen e do modelo SEBAL Water demand analysis of the Tamarisk vegetation through of the Bowen ratio and SEBAL model

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a evapotranspiração real diária (ETr da vegetação tamarisk utilizando dados micrometeorológicos e o modelo SEBAL. Foram utilizados dados provenientes do método da razão de Bowen, além do modelo SEBAL aplicado a imagens do Landsat 5 - TM, na obtenção da ETr diária da vegetação tamarisk do Baixo Rio Colorado, CA/EUA. Na obtenção da evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 foi utilizado o método da FAO/Penman-Monteith. Os resultados mostram características de forte advecção de ar, e que a radiação solar é o componente de maior influência na obtenção da ET0. Verifica-se também, que a vegetação tamarisk tem alto consumo hídrico e a sua rápida expansão poderá trazer impactos negativos para os rios da região. As estimativas da ETr pelo modelo SEBAL são similares aos valores medidos na torre micrometeorológica pelo método da razão de Bowen, demonstrando a aplicabilidade do modelo SEBAL na obtenção da distribuição espacial da evapotranspiração real diária.The objective of this study was to determine the daily actual evapotranspiration (ETr of the tamarisk vegetation using micrometeorological data and SEBAL model. Data originating from the Bowen ratio method were used, besides the SEBAL model applied to TM Landsat 5 image for obtaining the daily ETr of the tamarisk vegetation of Lower Colorado River, CA/USA. For obtaining the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 the FAO/Penman-Monteith method was used. The results show characteristics of strong air advection and that the solar radiation has the largest influence in obtaining ET0, as well as, that the tamarisk vegetation has high water demand and its fast expansion can bring negative impacts for the rivers of the area. The estimates of ETr through the SEBAL model are similar to the measured values on the micrometeorological tower by the Bowen ratio method, demonstrating the applicability of the SEBAL model to obtain the spatial

  11. Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber

    Held, A. A.; Steduto, P.; Orgaz, F.; Matista, A.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes a Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) system which, in conjunction with an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA), is referred to as BREB+ and is used to estimate evapotranspiration ( ET) and net CO2 flux ( NCF) over crop canopies. The system is composed of a net radiometer, soil heat flux plates, two psychrometers based on platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), bridge circuits to measure resistances, an IRGA, air pumps and switching valves, and a data logger. The psychrometers are triple shielded and aspirated, and with aspiration also between the two inner shields. High resistance (1 000 ohm) PRT's are used for dry and wet bulbs to minimize errors due to wiring and connector resistances. A high (55 K ohm) fixed resistance serves as one arm of the resistance bridge to ensure linearity in output signals. To minimize gaps in data, to allow measurements at short (e.g., 5 min) intervals, and to simplify operation, the psychrometers were fixed at their upper and lower position over the crop and not alternated. Instead, the PRT's, connected to the bridge circuit and the data logger, were carefully calibrated together. Field tests using a common air source showed appartent effects of the local environment around each psychrometer on the temperatures measured. ET rates estimated with the BREB system were compared to those measured with large lysimeters. Daily totals agreed within 5%. There was a tendency, however, for the lysimeter measurements to lag behind the BREB measurements. Daily patterns of NCF estimated with the BREB+ system are consistent with expectations from theories and data in the literature. Side-by-side comparisons with a stirred Mylar canopy chamber showed similar NCF patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies between the results of the two methods were quite marked in the morning or afternoon on certain dates. Part of the discrepancies may be attributed to inaccuracies in the psychrometric temperature measurements. Other possible causes

  12. Balanço de energia e estimativa da evapotranspiração em culturas irrigadas de maracujazeiro pelo método da razão de Bowen Energy balance and estimative of the evapotranspiration of irrigated passionfruit crops by the Bowen ratio method

    Tonny J. A. Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do maracujazeiro-amarelo tem tido grande expansão da área cultivada no Estado de São Paulo e, apesar da importância da irrigação para a cultura, há poucos estudos sobre sua utilização. Este trabalho foi realizado na área experimental de irrigação, na Fazenda Areão, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP (Piracicaba - SP. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, gradientes de temperatura e pressão de vapor do ar com o objetivo de avaliar a partição da energia disponível e a evapotranspiração em cultivo de maracujazeiros em dois sistemas de plantio (linhas de cultivo norte-sul e leste-oeste. O método da razão de Bowen foi utilizado na determinação dos fluxos de calor sensível e latente. O saldo de radiação não foi influenciado pelo sistema de plantio, sendo equivalente a 60% da radiação global. O componente de maior contribuição no balanço de energia foi o calor latente de evaporação ocorrendo imediatamente após a chuva ou irrigação. A utilização do modelo de análise e exclusão de intervalos em que o método da Razão de Bowen falha, melhora a estimativa da evapotranspiração.Passionfruit crop has been having great expansion in the cultivated area of São Paulo State and beside the irrigation importance for crop; there are few studies about its utilization. This work was carried out at the experimental irrigation farm of the Engineering Department - College of Agriculture "Luiz de Queiroz" - ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Were collected micrometeorological data from net radiation, soil flux heat, temperature and vapor pressure gradient with the aim to evaluate the partition of available energy and evapotranspiration of passionfruit crop planted under two row directions (North-South and East-West. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine both sensible and latent fluxes. The net

  13. Bower ratio-energy balance associated errors in vineyards under dripping irrigation Erros associados pela razão de bowen ao balanço de energia em parreirais sob irrigação por gotejamento

    José Monteiro Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Bebedouro Experimental Station in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, to evaluate the errors associated to the application of the Bowen ratio-energy balance in a 3-years old vineyard (Vitis vinifera, L, grown in a trellis system, irrigated by dripping. The field measurements were taken during fruiting cycle (July to November, 2001, which was divided into eigth phenological stages. A micrometeorological tower was mounted in a grape-plants row in which sensors of net radiation, global solar radiation and wind speed were installed at about 1.0 m above the canopy. Also in the tower, two psicometers were installed at two levels (0.5 and 1.8 m above the vineyard canopy. Two soil heat flux plates were buried at 0.02 m beneath the soil surface. All these sensors were connected to a Data logger 21 X of Campbell Scientific Inc., programmed for collecting data once every 5 seconds and storage averages for every 15 minutes. A comparative analysis were made among four Bowen ratio accepting/rejecting rules, according to the methodology proposed by Spano et al. (2000: betar1 - values of beta calculated by Bowen (1926 equation; betar2 - values of beta as proposed by Verma et al. (1978 equation; betar3 - exclusion of the beta values obtained as recommended by Unland et al. (1996 and betar4 - exclusion of the beta values calculated as proposed by Bowen (1926, out of the interval (-0.7 Este estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, para avaliar os erros associados com a aplicação do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen em um parreiral (Vitis vinifera, L com três anos de idade, conduzido em latada, sob irrigação por gotejamento. As medições foram feitas durante o ciclo produtivo de julho a novembro de 2001, que foi dividido em oito estádios fenológicos. Numa torre micrometeorológica localizada no centro do parreiral, foram instalados a 1,00 m acima do dossel da videira, os seguintes

  14. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  15. On the Equality Assumption of Latent and Sensible Heat Energy Transfer Coefficients of the Bowen Ratio Theory for Evapotranspiration Estimations: Another Look at the Potential Causes of Inequalities

    Suat Irmak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET and sensible heat (H flux play a critical role in climate change; micrometeorology; atmospheric investigations; and related studies. They are two of the driving variables in climate impact(s and hydrologic balance dynamics. Therefore, their accurate estimate is important for more robust modeling of the aforementioned relationships. The Bowen ratio energy balance method of estimating ET and H diffusions depends on the assumption that the diffusivities of latent heat (KV and sensible heat (KH are always equal. This assumption is re-visited and analyzed for a subsurface drip-irrigated field in south central Nebraska. The inequality dynamics for subsurface drip-irrigated conditions have not been studied. Potential causes that lead KV to differ from KH and a rectification procedure for the errors introduced by the inequalities were investigated. Actual ET; H; and other surface energy flux parameters using an eddy covariance system and a Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (located side by side on an hourly basis were measured continuously for two consecutive years for a non-stressed and subsurface drip-irrigated maize canopy. Most of the differences between KV and KH appeared towards the higher values of KV and KH. Although it was observed that KV was predominantly higher than KH; there were considerable data points showing the opposite. In general; daily KV ranges from about 0.1 m2∙s−1 to 1.6 m2∙s−1; and KH ranges from about 0.05 m2∙s−1 to 1.1 m2∙s−1. The higher values for KV and KH appear around March and April; and around September and October. The lower values appear around mid to late December and around late June to early July. Hourly estimates of KV range between approximately 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.8 m2∙s−1 and that of KH ranges approximately between 0 m2∙s−1 to 1.7 m2∙s−1. The inequalities between KV and KH varied diurnally as well as seasonally. The inequalities were greater during the non

  16. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    D. J. Bolinius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  17. Shifted energy fluxes, increased Bowen ratios, and reduced thaw depths linked with drainage-induced changes in permafrost ecosystem structure

    Göckede, Mathias; Kittler, Fanny; Kwon, Min Jung; Burjack, Ina; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic conditions are a key factor in Arctic ecosystems, with strong influences on ecosystem structure and related effects on biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. With systematic changes in water availability expected for large parts of the northern high-latitude region in the coming centuries, knowledge on shifts in ecosystem functionality triggered by altered water levels is crucial for reducing uncertainties in climate change predictions. Here, we present findings from paired ecosystem observations in northeast Siberia comprising a drained and a control site. At the drainage site, the water table has been artificially lowered by up to 30 cm in summer for more than a decade. This sustained primary disturbance in hydrologic conditions has triggered a suite of secondary shifts in ecosystem properties, including vegetation community structure, snow cover dynamics, and radiation budget, all of which influence the net effects of drainage. Reduced thermal conductivity in dry organic soils was identified as the dominating drainage effect on energy budget and soil thermal regime. Through this effect, reduced heat transfer into deeper soil layers leads to shallower thaw depths, initially leading to a stabilization of organic permafrost soils, while the long-term effects on permafrost temperature trends still need to be assessed. At the same time, more energy is transferred back into the atmosphere as sensible heat in the drained area, which may trigger a warming of the lower atmospheric surface layer.

  18. Shifted energy fluxes, increased Bowen ratios, and reduced thaw depths linked with drainage-induced changes in permafrost ecosystem structure

    M. Göckede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic conditions are a key factor in Arctic ecosystems, with strong influences on ecosystem structure and related effects on biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. With systematic changes in water availability expected for large parts of the northern high-latitude region in the coming centuries, knowledge on shifts in ecosystem functionality triggered by altered water levels is crucial for reducing uncertainties in climate change predictions. Here, we present findings from paired ecosystem observations in northeast Siberia comprising a drained and a control site. At the drainage site, the water table has been artificially lowered by up to 30 cm in summer for more than a decade. This sustained primary disturbance in hydrologic conditions has triggered a suite of secondary shifts in ecosystem properties, including vegetation community structure, snow cover dynamics, and radiation budget, all of which influence the net effects of drainage. Reduced thermal conductivity in dry organic soils was identified as the dominating drainage effect on energy budget and soil thermal regime. Through this effect, reduced heat transfer into deeper soil layers leads to shallower thaw depths, initially leading to a stabilization of organic permafrost soils, while the long-term effects on permafrost temperature trends still need to be assessed. At the same time, more energy is transferred back into the atmosphere as sensible heat in the drained area, which may trigger a warming of the lower atmospheric surface layer.

  19. N III Bowen Lines and Fluorescence Mechanism in the Symbiotic Star AG Peg

    Hyung, Siek; Lee, Seong-Jae; Lee, Kang Hwan

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the intensities and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the high dispersion spectroscopic N III emission lines of AG Peg, observed with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) in three different epochs at Mt. Hamilton's Lick Observatory. The earlier theoretical Bowen line study assumed the continuum fluorescence effect, presenting a large discrepancy with the present data. Hence, we analyzed the observed N III lines assuming line fluorescence as the only suitable source: (1) The O III and N III resonance line profiles near λ 374 were decomposed, using the Gaussian function, and the contributions from various O III line components were determined. (2) Based on the theoretical resonant N III intensities, the expected N III Bowen intensities were obtained to fit the observed values. Our study shows that the incoming line photon number ratio must be considered to balance at each N III Bowen line level in the ultraviolet radiation according to the observed lines in the optical zone. We also found that the average FWHM of the N III Bowen lines was about 5 km·s-1 greater than that of the O III Bowen lines, perhaps due to the inherently different kinematic characteristics of their emission zones.

  20. Bowen-York tensors

    Beig, Robert; Krammer, Werner

    2004-01-01

    For a conformally flat 3-space, we derive a family of linear second-order partial differential operators which sends vectors into trace-free, symmetric 2-tensors. These maps, which are parametrized by conformal Killing vectors on the 3-space, are such that the divergence of the resulting tensor field depends only on the divergence of the original vector field. In particular, these maps send source-free electric fields into TT tensors. Moreover, if the original vector field is the Coulomb field on R 3 {0}, the resulting tensor fields on R 3 {0} are nothing but the family of TT tensors originally written by Bowen and York

  1. Estimativa do balanço de energia em cambarazal e pastagem no norte do Pantanal pelo método da razão de Bowen Estimate of energy balance in cambarazaland pasture in the north of Pantanal by Bowen ratio method

    Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do balanço de energia de uma superfície vegetada e a atmosfera é importante para caracterizar o microclima local, identificar interações entre variáveis ambientais e a vegetação, e identificar efeitos das atividades antropogênicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a variação sazonal do balanço de energia pelo método da razão de Bowen em uma área de vegetação monodominante de Cambará na RPPN SESC-Pantanal e uma área de pastagem na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram sazonalidade, com maiores médias na estação chuvosa nas duas áreas de estudo. No cambarazal houve maior variação do fluxo de calor latente da estação seca para a chuvosa que na pastagem. Entretanto, a variação sazonal do fluxo de calor sensível foi menor no cambarazal que na pastagem, devido ao efeito termo-regulador do cambarazal, em função da maior biomassa. A energia disponível aos dois sítios foi destinada prioritariamente em fluxo de calor latente, 80,0% no cambarazal e 56,6% na pastagem, seguido pelo fluxo de calor sensível, 19,1 e 42,9%, e pelo fluxo de calor no solo, 0,3 e 7,2%.The energy balance study of a vegetated surface and atmosphere is important to characterize the local microclimate, identify interactions among environmental variables and the vegetation and to identify anthropogenic activities effects. The objective of this work was estimate the seasonality of energy balance by Bowen ratio method in a monodominant vegetation of Cambará area in the RPPN SESC-Pantanal and a pasture area in UFMT's Experimental Farm. The energy balance components presented seasonality, with larger averages at the rainy station in two areas of study. In the cambarazal was a higher variation of the latent heat flux of the dry season for the rainy season that in the pasture. However, the seasonal variation of the sensible heat flux in the cambarazal was lower than in the pasture, due to the thermo

  2. Bowen Journal of Agriculture: Submissions

    Author Guidelines. The following guidelines should be followed by Authors submitting papers to Bowen Journal of Agriculture. Titles: Should be specific, capitalized, bold, centralized and brief. All other headings e.g ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS and REFERENCES are also to be capitalized ...

  3. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  4. Measurements of K/Π ratio in cosmic radiation

    Mahon, J.R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of k/Π ratio in cosmic radiation by its half lives and its fluxes, were carried out. The kaon flux was obtained using the Cherenkov detector, and for pion flux scintillation detectors were used. The final results of K/Π ratio ∼ 0.2 was obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. A case of Bowen’s disease responding well to radiotherapy

    Goknur Kalkan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bowen’s disease is a form of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma which is known as carsinoma in situ. The head, neck, and extremities are the most commonly affected anatomic locations. Treatment options for Bowen’s disease include observation, surgery, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation and curettage, topical application of 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod, Moh’s micrographic surgery, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is advantageous in patients who refuse surgery, for large or multiple lesions, for lesions in cosmetically sensitive areas, and in patients who are predisposed to formation of keloids, with a high cure rate cited in the literature. Here we report a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed as Bowen’s disease and completely healed with the treatment of radiotherapy. By means of this case report, we will review the current literature and empasize that radiotherapy is an effective treatment alternative for Bowen's disease in the suitable lesions. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 813-817

  6. The Female Voice: Applications to Bowen's Family Systems Theory.

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    1994-01-01

    Responds to calls from feminist scholars to address potential biases against women in theories of family therapy. Summarizes findings from studies of female development and integrates findings into expanded model of Bowen's family systems theory. Includes case example comparing expanded model with traditional application of Bowen's theory.…

  7. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles

  8. Density ratios in compressions driven by radiation pressure

    Lee, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that in the cannonball scheme of laser compression the pellet may be considered to be compressed by the 'brute force' of the radiation pressure. For such a radiation-driven compression, an energy balance method is applied to give an equation fixing the radius compression ratio K which is a key parameter for such intense compressions. A shock model is used to yield specific results. For a square-pulse driving power compressing a spherical pellet with a specific heat ratio of 5/3, a density compression ratio Γ of 27 is computed. Double (stepped) pulsing with linearly rising power enhances Γ to 1750. The value of Γ is not dependent on the absolute magnitude of the piston power, as long as this is large enough. Further enhancement of compression by multiple (stepped) pulsing becomes obvious. The enhanced compression increases the energy gain factor G for a 100 μm DT pellet driven by radiation power of 10 16 W from 6 for a square pulse power with 0.5 MJ absorbed energy to 90 for a double (stepped) linearly rising pulse with absorbed energy of 0.4 MJ assuming perfect coupling efficiency. (author)

  9. Observation of Bowen fluorescence and other phenomena in five symbiotic stars

    Wallerstein, G.; Garnavich, P.M.; Schachter, J.; Oke, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Wavelength measurements and line identifications in the 3200-3600 A regions are presented for the symbiotic stars AG Dra, HM Sge, V1016 Cyg, V1329 Cyg, Z And, and R Aqr. The O III lines excited via Bowen's mechanism are analyzed in detail, and a shell model yielding reasonable shell thicknesses and electron densities is described. The Ne/Fe ratio is derived for five of the systems, and spectra in the blue region are briefly described. 42 refs

  10. Determination of Surface Fluxes Using a Bowen Ratio System

    USER

    Components of the surface fluxes of the energy balance equation were determined ... and vapour pressure in combination with point measurements of net .... approaches zero, then almost all the energy available is used in evapotranspiration.

  11. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  12. Elizabeth Bowen, Modernism, and the Spectre of Anglo-Ireland

    James F. Wurtz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent scholarly focus on Elizabeth Bowen’s modernism tends to reinforce a false dichotomy between Bowen as an Ascendancy Big House novelist and Bowen as a literary modernist. In keeping with Jameson’s argument that the colonial experience is at the root of Western modernism, I propose that her representations of Anglo-Irish Big House culture, in The Last September in particular, are in fact focal points for understanding Bowen as a modernist, and I argue that the Gothic, with its unavoidable political and colonial resonances, is fundamental to Bowen’s Irish modernism.

  13. Genital Bowenʼs Disease in a Bulgarian Patient: Complete Remission after Surgical Approach

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male patient presented with complaints of persistent red to a brown-colored plaque on his scrotum, with duration of approximately three years. The patient had been treated with oral and topical antifungals for inguinal tinea for several months and after that with topical corticosteroids for eczema for several more months. None of the regimens achieved any therapeutic effect. The histopathological evaluation revealed the presence of atypical keratinocytes in all layers of the epidermis with the altered epidermal pattern, spread parabasal mitotic activity, without secondary satellites, multiple dyskeratotic cells and multinucleated cells. The diagnosis of an intraepithelial non-invasive squamous cell carcinoma, associated with koilocytic dysplasia and hyperplasia was made, meeting the criteria for Bowen disease. An elliptic surgical excision of the lesion was made, while the defect was closed with single stitches, with excellent therapeutic and aesthetic result. First described by John T. Bowen in 1912, Bowen disease (BD represents a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in situ with the potential for significant lateral spread. Treatment options include the application of topical 5-flurorouracil cream – useful in non-hairy areas, imiquimod cream or destructive methods such as radiation, curettage, cryotherapy, laser ablation and photodynamic therapy, especially useful in nail bed involvement. Despite the early lesions, surgical excision is the preferred treatment option, regarding the potential malignant transformation risk.

  14. Branching ratios of radiative transitions in O VI

    Sur, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Rajat K

    2007-01-01

    We study the branching ratios of the allowed and forbidden radiative transitions among the first few (9) fine structure levels of O VI using relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We find irregular patterns for a number of transitions within n-complexes with n ≤ 4. We have used the existing values of the allowed electric dipole (E1) transition as a benchmark of our theory. Good agreement with the existing values establish accuracies of not only the theoretical method but the basis function as well. In general, the electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are greater in magnitude than magnetic dipole (M1) transition probabilities, whereas for medium atomic transition frequencies they are of the same order of magnitude. On the other hand, if the transitions involved are in between two fine-structure components of the same term, then the M1 transition probability is more probable than that of E2. The results presented here in tabular and graphical form are compared with the available theoretical and observed data. Graphical analysis helps to understand the trends of electric and magnetic transitions for the decay channels presented here. Our calculated values of the lifetimes of the excited states are in very good agreement with the available results

  15. Expansion of Collisional Radiative Model for Helium line ratio spectroscopy

    Cinquegrani, David; Cooper, Chris; Forest, Cary; Milhone, Jason; Munoz-Borges, Jorge; Schmitz, Oliver; Unterberg, Ezekial

    2015-11-01

    Helium line ratio spectroscopy is a powerful technique of active plasma edge spectroscopy. It enables reconstruction of plasma edge parameters like electron density and temperature by use of suitable Collisional Radiative Models (CRM). An established approach is successful at moderate plasma densities (~1018m-3 range) and temperature (30-300eV), taking recombination and charge exchange to be negligible. The goal of this work is to experimentally explore limitations of this approach to CRM. For basic validation the Madison Plasma Dynamo eXperiment (MPDX) will be used. MPDX offers a very uniform plasma and spherical symmetry at low temperature (5-20 eV) and low density (1016 -1017m-3) . Initial data from MPDX shows a deviation in CRM results when compared to Langmuir probe data. This discrepancy points to the importance of recombination effects. The validated model is applied to first time measurement of electron density and temperature in front of an ICRH antenna at the TEXTOR tokamak. These measurements are important to understand RF coupling and PMI physics at the antenna limiters. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the UW - Madison, USA and NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210.

  16. Reference material for trace analysis by radioanalytical methods: Bowen's Kale

    Wainerdi, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A fairly large volume of published data on 'Bowen's Kale' has been examined critically in order to develop recommendations for the use of this preparation as a 'reference material' in the standardisation and evaluation of the reliability of analytical procedures. Values are now recommended for the contents of twelve elements present in major to trace concentrations in 'Bowen's Kale'. 'Indicated values' for another 16 elements are provided. Values for 15 more elements are listed with no recommendation. The criteria adopted in categorising elements into these groups are discussed. (author)

  17. A case of Bowen's disease on chronic radiodermatitis

    Ohmori, Masaki; Suenaga, Yoshinori; Fuchi, Kougi.

    1992-01-01

    A 62-year-old female radiologist with chronic radiodermatitis on the dorsal side of her left fingers is reported. She had an occupational history of practicing fluoroscopy for about thirty years. Histopathologically Bowen's disease on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers and squamous cell carcinoma on the 5th finger were found in the radiodermatitis lesion. All the lesions were surgically removed and repaired with a full thickness skin graft. The literature on Bowen's disease caused by radiotherapy and occupational irradiation was also reviewed. (author)

  18. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen`s disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-10-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen`s disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  19. A Note on the Radiative and Collisional Branching Ratios in Polarized Radiation Transport with Coherent Scattering

    Casini, R.; del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the implementation of physically meaningful branching ratios between the CRD and partial redistribution contributions to the emissivity of a polarized multi-term atom in the presence of both inelastic and elastic collisions. Our derivation is based on a recent theoretical formulation of partially coherent scattering, and it relies on a heuristic diagrammatic analysis of the various radiative and collisional processes to determine the proper form of the branching ratios. The expression we obtain for the emissivity is {\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}=[{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(1)-{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}{{f}.{{s}}.}(2)]+{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(2), where {{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(1) and {{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(2) are the emissivity terms for the redistributed and partially coherent radiation, respectively, and where “f.s.” implies that the corresponding term must be evaluated assuming a flat-spectrum average of the incident radiation. This result is shown to be in agreement with prior literature on the subject in the limit of the unpolarized multi-level atom.

  20. Eccrine porocarcinoma arising within an area of Bowen disease.

    Lowney, A C

    2012-03-01

    Summary Very little is known about the aetiology of eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), a rare malignant sweat-gland tumour. Most reported cases have arisen de novo, or from a benign eccrine poroma. We report an unusual case, in which eccrine porocarcinoma arose at the exact site of pre-existing Bowen disease (BD).

  1. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  2. All in the family: a belated response to Knudson-Martin's feminist revision of Bowen theory.

    Horne, K Blake; Hicks, Mary W

    2002-01-01

    The first formal attempt at revising Bowen theory within the marriage and family therapy literature is represented in the work of Knudson-Martin (1994). Claiming that several of the theory's concepts are defined at odds with female development, Knudson-Martin (1994) reconceptualizes and expands Bowen theory to rectify these perceived shortcomings. In turn, we address several fundamental concerns with Knudson-Martin's critique and revision of Bowen theory. An alternative representation of Bowen Theory, as well as its relationship to feminist thought, is put forth. Suggestions for the field's future relationship to Bowen theory are also discussed.

  3. Long distance elementary measurement of the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Wu Chunlei; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan

    2009-04-01

    The working principle and the structure and performances of a long distance controllable individual radiation dose ratio instrument are described. The radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is elementarily measured by using this instrument in the neutron generator hall with high neutron yield. When neutron yield arrives to 2 x 10 11 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 99.9 μSv/h in 1 h after the generator being stopped. The radiation dose ratio is reduced to 24.4 μSv/h in 39 h after the generator being stopped. When neutron yield is 3.2 x 10 10 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 21.9 μSv/h in 36 min, after the generator being stopped. The measurement results may provide reference for physical experimenters and neutron generator operators. (authors)

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on various core/clad ratio step index pure silica fibers

    Greenwell, R.A.; Barnes, C.E.; Nelson, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation testing was performed on polyimide-coated pure-silica-core step-index fibers fabricated from different preform core/clad ratios. Preliminary results indicate that the smaller the core/clad ratio, the better the radiation response of the fiber. These results are fortuitous for space applications, since the polyimide coating is also a low-outgassing wide-temperature-range small-size fiber coating material. The variations in radiation response may be due to a postdrawing anneal occurring during coating cure, which minimizes drawing-induced defects. 8 references

  5. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh

    2014-01-01

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding

  6. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding.

  7. The Reverend Thomas Jefferson Bowen: An Introductory Background to His Linguistic Works, 1850-1856

    Awoniyi, Timothy A.

    1974-01-01

    A historical narrative background for the linguistic works of Thomas Jefferson Bowen, an American missionary who was the first non-Nigerian to publish a grammar of Yoruba (1858). The author points up a need for further scholarly review of Bowen's pioneering work and contribution to Yoruba studies. (JT)

  8. All in the Family: A Belated Response to Knudson-Martin's Feminist Revision of Bowen Theory

    Horne, K. Blake; Hicks, Mary W.

    2002-01-01

    The first formal attempt at revising Bowen theory within the marriage and family therapy literature is represented in the work of Knudson-Martin (1994). Claiming that several of the theory's concepts are defined at odds with female development, Knudson-Martin (1994) reconceptualizes and expands Bowen theory to rectify these perceived shortcomings.…

  9. The effects of the Bowen technique on hamstring flexibility over time: a randomised controlled trial.

    Marr, Michelle; Baker, Julian; Lambon, Nicky; Perry, Jo

    2011-07-01

    The hamstring muscles are regularly implicated in recurrent injuries, movement dysfunction and low back pain. Links between limited flexibility and development of neuromusculoskeletal symptoms are frequently reported. The Bowen Technique is used to treat many conditions including lack of flexibility. The study set out to investigate the effect of the Bowen Technique on hamstring flexibility over time. An assessor-blind, prospective, randomised controlled trial was performed on 120 asymptomatic volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into a control group or Bowen group. Three flexibility measurements occurred over one week, using an active knee extension test. The intervention group received a single Bowen treatment. A repeated measures univariate analysis of variance, across both groups for the three time periods, revealed significant within-subject and between-subject differences for the Bowen group. Continuing increases in flexibility levels were observed over one week. No significant change over time was noted for the control group. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic and multifractal formalism and the Bowen-series map

    Rudolph, O.

    1994-07-01

    In the theory of quantum chaos one studies the semiclassical behaviour of quantum mechanical systems whose corresponding classical counterparts exhibit chaos. These systems are sometimes considered as model systems in the theory of quantum chaos since they are well understood from a mathematical point of view. In this work we study the multifractal formalism for the geodesic flow on surfaces with constant negative curvature. The multifractal analysis of measures has been developed in order to characterize the scaling behaviour of measures on attractors of classical chaotic dynamical systems globally. In order to relate the multifractal formalism with quantities usually considered in the study of the geodesic flow on Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature, it is necessary to establish the assertions of the multifractal formalism in a mathematically rigorous way. This is achieved with the help of the thermodynamic formalism for hyperbolic dynamical systems developed by Ruelle, Bowen and others. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  12. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  13. Thermodynamic and multifractal formalism and the Bowen-series map

    Rudolph, O.

    1995-01-01

    In the theory of quantum chaos one studies the semiclassical behaviour of quantum mechanical systems whose corresponding classical counterparts exhibit chaos. The geodesic motion of a free classical particle on closed Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature is strongly chaotic. Selberg's theory relates the classical and the quantum mechanical systems. These systems are sometimes considered as model systems in the theory of quantum chaos since they are well understood from a mathematical point of view. In this work we study the multifractal formalism for the geodesic flow on surfaces with constant negative curvature. The multifractal analysis of measures has been developed in order to characterize the scaling behaviour of measures on attractors of classical chaotic dynamical systems globally. In order to relate the multifractal formalism with quantities usually considered in the study of the geodesic flow on Riemann surfaces with constant negative curvature, it is necessary to establish the assertions of the multifractal formalism in a mathematically rigorous way. This is achieved with the help of the thermodynamic formalism for hyperbolic dynamical systems developed by Ruelle, Bowen and others. (orig.)

  14. Aspect Ratio Model for Radiation-Tolerant Dummy Gate-Assisted n-MOSFET Layout.

    Lee, Min Su; Lee, Hee Chul

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire radiation-tolerant characteristics in integrated circuits, a dummy gate-assisted n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (DGA n-MOSFET) layout was adopted. The DGA n-MOSFET has a different channel shape compared with the standard n-MOSFET. The standard n-MOSFET has a rectangular channel shape, whereas the DGA n-MOSFET has an extended rectangular shape at the edge of the source and drain, which affects its aspect ratio. In order to increase its practical use, a new aspect ratio model is proposed for the DGA n-MOSFET and this model is evaluated through three-dimensional simulations and measurements of the fabricated devices. The proposed aspect ratio model for the DGA n-MOSFET exhibits good agreement with the simulation and measurement results.

  15. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Trouette, R; Causse, N; Elkhadri, M; Caudry, M; Maire, J P; Houlard, J P; Racaldini, L; Demeaux, H

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  16. Análise de sensibilidade dos métodos de estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência e razão de Bowen em cultura da cana-de-açúcar Sensitivity analysis of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration and sugarcane evapotranspiration

    Bruce K. N Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de análise de sensibilidade de modelos foi aplicada nos dados obtidos em experimento de campo conduzido no ano de 2009, na Destilaria Miriri, localizada no município de Capim, PB, e aos dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, obtidos pela equação de Penman-Monteith (FAO/56, e da evapotranspiração da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (ETc, obtidos pelo balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. As análises de sensibilidade e de erros foram aplicadas ao método da razão de Bowen para os intervalos de medição de 15, 30, 60 e 120 minutos enquanto o método de Penman-Monteith foi aplicado para a escala diária durante o ano de 2009. Os resultados evidenciam que o saldo de radiação é a variável mais sensitiva no cálculo do balanço de energia, enquanto o fluxo de calor no solo oferece a menor contribuição; já os erros relativos de todas as variáveis envolvidas do cálculo balanço de energia baseado na razão de Bowen aumentaram significativamente com o aumento do intervalo de amostragem. A variável mais sensível na determinação da ETo pelo método de Penman-Monteith é o saldo de radiação seguida da umidade relativa, velocidade do vento a 2m de altura e a temperatura média do ar.The sensitivity analysis technique of models was applied to the data obtained from field experiment carried out during 2009 at Distillery Miriri, Capim, PB. This technique was applied to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith (FAO/56 and the sugarcane evapotranspiration (ETc by energy balance equation based on Bowen ratio. The sensitivity analysis and errors were applied to the Bowen ratio method in measurement intervals of 15, 30, 60 and 120 min; however Penman-Monteith approach was applied on daily basis throughout the 2009 year. Results showed that the net radiation is the most sensitive variable in the energy equation balance and soil heat flux offers the lowest contribution. On the other hand, the relative

  17. Risk ratios for use in establishing dose limits for occupational exposure to radiation

    Metcalf, P.E.; Winkler, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose limits for occupational exposure to radiation may be established by comparing the associated mortality risk with apparently accepted levels of industrial mortality risk due to conventional hazards. Average levels of industrial mortality risk rates are frequently quoted and used in such comparisons. However, within particular occupations or industries certain groups of workers will be exposed to higher levels of risk than the average, again an apparently accepted situation. A study has been made of the ratios of maximum to average industrial mortality risk currently experienced in some South African industries. Such a ratio may be used to assess the acceptability of maximum individual-to-average exposures in particular groups of exposed individuals. (author)

  18. Formula to estimate the thermal enhancement ratio of a single simultaneous hyperthermia and radiation treatment

    Overgaard, J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental model composed of a C 3 H mammary carcinoma and its surrounding skin has been exposed to simultaneous radiation and hyperthermia given with different combinations of the heating time and temperature. Based on the thermal enhancement ratio (TER) values obtained in the temperature range 41.5 to 43.5 0 C, a linear relationship between TER and the heating time was achieved at each temperature. The slopes of the curves drawn at each temperature were found to have a log-linear relationship with the treatment temperature. With these relationships it was possible to make a formula expressing the TER as a function of treatment temperature and time. This formula gives a crude but probably acceptable estimate of the TER following a single simultaneous radiation and heat treatment. Although subject to several limitations, the formula represents an attempt to describe a heat dose concept for the radiosensitizing effect of hyperthermia. This may be useful to establish the tolerance level of a given radiation treatment when combined with hyperthermia. (Auth.)

  19. Radionuclide therapy of skin cancers and Bowen's disease using specially designed skin patch: A pilot study in an animal model and clinical trial

    Lee, J. D.; Park, K. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, E. H.; Rhim, K. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignant tumors in human. Therapeutic modalities of the skin cancers are local destruction, radiotherapy and surgery. External radiation therapy leads to good results, however, overall 5-6 weeks of treatment period is needed to deliver optimal radiation dose to tumors. In this study, β-emitting radionuclide, Ho-166, impregnated in a specially designed patch was utilized to superficial skin cancers and Bowen's disease for local irradiation. Methods; Animal study was employed in 10 mice with chemically induced skin tumors. Five- mm size patches containing 22.2 -72.15 MBq(0.6 - 1.95 mCi) of Ho-166 were applied to the tumor surface for 1 -2 hr. In clinical trial, patients with squamous carcinoma(n=3), basal cell carcinoma(n=1), and Bowen's disease(n=1) were treated with patches containing 273.8 - 999 MBq (7.4 - 27 mCi) of Ho-166 for 30 minutes to 1 hour. Pathologic examination was performed 4 - 7 weeks after the treatment in animal model. Skin biopsy was performed 8 weeks post-treatment in four patients. Results; Tumor destruction was seen 1 week post the treatment, however, radiation dermatitis or ulceration developed at the site of radionuclide application. Those reactions healed gradually with fibrosis or epithelialization, which was confirmed pathologically. No significant adverse reaction to radiation except subcutaneous fibrosis was found. Conclusion; Superficial skin tumors could be successfully treated by topical application of β-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  20. A case of Bowen's disease on chronic radiodermatitis

    Ohmori, Masaki; Suenaga, Yoshinori (University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)); Fuchi, Kougi

    1992-04-01

    A 62-year-old female radiologist with chronic radiodermatitis on the dorsal side of her left fingers is reported. She had an occupational history of practicing fluoroscopy for about thirty years. Histopathologically Bowen's disease on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers and squamous cell carcinoma on the 5th finger were found in the radiodermatitis lesion. All the lesions were surgically removed and repaired with a full thickness skin graft. The literature on Bowen's disease caused by radiotherapy and occupational irradiation was also reviewed. (author).

  1. K X-ray production cross sections, Kβ/Kα ratios, and radiative Auger ratios for protons impacting low-Z elements

    Cipolla, Sam J.

    1999-01-01

    A Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was used to produce 50-300 keV protons to excite characteristic X-rays from thick targets of elements from Z=21 to 32, using an efficiency-calibrated Si(Li) detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. X-ray production cross sections were determined and compared with prevailing theories. Special attention was paid to accounting for the radiative Auger effects (RAE) in the analysis of the X-ray energy spectra. Ratios of RAE to K α and K β intensities, as well as K β /K α ratios, will be compared to theoretical values

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the sequential probability ratio test for radiation monitoring

    Coop, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program simulates the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) using Monte Carlo techniques. The program, SEQTEST, performs random-number sampling of either a Poisson or normal distribution to simulate radiation monitoring data. The results are in terms of the detection probabilities and the average time required for a trial. The computed SPRT results can be compared with tabulated single interval test (SIT) values to determine the better statistical test for particular monitoring applications. Use of the SPRT in a hand-and-foot alpha monitor shows that the SPRT provides better detection probabilities while generally requiring less counting time. Calculations are also performed for a monitor where the SPRT is not permitted to the take longer than the single interval test. Although the performance of the SPRT is degraded by this restriction, the detection probabilities are still similar to the SIT values, and average counting times are always less than 75% of the SIT time. Some optimal conditions for use of the SPRT are described. The SPRT should be the test of choice in many radiation monitoring situations. 6 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  3. Analytical treatment of the relationships between soil heat flux/net radiation ratio and vegetation indices

    Kustas, W.P.; Daughtry, C.S.T.; Oevelen, P.J. van

    1993-01-01

    Relationships between leaf area index (LAI) and midday soil heat flux/net radiation ratio (G/R n ) and two more commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) were used to analytically derive formulas describing the relationship between G/R n and VI. Use of VI for estimating G/R n may be useful in operational remote sensing models that evaluate the spatial variation in the surface energy balance over large areas. While previous experimental data have shown that linear equations can adequately describe the relationship between G/Rn and VI, this analytical treatment indicated that nonlinear relationships are more appropriate. Data over bare soil and soybeans under a range of canopy cover conditions from a humid climate and data collected over bare soil, alfalfa, and cotton fields in an arid climate were used to evaluate model formulations derived for LAI and G/R n , LAI and VI, and VI and G/R n . In general, equations describing LAI-G/R n and LAI-VI relationships agreed with the data and supported the analytical result of a nonlinear relationship between VI and G/R n . With the simple ratio (NIR/Red) as the VI, the nonlinear relationship with G/R n was confirmed qualitatively. But with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a nonlinear relationship did not appear to fit the data. (author)

  4. Bowen's disease: report of a case in a Nigerian man | Yahya | West ...

    Bowen's disease (cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ), like other cancers of the skin, is rare in black people – to our knowledge, only about 43 cases have been published in the medical literature. We report a 59-year old Nigerian man who presented with a five-year history of a mildly pruritic, slowly enlarging ...

  5. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    Navarrete, V.R.; Izawa, G.; Shiokawa, T.; Kamiya, M.; Morita, S.

    1978-01-01

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  6. Combustion behaviour of Sydney and Bowen Basin coals determined by thermogravimetry

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A.; Crosdale, P.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Geology

    1996-08-01

    Assesses the suitability of thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis techniques to characterise the combustion behaviour of Sydney and Bowen basin coals. Results indicate that the thermogravimetric technique is suitable for characterising the effects of rank, maceral, sub-maceral and seam variations on the combustion behaviour of these coals. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Modeling of the radiative energy balance within a crop canopy for estimating evapotranspiration: Studies on a row planted soybean canopy

    Nakano, Y.; Hirota, O.

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distribution and density of the leaf area within a crop canopy were used to estimate the radiational environment and evapotranspiration. Morphological measurements were pursued on the soybean stands in the early stage of growth when the two-dimensional foliage distribution pattern existed. The rectangular tube model was used to calculate the light absorption by parallel row of crops both short-wave radiation (direct and diffuse solar radiation, and scattered radiation by plant elements) and long-wave radiation (emanated radiation from the sky, ground and leaves). The simulated profiles are in close agreement with the experimentally measured short-wave and net radiation data. The evapotranspiration of a row was calcuated using a simulated net radiation. The model calculation also agreed well with the evapotranspiration estimated by the Bowen ratio method

  8. Charge–mass ratio bound and optimization in the Parikh–Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation

    Kim, Kyung Kiu; Wen, Wen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we study the mutual information hidden in the Parikh–Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation for Reissner–Nordström black holes. We argue that the condition of nonnegativity of mutual information suggests bound(s) for charge–mass ratio of emitted particles. We further view the radiation as an optimization process and discuss its effect on time evolution of a charged black hole.

  9. Net radiation of mountain cultivated Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand: evaluation of shortand long-wave radiation ratio

    Marková, I.; Marek, Michal V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 114-122 ISSN 0071-6677 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : downward short- and long-wave radiation * upward short- and long-wave radiation * sun elevation * clearness index Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  10. Measurement of the unaccompanied pion-proton flux ratio at 2,900 meters using a transition radiation detector

    Ellsworth, R.W.; Ito, A.S.; MacFall, J.R.; Siohan, F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Tonwar, S.C.; Yodh, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    A transition radiation dedector and an ionization calorimeter have been used to measure the unaccompanied pion to proton flux ratio for energies greater than 400 and 600 GeV at an altitude of 2,900 meters. (orig./BJ) [de

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on development, sterility, fecundity, and sex ratio of Dermanyssus gallinae (DeGeer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae)

    Entrekin, D.L.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Pound, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Protonymphal Dermanyssus gallinae were irradiated with 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 krad of gamma radiation and subsequently monitored regarding their developmental, feeding, and mating success. Also, sex ratios of adults treated as protonymphs were recorded as were sex ratios of embryos and F1 adults produced by these adults. Doses up to 1.0 krad did not prevent development of treated protonymphs to the adult stage or stop mating. Three krad reduced the number of treated protonymphs attaining adulthood and 6.0-krad treatment prevented all mites from developing to the adult stage. Egg (embryo) production was normal for mites treated with 0.50 krad, but significantly curtailed by doses of 0.75 krad and greater. Radiation doses used in this study did not appear to affect the normal variable sex ratios observed in untreated mites

  12. On the possibility of multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale for neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    Marinov, V.M.; Lazarova, M.S.; Mihajlov, M.I.; Apostolov, D.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigations related to the multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale in developing neutron-activation methods for determining microelements in biological materials carried out in recent years are presented. Bowen's Kale might be used as: (1) experimental material in the development of a method and its verification, i.e. as a test for biological materials; (2) a material where experimental conditions might be optimized; (3) a material for investigating the accuracy, reproducibility and the limit of proof at experimental conditions already defined; (4) a monitor; (5) a multielement volume reference standard for a number of microelements during their simultaneous determination and (6) a standard for verifying the authenticity of the results obtained. In this manner, a reliable criterion for comparison of the potentialities, the accuracy, reproducibility, the limits of proof and the authenticity of the neutron-activation methods of determining microelements in biological materials is introduced. (author)

  13. Discrete level schemes and their gamma radiation branching ratios (CENPL-DLS). Pt. 1

    Su Zongdi; Zhang Limin; Zhou Chunmei; Sun Zhengjun

    1994-01-01

    The DLS data file, which is a sub-library (version 1) of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter Library (CENPL), consists of data and information of discrete levels and gamma radiations. The data and information of this data file are translated from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The transforming code from ENSDF to DLS was written. In the DLS data file, there are the data on discrete levels with determinate energy and their gamma radiations. At present, this file contains the data of 79456 levels and 100411 gammas for 1908 nuclides

  14. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n,γ at DANCE

    Denis-Petit D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n,γ to the Jπ = 5/2−, 761.7 keV, T1/2 = 32.8 ns and the Jπ = 15/2+, 1356.9 keV, T1/2 = 11.1 ns levels of 177Lu, have been measured for the first time with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These measured isomeric ratios are compared with TALYS calculations.

  15. Study of gamma radiation induced damages and variation of oxygen enhancement ratio with radiation dose using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Nairy, R.K.; Yerol Narayana; Bhat, N.N.; Anjaria, K.B.; Sreedevi, B.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to quantify Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) and variation of OER as a function of dose with experimental and theoretical formulations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, X2180 and rad 52. The study confirms that, the variation of OER with dose depends upon type of cell and repair proficiency of cells. A theoretical model has been formulated to estimate OER values. With the help of this model, OER value for any dose can be calculated in the exponential region of the survival curve without actually extending the experiment in that dose region. (author)

  16. A case of squamous cell carchinoma, basal cell epithelioma and Bowen's disease arising from chronic radiodermatitis

    Matsushima, Hironori; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Shinkai, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of multiple cancers developing in chronic radiodermatitis. A 43-year-old Japanese male presented with chronic radiodermatitis on both dorsal surfaces of his fingers, following a long-term irradiation by Grenz rays for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. At the same site, he developed squamous cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease 7 years after the last irradiation. Three years later, he noticed a black papule on the dorsal surface of his right middle finger. After a histological examination, this papule diagnosed to be basal cell epithelioma. (author)

  17. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    Maharaj, H.P., E-mail: H_P_Maharaj@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Dept. of Health, Consumer and Clinical Radiaton Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  18. Overview of a benefit/risk ratio optimized for a radiation emitting device used in non-destructive testing

    Maharaj, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)

  19. Oxygen enhancement ratios in synchronous HeLa cells exposed to low-LET radiation

    Sapozink, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    HeLa cells were synchronized by the mitotic selection method and rendered hypoxic by coincubation with an excess of heavily irradiated, but metabolically active, feeder cells. An oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of about 3 was obtained in interphase HeLa cells irradiated with x or gamma rays. A significantly lower OER was obtained with cells in, or close to, mitosis. The significance of this decrease in the oxygen effect in mitotic cells is discussed

  20. Solar Radiation Pressure Estimation and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Debris Objects

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of deep space objects is thought to be high area-to-mass ratio (AMR) debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. The typical AMR values have been observed to range anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(sup 2)/kg, and hence, higher than average solar radiation pressure effects result in long-term migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination over time. However, the nature of the debris orientation-dependent dynamics also results time-varying solar radiation forces about the average which complicate the short-term orbit determination processing. The orbit determination results are presented for several of these debris objects, and highlight their unique and varied dynamic attributes. Estimation or the solar pressure dynamics over time scales suitable for resolving the shorter term dynamics improves the orbit estimation, and hence, the orbit predictions needed to conduct follow-up observations.

  1. Association of UV radiation with multiple sclerosis prevalence and sex ratio in France.

    Orton, S-M; Wald, L; Confavreux, C; Vukusic, S; Krohn, J P; Ramagopalan, S V; Herrera, B M; Sadovnick, A D; Ebers, G C

    2011-02-01

    French farmers and their families constitute an informative population to study multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and related epidemiology. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the association of MS prevalence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a candidate climatologic risk factor. Mean annual and winter (December-March) UVB irradiation values were systematically compared to MS prevalence rates in corresponding regions of France. UVB data were obtained from the solar radiation database (SoDa) service and prevalence rates from previously published data on 2,667 MS cases registered with the national farmer health insurance system, Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA). Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship of annual and winter UVB values with MS prevalence. Male and female prevalence were also analyzed separately. Linear regression was used to test for interaction of annual and winter UVB with sex in predicting MS prevalence. There was a strong association between MS prevalence and annual mean UVB irradiation (r = -0.80, p role for gender-specific effects of UVB exposure.

  2. Limnological Conditions and Occurrence of Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, 2006-2009

    Journey, Celeste A.; Arrington, Jane M.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Limnological conditions and the occurrence of taste-and-odor compounds were studied in two reservoirs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, from May 2006 to June 2009. Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1 are relatively shallow, meso-eutrophic, warm monomictic, cascading impoundments on the South Pacolet River. Overall, water-quality conditions and phytoplankton community assemblages were similar between the two reservoirs but differed seasonally. Median dissolved geosmin concentrations in the reservoirs ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 microgram per liter. Annual maximum dissolved geosmin concentrations tended to occur between March and May. In this study, peak dissolved geosmin production occurred in April and May 2008, ranging from 0.050 to 0.100 microgram per liter at the deeper reservoir sites. Peak dissolved geosmin production was not concurrent with maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes, which tended to occur in the summer (July to August), but was concurrent with a peak in the fraction of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group. Nonetheless, annual maximum cyanobacterial biovolumes rarely resulted in cyanobacteria dominance of the phytoplankton community. In both reservoirs, elevated dissolved geosmin concentrations were correlated to environmental factors indicative of unstratified conditions and reduced algal productivity, but not to nutrient concentrations or ratios. With respect to potential geosmin sources, elevated geosmin concentrations were correlated to greater fractions of genera with known geosmin-producing strains in the cyanobacteria group and to biovolumes of a specific geosmin-producing cyanobacteria genus (Oscillatoria), but not to actinomycetes concentrations. Conversely, environmental factors that correlated with elevated cyanobacterial biovolumes were indicative of stable water columns (stratified conditions), warm water temperatures, reduced nitrogen concentrations, longer residence times, and high

  3. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Branching ratios in the radiative decay of helium doubly excited states

    Coreno, M.; Prince, K. C.; Richter, R.; De Simone, M.; Bucar, K.; Zitnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    The doubly excited singlet states of He below the N=2 threshold may decay by autoionization or fluorescence. In the fluorescence decay channel, most decay cascades consist of emission of three photons, of which the first is a VUV photon, the second is in or near the visible range, and the last is another VUV photon. We have studied the fluorescence channel decay dynamics of the (2,0 n ) (2,1 n ) and (2,-1 n ) 1 P, n=3-7, states by wavelength dispersed photon-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We have detected the photons in the second step of the cascade and determined the branching ratios for the strongest lines in this step. From these data we are able to calculate the branching ratios of the first step in the cascade. The results are in good agreement with calculations of the main decay channels of the higher resonances, but about 20-30 % lower, and so we are able to describe quantitatively the whole fluorescence cascade of the above-mentioned doubly excited states

  5. Aspects of the quality of data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site broadband radiation sensors

    Splitt, M.E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wesely, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A systmatic evaluation of the performance of broadband radiometers at the Radiation Testbed (CART) site is needed to estimate the uncertainties of the irradiance observations. Here, net radiation observed with the net radiometer in the enrgy balance Bowen ratio station at the Central facility is compared with the net radiation computed as the sum of component irradiances recorded by nearby pyranameters and pyrgeometers. In addition, data obtained from the central facility pyranometers, pyrgeometers, and pyrheliometers are examined for April 1994, when intensive operations periods were being carried out. The data used in this study are from central facility radiometers in a solar and infrared observation station, and EBBR station, the so-called `BSRN` set of upward pointing radiometers, and a set of radiometers pointed down at the 25-m level of a 60-m tower.

  6. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res

  7. THE BORON-TO-CARBON ABUNDANCE RATIO AND GALACTIC PROPAGATION OF COSMIC RADIATION

    Obermeier, A.; Boyle, P.; Müller, D.; Hörandel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In two long-duration balloon flights in 2003 and 2006, the TRACER cosmic-ray detector has measured the energy spectra and the absolute intensities of the cosmic-ray nuclei from boron (Z = 5) to iron (Z = 26) up to very high energies. In particular, the second flight has led to results on the energy spectrum of the secondary boron nuclei, and on the boron abundance relative to that of the heavier primary parent nuclei, commonly quantified as the 'B/C abundance ratio'. The energy dependence of this ratio, now available up to about 2 TeV amu –1 , provides a measure for the energy dependence of cosmic-ray propagation through the Galaxy, and for the shape of the cosmic-ray source energy spectrum. We use a Leaky-Box approximation of cosmic-ray propagation to obtain constraints on the relevant parameters on the basis of the results of TRACER and of other measurements. This analysis suggests that the source energy spectrum is a relatively soft power law in energy E –α , with spectral exponent α = 2.37 ± 0.12, and that the propagation path length Λ(E) is described by a power law in energy with exponent δ = 0.53 ± 0.06, but may assume a constant residual value Λ 0 at high energy. The value of Λ 0 is not well constrained but should be less than about 0.8 g cm –2 . Finally, we compare the data with numerical solutions of a diffusive reacceleration model, which also indicates a soft source spectrum.

  8. Report for fiscal 1993 on feasibility study for development of overseas coal. Bowen coal field, Australia; 1993 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Australia koku Bowen tanden

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    Discussions were given on the possibility of development as a coal supply source for Japan on the area centering around the Bowen coal field, whose coal exploration right was made open by the state government of Queensland, Australia in March 1993. Surveys were performed on information about the release of restrictions and the bid on the coal exploration right area RA55, the current status of the coal industry in Queensland, infrastructures, and the coal related government organizations. The following conclusions were arrived as a result of the surveys: the RA55 area to which the coal exploration right was made open has mining areas remaining, which are possible of supplying coals for an extended period of time from both of quantity and quality aspects; particularly in the 12 mining areas under the open bid, high-quality ordinary coal and raw material coal are in existence, whose potential is high; the state government and the related organizations are enthusiastic in promoting the development because the coal industry is the largest industry in the state; for new coal development, such assistance is expected as improvement in the infrastructures, deregulation, and favorable taxation system; and implementations are desired on acquisition of the exploration right, and exploration activities for new coal development. (NEDO)

  9. Radiation sources providing increased UVA/UVB ratios induce photoprotection dependent on the UVA dose in hairless mice.

    Reeve, Vivienne E; Domanski, Diane; Slater, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In studies involving mice in which doses of UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation were administered alone or combined sequentially, we observed a protective effect of UVA against UVB-induced erythema/edema and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity. The UVA immunoprotection was mediated by the induction of the stress enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the skin, protection of the cutaneous Th1 cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-12 and inhibition of the UVB-induced expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-10. In this study, we seek evidence for an immunological waveband interaction when UVA and UVB are administered concurrently to hairless mice as occurs during sunlight exposure in humans. A series of spectra providing varying ratios of UVA/UVB were developed, with the UVA ratio increased to approximately 3.5 times the UVA component in solar simulated UV (SSUV). We report that progressively increasing the UVA component of the radiation while maintaining a constant UVB dose resulted in a reduction of both the erythema/edema reaction and the degree of systemic immunosuppression, as measured as contact hypersensitivity. The UVA-enhanced immunoprotection was abrogated in mice treated with a specific HO enzyme inhibitor. UVA-enhanced radiation also upregulated the expression of cutaneous IFN-gamma and IL-12 and inhibited expression of both IL-6 and IL-10, compared with the activity of SSUV. The results were consistent with the previously characterized mechanisms of photoprotection by the UVA waveband alone and suggest that the UVA component of solar UV may have beneficial properties for humans.

  10. Variation of oxygen enhancement ratio with radiation dose studies using 8 MeV electron beam

    Yerol, Narayana; Nairy, Rajesha K.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    The radiobiological effects can be modified by physical, chemical and biological factors. Oxygen is one of the best known modifiers, and the biological effects are greater in the presence of oxygen. Failure to achieve complete response following radiotherapy of large tumors is attributed to the presence of radio-resistant hypoxic cells; therefore clarifying the mechanism of the oxygen effect is important. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify Oxygen Enhancement Ratio (OER) and variation of OER as a function of dose with experimental and theoretical formulations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, X2180 and rad 52 and 8 MeV electron beam from Microtron accelerator. The single cell stationary-phase cultures were obtained by growing the cells in Yeast extract: Peptone: Dextrose (YEPD) (1%:2%:2%) medium for several generations in stationary phase to a density of approximately 3 x 10 8 cells mL -1 . Cells were washed thrice by centrifugation and re-suspended to a cell concentration of 1 x 10 8 cells mL -1 in a sterile polypropylene vial for irradiation. Hypoxic conditions were achieved by incubating the samples in air tight vials at 30℃ for 30 min prior to irradiation. For euoxic samples, a cell suspension of 1 x 10 6 cells mL -1 was prepared and was thoroughly aerated by mixing before irradiation. Treated and untreated samples were suitably diluted and plated in quadruplicate on YEPD agar medium. Plates were incubated for 2-3 days at 30℃ in dark and normal atmospheric conditions and the colonies were counted. The study confirmed that, the variation of OER with dose depends upon type of cell and repair proficiency of cells. For repair proficient cells OER value has been found to increase with dose, while remain constant for repair deficient cell lines. A theoretical model has been formulated to estimate OER values. The OER value varies from 1.51 to 2.53 for D7, 2.02 to 2.98 for X2180, and 2.58 for rad 52. (author)

  11. In vivo microvascular imaging of cutaneous actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma using dynamic optical coherence tomography

    Themstrup, L; Pellacani, G; Welzel, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A clear distinction between actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cannot reliably be made by clinical and dermoscopic evaluation alone. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is a novel angiographic variant of OCT that allows for non...

  12. Testing a model of codependency for college students in Taiwan based on Bowen's concept of differentiation.

    Chang, Shih-Hua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of codependency based on Bowen's concept of differentiation for college students in Taiwan. The relations between family-of-origin dysfunction, differentiation of self, codependency traits and related symptoms including low self-esteem, relationship distress and psychological adjustment problems were examined. Data were collected from 567 college students from 2 large, urban universities in northern Taiwan. Results indicated a significantly negative relationship between levels of codependency and self-differentiation and that self-differentiation partially mediated the relationship between family-of-origin dysfunction and codependency. The implications of these findings for counselling Taiwanese college students who experience codependency traits and related symptoms as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, de Sarah Bowen

    Olga I. Mancha Caceres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Bowen, profesora asociada del Departamento de Sociologia y Antropologia de la Universidad Estatal de Carolina del Norte, presenta en Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, el resultado de algo mas de una década de trabajo sobre las denominaciones de origen (DO en México, Francia y Estados Unidos, en el que nos presenta un profundo analisis del complejo mundo de la producción y comercialización del tequila y el mezcal ¿dos productos identitarios de México?, las dinamicas sociales, económicas y politicas que promueven y el papel de sus multiples y desiguales actores involucrados.

  14. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  15. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    El-Niely, Hania F.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  16. Parameterizing radiative transfer to convert MAX-DOAS dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged mixing ratios

    R. Sinreich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.

  17. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  18. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  19. Mortality of tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) females exposed to a high ratio of gamma-irradiated males as an index of radiation impact on sexual vigor of males

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1990-01-01

    A 40 or 60 krad dose of gamma radiation reduce slightly sexual activity of the males but male activity is greatly reduced as the radiation dose increases from 60 to 120 krad. Females of the mold mite, Tyrophagus, putrescentiae (Schrank), molested by males present at a 3:1 or 5:1 ratio live shorter than females kept with one male. The SAG test can be applied to compare sexual activity of males treated with different dosage of gamma irradiation

  20. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  1. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  2. Bowen emission from Aquila X-1: evidence for multiple components and constraint on the accretion disc vertical structure

    Jiménez-Ibarra, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Wang, L.; Casares, J.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Steeghs, D.; Armas Padilla, M.; Charles, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic study of the optical counterpart of the neutron star X-ray transient Aquila X-1 during its 2011, 2013 and 2016 outbursts. We use 65 intermediate resolution GTC-10.4 m spectra with the aim of detecting irradiation-induced Bowen blend emission from the donor star. While Gaussian fitting does not yield conclusive results, our full phase coverage allows us to exploit Doppler mapping techniques to independently constrain the donor star radial velocity. By using the component N III 4640.64/4641.84 Å, we measure Kem = 102 ± 6 km s-1. This highly significant detection (≳13σ) is fully compatible with the true companion star radial velocity obtained from near-infrared spectroscopy during quiescence. Combining these two velocities we determine, for the first time, the accretion disc opening angle and its associated error from direct spectroscopic measurements and detailed modelling, obtaining α = 15.5 ^{+ 2.5}_{-5} deg. This value is consistent with theoretical work if significant X-ray irradiation is taken into account and is important in the light of recent observations of GX339-4, where discrepant results were obtained between the donor's intrinsic radial velocity and the Bowen-inferred value. We also discuss the limitations of the Bowen technique when complete phase coverage is not available.

  3. Induction of inherited sterility and sex ratio distribution due to exposure to substerilising doses of gamma radiation in cotton bollworm Earias vittella fabricius

    Tamhankar, A.J.; Shantharam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Substerilising doses of gamma radiation induced inherited sterility and sex ratio distortion in the cotton bollworm Earias vittella fabricius. Adults irradiated with 75 Gy and self-crossed, provided sterile F 1 adults, suitable for direct use in sterile insect technique (SIT). In case of 50 Gy, the F 1 adults, when backcrossed, produced F 2 progeny with sex ratio in favour of females (1: >3). With 25 Gy, a sex ratio distortion was recorded in F 1 (1 male: 2.25 females) and self-crossing of F 1 resulted in progeny with a sex ratio of 3:1. Backcrossing of the F 1 female produced F 2 progeny with a sex ratio of 1:5. These results have implications in improving cost/benefit ratio of SIT for this species. (author)

  4. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions. PMID:27134609

  5. Health Information Management Leaders and the Practice of Leadership through the Lens of Bowen Theory.

    Sheridan, Patty Thierry; Watzlaf, Valerie; Fox, Leslie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Even though leadership is one of the most examined topics in the organizational literature, its application in the field of health information management (HIM) has not been studied extensively. This descriptive, mixed-methodology study examined HIM leadership through the lens of Bowen theory. The researchers conducted surveys of HIM directors and managers, administrators and colleagues of HIM leaders, and HIM staff using focus groups, observations of meetings, and face-to-face interviews. Results showed that HIM leaders are valued for HIM expertise in electronic health records, privacy, security, and coding; for being the center or heart of the organization; and for commonly valued leadership behaviors and skills including dependability, strategic planning, project management, listening ability, and fairness. Leadership was seen as a reciprocal process, and a team approach was preferred. Good communication, education, and training on HIM topics were also valued. However, HIM leaders believed that they spend more time on management activities than on leadership activities, although they would prefer the reverse. Future research is needed to examine how HIM leadership can be practiced more consistently in the workplace across different HIM functions.

  6. Utility of Normal Tissue-to-Tumor {alpha}/{beta} Ratio When Evaluating Isodoses of Isoeffective Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hgay@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve a better understanding of the effect of the number of fractions on normal tissue sparing for equivalent tumor control in radiation therapy plans by using equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) isoeffect calculations. Methods and Materials: The simple linear quadratic (LQ) model was assumed to be valid up to 10 Gy per fraction. Using the model, we formulated a well-known mathematical equality for the tumor prescription dose and probed and solved a second mathematical problem for normal tissue isoeffect. That is, for a given arbitrary relative isodose distribution (treatment plan in percentages), 2 isoeffective tumor treatment regimens (N fractions of the dose D and n fractions of the dose d) were denoted, which resulted in the same BED (corresponding to 100% prescription isodose). Given these situations, the LQ model was further exploited to mathematically establish a unique relative isodose level, z (%), for the same arbitrary treatment plan, where the BED to normal tissues was also isoeffective for both fractionation regimens. Results: For the previously stated problem, the relative isodose level z (%), where the BEDs to the normal tissue were also equal, was defined by the normal tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratio divided by the tumor {alpha}/{beta} times 100%. Fewer fractions offers a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue located outside the isodose surface, z, whereas more fractions offer a therapeutic advantage for those portions of the normal tissue within the isodose surface, z. Conclusions: Relative isodose-based treatment plan evaluations may be useful for comparing isoeffective tumor regimens in terms of normal tissue effects. Regions of tissues that would benefit from hypofractionation or standard fractionation can be identified.

  7. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  8. Does the radiation from the interim storage in Gorleben affect the sex ratio of newborn children?; Beeinflusst die Strahlung aus dem Zwischenlager in Gorleben das Geschlechterverhaeltnis von Neugeborenen?

    Engelmann, H.W.; Schulze, H.; Wede, S. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Gorleben (Germany); Mueller, S. [Studsvik GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the professional world but especially in public, the question is discussed whether ionizing radiation from nuclear facilities has a significant impact on the secondary sex ratio of newborn children in the vicinity of the plants. This issue is of exceptional importance in the region around Gorleben, where the opposition to nuclear facilities and activities for decades is particularly strong. At the site borders of the interim storage facility (TBL-G) of GNS the effective individual dose is about 0.2 mSv per year, mainly caused by neutron irradiation from 108 casks with high-level radioactive waste from reprocessing. In the surrounding villages there is no radiation measurable. Statistical studies allegedly have shown evidence that in some villages in the area and during certain periods, proportionately fewer girls were born in comparison to the average for the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on these purely statistical results henceforward was also alleged that neutron-induced secondary effects such as activation or secondary gamma radiation would be responsible for it. Monte Carlo calculations and special measurements yielded values of the dose at the plant border for activation products less than E-04 mSv/a and for secondary gamma radiation of about E-03 mSv/a. These results indicate that the ionizing radiation from the Gorleben interim storage facility cannot be held accountable for shifts of the secondary sex ratio.

  9. Determination of chromium in Bowen's kale, NBS bovine liver, and brewers yeast, before and after dry ashing

    Versieck, J.; Hoste, J.; De Rudder, J.; Barbier, F.; Vanballenberghe, L.

    1979-01-01

    In view of the persistent controversy about the volatility of chromium in biologic materials, the element was determined by neutron activation analysis in three reference materials before and after dry ashing up to 450 0 C. The following mean values were obtained: 0.364 μg/g and 0.362 μg/g (Bowen's kale), 0.0806 μg/g and 0.0789 μg/g (NBS bovine liver), 2.043 μg/g and 2.094 μg/g (NBS brewers yeast). It was concluded that chromium does not volatilize significantly in experimental conditions of drying and ashing

  10. The thermal history of the Bowen Basin: a comparison of apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance

    Marshallsea, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) are two techiques widely used to assess paleotemperatures of the order of 20-120 deg.C. in sedimentary basins. Whereas vitrinite reflectance is essentially a qualitative technique that gives an integrated measure of the entire thermal history, AFTA can reveal information on the variation of paleotemperatures through time because fission-tracks in apatite are continually produced throughout geological time. An apatite fission track study of the Upper Permian units of the Bowen Basin has offered the opportunity to compare the two paleotemperature indicators and place constraints on the timing of maximum paleotemperatures. The regional pattern of apatite fission-track ages closely coincides with the vitrinite reflectance indicating that maximum paleotemperatures have varied across the Basin with the central region of the Bowen Basin experiencing highest paleotemperatures. The reduction in apatite reflectance fission-track age with increasing reflectance represents the progressive annealing at temperatures around 60-120 deg. C. of those fission-tracks formed prior to the time of maximum temperatures. In those samples giving the youngest apatite fission-track ages all tacks were totally annealed at this time, and the fission-track age in these samples, in the range 90-120 Myr, indicate the time of cooling from the thermal maximum in the Early Cretaceous. 1 ref

  11. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  12. On the correctness of the thermoluminescent high-temperature ratio (HTR) method for estimating ionization density effects in mixed radiation fields

    Bilski, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method which exploits changes in the LiF:Mg,Ti glow-curve due to high-LET radiation, has been used for several years to estimate LET in an unknown radiation field. As TL efficiency is known to decrease after doses of densely ionizing radiation, a LET estimate is used to correct the TLD-measured values of dose. The HTR method is purely empirical and its general correctness is questionable. The validity of the HTR method was investigated by theoretical simulation of various mixed radiation fields. The LET eff values estimated with the HTR method for mixed radiation fields were found in general to be incorrect, in some cases underestimating the true values of dose-averaged LET by an order of magnitude. The method produced correct estimates of average LET only in cases of almost mono-energetic fields (i.e. in non-mixed radiation conditions). The value of LET eff found by the HTR method may therefore be treated as a qualitative indicator of increased LET, but not as a quantitative estimator of average LET. However, HTR-based correction of the TLD-measured dose value (HTR-B method) was found to be quite reliable. In all cases studied, application of this technique improved the result. Most of the measured doses fell within 10% of the true values. A further empirical improvement to the method is proposed. One may therefore recommend the HTR-B method to correct for decreased TL efficiency in mixed high-LET fields.

  13. Radiation

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  14. Correlation of maternal age, gravida status, major malformations, stillbirth and sex ratio in high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast

    Sudheer, K.R.; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing study on biological and health effects of chronic low dose and/or dose rate on human population, consecutive births were monitored in selected Govt. hospitals located in normal and high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast. This area is unique because of its vast population size and varied range of background radiation level due to natural deposit of monazite containing thorium. The objective is to elucidate the role of chronic low dose radiation, if any, on the adverse pregnancy outcome. Since 1995, ∼1,70,000 newborns were monitored in this area, of which 74,238 singleton first births were monitored. Of these, 634 (0.85%) cases were observed with detectable major congenital malformations (that include serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management) and 240 (0.32%) cases were stillborn. Sex ratio at first birth was observed in the ratio of 1050 males to 1000 females. The distribution of age at marriage of the mothers was stratified into the following groups: d"18 years (15.5%), 19 20 years (25.9%), 21 22 years (25.6%), 23 24 years (17.2%) and >25 years (15.8%). It was observed that about 78.9% mothers had their first birth within one year of marriage, 13.7% had their first birth within 1.1 2 years and 5.2% within 2.1 4 years. About 2.2% (1613) mothers had their first child after 4 years or more. Individual, combined and interactive effects of age at marriage, first birth interval (first gravida status), background radiation levels and gender of the newborn on major congenital malformation and stillbirth will be discussed. (author)

  15. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)

  16. Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio based on spectral vegetation indexes in high-latitude Arctic areas

    Jacobsen, A.; Hansen, B.U.

    1999-01-01

    The vegetation communities in the Arctic environment are very sensitive to even minor climatic variations and therefore the estimation of surface energy fluxes from high-latitude vegetated areas is an important subject to be pursued. This study was carried out in July-August and used micro meteorological data, spectral reflectance signatures, and vegetation biomass to establish the relation between the soil heat flux/net radiation (G / Rn) ratio and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Continuous measurements of soil temperature and soil heat flux were used to calculate the surface ground heat flux by use of conventional methods, and the relation to surface temperature was investigated. Twenty-seven locations were established, and six samples per location, including the measurement of the surface temperature and net radiation to establish the G/Rn ratio and simultaneous spectral reflectance signatures and wet biomass estimates, were registered. To obtain regional reliability, the locations were chosen in order to represent the different Arctic vegetation communities in the study area; ranging from dry tundra vegetation communities (fell fields and dry dwarf scrubs) to moist/wet tundra vegetation communities (snowbeds, grasslands and fens). Spectral vegetation indices, including the simple ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. A comparison of SVIs to biomass proved that RVI gave the best linear expression, and NDVI the best exponential expression. A comparison of SVIs and the surface energy flux ratio G / Rn proved that NDVI gave the best linear expression. SPOT HRV images from July 1989 and 1992 were used to map NDVI and G / Rn at a regional scale. (author)

  17. Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Bowen's Disease in a Patient with a History of Consumption of Traditional Chinese Herbal Balls

    Joon Seok

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been classified as a class I human carcinogen, meaning that there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to humans. Arsenic, however, remains a common contaminant in a number of traditional Chinese herbal balls. A 64-year-old man presented with an erythematous erosive patch on the left palm, multiple yellowish scaly patches on the right palm and an erythematous hyperkeratotic patch with bleeding on the left foot dorsum. He also had similar skin lesions on the back and buttock. He had a past medical history of chronic exposure to arsenic through consumption of traditional Chinese herbal balls. Skin biopsy revealed Bowen's disease on the left palm and squamous cell carcinoma on left foot dorsum. We report this case to emphasize that we should investigate patient's history thoroughly, including the use of Chinese herbal balls to find out arsenicism.

  18. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Madhusoodhanan, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Das, Birajalaxmi; Andrews, V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  19. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Kollam (India); Madhusoodhanan, M. [Victoria Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kollam (India); Jagadeesan, C.K. [Directorate of Health Services, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Das, Birajalaxmi [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Mumbai (India); Andrews, V.J.

    2015-11-15

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  20. Crop maize evapotranspiration; 2: ratios between the evapotranspiration to class A pan evaporation, to the reference evapotranspiration and to global solar radiation, at three sowing dates

    Matzenauer, R.; Bergamashi, H.; Berlato, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Water availability is the most limiting factor for growth and grain yield of maize in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, reducing frequently this production. Therefore, studies involving the determination of the water requirements are important for irrigation management to minimize the water availability problem. The main objective of this study was to calculate ratios between the maize crop evapotranspiration (ETm) to the class A pan evaporation (Eo), to the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and to global solar radiation (Rs), in order to obtain ralations between ETm/Eo, ETm/ETo and ETm/Rs, at different crop stages for three different sowing dates. Field experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Taquari/RS, 29°48’ of south latitude, 51°49’of west longitude, and 76m of altitude, from 1976/77 to 1988/89. ETm was measured using drainage lysimeters (Thornthwaite-Mather type). The average ratio between ETm and Eo for whole crop cycle (from sowing to physiological maturity) was 0.66, 0.72, and 0.68, respectively, in crops sown on September, October, and November. The average ratio between ETm and ETo for whole crop cycle was 0.74, 0.81, and 0.8, in crops sown on September, October, and November, while the average ratio between ETm and Rs was 0.45, 0.51, and 0.49 for the same sowing dates. The higher average values of crop coefficients occured from tasseling to the milk grain stage, when ETm/Eo was 0.81, 0.92, and 0.81; ETm/ETo was 0.97, 1.05, and 0.96, whereas ETm/Rs was 0.6, 0.68, and 0.6 for crops sown on September, October, and November, respectively [pt

  1. Evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in a CR system and establishment of RQR-M and RQA-M IEC reference radiations in mammography

    Rosado, Paulo H.G.; Nogueira, Maria S.; Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Santana, Priscila do C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the radiation condition RQR-M e RQA-M of IEC were established in the Siemens Mammomat 3000 mammography equipment. The standard radiation condition are described in terms of: emitting target of molybdenum, percentage ripple not more that 4%, total filtration of 0,032 ± 0,002 mm of molybdenum and specific values of first half-value layer. The results show that the values of parameters were in the range that the IEC recommends. Only the RQAM-3 the value of CSR was not in agreement of the value recommend, and was necessary a additions of 0,1 mm Al in the x-ray tube. After this, the signal noise ratio (SNR) of de Computer radiography (CR) system was evaluated in the reference qualities of RQR-M e RQA-M. For SNR the RQR-M mode of exposure was done with both the 20 mAs and automatic one. To RQA-M the exposure was done with 100 mAs. The variations of the values of SNR were approximated 4%. The tests were done with CR model CR850 made from Kodak and 40 mm of PMMA. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the Relative Citation Ratio, a New National Institutes of Health-Supported Bibliometric Measure of Research Productivity, among Academic Radiation Oncologists.

    Rock, Calvin B; Prabhu, Arpan V; Fuller, C David; Thomas, Charles R; Holliday, Emma B

    2018-03-01

    Publication metrics are useful in evaluating academic faculty for awarding grants, recruitment, and promotion. A new metric, the relative citation ratio (RCR), was recently released by the National Institutes of Health (NIH); however, no benchmark data yet exist. We sought to create benchmark data for physician faculty in academic radiation oncology (RO) and analyze correlations associated with increased academic productivity. Citation database searches were performed for all US radiation oncologists affiliated with academic RO programs. Gender, NIH funding, career duration, academic rank, RCR, and weighted RCR were collected for each faculty. RCR and weighted RCR were calculated and compared between each subgroup of interest. RCR percentiles were also created for reference. A total of 1,299 RO physician faculty members from 75 institutions were included in the analysis. Overall, RO physician were very productive and influential with a mean RCR of 1.57 ± 1.53 SD and median RCR (interquartile range) of 1.32 (0.87-1.94). Academic rank, career duration, and NIH funding were associated with increased mean RCR and weighted RCR. Male gender and having a PhD were associated with an increased weighted RCR but not an increased mean RCR. Current academic radiation oncologists have a high mean RCR value relative to the benchmark NIH RCR value of 1. All subgroups analyzed had an RCR value above 1 with professor or chair and previous NIH funding having the highest RCR and weighted RCR values overall. These data may be useful for self-evaluation of ROs as well as evaluation of faculty by institutional and departmental leaders. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  4. Multiple Bowen's disease and epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a patient who experienced chronic arsenic poisoning

    Ching-En Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southwest coastal plain of Taiwan is an endemic area of arsenic contamination. Residents who lived there before the 1970s and who used raw groundwater for drinking have a higher risk of arsenic poisoning. In 1968, Tseng et al. described Blackfoot disease as a peripheral vascular disease caused by chronic exposure to arsenic, thereby introducing the concept of arsenic-induced systemic illness in Taiwan. Multiple Bowen's disease (BD is one of the characteristic consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning and it usually presents as cutaneous carcinoma in situ. Multiple BD can also be associated with squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin, as well as lung, liver, gastrointestinal, and bladder cancers. We encountered a 79-year-old male from Yun-Lin, a county in Southwest Taiwan, who presented with a progressing tumor in his right anterior chest wall. In addition, numerous keratoses and scaly skin lesions were noted on his trunk and extremities, some of which were combined with erosions. The patient was diagnosed with chronic arsenic poisoning with multiple BD and the huge tumor was confirmed as an epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

  5. Rehabilitation with pasture after open-cut coal mining at three sites in the Bowen Coal Basin of Queensland

    Coaldrake, J E

    1978-03-01

    Open-cut coal mining in the Bowen Coal Basin leaves piled heaps of overburden, chiefly of a clayey nature, that have high pH, high salinity, and low contents of phosphorus and nitrogen. It is likely that pastures of introduced sub- tropical species can be used as a first stage in rehabilitating these areas, and possibly to convert them into permanent grazing lands. In field experiments the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela (Buffel grass), Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (Rhodes grass) and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume cv. Petrie (green panic) all showed satisfactory establishment and growth at two sites out of three tested. There was a clear response to superphosphate, with 400 kg/ha proving better over a two-year period than 100 kg/ha. Responses to nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate and as ammonium nitrate) were variable, and there was no response to gypsum and manganese at the one site tested for them. Of three tropical legumes subjected to limited testing only leucaena leucocephala gave encouraging results.

  6. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  9. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  10. Golden Ratio

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  11. Golden Ratio

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  12. Two cases of basal cell carcinoma arising from chronic radiation dermatitis

    Wakamori, Takeshi; Takenaka, Hideya; Ueda, Eiichiro; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2003-01-01

    A 48-year-old female and a 51-year-old male with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arising from chronic radiation dermatitis are reviewed. They are treated with radiotherapy for hemangioma on their right cheek in their childhood. Review in the literature showed high incidence of the histological diagnosis of malignant skin tumors arising from chronic radiation dermatitis are follows: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), BCC, sarcoma, and Bowen's disease. (author)

  13. Radiations

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  14. Radiation

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  15. Sex ratios

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  16. Radiation

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  17. Família e o processo de diferenciação na perspectiva de Murray Bowen: um estudo de caso

    Elizabeth Medeiros de Almeida Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a aplicabilidade do conceito de diferenciação do self elaborado por Murray Bowen na terapia da família. Focalizou a história de uma família mostrando como as histórias de vida do casal, a partir das primeiras triangulações, tanto na família nuclear quanto na extensa, foram transmitidas entre gerações até gerar uma história renovada do casal e de sua própria família.

  18. Bowen Journal of Agriculture

    Physicochemical properties of maize–'OGI' enriched with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Omolara Bolanle Otegbayo, Deborah Owolabi, Oluyinka Oroniran, Olufemi Oludemi, 32-40 ...

  19. Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Equation: Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Scattering Atmospheres in Thermal IR

    Ustinov, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis based on using of the adjoint equation of radiative transfer is applied to the case of atmospheric remote sensing in the thermal spectral region with non-negligeable atmospheric scattering.

  20. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Li Baoqing; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.

  1. Papulose bowenóide: um aspecto clínico da infecção pelo HPV Bowenoid papulosis: a clinical feature of the HPV infection

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Papulose bowenóide é uma doença que acomete a pele da região anogenital e que se caracteriza pelas múltiplas pequenas pápulas planas ou aveludadas e de coloração que varia do róseo ao castanho-escuro. É provocada pelo HPV e a transmissão sexual é a forma mais freqüente de contaminação. As queixas mais comuns são prurido e dor. O aspecto é característico e o exame histopatológico confirma o diagnóstico. Junto com a doença de Bowen e a eritroplasia de Queyrat, é considerada como carcinoma in situ, ou neoplasia intra-epitelial de alto grau (NIAA, a lesão precursora do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal. Sem tratamento, a maioria das lesões permanece benigna e estável. Várias modalidades terapêuticas estão disponíveis, incluindo as medicações tópicas para citodestruição e as técnicas ablativas. Os esquemas tópicos são efetivos. Cabe ao profissional médico escolher a terapia adequada, tendo em mente que a doença é benigna e raramente evolui para carcinoma. Como as recidivas são freqüentes e ainda persistem dúvidas quanto ao potencial de malignização, os doentes devem ser examinados periodicamente para diagnosticar as lesões iniciais.Bowenoid papulosis is an anogenital skin disease characterized by multiple little papules, flat or velvet, which color varies from pink to dark brown. It is provoked by HPV and its transmission is sexual. Most common symptoms are anal pain and itching. Its appearance is characteristic and hystopathological examination confirms diagnosis. Together with Bowen´s disease and Queyrat erythroplasia, is considered as an in situ carcinoma, or high grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN, a precursor of the squamous-cell carcinoma. Most of lesions remain benign and stable without treatment. There are several kinds of treatment including topical drugs for cytodestruction and ablative techniques. Topic schemes are effectives. The consultant doctor may choose the most adequate therapy

  2. RBEOER: a FORTRAN program for the computation of RBEs, OERs, survival ratios, and the effects of fractionation using the theory of dual radiation action

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.

    1978-05-01

    The computer code RBEOER calculates RBEs, OERs and survival curves as a function of the dose delivered to a biological system and the temporal distribution of the dose (fractionation). The method of calculation is based on the theory of dual radiation action. The basic formalism and the input parameters are described. A sample output is presented

  3. Comments on 'On the estimation of overwater bowen ratio from sea-air temperature difference. Reply to: Hsu, S.A. - A relationship between the Bowen ratio and sea-air temperature difference under unstable conditions at sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. Vol. 28; p. 2222-2226'

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Murty, V.S.N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Phys_Oceanogr_31_1933.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Phys_Oceanogr_31_1933.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. An evaluation of a solar radiation/delta-T method for estimating Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories

    Coulter, C.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    There has been a continuing need to develop robust methods for determining Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) stability categories using solely on-site meteorological instrumentation. The Revised EPA Guideline on Air Quality Models recommends several such methods. Experience with these suggests that, since they rely on turbulence measurements, they can be unduly influenced by local effects such as mesoscale circulation (e.g., upslope/downslope flows, land/sea breeze), wakes from tree barriers or buildings, etc. to such an extent as to diminish their practical usefulness. In the following discussion, a methodology is proposed for estimating P-G stability categories that employs on-site meteorological measurements (10m wind speed coupled with solar radiation during the day and temperature difference, {Delta}T, at night) in lieu of cloud cover and ceiling height observations. The proposed method was adapted from Bowen and is herein referred to as the solar radiation/delta-T (SRDT) method. To evaluate the method, an attempt was made to acquire data bases from diverse geographical areas. Data bases with {Delta}T measurements from 2-10m above ground level were of primary interest for characterizing the boundary layer; other intervals were considered for evaluation, as available. To document the consequence of implementing the method in practical applications, an analysis was needed of the effect on design concentration ratios.

  5. Measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium at 2.8 keV using synchrotron radiation

    Levin, J.C.; Lindle, D.W.; Keller, N.; Miller, R.D.; Azuma, Y.; Mansour, N.B.; Berry, H.G.; Sellin, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of helium well above the double-ionization threshold. Using a time-of-flight technique, we find He ++ /He + =1.6±0.3% at hν=2.8 keV. This value lies between calculations by Amusia (2.3%) and by Samson, who predicts 1.2% by analogy with electron-impact ionization cross sections of singly charged ions. Good agreement is obtained with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain, and of Aberg, who predict 1.7%

  6. Effect of Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio on structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by radiation induced method

    Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)

  7. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USS BOWEN and other Platforms from the Gulf of Alaska in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1983-09-06 to 1983-10-11 (NODC Accession 8300182)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USS BOWEN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by the US DOC; NOAA; National Ocean...

  8. Simulation of image detectors in radiology for determination of scatter-to-primary ratios using Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP/MCNPX.

    Smans, Kristien; Zoetelief, Johannes; Verbrugge, Beatrijs; Haeck, Wim; Struelens, Lara; Vanhavere, Filip; Bosmans, Hilde

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and validate three methods to simulate radiographic image detectors with the Monte Carlo software MCNP/MCNPX in a time efficient way. The first detector model was the standard semideterministic radiography tally, which has been used in previous image simulation studies. Next to the radiography tally two alternative stochastic detector models were developed: A perfect energy integrating detector and a detector based on the energy absorbed in the detector material. Validation of three image detector models was performed by comparing calculated scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs) with the published and experimentally acquired SPR values. For mammographic applications, SPRs computed with the radiography tally were up to 44% larger than the published results, while the SPRs computed with the perfect energy integrating detectors and the blur-free absorbed energy detector model were, on the average, 0.3% (ranging from -3% to 3%) and 0.4% (ranging from -5% to 5%) lower, respectively. For general radiography applications, the radiography tally overestimated the measured SPR by as much as 46%. The SPRs calculated with the perfect energy integrating detectors were, on the average, 4.7% (ranging from -5.3% to -4%) lower than the measured SPRs, whereas for the blur-free absorbed energy detector model, the calculated SPRs were, on the average, 1.3% (ranging from -0.1% to 2.4%) larger than the measured SPRs. For mammographic applications, both the perfect energy integrating detector model and the blur-free energy absorbing detector model can be used to simulate image detectors, whereas for conventional x-ray imaging using higher energies, the blur-free energy absorbing detector model is the most appropriate image detector model. The radiography tally overestimates the scattered part and should therefore not be used to simulate radiographic image detectors.

  9. Is the alpha-beta ratio of prostate cancer really low? A prospective, non-randomized trial comparing standard and hyperfractionated conformal radiation therapy

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Italia, Corrado; Montanaro, Paolo; Lanceni, Angelo; Lattuada, Paola; Magnani, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Nahum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    regimen. Using the Nahum-Chapman TLCP model and prostate parameter set, which includes hypoxia, the TLCPs are approximately equal for the two regimens, whereas assuming α/β=1.5 and no hypoxia we obtain 73% for the STD group but only 36% for the HFX group. Conclusions: As expected from radiobiological considerations, HFX reduces GI and GU late toxicities. Concerning early bRFS, our clinical findings suggest that HFX is no less effective than STD when delivering an isoeffective (α/β=10) dose. Despite the relatively short follow-up, this result appears to be inconsistent with a low α/β ratio for prostate cancer

  10. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  11. Evaluation of the Lactate-to-N-Acetyl-aspartate Ratio Defined With Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Before Radiation Therapy as a New Predictive Marker of the Site of Relapse in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Deviers, Alexandra [Département de Radiothérapie, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 825, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Toulouse (France); INP (Institut National Polytechnique), ENVT (Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse), Unité d' Anatomie-Imagerie-Embryologie, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Ken, Soléakhéna [Département de Radiothérapie, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 825, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas [Bureau des Etudes Cliniques, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Rowland, Benjamin; Laruelo, Andrea [Département de Radiothérapie, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Catalaa, Isabelle; Lubrano, Vincent [UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 825, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Toulouse (France); Hôpital de Rangueil, CHU (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire) de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Celsis, Pierre [UMR (Unité Mixte de Recherche) 825, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Because lactate accumulation is considered a surrogate for hypoxia and tumor radiation resistance, we studied the spatial distribution of the lactate-to-N-acetyl-aspartate ratio (LNR) before radiation therapy (RT) with 3D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-{sup 1}H-MRSI) and assessed its impact on local tumor control in glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM included in a phase 2 chemoradiation therapy trial constituted our database. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRSI data before RT were evaluated and correlated to MRI data at relapse. The optimal threshold for tumor-associated LNR was determined with receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the pre-RT LNR values and MRI characteristics of the tumor. This threshold was used to segment pre-RT normalized LNR maps. Two spatial analyses were performed: (1) a pre-RT volumetric comparison of abnormal LNR areas with regions of MRI-defined lesions and a choline (Cho)-to- N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) ratio ≥2 (CNR2); and (2) a voxel-by-voxel spatial analysis of 4,186,185 voxels with the intention of evaluating whether pre-RT abnormal LNR areas were predictive of the site of local recurrence. Results: A LNR of ≥0.4 (LNR-0.4) discriminated between tumor-associated and normal LNR values with 88.8% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. LNR-0.4 voxels were spatially different from those of MRI-defined lesions, representing 44% of contrast enhancement, 64% of central necrosis, and 26% of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) abnormality volumes before RT. They extended beyond the overlap with CNR2 for most patients (median: 20 cm{sup 3}; range: 6-49 cm{sup 3}). LNR-0.4 voxels were significantly predictive of local recurrence, regarded as contrast enhancement at relapse: 71% of voxels with a LNR-0.4 before RT were contrast enhanced at relapse versus 10% of voxels with a normal LNR (P<.01). Conclusions: Pre-RT LNR-0.4 in GBM

  12. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  13. Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report

    Noone Robert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping. However, this disease often recurs or persists, requiring additional surgery for these patients. This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage. In this case report, we discuss the efficacy of radiation therapy as a modality to treat post-excisional recurrent Bowen's disease, which may prevent sphincter compromise, leading to improved quality of life. Case presentation An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ. The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin. A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed. The margins were clear and our patient was followed up. Our patient recurred with a 1.2 × 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal. A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal. Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy. Two years after radiation therapy, our patient showed no signs of recurrent disease and had good sphincter control. Conclusion Although the main treatment modality for treating persistent/recurrent Bowen's disease is surgery, an alternative approach using external beam radiation for CIS may be enough to provide a cure for some patients with recurrent disease.

  14. Report on information collection and analysis for fundamental survey on coal resource development in fiscal 1998. Survey on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia; 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki hokokusho. Goshu Bowen bonchi sekitan kyokyu potentiality chosa

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia. The main coal beds exist in the order of four beds in the Permian period. The oldest bed is the Reids Dome bed in the Lower Permian period, deposited in the south-west part of the basin. The later wide-area transgression has caused the Back Creek bed groups to deposit, whereas three coal measures have deposited in a concave on the raised basic bed. Later, the ocean has invaded into the entire basin. After having turned into the Upper Permian period, regression had occurred from north to south, where major coal measures such as the Moranbah and German Creek beds had deposited over the entire basin. Further regression has taken place to south, causing three uppermost coal measures to have deposited over the entire basin. In major part of the areas identified currently with existence of coal measures, and even in areas without mines, the mining right or the exploration right has been established, limiting the areas having development potentiality. Five abandoned mining areas exist in the Rangal coal measure, two in the Moranbah coal measure, two in the Reids Dome coal measure, and one in the Baralaba coal measure. There is a possibility of discovering areas developable for a scale of several ten million tons. (NEDO)

  15. Dose modulated retrospective ECG-gated versus non-gated 64-row CT angiography of the aorta at the same radiation dose: Comparison of motion artifacts, diagnostic confidence and signal-to-noise-ratios

    Schernthaner, Ruediger E.; Stadler, Alfred; Beitzke, Dietrich; Homolka, Peter; Weber, Michael; Lammer, Johannes; Czerny, Martin; Loewe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ECG-gated and non-gated CT angiography of the aorta at the same radiation dose, with regard to motion artifacts (MA), diagnostic confidence (DC) and signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs). Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients prospectively randomized into two groups underwent 64-row CT angiography, with or without dose-modulated ECG-gating, of the entire aorta, due to several pathologies of the ascending aorta. MA and DC were both assessed using a four-point scale. SNRs were calculated by dividing the mean enhancement by the standard deviation. The dose-length-product (DLP) of each examination was recorded and the effective dose was estimated. Results: Dose-modulated ECG-gating showed statistically significant advantages over non-gated CT angiography, with regard to MA (p < 0.001) and DC (p < 0.001), at the aortic valve, at the origin of the coronary arteries, and at the dissection membrane, with a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between MA and DC. At the aortic wall, however, ECG-gated CT angiography showed statistically significant fewer MA (p < 0.001), but not a statistically significant higher DC (p = 0.137) compared to non-gated CT angiography. At the supra-aortic vessels and the descending aorta, the ECG-triggering showed no statistically significant differences with regard to MA (p = 0.861 and 0.526, respectively) and DC (p = 1.88 and 0.728, respectively). The effective dose of ECG-gated CT angiography (23.24 mSv; range, 18.43–25.94 mSv) did not differ significantly (p = 0.051) from that of non-gated CT angiography (24.28 mSv; range, 19.37–29.27 mSv). Conclusion: ECG-gated CT angiography of the entire aorta reduces MA and results in a higher DC with the same SNR, compared to non-gated CT angiography at the same radiation dose.

  16. An intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE 1987

    Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Fritschen, L.J.; Weaver, H.L.; Smith, E.A.; Verma, S.B.; Field, R.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Stewart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    During FIFE 1987, surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to 20 of the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument-related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Using linear regression analysis, net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover measurements and the host measurements. The average differences in net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat flux from different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent, respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected radiation energy balance system (REBS) model. The four-way components method and the Thornthwaite type give similar values to the REBS. The surface energy radiation balance systems type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the arid zone evapotranspiration systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems. It is recommended that users of the flux data take these differences into account. 11 refs

  17. Financial Key Ratios

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  18. Effect of exposure of parents to the atomic bombs on the first generation offspring in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: preliminary report. Studies on the potential genetic effects of the atomic bombs. Radiation and the sex ratio in man

    Neel, J V; Morton, N E; Schull, W J; McDonald, D J; Kodani, M; Takeshima, K; Anderson, R C; Wood, J; Brewer, R; Wright, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 separate reports on studies of genetic radiation effects on survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  19. Partitioning of radiation and energy balance components in an inhomogeneous desert valley

    Malek, E.; Bingham, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation and energy balance components are required to validate global, regional, and local scale models representing surface heat flux relationships in the heterogeneous surfaces of the world's arid and desert regions. Research was conducted in north-eastern Nevada, U.S.A., in a Great Basin inhomogeneous semi-arid desert valley located at 40° 44′ N, 114° 26′ W, with an elevation of 1707 m above mean sea level, to study the daily, monthly, and annual mesoscale radiation and energy balance components. We established five radiation stations along with five Bowen ratio systems to measure the incoming (R si ) and outgoing (R so ) solar (shortwave) radiation, net (R n ) radiation, air temperatures and moisture at 1 and 2 m above-ground, the aggregated (soil + vegetation) surface temperature, soil heat flux at 8 cm (three locations at each station), soil temperatures at 2 and 6 cm above each soil flux plate, wind speed and direction at 10 m, and precipitation (if any) every 5 s averaged into 20 min throughout the valley during the 93–94 water year (beginning 1 October). Our study during the 93–94 water year showed that albedo (R so /R si ) ranged from 85% (snow-covered surface) to 10% (cloudy skies with wet surface) among stations. The water year total incoming solar radiation (averaged among stations) amounted to 6·33 × 10 3 MJ·m −2 and about 24% of that was reflected back to the atmosphere. The net longwave radiation (R ln = R lo − R li ) was about 32% of R si , where R lo and R li are the terrestrial (outgoing) and atmospheric (incoming) longwave radiation, respectively. The 93–94 water year average net radiation (R n ) among stations amounted to 2·68 × 10 3 MJ·m −2 (about 44% of R si ). Approximately 85·3% and 14·6% of R n were used for the processes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes, respectively. The annual R n contribution to surface soil heat flux (G surf ) was almost 0·1%. Monthly and annual relationships among

  20. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  1. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  2. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  3. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  5. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  6. Difference and ratio plots

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  7. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  8. Radiation chemistry

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  9. Pulsed radiation decay logging

    Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    There are provided new and improved well logging processes and systems wherein the detection of secondary radiation is accomplished during a plurality of time windows in a manner to accurately characterize the decay rate of the secondary radiation. The system comprises a well logging tool having a primary pulsed radiation source which emits repetitive time-spaced bursts of primary radiation and detector means for detecting secondary radiation resulting from the primary radiation and producing output signals in response to the detected radiation. A plurality of measuring channels are provided, each of which produces a count rate function representative of signals received from the detector means during successive time windows occurring between the primary radiation bursts. The logging system further comprises means responsive to the measuring channels for producing a plurality of functions representative of the ratios of the radiation count rates measured during adjacent pairs of the time windows. Comparator means function to compare the ratio functions and select at least one of the ratio functions to generate a signal representative of the decay rate of the secondary radiation

  10. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  11. Intake to Production Ratio

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  12. Measurement of the concentration ratio for 13N and 12N isotopes at atmospheric pressure by carbon dioxide absorption of diode laser radiation at ∼2 μm

    Mironchuk, E S; Nikolaev, I V; Ochkin, Vladimir N; Rodionova, S S; Spiridonov, Maksim V; Tskhai, Sergei N

    2009-01-01

    The ratio of 12 NO 2 and 13 CO 2 concentrations in the human exhaled air is measured by the method of diode laser spectroscopy using a three-channel optical scheme and multipass cell. Unlike the previous measurements in the spectral range of ∼4.3 μm with a resolved rotational structure at low pressure of selected samples, the present measurements are performed in the range of ∼2 μm, in which weaker absorption bands of CO 2 reside. In this case, it is possible to employ lasers and photodetectors operating at room temperature. The thorough simulation of the spectrum with collisional broadening of lines and employment of regression analysis allow one to take measurements at atmospheric pressure with the accuracy of ∼0.04%, which satisfies the requirements to medical diagnostics of ulcers. (laser spectroscopy)

  13. The Reference Return Ratio

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  14. Potential support ratios

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  15. Radiation and radiation protection

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  17. Radiation measurement

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  18. Peak power ratio generator

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  19. Vertical Distribution of Radiation and Energy Balance Partitioning Within and Above a Lodgepole Pine Stand Recovering from a Recent Insect Attack

    Emmel, Carmen; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie; Black, Thomas Andrew; Christen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) that started in the late 1990s in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest ever recorded in the north American native habitat of the beetle. The killing of trees is expected to change the vertical distribution of net radiation () and the partitioning of latent () and sensible () heat fluxes in the different layers of an attacked forest canopy. During an intensive observation period in the summer of 2010, eddy-covariance flux and radiation measurements were made at seven heights from ground level up to 1.34 times the canopy height in an MPB-attacked open-canopy forest stand in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. The lodgepole pine dominated stand with a rich secondary structure (trees and understorey not killed by the beetle) was first attacked by the MPB in 2003 and received no management. In this study, the vertical distribution of the energy balance components and their sources and sinks were analyzed and energy balance closure (EBC) was determined for various levels within the canopy. The low stand density resulted in approximately 60 % of the shortwave irradiance and 50 % of the daily total reaching the ground. Flux divergence calculations indicated relatively strong sources of latent heat at the ground and where the secondary structure was located. Only very weak sources of latent heat were found in the upper part of the canopy, which was mainly occupied by dead lodgepole pine trees. was the dominant term throughout the canopy, and the Bowen ratio () increased with height in the canopy. Soil heat flux () accounted for approximately 4 % of . Sensible heat storage in the air () was the largest of the energy balance storage components in the upper canopy during daytime, while in the lower canopy sensible heat storage in the boles () and biochemical energy storage () were the largest terms. was almost constant from the bottom to above the canopy. , and latent heat storage in the air () varied more than

  20. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  1. Radiation protection

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  2. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  3. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  4. Foundation on Economic Trends v. Bowen.

    1989-10-04

    The National Enviromental Policy Act requires that government agencies make a detailed enviromental impact statement (EIS) for all research significantly affecting the environment. These statements must be supplemented if the project substantially changes or if new information is obtained. The Foundation on Economic Trends argued that three developments in recombinant DNA research will significantly alter the enviromental impact, thereby mandating a new EIS by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These developments are cloning oncogenic viruses, engineering the human immunodeficiency virus into cells not normally susceptible to it, and introducing AIDS genetic codes into mice. The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia, held that the first two projects do not pose a greater risk and that the enviromental assessment being prepared by NIH on the third satisfies the requirements of the National Enviromental Policy Act.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Bowen-Conradi syndrome

    ... are assembled in a cell compartment called the nucleolus . The particular EMG1 gene mutation known to cause ... of EMG1 protein that is available in the nucleolus. A shortage of this protein in the nucleolus ...

  6. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  7. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  8. Natural radiation

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  9. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  10. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  11. Lalinet status - station expansion and lidar ratio systematic measurements

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LALINET is expanding regionally to guarantee spatial coverage over South and Central Americas. One of the network goals is to obtain a set of regional representative aerosol optical properties such as particle backscatter, extinction and lidar ratio. Given the North-South extension and influence of distinct airmass circulation patterns it is paramount to distinguish these optical parameters in order to gain better perfomance in radiation transfer models. A set of lidar ratio data is presented.

  12. Radiation enteritis

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  13. Radiation monitor

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  14. Radiation protection

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  15. Radiation sickness

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  16. Ionizing radiation

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  17. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  19. Deriving aerosol scattering ratio using range-resolved lidar ratio

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... ratio (LDR) are used to suggest the type of aerosols. The altitude-dependent ... to the station and the experimentally measured lidar data. The 'model ... The integrated aerosol extinction profile with altitude-dependent S and k.

  20. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  1. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  2. Secondary osteoporosis due to radiation

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Kihana, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Yasunari; Matsuura, Shumpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the 3rd lumber vertebra (L3) and the 5th lumber vertebra (L5) were measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). BMD of L3 and L5 in 139 normal control cases decreased linearly with age (L3: Y= 317.32 - 3.283X, L5: Y= 314.35 - 2.9056X). Ratio of the BMD of L5 to L3 (L5/L3 ratio, %) was constant in the value of 106.03{+-}12.84% before 50 years old and increased linearly after 50 years old (Y= 21.624 + 1.7187X). In 30 radiated cases, BMD of the radiated L5 ws decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 47.44{+-}18.74% of the preradiated value after 50 Gy of radiation. L5/L3 ratio was also decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 48.34{+-}19.33% of pre-radiated value after 50 Gy radiation. BMD of L5 and L5/L3 ratio after 50 Gy of radiation were decreased linearly with age (L5: Y= 107.44 - 0.9686X, L5/L3 ratio: Y= 106.98 - 0.9472X). Quality of life (performance status: PS, lumbago score) after radiation correlated significantly with age, body weight, BMD of L3 before radiation, BMD of L5 after radiation. PS and lumbago score were increased significantly in cases of more than 75 years old, less than 50 kg, less than 100 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L3 before radiation and less than 40 mg/cm{sup 3} of BMD of L5 after radiation. Quality of life after radiation was improved by treatment of alfacalcidol (PS: 3.0{+-}0.61 to 1.2{+-}0.47, lumbago score: 15.4{+-}4.08 to 4.2{+-}1.17). In conclusion, it should be said that pelvic radiation for gynecologic malignancy may disturb the bone metabolism and quality of life in the early phase after radiation, especially in the aged patients and that quality of life could be improved by treatment of alfacalcidol. (author).

  3. Large aspect ratio tokamak study

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Sardella, C.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) investigated the potential for producing a viable long burn tokamak reactor through enhanced volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer by employing high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were accessed in the context of extended burn operation. Plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed using a one-dimensional transport code. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the field in the ohmic heating coil and the wave shape of the ohmic heating discharge. A high aspect ratio reference reactor was chosen and configured

  4. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  5. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  6. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

  7. Biological effects of particle radiation

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  8. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  9. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  10. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  13. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  14. Radiation safety

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  15. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    Andreo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  16. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  17. Radiation safety

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  18. Synchrotron radiation

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  19. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  20. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  1. Radiation monitoring

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  2. Medical radiation

    1992-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK)

  3. Ionizing radiation

    Dennis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: characteristics of ionizing radiations; biological effects; comparison of radiation and other industrial risks; principles of protection; cost-benefit analysis; dose limits; the control and monitoring of radiation; reference levels; emergency reference levels. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation watchdog

    Manning, R.

    1984-01-01

    Designated by WHO as a Collaborating Centre, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee provides assistance to all countries of the Americas in radiation accidents including human contamination or overexposure. It also conducts courses in radiation emergency response for health professionals from throughout the world

  5. Radiation hazards

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  6. Ionizing radiations

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  7. Radiation imaging

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  8. Radiation imaging

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  9. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  10. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  11. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Calculation of the Cardiothoracic Ratio from Portable Anteroposterior Chest Radiography

    Chon, Sung Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Sam Soo

    2011-01-01

    Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), the ratio of cardiac diameter (CD) to thoracic diameter (TD), is a useful screening method to detect cardiomegaly, but is reliable only on posteroanterior chest radiography (chest PA). We performed this cross-sectional 3-phase study to establish reliable CTR from anteroposterior chest radiography (chest AP). First, CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratios were determined at different radiation distances by manipulating chest computed tomography to simulate chest PA and AP. CDChest PA was inferred from multiplying CDChest AP by this ratio. Incorporating this CD and substituting the most recent TDChest PA, we calculated the 'corrected' CTR and compared it with the conventional one in patients who took both the chest radiographies. Finally, its validity was investigated among the critically ill patients who performed portable chest AP. CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratio was {0.00099 × (radiation distance [cm])} + 0.79 (n = 61, r = 1.00, P chest AP with an available previous chest PA. This might help physicians detect congestive cardiomegaly for patients undergoing portable chest AP. PMID:22065900

  13. Radiation protection

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  14. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  15. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  16. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  17. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  18. Reproducibility of isotope ratio measurements

    Elmore, D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of an accelerator as part of a mass spectrometer has improved the sensitivity for measuring low levels of long-lived radionuclides by several orders of magnitude. However, the complexity of a large tandem accelerator and beam transport system has made it difficult to match the precision of low energy mass spectrometry. Although uncertainties for accelerator measured isotope ratios as low as 1% have been obtained under favorable conditions, most errors quoted in the literature for natural samples are in the 5 to 20% range. These errors are dominated by statistics and generally the reproducibility is unknown since the samples are only measured once

  19. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  20. Radiation injury

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  1. Cosmic radiation

    Capdevielle, J N

    1984-01-01

    First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.

  2. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk

  3. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  4. Hawking radiation

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  5. Radiation meter

    Burgess, P H

    1990-05-30

    Measuring means comprising first and second silicon PIN diode detectors both being covered with a thin layer of conducting material and the second detector being additionally covered with a relatively thick layer of material, the thickness being chosen such that beta radiation dose rate can be measured in beta radiation fields of high or medium energy, and in the presence of X and gamma radiation. (author). 2 figs.

  6. Radiation regulation

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  7. Radiation chemistry

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  8. Radiation protection

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  9. Radiation medicine

    1991-01-01

    This booklet has been produced by UKAEA and the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation to give some basic information about what radiation is and how it is used in day to day diagnosis and treatment. It will be of interest to people undergoing treatment, their relatives and friends, and anyone who wants to know more about this important area. After a brief historical introduction the booklet explains what radiation is, the natural and man-made sources of radiation, how it is produced and how X-rays are used in medical diagnosis and treatment. The radiation protection measures taken and safety standards followed are mentioned. (author)

  10. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  11. Synchrotron radiation

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  12. Detection strategies for extreme mass ratio inspirals

    Cornish, Neil J

    2011-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near-horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The waveforms produced are very complex, and the signals need to be coherently tracked for tens of thousands of cycles to produce a detection, making EMRI signals one of the most challenging data analysis problems in all of gravitational wave astronomy. Estimates for the number of templates required to perform an exhaustive grid-based matched-filter search for these signals are astronomically large, and far out of reach of current computational resources. Here I describe an alternative approach that employs a hybrid between genetic algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, along with several time-saving techniques for computing the likelihood function. This approach has proven effective at the blind extraction of relatively weak EMRI signals from simulated LISA data sets.

  13. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  14. Radiation myelopathy

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  15. Concepts of radiation protection

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  16. On the formation of TW Crv optical radiation

    Shimansky, V. V.; Mitrofanova, A. A.; Borisov, N. V.; Fabrika, S. N.; Galeev, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    We present the analysis of the optical radiation of the young pre-cataclysmic variable TW Crv. Spectroscopic and photometric observations were obtained at the SAO RAS 6-m BTA telescope and at the Russian-Turkish RTT-150 telescope. The light curves of the system posses nearly sinusoidal shapes with the amplitudes of Δ m > 0.m7, what is typical for young pre-cataclysmic variables with sdO-subdwarfs and orbit inclinations of less than 45◦. The optical spectrum contains dominant radiation of the hot subdwarf with the HI and He II absorption lines and strong emission lines, which are formed in the atmosphere of the secondary owing to the reflection effects. Radial velocities of the cool star were measured by analyzing the λλ 4630-4650 Å Bowen blend, which for the first time allowed to determine the component masses. A numerical simulation of the light curves and spectra of TW Crv, obtaining a complete set of systems fundamental parameters was carried out. The hot star parameters prompt its belonging to the sdOsubdwarf class at the stage of transition to the cooling white dwarf sequence. The absence of its observable planetary nebula is caused by a long-lasting evolution of the system after the common envelope state. The secondary component has a luminosity excess, which is typical for other young sdO-subdwarf precataclysmic variables. Its position on the " age-luminosity excess" diagram points at the accuracy of the obtained set of TW Crv fundamental parameters and at the similarity of its evolutionary and physical conditions with that of other BE UMa-type objects.

  17. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Radiation signatures

    McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)

  19. Background radiation

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  20. Ionizing radiations

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This is an update about the radiological monitoring in base nuclear installations. A departmental order of the 23. march 1999 (J.O.28. april, p.6309) determines the enabling rules by the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations of person having at one's disposal the results with names of individual exposure of workers put through ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  1. Radiation hematology

    Zherbin, E.A.; Chukhlovin, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-Art ofl radiation hematology and review of the problems now facing this brauch of radiobiology and nuclear medicine are presented. Distortion of division and maturation of hemopoiesis parent cells is considered as main factor of radiopathology for hematopoetic system. Problems of radiation injury and functional variation of hematopoetic microenvironment cell populations are discussed. 176 figs.; 23 figs.; 18 tabs

  2. Radiation oncology

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation Protection

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  5. Ionizing radiation

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  6. Radiation exposure

    Dalton, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The book gives accounts of some social and environmental impacts of the developing radiation industries, including the experiences of affected communities and individuals. Its structure is based on a division which has been made between nuclear and non-nuclear radiation sources, because they create distinctly different problems for environmental protection and so for public health policy. The emissions from electronic and electrical installations - the non-nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part I. Emissions from radioactive substances - the nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part II. Part III is for readers who want more detailed information about scientific basis of radiation-related biological changes and their associated health effects. 75 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs., ills

  7. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Adams, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this contribution about carcinogenesis induced by ionizing radiation some radiation dose-response relationships are discussed. Curves are shown of the relation between cell survival and resp. low and high LET radiation. The difference between both curves can be ascribed to endogenous repair mechanisms in the cell. The relation between single-gen mutation frequency and the surviving fractions of irradiated cells indicates that these repairing mechanisms are not error free. Some examples of reverse dose-response relationships are presented in which decreasing values of dose-rate (LET) correspond with increasing radiation induced cell transformation. Finally some molecular aspects of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed. (H.W.). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Radiation sickness

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  9. Photodiodes utilization as ionizing radiation detectors

    Khoury, H.J.; Melo, F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    The response of photodiodes to α and γ radiation is studied, using for α spectrometry measures and for γ radiation dosimetry. Therefore, the response of BPY-12 photodiodes as α particle detector is first studied. The results show that the response is linear with the energy of incidence radiation, one resolution 25Kev for energy of 5,4 MeV from 241 Am. For dosimetric measures, the response of SHF-206 photodiodes, when exposed at γ radiation is studied, and the results show taht the response of this detector is linear with the dose ratio, proving its practicability in γ radiation dosimetry. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. Radiation in medicine: Origins, risks and aspirations.

    Donya, Mohamed; Radford, Mark; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Firmin, David; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation in medicine is now pervasive and routine. From their crude beginnings 100 years ago, diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy have all evolved into advanced techniques, and are regarded as essential tools across all branches and specialties of medicine. The inherent properties of ionizing radiation provide many benefits, but can also cause potential harm. Its use within medical practice thus involves an informed judgment regarding the risk/benefit ratio. This judgment requires not only medical knowledge, but also an understanding of radiation itself. This work provides a global perspective on radiation risks, exposure and mitigation strategies.

  11. Radiation safety

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Data available on the biological effects of radiation on man are reviewed, with emphasis on dose response to low LET and high LET radiation sources, and the effects of dose rate. Existing guides for radiation protection were formulated largely on the basis of tumor induction in the bone of radium dial painters, but the ICRP/NCRP annual dose guides of 5 rem/yr are of the same general magnitude as the doses received in several parts of the world from the natural radiation environment. Because of the greater sensitivity of rapidly dividing cells and the assumption that radiation occupations would not begin before the age of eighteen, maximum exposure levels were set as 5 (N-18) rem/yr, where N is the exposed worker's age in years. However, in the case of the natural radiation environment, exposure commences, in a sense, with the exposure of the ovum of the individual's mother; and the ovum is formed during the fetal development of the mother. In occupational exposures, the professional health physicist has always practiced the as low as practical philosophy, and exposures have generally averaged far below the guidelines. The average annual exposure of the radiation worker in modern plants and laboratories is approximately equal to the average natural radiation environment exposure rate and far lower than the natural radiation environment in many parts of the world. There are numerous complications and uncertainties in quantifying radiation effects on humans, however, the greatest is that due to having to extrapolate from high dose levels at which effects have been measured and quantified, to low levels at which most exposures occur but at which no effects have been observed

  12. Radiation safety

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  13. Therapeutic ratio and fractionation in cancer of the lung

    Cox, J.D.; Bauer, M.

    1988-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary carcinomas have long been considered among the most frustrating problems in radiation oncology. In spite of the reasonably favorable results reported over 30 years ago with conventional X-irradiation of patients with operable carcinoma of the lung, the patients usually referred for radiation therapy with unresectable tumors permit few opportunities for successful treatment and thus lead to a general nihilism about this disease. The potential damage that can occur from radiation therapy to the normal lung can be life-threatening. Such damage was thought, erroneously, to be increased dramatically with even moderately high doses, e.g.; more than 50 Gy in 5 weeks. Therefore, few attempts were made to deliver the same high doses of radiations that would be considered mandatory for epithelial tumors of other locations such as the upper respiratory and digestive tract or the female genital tract. The therapeutic ratio was altered in an unfavorable direction with the use of small numbers of large fractions. Based on the earliest RTOG studies of carcinoma of the lung, the therapeutic ratio is at an acceptable level with 60 Gy in 30 fractions of 2.0 Gy in 6 weeks. It is encouraging that there is no evidence of an increased rate of morbidity in the hyperfractionation trials of the RTOG. The data are too preliminary with regard to therapeutic effect to know if there will truly be an increase in therapeutic ratio. It was evident that 12-24 months of follow-up are necessary before definitive answers are available

  14. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance signal ratio of Alanine Pellets In Nuclear Power Plants

    Choi, Hoon; Sung, In Bok; Lee, Byung Il; Lim, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    As a dosimeter for ESR dosimetry, alanine has many useful features including relatively long endurance time of radicals and almost no difference with the radiation dose rate and radiation quality. Alanine dosimeters have been accepted as transfer dosimeters for their good precision at high radiation range. For alanine/ESR spectra, it was reported that the peaks of the spectra are due to the three kinds of radicals induced by radiation. The ratio of the weak 'satellite line' and the central peak of the three man in alanine specta(in this study x /y ratio ) are changed on the LET value of radiation. In case of lithium formate monohydrate was recently identified as a promising dosimetric material. in addition, it was reported the the peak height in the signal spectra is not easily saturated when power is irradiated with relatively high LET radiation such as neutron rays. The difference in the peak height ratio was reported to be caused by increased local radical density following the radiation of high LET. The spectrum shape of some alanine dosimeter installed in the containment buildings of NPPs showed differences in comparison with dosimeters exposed only to gamma rays. There was apparent change of spectra, expressed as the 'x/y ratio'. As noted in other papers, high LET radiation such as neutron rays causes shape changes of the spectrum of alanine dosimeters. Thus, the unanticipated high dose level and low 'x/y ratio' of some alanine dosimeters from the containment building could be explained b exposure to mixed radiation with high LET. Generally, the locations evaluated in this study are regarded as being exposed only to gamma rays, because the positions are blocked from direct neutron rays, because the positions are blocked from direct neutron rays from reactor by thick cement barriers and heavy instruments.

  15. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios.We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination.These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km(2 in Chernobyl's surroundings constitutes an

  16. Radiation therapy

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  17. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  18. On the spectral composition of global radiation

    Major, G

    1983-01-01

    The global radiation is recorded at several stations on the Earth. The information about its spectral composition is poor. In this paper the spectral composition means the ratio of spectral global radiation measured by coloured glass filter domes to the total global radiation. From the measuements made by Klein and Goldberg it follows that the monthly ratios vary significantly from place to place, while the variations from month to month at one place are significant only at the station which lies near to the North Pole. The Budapest data proved the dominant effect of cloudiness on the spectral composition of global radiation. This effect is in good statistical relationship with the relative global radiation. The regression constant tabulated in this paper do not contain the error of zero point elevation which is due to the overheating of glass filters by the absorbed solar radiation.

  19. Radiation physics

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  20. Synchrotron radiation

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  1. Ionizing radiation

    Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    This report is part two from the series 'Future explorations' of the Dutch Counsil for Public Health. It contains contributions on biological effects of radiation in which information is presented on research into the occurrence of cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy and irradiated laboratory animals, on the effects of prenatal irradiation, and on the possibile, only in laboratory-animal research demonstrated, effects of irradiation in offspring of irradiated parents. In other contributions, which put the 'link' between the radiology and the practical radiation hygienics, it appears that the increased scientific knowledge does not make it easier to design radiation-hygienic standards and rules. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Radiation safety

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  3. Concentration ratio of radon progeny in air

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been made on the concentration ratio of radon progeny in air. Data have been acquired intermittently since 1988 using alpha spectroscopic method around the author's office that is located in the northeastern part of Japan. Clarifying the behavior of radon progeny is an issue of wide importance to radiation protection, predicting earthquakes, etc. Let Rabc=ECRn(RaA)/{ECRn(RaB) + ECRn(RaC)}; the concentration ratio, Rabc, is relevant to the stability of the air. Statistical and time series analyses indicated several interesting results. To examine the log-normal distribution, Lilliefors test was made for logarithm of outdoor data every one year. Rabc passed the test 6 times for 9 years, while Radon progeny passed 8 times. Outdoor data indicated that the value of Rabc was lower in the morning, in other world, the air was more stable in the morning than in the afternoon. To see the seasonal variation, one-way layout analysis was made for four groups of data, i.e., spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November), and winter (December to February). Rabc indicated significantly higher level in spring and winter, in other word, air was stable in summer and autumn. Time series analysis was made for various variables; power spectra were estimated with autoregressive model that is equivalent to maximum entropy method. Power spectrum for Rabc was most similar to that of wind speed. One-year period, that is always remarkable for radon progeny, was not significant for Rabc. Three- to nine-day periods were often seen for Rabc, radon progeny, wind speed, and atmospheric pressure. These several-day periods are probably attributed to the passage of air masses. Twenty-day to thirty-day peak may be attributed to meteorological phenomena corresponding to the rotation period of the sun. Temperature indicated no significant periodicity except overwhelming one-year period. Wind speed is well known to affect the radon progeny concentration

  4. The protective effect of lycopene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice

    Itoh, Youko; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the side effects of radiotherapy, radioprotective effects of lycopene on villi and crypts in the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) were examined with administration pre-, continuous and post-radiation. In the lycopene group, the ratio of the villus length to the crypt was significantly increased in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in crypt/total was significantly decreased and the ratio of necrotic cells in villus/total was significantly increased by lycopene administration, which indicated an acceleration of the recovery from the radiation injury with lycopene. Each lycopene administered group showed a significant radioprotective effect, with the pre-radiation administration inducing a smaller effect than that of continuous and post-radiation administration. Radiation induced apoptosis was also decreased by lycopene administration. It is concluded that pre-, continuous and post-radiation administration of lycopene protects against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerate the recovery. (author)

  5. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Schott, W.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; von Egidy, T.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Wright, D.H.; Henderson, R.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Doyle, B.; Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G.; Bertl, W.; Gorringe, T.P.; Robertson, B.C.

    1991-03-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, g P , of the weak hadronic current can be determined from the measurement of the branching ratio of radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen. This rare process is being investigated in the TRIUMF RMC experiment which is now taking data. This paper describes the experiment and indicates the status of the data analysis. (Author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  6. Synchrotron Radiation

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  7. Radiating confidence

    Rush, P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems for operators handling radioactive wastes are described. These include a personnel monitoring system which is suitable for small groups (ie as few as 50) of personnel. The use of microelectronics enable facilities such as automatic personal dose recording with three accumulative registers and automatic reporting of exceeded dose limits. At a controlled entrance the user is identified with a personal identification number. Exit is then also monitored. The use of pocket dosimeters increase the flexibility of this system. In another system a 'rotary man lock' only allows exit from the radiation controlled zone when satisfactory radiation checks have been made. The radiation and security checks available with this system are described. A 'sack monitor' for low level wastes contained in plastic bags is illustrated. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation damage

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  9. Synchrotron radiation

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  10. Radiation curing

    Wendrinsky, J.

    1987-04-01

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  11. Infrared radiation

    Moss, C.E.; Ellis, R.J.; Murray, W.E.; Parr, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    All people are exposed to IR radiation from sunlight, artificial light and radiant heating. Exposures to IR are quantified by irradiance and radiant exposure to characterize biological effects on the skin and cornea. However, near-IR exposure to the retina requires knowledge of the radiance of the IR source. With most IR sources in everyday use the health risks are considered minimal; only in certain high radiant work environments are individuals exposed to excessive levels. The interaction of IR radiation with biological tissues is mainly thermal. IR radiation may augment the biological response to other agents. The major health hazards are thermal injury to the eye and skin, including corneal burns from far-IR, heat stress, and retinal and lenticular injury from near-IR radiation. 59 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Radiation enteritis

    ... and tobacco Almost all milk products Coffee, tea, chocolate, and sodas with caffeine Foods containing whole bran ... Call your provider if you are having radiation therapy or have had it in the past and ...

  13. Synchrotron radiation

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation safety

    Goetz, B.B.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In medicine, as in other fields of scientific endeavor, the development of advanced and specialized techniques has resulted in increased hazards for employees. However, by possessing both an appreciation of the proper use of factors that regulate radiation exposure around radiology equipment and a knowledge of the biologic effects of radiation, which can include possible genetic and somatic consequences, it is possible to maximize the usefulness of these valuable procedures while minimizing the risk to medical personnel involved with patient care

  15. Radiation shielding

    Yue, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Details are given of a cylindrical electric penetration assembly for carrying instrumentation leads, used in monitoring the performance of a nuclear reactor, through the containment wall of the reactor. Effective yet economical shielding protection against both fast neutron and high-energy gamma radiation is provided. Adequate spacing within the assembly allows excessive heat to be efficiently dissipated and means of monitoring all potential radiation and gas leakage paths are provided. (UK)

  16. Radiation protection

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  17. Synchrotron radiation

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation Transport

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  19. CO line ratios in molecular clouds: the impact of environment

    Peñaloza, Camilo H.; Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Line emission is strongly dependent on the local environmental conditions in which the emitting tracers reside. In this work, we focus on modelling the CO emission from simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and study the variations in the resulting line ratios arising from the emission from the J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions. We perform a set of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with time-dependent chemistry, in which environmental conditions - including total cloud mass, density, size, velocity dispersion, metallicity, interstellar radiation field (ISRF), and the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) - were systematically varied. The simulations were then post-processed using radiative transfer to produce synthetic emission maps in the three transitions quoted above. We find that the cloud-averaged values of the line ratios can vary by up to ±0.3 dex, triggered by changes in the environmental conditions. Changes in the ISRF and/or in the CRIR have the largest impact on line ratios since they directly affect the abundance, temperature, and distribution of CO-rich gas within the clouds. We show that the standard methods used to convert CO emission to H2 column density can underestimate the total H2 molecular gas in GMCs by factors of 2 or 3, depending on the environmental conditions in the clouds.

  20. Radiation myelopathy

    Howell, D A [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby (UK)

    1979-10-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed.

  1. Radiation myelopathy

    Howell, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed. (UK)

  2. Radiation injuries/ionizing radiation

    Gooden, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book was written to aid trial attorneys involved in radiation litigation. Radiologists and medical physicists will also find it helpful as they prepare for trial, either as a litigant or an expert witness. Two chapters present checklists to guide attorneys for both plaintiffs and defendants. Gooden titles these checklists Elements of Damages and Elements of Proof and leads the reader to conclusions about each of these. One section that will be particularly helpful to attorneys contains sample interrogatories associated with a case of alleged radiation exposure resulting in a late radiation injury. There are interrogatories for the plaintiff to ask the defendant and for the defendant to ask the plaintiff

  3. Three-dimensional, position-sensitive radiation detection

    He, Zhong; Zhang, Feng

    2010-04-06

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining a characteristic of radiation detected by a radiation detector via a multiple-pixel event having a plurality of radiation interactions. The method includes determining a cathode-to-anode signal ratio for a selected interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions based on electron drift time data for the selected interaction, and determining the radiation characteristic for the multiple-pixel event based on both the cathode-to-anode signal ratio and the electron drift time data. In some embodiments, the method further includes determining a correction factor for the radiation characteristic based on an interaction depth of the plurality of radiation interactions, a lateral distance between the selected interaction and a further interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions, and the lateral positioning of the plurality of radiation interactions.

  4. Brain radiation - discharge

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  5. Integrative radiation systems biology

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  6. Gravitational radiation reaction

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)

  7. MO-DE-303-03: Session on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy

    Bowen, S.

    2015-01-01

    This session will focus on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy. This is a technically challenging method to translate to practice in radiation therapy. In the new era of precision medicine, however, delivering the right treatment, to the right patient, and at the right time, can positively impact treatment choices and patient outcomes. Quantitative imaging provides the spatial sensitivity required by radiation therapy for precision medicine that is not available by other means. In this Joint ESTRO -AAPM Symposium, three leading-edge investigators will present specific motivations for quantitative imaging biomarkers in radiation therapy of esophageal, head and neck, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Experiences with the use of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, diffusion- weighted (DW) MRI, PET/CT, and SPECT/CT will be presented. Issues covered will include: response prediction, dose-painting, timing between therapy and imaging, within-therapy biomarkers, confounding effects, normal tissue sparing, dose-response modeling, and association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes. Current information will be presented from investigational studies and clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Learn motivations for the use of quantitative imaging biomarkers for assessment of response to radiation therapy Review the potential areas of application in cancer therapy Examine the challenges for translation, including imaging confounds and paucity of evidence to date Compare exemplary examples of the current state of the art in DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging for assessment of response to radiation therapy Van der Heide: Research grants from the Dutch Cancer Society and the European Union (FP7) Bowen: RSNA Scholar grant

  8. MO-DE-303-03: Session on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy

    Bowen, S. [University of Washington, School of Medicine: PET/CT and SPECT/CT for Lung and Liver Radiation Therapy Response Assessment of Tumor and Normal Tissue (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This session will focus on quantitative imaging for assessment of tumor response to radiation therapy. This is a technically challenging method to translate to practice in radiation therapy. In the new era of precision medicine, however, delivering the right treatment, to the right patient, and at the right time, can positively impact treatment choices and patient outcomes. Quantitative imaging provides the spatial sensitivity required by radiation therapy for precision medicine that is not available by other means. In this Joint ESTRO -AAPM Symposium, three leading-edge investigators will present specific motivations for quantitative imaging biomarkers in radiation therapy of esophageal, head and neck, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Experiences with the use of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, diffusion- weighted (DW) MRI, PET/CT, and SPECT/CT will be presented. Issues covered will include: response prediction, dose-painting, timing between therapy and imaging, within-therapy biomarkers, confounding effects, normal tissue sparing, dose-response modeling, and association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes. Current information will be presented from investigational studies and clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Learn motivations for the use of quantitative imaging biomarkers for assessment of response to radiation therapy Review the potential areas of application in cancer therapy Examine the challenges for translation, including imaging confounds and paucity of evidence to date Compare exemplary examples of the current state of the art in DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging for assessment of response to radiation therapy Van der Heide: Research grants from the Dutch Cancer Society and the European Union (FP7) Bowen: RSNA Scholar grant.

  9. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  10. Experimental test of liquid droplet radiator performance

    Mattick, A. T.; Simon, M. A.

    The liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is a heat rejection system for space power systems wherein an array of heated liquid droplets radiates energy directly to space. The use of submillimeter droplets provides large radiating area-to-mass ratio, resulting in radiator systems which are several times lighter than conventional solid surface radiators. An experiment is described in which the power radiated by an array of 2300 streams of silicone oil droplets is measured to test a previously developed theory of the LDR radiation process. This system would be capable of rejecting several kW of heat in space. Furthermore, it would be suitable as a modular unit of an LDR designed for 100-kW power levels. The experiment provided confirmation of the theoretical dependence of droplet array emissivity on optical depth. It also demonstrated the ability to create an array of more than 1000 droplet streams having a divergence less than 1 degree.

  11. Ionizing radiation interactions with DNA: nanodosimetry

    Bug, Marion; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The metrology of ionizing radiation is based on measuring values that are averaged over macroscopic volume elements, for instance the energy dose is defined as ratio of the energy deposited on the absorber and the absorber mass. For biological or medical radiation effects the stochastic nature of radiation interaction id of main importance, esp. the interaction of ionizing radiation with the DNA as the genetic information carrier. For radiotherapy and risk evaluation purposes a comprehensive system of radiation weighing factors and other characteristics, like radiation quality or relative biological efficacy was developed. The nanodosimetry is aimed to develop a metrological basis relying on physical characteristics of the microscopic structure of ionizing radiation tracks. The article includes the development of experimental nanodosimetric methods, the respective calibration techniques, Monte-Carlo simulation of the particle track microstructure and the correlation nanodosimetry and biological efficiency.

  12. Radiating properties of solar plasmas

    Bruner, M. E.; Mcwhirter, R. W. P.

    1988-01-01

    Using a series of 14 previously obtained empirical emission measure distributions and a number of spectral lines observed by the SMM and P78-1 instruments, the total power radiated by a hot plasma is compared to that radiated by individual spectrum lines. Results are presented for different choices of ionization balance and power loss functions. The results indicate that for some lines such as the C IV resonance doublet at 1548 A and 1550 A, the ratio of the line intensity to the total radiated power varied only over a factor of 2, suggesting that well-calibrated measurements of a single line intensity may provide a fairly good estimation of the total radiated power output from the solar plasma.

  13. Radiating properties of solar plasmas

    Bruner, M.E.; Mcwhirter, R.W.P.

    1988-01-01

    Using a series of 14 previously obtained empirical emission measure distributions and a number of spectral lines observed by the SMM and P78-1 instruments, the total power radiated by a hot plasma is compared to that radiated by individual spectrum lines. Results are presented for different choices of ionization balance and power loss functions. The results indicate that for some lines such as the C IV resonance doublet at 1548 A and 1550 A, the ratio of the line intensity to the total radiated power varied only over a factor of 2, suggesting that well-calibrated measurements of a single line intensity may provide a fairly good estimation of the total radiated power output from the solar plasma. 21 references

  14. Measurement of the Λ→n+γ branching ratio

    Noble, A.J.; Larson, K.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Fickinger, W.J.; Hall, J.R.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Horvath, D.; Lowe, J.; McIntyre, E.K.; Measday, D.F.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Robinson, D.K.; Sakitt, M.; Salomon, M.; Waltham, C.E.; Warner, T.M.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wolfe, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The branching ratio for the Λ weak radiative decay has been measured to be B(Λ→n+γ)/(Λ→anything) =[1.78±0.24(stat)± 0.16 0.14 (syst)]x10 -3 . A low-energy kaon beam was used to produce the Λ hyperons via the reaction K - +p→Λ+π 0 at rest. Photons from the signal channel and π 0 decay were detected with a NaI(Tl) array. The final spectrum contains 287 events after background subtraction, an order of magnitude more events than from the only previous measurement

  15. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-01-01

    The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  16. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  17. Contribution to the problem of liquidity ratios

    Dvoøáèek Jaroslav

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the importance of the financial analysis in mining industry. The author pays attention to liquidity ratios given in literature from the standpoint of their number, content, units and recommended quantity value of single ratios. For the application in practice two liquidity ratios are suggested and the methodology of their recommended values determination is given.

  18. High aspect ratio channels in glass and porous silicon

    Liang, H.D. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu, J.F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Kan, J.A. van; Qureshi, S. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ynsa, M.D.; Torres-Costa, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco Edif. 22, Faraday 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maira, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Venkatesan, T.V. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H., E-mail: phymbhb@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a micromachining process to produce high-aspect-ratio channels and holes in glass and porous silicon. Our process utilizes MeV proton beam irradiation of silicon using direct writing with a focused beam, followed by electrochemical etching. To increase throughput we have also developed another process for large area ion irradiation based on a radiation-resistant gold surface mask, allowing many square inches to be patterned. We present a study of the achievable channel width, depth and period and sidewall verticality for a range of channels which can be over 100 μm deep or 100 nm wide with aspect ratios up to 80. This process overcomes the difficulty of machining glass on a micro- and nanometer scale which has limited many areas of applications in different fields such as microelectronics and microfluidics.

  19. Radiofrequency radiation

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Ionizing radiations

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  1. Radiation sensor

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  2. Tidal radiation

    Mashhoon, B.

    1977-01-01

    The general theory of tides is developed within the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation. It is based on the concept of Fermi frame and the associated notion of tidal frame along an open curve in spacetime. Following the previous work of the author an approximate scheme for the evaluation of tidal gravitational radiation is presented which is valid for weak gravitational fields. The emission of gravitational radiation from a body in the field of a black hole is discussed, and for some cases of astrophysical interest estimates are given for the contributions of radiation due to center-of-mass motion, purely tidal deformation, and the interference between the center of mass and tidal motions

  3. Cherenkov radiation

    Hubert, P.

    1955-01-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  5. Radiation control

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Radiation toxicology

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allow radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that models are needed that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  7. Radiation therapy

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  8. Radiation physics

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation physics program is directed toward understanding the basic mechanism by which charged particles lose energy in traversing matter, and presenting this information in a way meaningful to the study of radiation dosimetry and biological damage. Measurements of the absolute cross sections for the ejection of electrons from ionization by fast charged particles, measurements of optical fluorescence from liquid systems, preliminary analyses of electron emission cross sections for proton bombardment of carbon foils, and nonexponential decay of fluorescence in both polar and nonpolar solutions are covered

  9. Radiation retinopathy

    Lumbroso, L.; Desjardins, L.; Dendale, R.; Fourquet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation retinopathy is a retinal micro-angiopathy, observed after irradiation of the eye. It can rarely lead to neo-vascular glaucoma and enucleation due to pain. It is due to a progressive retinal capillary then vascular occlusion. Total irradiation dose, dose fraction, and surface of the irradiated retina seem to be strong predictive factors for radiation retinopathy. Patients who underwent an irradiation near the eye (skull base tumors, nasal and paranasal tumors, or brain tumors) should be followed by periodic ophthalmologic examination to detect and treat when necessary the non perfusion areas. (authors)

  10. Radiation epidemiology

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Alpen, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of latency periods on cancer risk estimation is under study in our laboratory. Insofar as cancer incidences and radiation doses are concerned, effort is made to ascertain these with the greatest reliability, although problems arise, particularly in attempts to reconstruct the events of exposure many years prevously. The matter of the long latent periods begs the important issue of how to project into the future the risk of cancer induced in individuals exposed at the present time, or depriving a projection model appropriate for predicting how induced cancers will express themselves in time following exposure. Two risk-projection models which are generally used by radiation epidemiologists are discussed

  11. Radiation toxicology

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allows radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that we need models that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  12. Radiation chemistry

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation shielding

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    Shields for equipment in which ionising radiation is associated with high electrical gradients, for example X-ray tubes and particle accelerators, incorporate a radiation-absorbing metal, as such or as a compound, and are electrically non-conducting and can be placed in the high electrical gradient region of the equipment. Substances disclosed include dispersions of lead, tungsten, uranium or oxides of these in acrylics polyesters, PVC, ABS, polyamides, PTFE, epoxy resins, glass or ceramics. The material used may constitute an evacuable enclosure of the equipment or may be an external shield thereof. (U.K.)

  14. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  15. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  16. PENGARUH PERUBAHAN RETURN ON ASSETS, PERUBAHAN DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO DAN PERUBAHAN CASH RATIO TERHADAP PERUBAHAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO

    Yuli Soesetio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Dividend Payout Ratio used to calculate all of revenue that will be accepted by stockholders as cash dividend, usually explained as percentage. This research was conducted to know several factors that affected change of Dividend Payout Ratio and to know the significance level and the correlation between dependent and independent variable. Analysis instrument used was parametric statistic. Based on the result of statistic test,  The Change of Return on Asset (X1, The Change of Debt to Equity Ratio (X2,  were able to explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio, and The Change of CashRatio can’t explain dependent variable of the change Dividend Payout Ratio

  17. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Hubert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  18. Radiation dosage

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  19. Radiation dosage

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  20. Radiation dosimetry

    Aymar A, J.; Medina G, H.

    1988-01-01

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  1. Radiation accidents

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  2. Radiation Technology

    1990-01-01

    The conference was organized to evaluate the application directions of radiation technology in Vietnam and to utilize the Irradiation Centre in Hanoi with the Co-60 source of 110 kCi. The investigation and study of technico-economic feasibility for technology development to various items of food and non-food objects was reported. (N.H.A)

  3. Radiation detectors

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  4. Radiation processing

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  5. Radiation retinopathy

    Parker, R.G.; Withers, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    A letter to the editor discusses the effectiveness and risk of radiation treatment of Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors are unable to document a single instance in which retinopathy can be attributed to therapy with a total dose of 2000 cGy when delivered in daily increments of 180 to 200 cGy

  6. Radiation enteropathy

    Farthmann, E.H. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Imdahl, A. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Eggstein, S. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG)

  7. Quality of life after radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancy

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Kihana, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) and the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) were measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). BMD of L3 and L5 in 139 normal persons was decreased linearly with age (L3: Y=317.32-3.283X, L5: Y=314.35-2.906X). Ratio of the BMD of L5 to L3 (L5/L3 ratio, %) was constant in the value of 106.03±12.84% before 50 years old and increased linearly after 50 years old (Y=21.62+1.718X). In 30 radiated cases, BMD of the radiated L5 was decreased after 20 Gy of radiation (11.23±1.31 days from the first day of radiation) and reached 47.44±18.74% of the pre-radiated value after 50 Gy of radiation (32.07±1.55 days). L5/L3 ratio was also decreased after 20 Gy of radiation and reached 48.34±19.33% of pre-radiated value after 50 Gy of radiation. BMD of L5 and L5/L3 ratio after 50 Gy of radiation were linearly decreased with age (L5: Y=107.44-0.9686X, L5/L3 ratio: Y=106.98-0.9472X). Six month after the end of radiation therapy, BMD of L5 was most decreased and Lumbago score was most increased. Alfacalcidol treatment caused by the improvement of decreased BMD of L5 and Lumbago by radiation. In conclusion, it should be said that pelvic radiation for gynecologic malignancy may disturb the bone metabolism and quality of life in the early phase after radiation. This side effect by radiation could be improved by treatment of alfacalcidol. (author)

  8. Counterbalanced radiation detection system

    Platz, W.

    1987-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection system is described comprising: (a) a stand; (b) a first radiation detector; (c) a first radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the first radiation detector with the stand; (d) a second radiation detector; (e) a second radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the second radiation detector with the stand, whereby the tilting angles of the radiation detector arm means define a distance between the radiation detectors; and (f) a torque transforming means connected between the first and second radiation detector arm means for transforming the torque created by one of the radiation detectors in a sense opposed to the torque created by the other radiation detector

  9. Hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations

    Saurov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Modern state of the problem on hygienic regulation of ionizing radiations is considered. Concepts and principles of the regulation based on risk concept are presented according to ICRP 26 and 27. Two types of risk are designated: ''absolute'' and ''relative'' ones. The concept of acceptable risk on the basis of cost - benefit ratio is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the principle of accounting the complex of health signs, when determining radiation hazard. To determine the level of permissible risk and permissible dose to population the concept of ''inadmissibility of s-tatistically significant risk'' has been developed. Standards, regulating population doses in the USSR, which are valid nowadays, are considered

  10. Hubungan Analisis Ratio Keuangan dengan Kesehatan Perusahaan

    Soekarso Soekarso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the business world, companies develop a vision and mission to improve welfare in the future. The work program the company is to achieve productivity and profitability. Finance in the company is one of the strategic functions that includes wealth management and transformation of added value (added value and also the control of corporate health. The financial statements such as balance sheet (balance sheet, profit and loss statement (income statement, and financial ratio (financial ratios, reflects the company's performance and health. Financial ratio analysis relates to the health of the company through a ratio of effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, liquidity, and solvability. Analysis shows that whenever actual value of financial ratios is above standard it means the company is healthy, and when the actual value of financial ratios is below the standard, it reversely means that companies are not healthy.

  11. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  12. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    Lawrence, Keith Edward [Kobe, JP; Moser, William Elliott [Peoria, IL; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald [Washington, IL; Knox, Kevin Jay [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  13. Radiation preservation of maize

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  14. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  15. Radiation effects

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  16. Radiation teratogenesis

    Miller, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although small head size and metal retardation (MR) were first recognized as teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation in the 1920s, new information continues to emerge about these effects. Early studies of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors showed that small head size was induced by doses as low as 10-19 rad in air. The next steps are to relate the effects to the new (1985) dosimetry, and to seek lesser effects on the brain by new tests to detect such clinical deficits as inability to sequence ideas, comprehend complex syntax, or pay attention. Although an array of congenital anomalies has been induced by prenatal radiation exposures of animals, only small head size and MR have occured excessively in the human

  17. Radiation enteritis

    Sato, Makoto; Sano, Masanori; Minakuchi, Naoki; Narisawa, Tomio; Takahashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received 60 Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Radiation sterilization

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  19. Proposal of radiation exposure index, REXI

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    As a measure of harmful effect of radiation, radiation exposure index (REXI) is proposed. It is an integer expression of logarithmic ratio of radiation dose to a standard value. REXI is a dimensionless quantity and is free from the requirement of additivity, in contrast with dose. Not a few kinds of doses are used in the field of radiation protection and among them the effective dose plays main role, since the main target of radiation control is of the so-called stochastic effect and the effective dose is used as the controlling quantity. Effective dose is a radiation dose, namely, a quantity of caused to describe the effect, but it cannot be a representation of the effect itself. It is nothing but a measure of possibility of the effect. In addition, the LNT (linearity and non threshold) Postulation adopted by ICRP makes it difficult to understand the foreseen associated effect quantitatively. (author)

  20. Radiation smog

    Spurny, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The principle is described of the production of radiation smog resulting from radioactive emisions. The differences are discussed in the contamination over the territory of Czechoslovakia following the Chernobyl accident. The higher surface contamination of industrial areas recorded after the accident can be explained by electroprecipitation of industrial impurities with the radicals and ions of the radioactive cloud. (E.S.). 3 figs., 16 refs

  1. Radiation detector

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  2. Radiation retinopathy

    Wara, W.M.; Irvine, A.R.; Neger, R.E.; Howes, E.L. Jr.; Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The records were reviewed of all patients treated with irradiation to the eye at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1960 and 1975. Eight patients were identified who had developed radiation retinopathy 1 to 3 years postrirradiation. Lesions included retinal vascular occlusions, hemorrhages, microaneurysms, exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachments, and optic atrophy with blindness. Four patients had received less than 5000 rad in 6 weeks to the retina, a dose usually considered within normal tissue tolerance

  3. Radiation accidents

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  4. Ionising radiation

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiation in Luxembourg is summarised under the headings: introduction (the outline law of 25 March 1963, and the Grand-Ducal Decree of 8 February 1967); the control of establishments (the authorisation procedure; emergency measures, suspension and withdrawal of the authorisation; alterations to the establishment); the importation, distribution and transit of radioactive substances; the transport of radioactive substances; the protection and safety of the population as a whole; sanctions; international conventions. (U.K.)

  5. Radiation shelter

    Crookes, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes a shelter comprising a cavity for receiving life to be sheltered; a roof for covering at least a portion of said cavity, and at least one aqueous, protective barrier layer adapted to prevent transmission through said roof and into said cavity of at least a portion of radiation in a predetermined spectrum. The cavity walls may be impregnated with an oil suitable for dressing burns. (author)

  6. Space Radiation

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  7. Radiating paradise

    Heuseler, H.

    1981-05-06

    Decades after the a-bomb experiments in the desert of Nevada, cases of illness occur more frequently: many former soldiers who had to observe the tests as spectators suffer from leukemia, skin and thyroid ulcers. Even worse are the late results of the nuclear weapon tests in the Pacific: on Bikini and Eniwetok, once paradise-like atolls, the death from radiation is waiting, an attempt to recultivate the bombed Bikini Atoll failed.

  8. Radiation dosimeter

    Lowe, D.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation dosimeter is described, comprising a thermoluminescent phosphor incorporated in matrix of polyethersulphone. The dosimeter is preferably a thin film formed by spreading a suspension of a powdered phosphor in a solution of polyethersulphone onto a flat surface. The solvent for the polyethersulphone is a mixture of a n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and xylene in equal proportions. A thin, inert film of polyethersulphone can be cemented to one surface of the dosimeter so as to provide a skin dosimeter. (author)

  9. Radiation detector

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  10. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  11. Solar radiation on domed roofs

    Faghih, Ahmadreza K.; Bahadori, Mehdi N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Solar radiation received and absorbed by four domed roofs was estimated and compared with that of a flat roof. The domed roofs all had the same base areas, and equal to that of the flat roof. One of the roofs considered was the dome of the St. Peter's Church in Rome. Compared with the other roofs considered, this dome had a higher aspect ratio. It was found that all domed roofs received more solar radiation than the flat roof. Considering glazed tiles to cover a selected dome in Iran and the dome of the St. Peter's Church, it was found that the solar radiation absorbed by these roofs is reduced appreciably. In the case of the dome of St. Peter's Church, the amount of radiation absorbed was roughly equal to that absorbed by the comparable flat roof in the warm months. In the case of the glazed reference dome located in Yazd, Iran (a city with very high solar radiation), the radiation absorbed was less than that of flat roof at all times. In addition to aesthetics, this may be a reason for employing glazed tiles to cover the domes of all mosques, shrines, and other large buildings in Iran. (author)

  12. Radiation hormesis

    Hattori, Sadao; Nemoto, Kazuyasu; Ishida, Kenzi; Misonoo, Jun; Suganuma, Hirotoshi; Ishi, Keiichirou; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    1990-01-01

    Greater attention has recently been drawn to the hormesis effect of radiations on living things. An agent is said to show hormesis when it gives a favorable physiological stimulation to living things and activated their biological functions if used in slight amounts, though it has an adverse effect on them if used in large amount. Recently many reports have been published which insist that radiations in a certain low dose range can have favorable biological effects, such as stimulation and activation, on living things including humans, animals and plants. Thus hormesis can be seen very widely in the biological field. The report first describes recent trends in research in this field, including the background behind the proposal of the radiation hormesis hypothesis, and major studies presented at the Oakland and Frankfurt Conferences. Then it outlines major research efforts that have been made at Denryoku Chuo Kenkyusho in Japan, focusing on animal tests (superoxidedismutase activity, thymidinekinase activity, etc.), immunological surveys, and plant tests. Discussion is also made concerning important issues and study subjects to be covered in future research. (N.K.)

  13. Radiation pager

    Warren, J.L.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Methods of interdicting nuclear materials to date have favored the use of large portal detectors at choke points, or hand carried instruments used by trained personnel for conducting spot searches. Although these methods are effective in some instances, it is often impractical to insert choke points at busy traffic areas, and it is not cost effective to maintain a force of skilled operators whose focus is nuclear interdiction. Recent technology developments are causing profound changes in the philosophy and methods employed for interdicting nuclear materials. Breakthrough advances in the miniaturization of detectors and low power electronics have made possible a new class of small gamma-ray radiation detectors, roughly the size of a message pager, with unprecedented sensitivity for their size. These instruments, named Radiation Pagers TM , are ideally suited for use by untrained individual law enforcement personnel and emergency responders in the course of their regular duties. New tactics that utilize a radiation detector worn by every officer are creating a moving curtain of detection with a significantly higher likelihood of locating illicit nuclear contraband. These individual detectors also provide each officer with a high level of confidence that they are not being unknowingly irradiated in the course of their work. (author)

  14. Ultraviolet radiation

    Faber, M.

    1989-01-01

    Although UV radiation can arise from a large number of man-made sources, the sun is the main source and both the general public and people working out of doors will be exposed to it. This natural background radiation and the variations in its magnitude must be taken into account when exposure limits are discussed. The full extent to which UV affects human well-being is difficult to quantify. Artificially produced UV has, however, been used in mines and cellars and in far northern latitudes as a supplement to combat functional impairment among people. Many of the observed effects, such as a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases and in absenteeism, may be due to the bactericidal nature of the radiation. On the other hand, large doses of UV have an acute destructive effect on the skin and eye. Doses so low that they give rise only to normally acceptable or even desirable acute effects can, if repeated, induce changes resulting in late effects such as elastosis of the skin, keratosis and skin cancers. These effects will be of greater significance in people with lightly pigmented skin. 130 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Radiation protection

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  16. Perspective of radiation processing

    Zhang Manwei

    1987-01-01

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  17. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  18. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  19. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  20. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  1. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  2. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  3. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  4. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  5. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  6. Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios

    Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.

    2014-01-01

    By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models

  7. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  8. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  9. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  10. Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts

    Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.

  11. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  12. Energy ratios in Finnish agricultural production

    H. J. MIKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess energy ratios and net energy in plant production and energy ratios in animal production in Finland. Energy ratios and net energy were determined on the basis of plant- and animal-specific energy analyses. In plant production, energy ratios and net energy were assessed as a function of nitrogen fertilization, because indirect energy input in the form of agrochemicals was 54—73% from the total energy input and nitrogen was responsible for the major part of this. The highest energy ratio was 18.6 for reed canary grass. As a whole reed canary grass was superior to the other crops, which were barley, spring wheat, spring turnip rape, ley for silage, potato and sugar beet. Reed canary grass and sugar beet gained the highest net energy yields of 111–115 GJ ha-1. The optimum energy ratio was gained in general with less nitrogen fertilization intensity than farmers use. The energy ratios in pork production varied between 0.14–1.28 depending on what was included or excluded in the analysis and for milk production between 0.15–1.85. Ratios of 1.28 in pork production and 1.85 in milk production are unrealistic as they do not give any shelter to the animals, although they can be approached in very low-input production systems. If the ratio is calculated with feed energy content then the ratio is low, 0.14–0.22 for pork and 0.15 for milk. This shows that animals can convert 14–22 percent of the input energy to usable products. In pork production, the largest portion of the energy input was the ventilation of the building. In milk production milking and cooling consumes a lot of energy and for this reason the electricity consumption is high.;

  13. The Eddington Ratio of H2O Maser Host AGN Q. Guo1, J. S. Zhang2 ...

    tion rate and on the efficiency for converting gravitational energy into radiation. The. Eddington ratio, i.e., ratio of the bolometric luminosity and Eddington luminosity, is very important to constrain predictions of theoretical models. Observations demon- strate that most of the H2O maser spots are located in the nuclear region ...

  14. Radiation protection and radiation fear

    Czeizel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Some data are cited from Japanese statistics analyzing the genetic injuries stemming from the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima. It is shown that neither the number of the unsuccesful pregnancies nor the mortality of the born offsprings increased in those cases there the mother or the father had been exposed to 1-100 rad radiation. There was no significant difference in the chromosomal aberrations amoung the children of irradiated and control parents. (L.E.)

  15. Radiative inflation and dark energy

    Di Bari, Pasquale; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Merle, Alexander; Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2011-01-01

    We propose a model based on radiative symmetry breaking that combines inflation with dark energy and is consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year regions. The radiative inflationary potential leads to the prediction of a spectral index 0.955 S < or approx. 0.967 and a tensor to scalar ratio 0.142 < or approx. r < or approx. 0.186, both consistent with current data but testable by the Planck experiment. The radiative symmetry breaking close to the Planck scale gives rise to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson with a gravitationally suppressed mass which can naturally play the role of a quintessence field responsible for dark energy. Finally, we present a possible extra dimensional scenario in which our model could be realized.

  16. Radiation biology and radiation therapy

    Wideroee, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation biology and radiation therapy can be compared with investigations in different layers of earth. Radiation biology works upwards from the elementary foundations, therapy works downwards with roots to secure and improve the clinical 'surface work'. The Ellis formula (Strandquist), which is a collection of clinical experience, is suited to form connections with radiobiology in the middle layers, and cooperation can give impulses for research. The structure and conditions of tumours and the complicated problems met with are discussed, based on the Carmel symposium of 1969. The oxygen problem in anoxic tumours is not yet solved. Experimental investigations of the effect itself give partly contradictory results. From a clinical viewpoint reoxygenation is of the utmost significance for obtaining control over the primary tumour, and advanced irradiation programmes will here give better results than the traditional ones. New chemicals, e.g. R 0 -07-0582, appear to reduce the OER value to 1.5, thereby making neutron therapy superfluous. Finally a problem from fundamental research is dealt with, wherein two hypotheses explaining the β-effect are described. The repair hypothesis gives a simple explanation but leaves many questions unanswered. The other hypothesis explains the β-effect as two neighbouring single breaks of the DNA molecule. It still presents difficulties, and is scarcely the correct explanation. (JIW)

  17. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  18. Radiation danger

    Gergely, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The author is a journalist and has written the book 4 weeks after the Chernobyl accident because 'the experts have failed in informing on the consequences of Chernobyl in a way to keep the insecurity in the population within tolerable limits'. It is aimed at the interested layman. First the events as seen through the Austria media and the measures taken by the authorities during the 4 weeks are reviewed. In the rest of the books there is elementary information on some aspects of radioactivity, reactors and radiation limits although 'the connection between radioactivity and health is very complex'. (G.Q.)

  19. Radiation sickness

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. Radiation Hazards

    1975-08-01

    persons having worked more than five years under conditions of low and medium microwave exposure. Three groups of leukocytot changes occur In persons...Medical Publis!Iers (0974) 189-195. 32. Baranski, S., P. Czer-,ki and S. Szinglgilski. Microwave effects on mitosis In vivo and in vitro. Genetica ...effect of 3-cm microwave radiation. Amer. J. Ph-ysiol. 20. (1961) 192- 194. 72. 0sipov2 Yu.A. The effect of VHF-HF under industrial conditions . Gig

  1. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  2. Transcription and the aspect ratio of DNA

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    analysis of transcription. It is shown that under certain reasonable assumptions transcription is only possible if the aspect ratio is in the regime corresponding to further twisting. We find this constraint to be in agreement with long-established crystallographic studies of DNA.......Two separate regimes exist for the aspect ratio of DNA. A low aspect regime where DNA will twist further under strain and a high aspect regime where DNA will untwist under strain. The question of the overall geometry, i.e. the aspect ratio, of DNA is revisited from the perspective of a geometrical...

  3. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  4. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  5. Revisiting the `forbidden' region: AGN radiative feedback with radiation trapping

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Ricci, C.; Celotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, driven by radiation pressure on dust, is an important mechanism for efficiently coupling the accreting black hole to the surrounding environment. Recent observations confirm that X-ray selected AGN samples respect the effective Eddington limit for dusty gas in the plane defined by the observed column density versus the Eddington ratio, the so-called NH - λ plane. A `forbidden' region occurs in this plane, where obscuring clouds cannot be long-lived, due to the action of radiation pressure on dust. Here we compute the effective Eddington limit by explicitly taking into account the trapping of reprocessed radiation (which has been neglected in previous works), and investigate its impact on the NH - λ plane. We show that the inclusion of radiation trapping leads to an enhanced forbidden region, such that even Compton-thick material can potentially be disrupted by sub-Eddington luminosities. We compare our model results to the most complete sample of local AGNs with measured X-ray properties, and find good agreement. Considering the anisotropic emission from the accretion disc, we also expect the development of dusty outflows along the polar axis, which may naturally account for the polar dust emission recently detected in several AGNs from mid-infrared observations. Radiative feedback thus appears to be the key mechanism regulating the obscuration properties of AGNs, and we discuss its physical implications in the context of co-evolution scenarios.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation

    Hawk, J.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun or artificial sources is reflected or transmitted at the surface of the skin, about 5% of normally incident rays being directly reflected. The transmitted fraction is scattered, photochemically absorbed or dissipated as heat within the skin, or passes from it to contribute to the variable total amount of reflected and transmitted radiation. The UVR absorbers in skin are not definitely known, but DNA is a definite target and probably lipoprotein membranes, RNA, proteins, mucopolysaccharides, elastin and collagen. Photochemical or free radical damage to absorber or nearby organelles leads to pharmacological, ultrastructural, histological and clinical changes. Most frequent DNA damage is pyrimidine dimer formation, apparently inhibiting cell function and replication. This is largely enzymatically repaired in man in the dark by excision repair, post-replication repair and possible other enzymatic mechanisms, and at least in some organisms by light-induced photoreactivation repair. UVR exposure causes well recognized acute and chronic clinical syndromes in man. These are discussed in this paper

  7. Radiating matter

    Zimen, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the history and uses of radioactivity. The narration is completed by bibliographic notes on Otto Hahn with a number of so far unpublished letters and documents and on Leo Szilard, the most far-sighted among the nuclear researchers actively engaged during the war. The first part deals with the discovery of radioactivity and the discovery of uranium fission in 1938 with its military consequences, up to the short-lived euphoria on the 'atomic age' (Geneva conference 1955). This is followed by an account of natural radioactivity in our environment, a brief of useful information on radiation effects and radiation protection, and of typical applications of radioactive beams in science, engineering, and medicine. The final part is concerned with the most important instances of insight into nature triggered by the discovery of radioactivity: From cosmological to chemical evolution, from Democrit's atom theory to modern nuclear physics' particle zoo, from the contest of ideas between acausalists and determinists on what is commonly termed 'coincidence' to the limits of graphic views on nature. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radiating matter

    Zimen, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the history and uses of radioactivity. The narration is completed by bibliographic notes on Otto Hahn with a number of so far unpublished letters and documents and on Leo Szilard, the most far-sighted among the nuclear researchers actively engaged during the war. The first part deals with the discovery of radioactivity and the discovery of uranium fission in 1938 with its military consequences, up to the short-lived euphoria on the 'atomic age' (Geneva conference 1955). This is followed by an account of natural radioactivity in our environment, a brief of useful information on radiation effects and radiation protection, and of typical applications of radioactive beams in science, engineering, and medicine. The final part is concerned with the most important instances of insight into nature triggered by the discovery of radioactivity: From cosmological to chemical evolution, from Democrit's atom theory to modern nuclear physics' particle zoo, from the contest of ideas between acausalists and determinists on what is commonly termed 'coincidence' to the limits of graphic views on nature. (orig.) With 40 figs [de

  9. Synchrotron radiation

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  10. Toxicity ratios: Their use and abuse in predicting the risk from induced cancer

    Mays, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The toxicity ratio concept assumes the validity of certain relationships. In some examples for bone sarcoma induction, the approximate toxicity of 239 Pu in man can be calculated algebraically from the observed toxicity in the radium-dial painters and the ratio of 239 Pu/ 226 Ra toxicities in suitable laboratory mammals. In a species highly susceptible to bone sarcoma induction, the risk coefficients for both 239 Pu and 226 Ra are elevated, but the toxicity ratio of 239 Pu to 226 Ra tends to be similar to the ratio in resistant species. Among the tested species the toxicity ratio of 239 Pu to 226 Ra ranged from 6 to 22 (a fourfold range), whereas their relative sensitivities to 239 Pu varied by a factor of 150. The toxicity ratio approach can also be used to estimate the actinide risk to man from liver cancer, by comparing to the Thorotrast patients; from lung cancer, by comparing to the uranium miners and the atomic-bomb survivors; and from neutron-induced cancers, by comparing to cancers induced by gamma rays. The toxicity ratio can be used to predict the risk to man from a specific type of cancer that has been reliably induced by a reference radiation in humans and that can be induced by both the reference and the investigated radiation in suitable laboratory animals. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  12. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1982

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Those climatic data needed for energy budget and mass transfer studies are presented , including: water surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Some calculated values necessary for these studies are also presented, such as vapor pressure and Bowen-ratio values. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  13. Climatic data for Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, 1986

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.; Winter, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of Williams Lake, north-central Minnesota includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer studies, including: water-surface temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, wind speed, precipitation, and solar and atmospheric radiation. Some calculated values necessary for these studies, such as vapor pressure and Bowen ratio numbers, also are presented. Data are collected at raft and land stations.

  14. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  15. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  16. Anomalous Enantiomer Ratios in Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Cooper, G.; Sant, M.; Asiyo, C.

    2009-03-01

    The enantiomer (mirror-image) ratios of sugar acids in carbonaceous meteorites have been measured. D-enantiomer excesses are found in all acids measured thus far. This includes rare as well as common compounds.

  17. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  18. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... between preoperatively measured neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an inflammation ... analgesic (tenoxicam – as the first drug of choice, paracetamol, tramadol, or pethidine) usage ... fracture fixation). Age, sex, type of ...

  19. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  20. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  1. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  2. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  3. From Fibonacci Sequence to the Golden Ratio

    Alberto Fiorenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known characterization of the Golden ratio as limit of the ratio of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence, and we give an explanation of this property in the framework of the Difference Equations Theory. We show that the Golden ratio coincides with this limit not because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of the characteristic polynomial, but, from a more general point of view, because it is the root with maximum modulus and multiplicity of a restricted set of roots, which in this special case coincides with the two roots of the characteristic polynomial. This new perspective is the heart of the characterization of the limit of ratio of consecutive terms of all linear homogeneous recurrences with constant coefficients, without any assumption on the roots of the characteristic polynomial, which may be, in particular, also complex and not real.

  4. Determining sex ratios of turtle hatchlings

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Previous status assessments of marine turtles have assumed that the natural sex ratio of a marine turtle population is 1:1 (e.g. Conant et al. 2009). However, this...

  5. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  6. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  7. Evaluate existing radiation fields

    Aldrich, J.M.; Haggard, D.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Fix, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Knowledge of the spectrum of energies for beta, gamma, and neutron radiation experienced in the field is crucial to the proper interpretation of personnel dose. Calibration sources and techniques are determined on the basis of their relationship to field exposure. Selected techniques were used to obtain neutron, photon, and beta energy spectra data at several Hanford locations. Four neutron energy spectra and dose measurement methods were used: (1) multisphere spectrometer system; (2) tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); (3) RASCAL (9'' to 3'' sphere ratios); and (4) helium-3 neutron spectrometer. Gamma spectroscopy was done using standard techniques. A specially designed TLD dosimeter was used to obtain beta spectrum measurements. The design and use of each of these instruments is described in the body of this report. Data collected and analyzed for each of the Hanford locations are included

  8. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  9. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  10. Effects of Techa River Radiation Contamination on the Reproductive Function of Residents

    Kosenko, M. M

    2006-01-01

    .... Radiation from nuclear weapons has been implicated in transient amenorrhea, earlier menopause, and altered sex ratios in offspring but no difference from control populations with regard to fertility...

  11. Radiation Protection in the Experimental Pile Marius

    Cohendy, G.

    1962-01-01

    Measurements made around the experimental pile 'Marius' made it possible to determine the valid characteristics of the slabs designed to improve the biological protection by covering the charge and discharge pits. These measurements also made it possible to evaluate the risks occurring when the pile is operating at various Powers and to make a reasonable estimate of the value of the ratio of the total danger due to neutrons (thermal and fast) and γ radiation and to the danger due only to the γ radiation. A knowledge of this ratio makes it possible to make satisfactory evaluations with a single apparatus which is really portable. (author) [fr

  12. The branching ratio ω → π ^+π ^- revisited

    Hanhart, C.; Holz, S.; Kubis, B.; Kupść, A.; Wirzba, A.; Xiao, C. W.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the most recent data for the pion vector form factor in the timelike region, employing a model-independent approach based on dispersion theory. We confirm earlier observations about the inconsistency of different modern high-precision data sets. Excluding the BaBar data, we find an updated value for the isospin-violating branching ratio B(ω → π ^+π ^-) = (1.46± 0.08) × 10^{-2}. As a side result, we also extract an improved value for the pion vector or charge radius, √{< r_V^2rangle } = 0.6603(5)(4) {fm}, where the first uncertainty is statistical as derived from the fit, while the second estimates the possible size of nonuniversal radiative corrections. In addition, we demonstrate that modern high-quality data for the decay η '→ π ^+π ^-γ will allow for an even improved determination of the transition strength ω → π ^+π ^-.

  13. INFLUENCE OF SCALE RATIO, ASPECT RATIO, AND PLANFORM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERCAVITATING HYDROFOILS.

    performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. No appreciable scale effect was found for scale ratios up to 3 in the fully-cavitating flow region. The...overall performance of the hydrofoil by increasing the aspect ratio above 3, and (2) moderate taper ratio seems to be advantageous in view of the overall performance of supercavitating hydrofoils. (Author)

  14. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  15. Radiation therapy for chordomas

    Ikeda, Hajime; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakamura, Yuji; Niibe, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Chordomas are slow-growing primary malignant bone tumors which originate from remnants of the fetal notochordal system. They are difficult to control by surgery alone. Four patients with chordomas treated with radiation therapy were studied, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was evaluated. These 4 (3.8%) patients were among 106 patients with primary malignant bone tumors referred to us from 1959 to 1987. Primary sites were the sacrococcygeal region in three patients and the clivus in one. The patients' ages ranged from 51 to 75 years. The male : female ratio was 1 : 1. Patients received 48 to 60 Gy of radiation to the primary sites. Because the radiosensitivity of the tumors was low, the responses were poor. The duration of survival was 6, 33, 68, and 125 months. The cause of death in each case was local recurrence of tumor. As a result, a dose greater than 60 Gy is thought to be necessary for curative radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy seems to be best choice for chordomas in the clivus, and mixed-beam (proton and megavolt age X-ray) therapy or multiportal irradiation, which gives an ideal spatial dose distribution, seems to be most suitable for sacrococcygeal chordomas. (author)

  16. Radiation protection in hospitals

    MOuld, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  17. Radiations and living beings

    Schaeffer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation were studied in irradiated individuals and their offspring. In irradiated individuals, the dose-effect relationship is linear only at very high dose rates corresponding to saturated recovery processes. At other dose rates, the relationship is described by a sigmoid deviating from linearity as the exposure duration is longer. The transition from a straight line to a sigmoid is expressed by mathematical formulas that show that continuous exposure of populations at the maximum permissible dose rate of 500mrem/y to the whole body (gonads excluded) should induce less than one leukemia per year in the world. The study of the effects on the offspring of irradiated individuals was based on the extrapolation of experimental results obtained with animals belonging to species at various evolution levels. Among the less evoluted species, insects are highly resistant to instantaneous exposure of several hundred thousand rems, but exposure of successive generations results in a progressive cumulation of mutated genes of chromosome aberrations, as shown by the appearance of still higher ratio of damages in the offspring. Conversely, at a higher degree of evolution, mice are less resistant to instantaneous exposure but the cumulation is much less appearent. This could be explained by the minimum number of mutated genes whose combined action is required to reveal the damage. It has been calculated that it should be two genes in the mouse, and only one in insects. If a higher degree of polygeny is taken for man, viz at least 4 genes, as evidenced by the late discoveries on hereditary diseases, then the exposure of successive generations of french population at the maximum permissible dose rate of 170mrem/y to gonads should bring about no damage before 600 year's time. Without assuming any threshold to the action of radiation, it is demonstrated that there must occur practically no damage provided the present radiation protection standards are

  18. Radiation detector

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  19. Radiation biophysics

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The overall thrust of the research is aimed at understanding the effects of radiation on organisms. Specific subject areas include: the effects of heavy-particle beam nuclear interactions in tissue on dosimetry; tracer studies with radioactive fragments of heavy-ion beams; the effects of heavy/ions on human kidney cells and Chinese hamster cells; the response of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system in rats to heavy-ion beams; the use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy of human cancer; heavy-ion radiography; the biological effects of high magnetic fields; central nervous system neurotoxicity; and biophysical studies on cell membranes

  20. Radiation dosimetry

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation accidents

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  2. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  3. Precautions against radiations

    Osborn, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations likely to cause hazards in a chemical laboratory are considered. Quantities and units of radiation are described. The general principles of radiation protection, precautions against radiation hazards, ICRP standards and recommendations and the legislation relating to the control of radiation hazards in the UK are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental radiation

    2008-01-01

    The types of ionizing radiations from the atomic nucleus are explained, such as the beams alpha, beta and gamma. The definitions of spectrometry and nuclear traces have been included.The study presents two researches realized in Costa Rica on the radioactive nuclear and artificial elements in the environment. The first shown is the analysis of coastal sediments where explains which are radioactive artificial isotopes and the pollution that occurs in food, coastal sediments, fertilizers, the soil, the water and the air. Within the analysis techniques are the gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and nuclear strokes. Among the conclusions of this initial investigation is shown that at Punta Leona descendants of Uranium and Thorium present lower concentrations in relation to the gulf and its variations are not important. In the following study the radon gas is analyzed in the human environment where is determined that it is the second generator that causes cancer in lungs after the tobacco. This work indicates that the doses come from natural and artificial sources of radiation for the public are a whole of 2.7 mSv/year, information provided by the UNSCEAR, 2000. The radon gas is inert and radioactive of atomic number 86, includes 23 isotopes and 3 natural isotopes. The radon is everywhere, as are houses and buildings, in Costa Rica it is located in old homes with little ventilation. It describes the equipment used for the detection of radon gas in the environment. Within the conclusions radon gas is concentrated in confined spaces which can be harmful to health. It is determined that enough ventilation in places of high concentrations of radon is important. Finally it is recommended to monitor the sites where can be detected high concentrations of radon and that they have important influx of people [es

  5. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  6. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  7. Differential Detector for Measuring Radiation Fields

    Broide, A.; Marcus, E.; Brandys, I.; Schwartz, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Levinson, S.; Seif, R.; Sattinger, D.; Kadmon, Y.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to determine the source of radioactive contamination in order to analyze the risk to the environment and to the population. The radiation source may be a radioactive plume on the air or an area on the ground contaminated with radionuclides. Most commercial radiation detectors measure only the radiation field intensity but are unable to differentiate between the radiation sources. Consequently, this limitation causes a real problem in analyzing the potential risk to the near-by environment, since there is no data concerning the contamination ratios in the air and on the ground and this prevents us from taking the required steps to deal with the radiation event. This work presents a GM-tube-based Differential Detector, which enables to determine the source of contamination

  8. Study of the gamma radiation of ionium

    Curie, I

    1949-12-01

    A Geiger counter study has been made of the ..gamma.. radiation of ionium. Eleven quanta of the L radiation of radium were observed for every hundred ..cap alpha.. disintegrations, and three ..gamma.. rays were found with energies of 68, 140, and 240 keV at a rate of 0.85, 0.33, 0.05 quanta, respectively, for 100 disintegrations. It is noted that the radiation spectrum of ionium as a whole is difficult to interpret. In the course of this work, the author calculated the efficiency of a thin-walled aluminum counter, both for the L radiation of radium and for ..gamma.. rays of 68 keV. The author also measured, for soft radiation, the ratio between the efficiency of a thin-walled aluminum counter and that of a similar counter lined with 0.11 mm of lead.

  9. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  10. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  11. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)]. E-mail: gbrion@engr.uky.edu

    2002-06-15

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  12. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  13. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  14. Novel bacterial ratio for predicting fecal age

    Nieman, J.; Brion, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents an extension of ongoing research into the utility of the ratio of bacterial colonies isolated on membrane filters during the total coliform test using m-Endo broth media for the prediction of fecal age. Analysis of the relative shifts in concentrations of indicator bacterial populations in Kentucky River water quality data collected from the inlet of a local water treatment plant showed a correlation between raw concentrations of atypical colonies (AC) and total coliform colonies (TC) formed on m-Endo membrane filter tests, and fecal age. Visual analysis of plant treatment records showed that low values of the AC/TC ratio were related to periods of high flow, when runoff added fresh fecal material to the river. A more detailed analysis of 2 years of Kentucky River water quality data showed the average AC/TC ratio during months with high river flow (rain) to be 3.4, rising to an average of 27.6 during months with low flow. The average AC/TC ratio during high flow months compared to that found in other studies for raw human sewage (3.9) and the ratio increased to values associated with animal impacted urban runoff (18.9) during low flow months. (author)

  15. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  16. D/H ratio for Jupiter

    Smith, H.; Schempp, W.V.; Baines, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's spectrum near the R5(0) HD line at 6063.88 A are reported. A feature with an equivalent width of 0.065 + or - 0.021 mA is coincident with the expected line. This feature is compared with HD profiles computed for inhomogeneous scattering models for Jupiter to yield a range for the Jovian D/H ratio of 1.0-2.9 x 10 to the -5th. This D/H ratio is in the lower range of previously reported D/H values for Jupiter and corresponds to an essentially solar D/H ratio for Jupiter. The detection of HD features in the presence of probable blends with spectral features of minor atmospheric hydrocarbon molecules is discussed. Such blends may make unambiguous identification of HD features difficult. 26 references

  17. Odor concentration invariance by chemical ratio coding

    Naoshige Uchida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the system is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the ratio of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar ratios of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical ratio information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory system.

  18. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  19. Transport in a small aspect ratio torus

    White, R.B.; Gates, D.A.; Mynick, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    Transport theory in toroidal devices often assumes large aspect ratio and also assumes the poloidal field is small compared to the toroidal field. These assumptions result in transport which in the low collision rate limit is dominated by banana orbits, giving the largest collisionless excursion of a particle from an initial flux surface. However in a small aspect ratio device the gyro radius may be larger than the banana excursion, resulting in significant deviations from the standard neoclassical predictions. In this paper we report numerical simulation of diffusion in low and high beta low aspect ratio equilibria. We also sketch an analytic theory. The diffusion, which we refer to as omniclassical, is a combination of neoclassical and properly averaged classical effects, and can be two or three times the neoclassical value. Good agreement of the analytic theory with numerical simulations is obtained. (author)

  20. Radiation protection principles

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  1. Radiation protection; Proteccion Radiologica

    Ures Pantazi, M [Universidad de la Republica, Facultad de Quimica (Uruguay)

    1994-12-31

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection.

  2. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  3. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  5. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  6. The reaction index and positivity ratio revisited

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Andersen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value of these st......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assessing the quality of patch test preparations continues to be a challenge. 2 parameters, the reaction index (RI) and positivity ratio (PR), have been proposed as quality indicators by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). The value...

  7. Uranium isotope ratio measurements in field settings

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements of powder samples in field settings. Such a method will be invaluable for environmental studies, radioactive waste operations, and decommissioning and decontamination operations. Immediate field data can help guide an ongoing sampling campaign. The measurement encompasses glow discharge sputtering from pressed sample hollow cathodes, high resolution laser spectroscopy using conveniently tunable diode lasers, and optogalvanic detection. At 10% 235 U enrichment and above, the measurement precision for 235 U/( 235 U+ 238 U) isotope ratios was ±3%; it declined to ±15% for 0.3% (i.e., depleted) samples. A prototype instrument was constructed and is described

  8. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  9. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  10. Radiation modification of materials

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  11. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  12. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  13. Radiation therapy

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  14. Radiating water

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  15. Radiation physics

    Sorenson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    As in other technologically based field, progress in medical imaging occurs both by ''breakthroughs,'' such as completely new concepts, and by evolutionary advances, such as incremental improvements in existing technology. Both types of advances are of fundamental importance to the field. The new kinestatic charge detection technique, which represents a fundamentally new concept in image recording, qualifies as a ''breakthrough.'' This and several other articles describe new approaches to digital radiography, focusing in particular on the formidable problems of trying to match the excellent image recording and display capabilities of x-ray film. An example of an incremental improvement is a new design for x-ray tube filaments. The modified filament design can provide a significant reduction in focal-spot size, without loss of tube-loading capacity. Because spatial resolution is limited in many practical situations by focal-spot blurring, this incremental improvement in the design of an existing piece of hardware is as important a contribution to improving image quality as a new type of digital detector with a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution. The author has included a few articles dealing with practical issues in radiation protection and quality assurance of x-ray imaging systems

  16. Synchrotron radiation

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  17. Applying radiation

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  18. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  19. Decay ratio for third order Brownian oscillators

    Konno, H.; Kanemoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained the analytical expressions of the decay ratios for two types of third order Brownian oscillators which are generalizations of the second order Brownian oscillator driven by the Gaussian-white noise. The resulting expressions will provide us useful baseline information for more complicated practical problems and their applications

  20. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  1. Measuring Poisson Ratios at Low Temperatures

    Boozon, R. S.; Shepic, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Simple extensometer ring measures bulges of specimens in compression. New method of measuring Poisson's ratio used on brittle ceramic materials at cryogenic temperatures. Extensometer ring encircles cylindrical specimen. Four strain gauges connected in fully active Wheatstone bridge self-temperature-compensating. Used at temperatures as low as liquid helium.

  2. Multipole mixing ratios in /sup 154/Gd

    Chung, Won Mo; Song, Choong Sik; Joo, Koan Sik

    1985-06-01

    We have measured gamma-gamma angular correlations to determine the mixing ratios of several gamma transitions in /sup 154/Gd. The results are compared with those derived from the pairing-plus-quadrupole model and from the interacting boson model.

  3. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  4. 34 CFR 668.172 - Financial ratios.

    2010-07-01

    ... effect of changes in accounting principles, and the effect of changes in accounting estimates; (2) May... intangible assets defined as intangible in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles; and (5... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial ratios. 668.172 Section 668.172 Education...

  5. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  6. Asymptotics for ratios with applications to reinsurance

    Ladoucette, S.A.; Teugels, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of results pertaining to moment convergence for certain ratios of random variables involving sums, order statistics and extreme terms in the sense of modulus. Most of the literature on this matter originates from Darling (1952) who gave a criterion for the convergence

  7. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  8. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  9. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  10. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  11. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  12. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  13. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    tribpo

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2000) 21, 19-27 .... to know the shape of the ionizing radiation to determine the ionization parameter from the C II to C IV ratio. ... different shapes of the background radiation spectrum as explained in the text. The solid lines.

  14. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  15. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections

  16. Counterbalanced radiation detection device

    Platz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection device is described which consists of: (a) a base; (b) a radiation detector having a known weight; (c) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for positioning the radiation detector in different heights with respect to the base; (d) electronic component means movably mounted on the base for counterbalancing the weight of the radiation detector; (e) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector positioning means for positioning the electronic component means in different heights with respect to the base opposite to the heights of the radiation detector; (f) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for shifting the radiation detector horizontally with respect to the base; and (g) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector shifting means for shifting the electronic component means horizontally with respect to the base in opposite direction to shifting of the radiation detector

  17. The world of radiation

    Song, Myeong Jae

    2000-12-01

    This book deals with the world of radiation with the first meeting discovery of the rays, meeting between radiation and human body, illusion and truth of radiation and philosophy of management for radiation. These are the titles of the stories ; predictor, unforgettable Hiroshima, nude photo, radiation and radioactivity, living in the radiation, people make radiation, too, mysteries in human body, gene, DNA and cell, when radiation meets human body, the first victim in the atomic accident in Japan. The fact of Chernobyl accident, is radiation in the plutonium fatal? body without brain and a deformed calf, management on radiation in the nuclear power plant, ideal and reality is really radiation dangerous? and the good news.

  18. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  19. Review of meson resonance radiative decays

    Thorndike, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The radiative decays of meson resonances can be studied by three different approaches, it is noted. These are the meson-exchange, Primakoff effect, and the production of the desired resonance and subsequent observation of its decay. These approaches are criticized and examples of them are reviewed. Mass distributions are shown and branching ratios discussed. 21 references

  20. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)