WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation biology proceedings

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    Marko, A M [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection; Myers, D K; Atchison, R J [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection. Secretariat; Gentner, N E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually.

  2. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    Marko, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  3. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    Hori, Tada-aki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection

    1993-01-01

    203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

  5. Advances in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. Proceedings of a Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors

    1971-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was

  6. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10 t h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  7. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    1998-01-01

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  8. Proceedings of the colloquium on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations

    Point, Sebastien; Boulenguez, Pierre; Martinsons, Christophe; Carre, Samuel; Torriglia, Alicia; Jaadane, Imene; Behar-Cohenz, Francine; Savoldelliz, Michele; Jonetz, Laurent; Chahory, Sabine; Dore, Jean-Francois; Clavel, Jacqueline; Boniol, Mathieu; Greinert, Ruediger; Gandini, Sara; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Dieudonne, Mael; Lagroye, Isabelle; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Veyret, Bernard; Macrez, Nathalie; Ruffie, Gilles; Haro, Emmanuelle; Hurtier, Annabelle; Taxile, Murielle; Masuda, Hiroshi; Bontempi, Bruno; Nicole, Olivier; Seze, Rene de; Cagnon, Patrice; Thuroczy, Georges; Mauger, Samuel; Mazet, Paul; Agnani, Jean-Benoit; Gaudaire, Francois; Caudeville, Julien; Selmaoui, Brahim; Percherancier, Yann; Veyret, B.; Kohler, Sophie; Leveque, P.; Legros, Alexandre; Modolo, Julien; Thomas, Alex W.; Goulet, Daniel; Plante, Michel; Ostiguy, Genevieve; Souques, Martine; Lambrozo, Jacques; Deschamps, Francois; Magne, Isabelle; Remy, Emmanuel; Souques, Martine; Duburcq, Anne; Bureau, Isabelle; Gercek, Cihan; Kourtiche, Djilali; Scmitt, Pierre; Roth, Patrice; Nadi, Mustapha; Korpinen, Leena

    2014-10-01

    This colloquium was organized by the 'non-ionizing radiations section' of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Its goal is to review the works carried out in France regarding the electromagnetic fields risk, the wave-matter interactions and the medical applications. This conference day is the occasion for the scientific actors of the domain to exchange and encourage the pluri-disciplinary collaborations on the biological, clinical, epidemiological, dosimetric and regulatory aspects of the exposure to non-ionizing radiations. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) together with their corresponding abstracts (in French) and dealing with: 1 - Retinal risk in blue light: standard requirements for LED lighting systems (S. Point); 2 - RETINALED: in-vivo study of blue light-related risk - towards a better understanding of retinal pathologies and a better risk assessment (P. Boulenguez); 3 - Can solar UV radiations have a beneficial effect for some cancers? The HeLME-UV project: domestic exposure to solar UV light and malignant lymphoid homeopathies of the child (J.F. Dore); 4 - A major public health problem: UV tanning devices should be prohibited (J.F. Dore); 5 - Is electro-hypersensitivity the result of a nocebo effect? (M. Dieudonne); 6 - Effects of repeated Wi-Fi signal exposure on glial and micro-glial activation in the mouse (I. Lagroye); 7 - RF residential exposure measurements in the French program of the Operative Committee (R. De Seze); 8 - Real-time study of RF fields global cellular effects (Y. Percherencier); 9 - Electromagnetic fields and neuro-degenerative diseases (I. Lagroye); 10 - Example of direct biophysical effect in the domain of ultra-low frequencies: the perception of magnetic phosphenes (A. Legros); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field: update of the Expers study (I. Magne); 12 - Cardiac implants immunity with respect to 50/60 Hz electric fields (C. Gercek); 13 - Cardiac implants and

  9. Proceedings of the international conference on emerging frontiers and challenges in radiation biology: abstracts

    Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha; Arora, Anil

    2012-01-01

    This abstract volume includes abstracts related to six technical sessions of the conference viz., Radiation induced genomic instability and bystander effects, Radiation dosimetry and dose limits, Radiation protection and nuclear technology application, Molecular diagnosis and targeted therapy for cancer, cancer care and chemoradiotherapy, health hazards of radiation and protection. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  11. Solid State and Chemical Radiation Dosimetry in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    NONE

    1967-03-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, 3-7 October 1966. The meeting was attended by 104 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. Contents: Solid state dosimetry (17 papers); Chemical dosimetry (10 papers); Invited lectures (2 papers); General aspects and other methods of dosimetry (6 papers); Panel discussion on research and development needed in dosimetry. Each paper is in its original language (32 English, 2 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language, if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology; Risalah Pertemuan Ilmiah Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Aplikasi Isotop Dan Radiasi. Buku 1, Pertanian, Peternakan dan Biologi

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10{sup t}h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  13. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  14. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications: a molecular approach towards innovations in applied radiobiology and a workshop on strategies in radiation research

    2013-10-01

    Innovations in radiotherapy approaches to cancer and radiation biology research is of growing interest in radiation researchers to conduct preclinical studies at their centers and translating the results as soon as possible to clinical radiotherapy practice. Recent papers have greatly enriched the current knowledge of radiation oncology, especially radiobiology and molecular oncology, and this has radically changed the oncology practice in radiation therapy in just a few years. The conference theme highlights the molecular and cellular responses within tissue and higher levels of mammalian biological organization. New experimental radiobiology research to underpin current and future regulatory decisions setting workplace exposure limits. To develop rapid, high-precision analytical methods that assess radiation exposure doses from clinical samples and thus aid in the triage and medical management of radiological casualties. Innovative approaches to improve the accuracy, dose range, ease of use, and speed of classical biodosimetry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Biological effects of radiation

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  16. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  17. XXVII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings

    2005-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 83 papers are published

  18. Advances in radiation biology

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  19. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Presentations and Posters

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of presented presentations and posters on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 55 presentations and posters are included. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013/59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  20. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Abstracts

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 91 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013 / 59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  1. Biological radiation effects

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  2. 19th Radiation Hygiene Days. Conference Proceedings

    1995-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The proceedings consists of a following chapters: (1) Invited presentation; (2) Nuclear accident: management and instrumentation; (3) Low activity in environmental; (4) Radon: sources, doses and effects; (5) Radiation protection in nuclear medicine; (6) Nuclear power plants: radiation safety. (J.K.)

  3. 19th Radiation Hygiene Days. Conference Proceedings.

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The proceedings consists of a following chapters: (1) Invited presentation; (2) Nuclear accident: management and instrumentation; (3) Low activity in environmental; (4) Radon: sources, doses and effects; (5) Radiation protection in nuclear medicine; (6) Nuclear power plants: radiation safety. (J.K.).

  4. Introduction to radiation biology

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  5. Proceedings of biological applications of relativistic nuclei

    Alard, J.P.; Montret, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop BARN 92 on various aspects of radiation treatment of tumours and of biological radiation effects on living system hosted 38 short papers. Each is indexed and abstracted separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  6. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  7. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2013

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2013. It was held on Apr.24-26, 2013 Hotel Hyundai Mokpo in Mokpo, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2013. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Radiation protection1, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 2.

  8. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2014. It was held on Nov.19-21, 2014 in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation measurement 1, Radiation environment and protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and protection 2.

  9. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2015. It was held on Oct.23, 2015 Mayfield Hotel in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  10. Biological Effects of Radiation

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  11. Radiation biology and radiation therapy

    Wideroee, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation biology and radiation therapy can be compared with investigations in different layers of earth. Radiation biology works upwards from the elementary foundations, therapy works downwards with roots to secure and improve the clinical 'surface work'. The Ellis formula (Strandquist), which is a collection of clinical experience, is suited to form connections with radiobiology in the middle layers, and cooperation can give impulses for research. The structure and conditions of tumours and the complicated problems met with are discussed, based on the Carmel symposium of 1969. The oxygen problem in anoxic tumours is not yet solved. Experimental investigations of the effect itself give partly contradictory results. From a clinical viewpoint reoxygenation is of the utmost significance for obtaining control over the primary tumour, and advanced irradiation programmes will here give better results than the traditional ones. New chemicals, e.g. R 0 -07-0582, appear to reduce the OER value to 1.5, thereby making neutron therapy superfluous. Finally a problem from fundamental research is dealt with, wherein two hypotheses explaining the β-effect are described. The repair hypothesis gives a simple explanation but leaves many questions unanswered. The other hypothesis explains the β-effect as two neighbouring single breaks of the DNA molecule. It still presents difficulties, and is scarcely the correct explanation. (JIW)

  12. Biological radiation effects

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  13. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  14. Integrative radiation systems biology

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  15. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  16. Integrative Radiation Biology

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [New York University School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2015-02-27

    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive and negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.

  17. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2012

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2012. It was held on Nov. 28-30, 2012 Phoenix Island in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2012. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  18. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2013. It was held on Nov.20-22, 2013 Ramada Plaza Hotel in Suwon, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013. This proceedings is comprised of 7 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Radiation protection1, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 2, Radiation protection 3.

  19. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014

    NONE

    2014-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2014. It was held on Apr.23-25, 2014 Grand Hotel in Busan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  20. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  1. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  2. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  3. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database

  4. Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    2009-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  5. Proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2011 Kanagawa

    2011-11-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from November 30th through December 2nd of 2011. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, radiation contamination, radiation exposure and its measures, risk communication, accident management, biological radiation effects, radioactive waste handling, effective use of radioisotopes, radiation measurement, education on radiation, radioactivity in environment. (J.P.N)

  6. Biological radiation effects

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  7. Effects of low dose ionizing radiation in childhood and youth, in medicine, industry and environment, at the working place. Proceedings

    Koehnlein, W.; Nussbaum, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    These proceedings contain the full texts of all lectures and posters presented at the meeting. The topics are as follows: Occupational radiation exposure, environmental radiation exposure due to radon and neutron radiation from Castor fuel casks, cancer resulting from radiation exposure, diseases other than cancer resulting from radiation exposure, epidemiological studies, mechanisms of biological radiation effects, benefits and risks of medical radiation exposure, radiation monitoring and ambient radiation monitoring. (MG)

  8. Proceedings of the REMPAN 97: 7. Coordination meeting of World Health Organization collaborating centers in radiation emergency medical preparedness and assistance network

    1997-01-01

    Special reports and panels are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: emergency planning and preparedness, biology, biological effects, radiation effects and therapy, internal contamination and irradiation, and national programs and activities related to radiation accident preparedness and assistance

  9. Biological effects of particle radiation

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  10. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  11. Applied radiation biology and protection

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.-J.

    1990-01-01

    This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

  12. Proceedings of the Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    2011-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection Conference.. The conference consists Natural Radiation Sources; Radiation Detection and Measurements; Applied Radiation Physics; Radiation Medical Physics and Biophysics; Radiation Dosimetry; Operational Radiation Protection; Radiation Shielding; Transport of Radioactive Materials; Nuclear and Radiation Physics; Medical Physics and Public Protection Against Radiological Attack. This conference consists of 402 p., figs., tabs., refs.

  13. Biological implications of radiation

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  14. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  15. Biological radiation effects

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  16. Review of domestic radiation biology research

    Zheng Chun; Song Lingli; Ai Zihui

    2011-01-01

    Radiation biology research in China during the past ten years are reviewed. It should be noticed that radiation-biology should focus on microdosimetry, microbeam application, and radiation biological mechanism. (authors)

  17. The biological effects of radiation

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  19. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  20. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  1. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  2. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  4. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi- field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

  5. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent

  6. Biology of radiation therapy

    Peters, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A working knowledge of the biologic principles underlying radiotherapy for head and neck tumors is desirable for all the disciplines involved in the management of patients with these cancers. Clinical practice is certainly possible without this basic understanding, and historically most clinical advances have been made empirically. However, an understanding of the basic concepts permits a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of various treatment strategies and offers a rational approach for future modifications of techniques so as to improve the outcome of treatment

  7. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives.

  8. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    2008-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  9. Applied radiation biology and protection

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. Radiation protection in the 2000s - Theory and practice. Nordic Society for Radiation Protection. Proceedings of the XIII ordinary meeting

    Paile, W.

    2003-06-01

    The XIII ordinary meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection (NSFS) was held on August 25-29, 2002 in Turku (Aabo), Finland. The main topics included: protection of the environment, information and ethics, natural radiation, reactor safety and waste management, emergency preparedness, medical use of radiation, radiation in industrial use, education and certification, radiation biology and epidemiology, and radioecology and monitoring. The proceedings of the meeting includes all the papers of the oral presentations as well as the poster presentations. Papers presenting scientific results have been subject to a referee process with evaluation of independent experts

  11. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Application

    2010-04-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Sciences and Application conference. the conference consistes of Chemistry; Food Sciences and Technology; Entomolgy; Biology; Waste Management; Safety and Microbiology. This conference consists of one volume and 360 pages., figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Proceedings of the Eleventh Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    2013-01-01

    The proceeding contains of 404 pages, the available maertial of 35 contributions: and covering of conference topics: Plenary, Invited, Keynote Talks. Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Cosmogenic Radionuclides. Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions. Radiation Medical Physics. Radiation Detection and Measurements. Radioactive in Building Materials. Radiation Protection Regulations and public Protection. Environmental Radioactivity.

  13. 11. Regional congress of IRPA. Austrian - Hungarian - Yugoslavian radiation protection meeting. Recent developments and new trends in radiation protection. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Tschirf, E.; Hefner, A.

    1984-01-01

    50 contributions are presented, the three papers of session II on non ionizing radiations being outside of the scope of INIS. The session headings are: I. General aspects of radiation protection. II. Non ionizing radiation. III. Measurement and techniques. IV. Biology and medicine. Further papers are presented in Volume 2 of the proceedings, which is treated separately. (A.N.)

  14. Progress in radiation biology

    Masuda, Koji; Zingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi; Aramaki, Ryoji; Yoshinaga, Haruma

    1980-01-01

    Possible mechanism of differences in radiosensitivity of malignant tumors in vivo was reviewed. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage after X- or gamma-ray was relatively large for melanoma, osteosarcoma and glioblastoma multiform cultured in vitro. The proportion of hypoxic cells in malignant melanoma was relatively high and the Dq value of the dose response curves was relatively large, implying that these two factors also play important role for making malignant melanoma radioresistant. Recurrent tumor cells in vitro has relatively high amount of non-protein SH, which can protect cells from radiation. Except for these limited data, no experimental results has been reported which can explain the radiobiological mechanism of each radioresistant tumor. It was stressed that assessment of the radiobiological mechanism of the relatively radioresistant malignant tumors in vivo and new treatment protocol based on this assessment will improve the local control rate of malignant tumors in vivo as well as doing best in treating relatively radiosensitive tumors. (author)

  15. Low level radiation: biological effects

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  16. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  17. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  18. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  20. Proceedings of radiation and occupational health Symposium

    Ng Kwan Hoong

    1995-07-01

    This book compiled the papers presented at this symposium. The were papers on policy of radiation safety regulations, radiation safety measures, radiation in medicine and radiation protection, radiation measurements, radon measurement, radiation in petroleum industry, radiation monitoring and non ionizing radiation safety

  1. Emerging frontiers in radiation biology

    Singh, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation biology owes its origin to the spectacular success in the treatment of human diseases by x-rays and radium, just after their respective discoveries in 1895-96. From the very inception it has attracted researchers from all disciplines of science. The target and hit theory developed by physicists, dominated the scene till the advent of radiation chemistry concepts which offered an entirely different perspective to the mechanisms involved in biological effects of radiations and their modification by endogenous and exogenous agents like radioprotectors and radiosensitisers including hyperthermia. The applied aspect of radiation biology mainly relates to radiation therapy of cancer which, in spite of its long existence, is still to achieve scientific perfection. Nevertheless, it did not wait -and fortunately so-, for its radiobiological rationality but continued its development to be the main modality for cancer treatment today. Several approaches are now being attempted to improve its efficacy by selectively damaging the cancerous cells while sparing the normal tissues and also by devising suitable predictive assays for radioresponse of different tumours to enable individualisation of treatment schedules. (author). 99 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  3. Clinical oncology based upon radiation biology

    Hirata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the biological effects of radiation as physical energy, especially those of X-ray as electromagnetic radiation, by associating the position of clinical oncology with classical radiation cell biology as well as recent molecular biology. First, it described the physical and biological effects of radiation, cell death due to radiation and recovery, radiation effects at tissue level, and location information and dosage information in the radiotherapy of cancer. It also described the territories unresolved through radiation biology, such as low-dose high-sensitivity, bystander effects, etc. (A.O.)

  4. Proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics

    1978-01-01

    This is a proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics held on Feb. 22 and 23 in 1978 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo. The reports includes the following items (1) studies on neutronics with accelerators (2) radiation damage (3) shielding design (4) radiation streaming (5) shielding experiments from a point of view of radiation measurements (6) shielding benchmark experiments (7) prospects on the study of neutronics. All items are written in Japanese. (auth.)

  5. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  6. Biological indicators of radiation quality

    Bender, M.A.; Wong, R.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of many biological effects by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is strikingly different in one or two respects from the induction by acute low-LET radiation. If the acute low-LET dose-effect curve is of the usual quadratic form, it becomes linear as LET increases. In any case the linear slope increases as LET increases; that is, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increases. Both changes might be exploited as biological indicators of whether or not the recent recalculations of dose and of neutron contribution to dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki seem consistent with the epidemiological observations. The biological end points that have been extensively studied in survivors include acute effects, growth and development after in utero or childhood exposure, genetic and cytogenetic effects in offspring, somatic chromosomal aberrations in survivors, and, of course, cancers, including leukemia. No significant indication among offspring of genetic or cytogenetic effects attributable to parental exposure has been found. Among the remaining end points, only the data on somatic chromosomal aberrations and on cancers appear robust enough to allow one to draw definite inferences by comparing experiences at the two cities

  7. Proceedings of the Fourth Working Meeting on Radiation Interaction

    1988-01-01

    The meeting aimed at the exchange of information and experiences both in basic and applied research in radiation chemistry, radiation physics, and radiation biology including radiation processing, irradiation plants and techniques, methods and instrumentation as well as radiation dosimetry. Author and subject indexes are included

  8. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration

  9. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  10. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  11. Radiation Hygiene Days 1998. Conference Proceedings of the 21-st Radiation Hygiene Days

    Cabanekova, H.; Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection. The proceedings consists of a following sections: (1) Radiation protection - new trends, legislation; (2) Nuclear energetics; (3) Expositions of ionizing radiation in medicine; (4) Ionizing radiation in environment and working conditions; (5) Radon in environment and working conditions. (J.K.)

  12. Radiation Hygiene Days 1998. Conference Proceedings of the 21-st Radiation Hygiene Days

    Cabanekova, H; Durcik, M; Nikodemova, D [eds.; Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1999-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection. The proceedings consists of a following sections: (1) Radiation protection - new trends, legislation; (2) Nuclear energetics; (3) Expositions of ionizing radiation in medicine; (4) Ionizing radiation in environment and working conditions; (5) Radon in environment and working conditions. (J.K.)

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.; Delegianis, M.J.

    1989-07-01

    An important event of the year was the designation of our Laboratory as a Center for Radiological Research by the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Vice-President for Health Sciences. Center status acknowledges the size and importance of the research efforts in this area, and allows a greater measure of independence in administrative matters. While the name has changed from a Laboratory to a Center within the Medical School, the mission and charge remain the same. The efforts of the Center are a multidisciplinary mix of physics, chemistry, and biology, mostly at a basic level, with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection or radiation therapy. About a quarter of our funding, mostly individual research awards, could be regarded as in direct support of radiotherapy, with the remainder (an NCI program project grant and DOE grants) being in support of research addressing more basic issues. An important effort currently underway concerns ab-initio calculations of the dielectric response function of condensed water. This investigation has received the coveted designation, ''Grand Challenge Project,'' awarded by DOE to research work which represents ''distinct advance on a major scientific or engineering problem that is broadly recognized as important within the mission of the Department.''

  14. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment

    1996-01-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect

  15. Proceedings of the third Radiation Physics Conference. Vol. 2

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Behay, A.Z.; Hassib, G.M.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference of radiation physics was held in 13-17 Nov. 1996 in cairo. The specialists of atomic energy authority and Al-Minia University discussed the biological radiation effects,radiation protection, applied radiation physics and material shielding studies were discussed at the meeting more than 400 page were presented

  16. Proceedings of the 4. International Symposium on Radiation Physics - Abstracts

    1988-01-01

    The studies on: fundamental processes in radiation physics; radiation sources and detectors; physical, chemical and biological radiation effects; plasma technology; radioisotope application in medicine and agriculture; environment; use of radiation in material science and; reactor technology, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Proceedings of the third Radiation Physics Conference. Vol. 2

    Gomaa, M A; El-Behay, A Z; Hassib, G M; El-Naggar, A M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The conference of radiation physics was held in 13-17 Nov. 1996 in cairo. The specialists of atomic energy authority and Al-Minia University discussed the biological radiation effects,radiation protection, applied radiation physics and material shielding studies were discussed at the meeting more than 400 page were presented.

  18. Research progress on space radiation biology

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  19. Biological research for radiation protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  20. Biological research for radiation protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  1. E. Biological effects of radiation on man

    1976-01-01

    This report firstly summarises information on the biological hazards of radiation and their relation to radiation dose, and hence estimates the biological risks associated with nuclear power production. Secondly, it describes the basis and present status of radiation protection standards in the nuclear power industry

  2. Radiation biology for the non-biologist

    Myers, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    This colloquium introduces some of the general concepts used in cell biology and in the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. The present research activities in radiation biology in the Biology Branch at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories cover a broad range of interests in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into significant biological effects, including the eventual production of cancers and hereditary defects. The main theme of these research activities is an understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation damage to DNA (the carrier of hereditary information in all living organisms) can be actively repaired by the living cell. Advances in our understanding of these processes have broad implications for other areas of biology but also bear directly on the assessment of the biological hazards of ionizing radiation. The colloquium concludes with a brief discussion of the hazards of low-level radiation. (author)

  3. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  4. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  5. Radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Proceedings

    2003-01-01

    In many industrial applications radiation processing has proven to be a technology of choice either because of its economic competitiveness or its technical superiority. Although the chemical effects of ionizing radiation have been known for more than a century, its industrial applications became possible only after the availability of reliable gamma sources and powerful electron accelerators during the last couple of decades.The programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in radiation processing are implemented through the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications and the Department of Technical Co-operation. The IAEA has been active in this field for many years, contributing to new developments, training, promotion and transfer of technology. In September 1997, the IAEA held an international symposium in Zakopane, Poland on the 'Use of radiation technology for the conservation of environment' where the status of current developments and of applications of radiation processing in the control of environmental pollution was reviewed (IAEA-TECDOC-1023, 1998). Recent developments and achievements in various aspects of radiation processing have been assessed continuously through the organization of consultants meetings, advisory group meetings and research co-ordination meetings. Worldwide growing interest in the use of radiation technology in various new industrial applications, as exemplified by the reports and presentations made at these meetings, has led the IAEA to organize a symposium to cover every aspect of radiation processing and, exclusively, the emerging industrial applications of radiation technology. The International Symposium on Radiation Technology in Emerging Industrial Applications was convened in November 2000 in Beijing, China. Its main purpose was to bring scientists,technologists, industrialists and regulatory authorities together with a view of exchanging information and reviewing the status of current developments and

  6. Radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Proceedings

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    In many industrial applications radiation processing has proven to be a technology of choice either because of its economic competitiveness or its technical superiority. Although the chemical effects of ionizing radiation have been known for more than a century, its industrial applications became possible only after the availability of reliable gamma sources and powerful electron accelerators during the last couple of decades.The programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in radiation processing are implemented through the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications and the Department of Technical Co-operation. The IAEA has been active in this field for many years, contributing to new developments, training, promotion and transfer of technology. In September 1997, the IAEA held an international symposium in Zakopane, Poland on the 'Use of radiation technology for the conservation of environment' where the status of current developments and of applications of radiation processing in the control of environmental pollution was reviewed (IAEA-TECDOC-1023, 1998). Recent developments and achievements in various aspects of radiation processing have been assessed continuously through the organization of consultants meetings, advisory group meetings and research co-ordination meetings. Worldwide growing interest in the use of radiation technology in various new industrial applications, as exemplified by the reports and presentations made at these meetings, has led the IAEA to organize a symposium to cover every aspect of radiation processing and, exclusively, the emerging industrial applications of radiation technology. The International Symposium on Radiation Technology in Emerging Industrial Applications was convened in November 2000 in Beijing, China. Its main purpose was to bring scientists,technologists, industrialists and regulatory authorities together with a view of exchanging information and reviewing the status of current developments and

  7. Radiation biology for pediatric radiologists

    Hall, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation result primarily from damage to DNA. There are three effects of concern to the radiologist that determine the need for radiation protection and the dose principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). (1) Heritable effects. These were thought to be most important in the 1950s, but concern has declined in recent years. The current ICRP risk estimate is very small at 0.2%/Sv. (2) Effects on the developing embryo and fetus include weight retardation, congenital anomalies, microcephaly and mental retardation. During the sensitive period of 8 to 15 weeks of gestation, the risk estimate for mental retardation is very high at 40%/Sv, but because it is a deterministic effect, there is likely to be a threshold of about 200 mSv. (3) Carcinogenesis is considered to be the most important consequence of low doses of radiation, with a risk of fatal cancer of about 5%/Sv, and is therefore of most concern in radiology. Our knowledge of radiation carcinogenesis comes principally from the 60-year study of the A-bomb survivors. The use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has increased dramatically in recent years. The annual collective population dose has increased by 750% since 1980 to 930,000 person Sv. One of the principal reasons is the burgeoning use of CT scans. In 2006, more than 60 million CT scans were performed in the U.S., with about 6 million of them in children. As a rule of thumb, an abdominal CT scan in a 1-year-old child results in a life-time mortality risk of about one in a thousand. While the risk to the individual is small and acceptable when the scan is clinically justified, even a small risk when multiplied by an increasingly large number is likely to produce a significant public health concern. It is for this reason that every effort should be made to reduce the doses associated with procedures such as CT scans, particularly in children, in the spirit of ALARA. (orig.)

  8. Molecular radiation biology: Future aspects

    Hagen, U.

    1990-01-01

    Future aspects of molecular radiation biology may be envisaged by looking for unsolved problems and ways to analyse them. Considering the endpoints of cellular radiation effects as cell inactivation, chromosome aberrations, mutation and transformation, the type of DNA damage in the irradiated cell and the mechanisms of DNA repair as excision repair, recombination repair and mutagenic repair are essential topics. At present, great efforts are made to identify, to clone and to sequence genes involved in the control of repair of DNA damage and to study their regulation. There are close relationships between DNA repair genes isolated from various organisms, which promises fast progress for the molecular analysis of repair processes in mammalian cells. More knowledge is necessary regarding the function of the gene products, i.e. enzymes and proteins involved in DNA repair. Effort should be made to analyse the enzymatic reactions, leading to an altered nucleotide sequence, encountered as a point mutation. Mislead mismatch repair and modulation of DNA polymerase might be possible mechanisms. (orig.)

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Durand, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  10. Proceedings of the colloquium on radiation chemistry

    1984-01-01

    Radiolysis of organic compounds is examined in this colloquium, mainly by gamma radiation but also by muons or positons. Radicals produced, reactions kinetics, influence of solvents, temperature, pH etc... are studied in the different papers [fr

  11. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    1995-01-01

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  12. Biological Effects of Neutron and Proton Irradiations. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological Effects of Neutron Irradiations

    1964-01-01

    During recent years the interest in biological effects caused by neutrons has been increasing steadily as a result of the rapid development of neutron technology and the great number of neutron sources being used. Neutrons, because of their specific physical characteristics and biological effects, form a special type of radiation hazard but, at the same time, are a prospective tool for applied radiobiology. This Symposium, held in Brookhaven at the invitation of the United States Government from 7-11 October 1963, provided an opportunity for scientists to discuss the experimental information at present available on the biological action of neutrons and to evaluate future possibilities. It was a sequel to the Symposium on Neutron Detection, Dosimetry and Standardization, which was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in December 1962 at Harwell. The Symposium was attended by 128 participants from 17 countries and 6 international organizations. Fifty-four papers were presented. The following subjects were discussed in various sessions: (1) Dosimetry. Estimation of absorbed dose of neutrons in biological material. (2) Biological effects of high-energy protons. (3) Cellular and genetic effects. (4) Pathology of neutron irradiation, including acute and chronic radiation syndromes (mortality, anatomical and histological changes, biochemical and metabolic disturbances) and delayed consequences. (5) Relative biological effectiveness of neutrons evaluated by different biological tests. A Panel on Biophysical Considerations in Neutron Experimentation, with special emphasis on informal discussions, was organized during the Symposium. The views of the Panel are recorded in Volume II of the Proceedings. Many reports were presented on the important subject of the relative effectiveness of the biological action of neutrons, as well as on the general pathology of neutron irradiation and the cellular and genetic effects related to it. Three survey papers considered

  13. Proceedings of the international scientific conference 'Radiation and ecosystem'

    Konoplya, E.F.; Malenchenko, A.F.; Gaponenko, V.I.; Gritsuk, A.I.; Timokhina, N.I.; Nikitin, A.N.; Kundas, S.P.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Okeanov, A.E.

    2008-10-01

    Results of investigations of interaction of radioisotopes, ecosystems and organisms from cell level to population level are given in the proceedings. Here are given information about migration of radionuclides through air and water ways, behavior of radioisotopes in aquatic, forest and agriculture ecosystems. Problems of radioactive dose forming of men and biota as well as ways of their decrease are discussed. A number of aspects of low dose irradiation effect on men, animals and plants are described. The proceedings are intended for scientists and specialists in fields of ecology, radiobiology, radioecology, for students and faculty members of biological, medical, ecological and agricultural universities

  14. Proceedings of the third Radiation Physics Conference. Vol. 1

    Gomaa, M A; El-Behay, A Z; Hassib, G M; El-Naggar, A M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The conference of radiation physics was held in 13-17 Nov. 1996 in Cairo. The specialists of Atomic energy authority and Al-Minia University disscused the biological radiation effects, applied radiation physics, radon measurements and material shielding. Studies were discussed at the meeting more than 300 pag. were presented.

  15. Proceedings of the third Radiation Physics Conference. Vol. 1

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Behay, A.Z.; Hassib, G.M.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference of radiation physics was held in 13-17 Nov. 1996 in Cairo. The specialists of Atomic energy authority and Al-Minia University disscused the biological radiation effects, applied radiation physics, radon measurements and material shielding. Studies were discussed at the meeting more than 300 pag. were presented

  16. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  17. Anthropic principle in biology and radiation biology

    Akif'ev, A. P.; Degtyarev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was suggested to add the anthropic principle of the Universe according to which the physical constants of fundamental particles of matter and the laws of their counteraction are those that an appearance of man and mind becomes possible and necessary, with some biological constants to the set of fundamental constants. With reparation of DNA as an example it was shown how a cell ran some parameters of Watson-Crick double helix. It was pointed that the concept of the anthropic principle of the Universe in its full body including biological constants was a key to developing of a unified theory of evolution of the Universe within the limits of scientific creationism [ru

  18. UV radiation and its effects. Proceedings

    1993-01-01

    The National Science Strategy Committee for Climate Change was established in 1991 by the New Zealand Minister of Research, Science and Technology. It advises government through the Minister on research priorities and on levels of expenditure appropriate in various topics relating to climate change. An additional role is to promote coordination between research groups and the user communities to ensure an appropriate range of research strategies. To assist with implementing the latter aspects the NSS Committee will organise workshops on specific aspects of atmosphere and climate change, with a broad spectrum of participants. The first of these was the Workshop on UV Radiation and its Effects held in Christchurch on 20-21 May 1993. The workshop had 40 participants, including representatives from specialist science groups, medicine, veterinary science, farming, forestry and environmental groups. This publication will update the interested reader, whether scientist or lay-person, on the current state of knowledge on changing UV radiation levels and potential problems. As the summaries of papers show, research on ozone levels and on UV radiation and its effects is particularly appropriate for New Zealand scientists with their access to sites covering a wide range of latitudes from Antarctica to the Pacific Islands. New Zealand is part of an important international monitoring network, measuring local stratospheric ozone levels and related surface UV radiation levels. There are concerns about increasing UVB levels and the consequent effects on human health, plant and tree growth, and phytoplankton growth in the oceans. Priorities for further work on these areas are included in the summary of the workshop. (author). 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference

    2004-01-01

    Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry

  20. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  1. Study of biological effect of radiation

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  2. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2016. It was held on Dec. 1, 2016 Phoenix Island in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement, Radiation environment and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  3. Biological effects of proton radiation: an update

    Girdhani, S.; Hlatky, L.; Sachs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation provides significant dosimetric advantages when compared with gamma radiation due to its superior energy deposition characteristics. Although the physical aspects of proton radiobiology are well understood, biological and clinical endpoints are understudied. The current practice to assume the relative biological effectiveness of low linear energy transfer (LET) protons to be a generic value of about 1.1 relative to photons likely obscures important unrecognised differentials in biological response between these radiation qualities. A deeper understanding of the biological properties induced by proton radiation would have both radiobiological and clinical impact. This article briefly points to some of the literature pertinent to the effects of protons on tissue-level processes that modify disease progression, such as angiogenesis, cell invasion and cancer metastasis. Recent findings hint that proton radiation may, in addition to offering improved radio-therapeutic targeting, be a means to provide a new dimension for increasing therapeutic benefits for patients by manipulating these tissue-level processes. (authors)

  4. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  5. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of the 7. international conference

    Anishchik, V.M.

    2007-09-01

    The proceedings content more than 100 articles in different fields: interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects, interaction of plasma with surfaces, modification of properties of materials, creation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies

  6. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 3. Proceedings of an international conference

    1997-01-01

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume three of the proceedings contains the speeches, ten introductory papers, summaries of the technical discussion sessions, the key note paper on uncertainties in the health impact of environmental pollutants. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Postgraduate studies in radiation biology in Europe

    Trott, K.R.; Lohmann, P.H.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T.; Schibilla, H.; Chadwick, K.; Kellerer, A.M.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present system of radiobiological research in universities and research centres is no longer able to train radiobiologists who have a comprehensive understanding of the entire field of radiation biology including both 'classical' and molecular radiation biology. However, such experts are needed in view of the role radiation protection plays in our societies. No single institution in Europe could now run a 1-year, full-time course which covers all aspects of the radiobiological basis of radiation protection. Therefore, a cooperative action of several universities from different EU member states has been developed and is described herein. (orig.)

  8. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017

    NONE

    2017-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2017. It was held on 13 April 2017 Gunsan Saemangeum Covention Center in Gunsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017. This proceedings is comprised of 5 ssessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  10. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017

    2017-04-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2017. It was held on 13 April 2017 Gunsan Saemangeum Covention Center in Gunsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017. This proceedings is comprised of 5 ssessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016

    2016-04-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2016. It was held on Apr. 6-8, 2016 Daemyung Resort in Byeonsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 4 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation Measurement, Radiation environment and prevention

  12. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  13. Use of synchrotron radiation in radiation biology research

    Yamada, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) holds great expectation as a new research tool in the new areas of material science, because it has the continuous spectral distribution from visible light to X-ray, and its intensity is 10 2 to 10 3 times as strong as that of conventional radiation sources. In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, a synchrotron radiation experimental facility has been constructed, which will start operation in fiscal 1982. With this SR, the photons having the wavelength in undeveloped region from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-ray are obtained as intense mono-wavelength light. The SR thus should contribute to the elucidation of the fundamentals in the biological action of radiation. The following matters are described: synchrotron radiation, experimental facility using SR, electron storage ring, features of SR, photon factory plan and synchrotron radiation experimental facility, utilization of SR in radiation biology field. (J.P.N.)

  14. Proceedings of the 8. International symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE-VIII). Book of abstracts

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: cosmic radiation, solar activity and cosmogenic radionuclides - natural radiation from space, high background areas - life in naturally elevated radiation areas, radon and thoron - indoors and outdoors, other terrestrial natural radionuclides - natural radioactivity, NORM/TENORM, including depleted uranium - technologically enhanced natural radioactivity, dosimetry and health risk assessment biological effects of natural radioactivity , exposures of biota to natural radioactivity, metrology, modelling and epidemiology, BSS and legal issues - regulating natural radioactivity, RDD (dirty bombs and terrorism - terrorism and natural radioactive material, non-ionising radiation (NIR) an the NRE 11), geochronology plus natural radioactivity and the theory of time

  15. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  16. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  17. Roles of radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    Min Rui

    2009-01-01

    Radiation chemistry acts as a bridge connecting radiation physics with radiation biology in spatial and temporal insight. The theory, model, and methodology coming from radiation chemistry play an important role in the research and development of radiation biology. The chemical changes induced by ionizing radiation are involved not only in early event of biological effects caused by ionizing radiation but in function radiation biology, such as DNA damage and repair, sensitive modification, metabolism and function of active oxygen and so on. Following the research development of radiation biology, systems radiation biology, accurate quality and quantity of radiation biology effects need more methods and perfect tools from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  18. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    Powers, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  19. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  20. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1997-11-01

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  1. Introducing Biological Microdosimetry for Ionising Radiation

    Scott, B.R.; Schoellnberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    Microdosimetry is important for radiation protection, for understanding mechanisms of radiation action, and for radiation risk assessment. This article introduces a generic, Monte Carlo based approach to biological microdosimetry for ionising radiation. Our Monte Carlo analyses are carried out with a widely used Crystal Ball software. The approach to biological microdosimetry presented relates to quantal biological effects data (e.g. cell survival, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation) for which there is an initial linear segment to the dose-response curve. The macroscopic dose data considered were selected such that is could be presumed that the vast majority of cells at risk have radiation dose delivered to their critical target. For cell killing, neoplastic transformation, and mutagenesis, the critical biological target for radiation is presumed to be DNA. Our approach to biological microdosimetry does not require detailed information about the mass, volume, and shape of the critical biological target. Further, one does not have to know what formal distribution function applies to the microdose distribution. However, formal distributions are required for the biological data used to derive the non-parametric microdose distributions. Here, we use the binomial distribution to characterise the variability in the number of cells affected by a fixed macroscopic dose. Assuming this variability to arise from variability in the microscopic dose to the critical biological target, a non-parametric microdose distribution is generated by the standard Monte Carlo method. The non-parametric distribution is then fitted using a set of formal distributions (beta, exponential, extreme value, gamma, logistic, log-normal, normal, Pareto, triangular, uniform, and Weibull). The best fit is then evaluated based on statistical criteria (chi-square test). To demonstrate the application of biological microdosimetry, the standard Monte Carlo method is used with radiobiological data for

  2. Introducing Biological Microdosimetry for Ionising Radiation

    Scott, B.R.; Schoellnberger, H

    2000-07-01

    Microdosimetry is important for radiation protection, for understanding mechanisms of radiation action, and for radiation risk assessment. This article introduces a generic, Monte Carlo based approach to biological microdosimetry for ionising radiation. Our Monte Carlo analyses are carried out with a widely used Crystal Ball software. The approach to biological microdosimetry presented relates to quantal biological effects data (e.g. cell survival, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation) for which there is an initial linear segment to the dose-response curve. The macroscopic dose data considered were selected such that is could be presumed that the vast majority of cells at risk have radiation dose delivered to their critical target. For cell killing, neoplastic transformation, and mutagenesis, the critical biological target for radiation is presumed to be DNA. Our approach to biological microdosimetry does not require detailed information about the mass, volume, and shape of the critical biological target. Further, one does not have to know what formal distribution function applies to the microdose distribution. However, formal distributions are required for the biological data used to derive the non-parametric microdose distributions. Here, we use the binomial distribution to characterise the variability in the number of cells affected by a fixed macroscopic dose. Assuming this variability to arise from variability in the microscopic dose to the critical biological target, a non-parametric microdose distribution is generated by the standard Monte Carlo method. The non-parametric distribution is then fitted using a set of formal distributions (beta, exponential, extreme value, gamma, logistic, log-normal, normal, Pareto, triangular, uniform, and Weibull). The best fit is then evaluated based on statistical criteria (chi-square test). To demonstrate the application of biological microdosimetry, the standard Monte Carlo method is used with radiobiological data for

  3. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    Rofstad, E.K.; Norwegian Cancer Society, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the α/β ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these α/β ratios are no more than estimates of the effective α/β ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2011. It was held on Nov.17-18, 2011 the ocean resort in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions.

  5. Biological consequences of radiation: risk factors

    1985-01-01

    This publication is a syllabus of a course on Radiation Protection. The publication offers an overview of the biological radiation effects at cellular level. For that purpose, different forms of cancers and their incidence are first discussed; structure and functioning of normal cells are considered and an introduction in genetics is given. Finally, an overview is presented of the character of tissue damage after high-dose irradiation. (G.J.P.)

  6. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  7. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  8. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    Thacker, D.G.

    1963-02-01

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  9. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    Mastro, N.L. del.

    1989-10-01

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author) [pt

  10. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  11. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Strauss, Jonathan; Small, William; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  12. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  13. Radiation Protection Society of Serbia and Montenegro. Proceedings of 24. Symposium

    Kovacevic, M.

    2007-09-01

    The Proceedings are a collection of papers presented at the 24. Symposium of the Radiation Protection Society of Serbia and Montenegro, held in Zlatibor, Serbia, 3-5 October 2007. The papers are organised into following sessions: Radioecology, Radiotoxicology, Radiation Protection in Medicine, Dosimetry, Radiobiology, Radioactive Waste, Measuring Instrumentation, Regulations and Standards, Education and Public Information, Nonionizing radiation, Other topics. The papers represent the scientific contributions of 156 authors. The Proceedings were printed in 120 hard copies

  14. Radiation Protection Society of Serbia and Montenegro. Proceedings of 26. Symposium

    Kovacevic, M.

    2011-09-01

    The Proceedings are a collection of papers presented at the 26. Symposium of the Radiation Protection Society of Serbia and Montenegro, held in Tara, Serbia, 12-14 October 2011. The papers are organised into following sessions: General problems and modern concept of Radiation Protection, Radioecology, Radiation Protection in Medicine, Dosimetry, Biodosimetry, Decontamination, Measuring Instrumentation, Other topics. The papers represent the scientific contributions of 162 authors. The Proceedings were printed in 100 hard copies.

  15. Radiobiology: Biologic effects of ionizing radiations

    Held, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The biologic effects after exposure to ionizing radiation, such as cell death or tissue injury, result from a chain of complex physical, chemical, metabolic, and histologic events. The time scale of these radiation actions spans many orders of magnitude. The physical absorption of ionizing radiation occurs in about 10 -18 s, while late carcinogenic and genetic effects are expressed years or even generations later. Collectively, these effects form the science of radiobiology. Many of the concepts discussed in this chapter have been developed through the study of effects generated in tissues by external radiation sources, but they apply generally and often specifically to internally distributed radiopharmaceuticals which form the central topic of this book

  16. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. V. 1. Proceedings of a Symposium

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3-10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographie s of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  17. proceedings of the 11. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 11. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology contains 1850 abstracts, which include the following topics: neuroscience and behaviour; biophysics; pharmacology; comparative physiology; nervous regulation; endocrinology; nefrology; vascular biology; toxicity; molecular biophysics; radiobiology and others. Among these, 169 abstracts have been indexed separately for the INIS database

  18. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  19. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation. Proceedings of the RISC-RAD specialised training course

    Belyakov, O.V.

    2008-12-01

    The training course 'Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation' took place at the STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland 14-16 February 2005. Proceeding of this course is collected in this volume. The idea of the course was to convene a number of scientists leading in the area of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation with the aim to outline their visions for the role of these effects and outline the future directions of radiation research on the basis of their expertise. The course was supported by the RISC-RAD IP FI6R-CT-2003-508842, Euratom specific programme for research and training on nuclear energy, 6th FP of the EC. The main objectives of the training course were: (1) to clarify the mechanisms of non-targeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to look if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to clarify if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) address the issue of individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) attempt to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) and finally to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects

  20. Proceedings of the FNCA workshop on plant mutation breeding 2001. Molecular biological techniques

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu

    2002-02-01

    The FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding was held on 20-24 August 2001 in Bangkok, Thailand. The Workshop was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The Kasetsart University (KU), the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and Department of Agriculture (DOA) acted as local host and the organizer with the cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The Workshop was attended by two participants, a Project Leader and an expert on molecular biological techniques for plant mutation breeding, from each of the participating countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam. One participant from the Republic of Korea, nine participants from Japan and thirteen participants from Thailand including three invited speakers attended the Workshop. Eleven papers including three invited papers on the current status of molecular biological techniques for plant mutation breeding were presented. Discussions were focused to further regional cooperation, to review and discuss results of past activities. The Medium-Term Plan of the project on the application of radiation and radioisotopes for agriculture in participating countries of Regional Nuclear Cooperation Activities (RNCA) was formulated and agreed. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  1. Current problems of radiation hygiene, radiation protection and radiobiology. Proceedings of the national (jubilee) conference with international participation

    Opopol, N.

    2009-01-01

    The proceedings content 28 articles in fields of radiological protection, radioactive pollution, preventive medicine, public health protection. The history of creation, development and activity of the national radiation protection service is described.

  2. Biological basis of chemo-radiation

    Mornex, F.; Van Houtte, P.; Cosset, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been for years treatment of choice of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer. Improvement due to the combination of radiation and chemotherapy has been shown recently through several randomized trials and a recent meta-analysis. These results may be explained by biological mechanisms, yet un-completely explored, which are detailed in this review and applied to lung cancer. The optimal combination scheme is not yet defined, even trough the concurrent approach is promising, at the expense of an increased toxicity which is the limiting factor of treatment escalation doses. Biological findings and future results of randomized trials will hopefully open new avenues in the therapeutic strategy of this poor prognosis disease. (authors)

  3. Biological evidence of low ionizing radiation doses

    Mirsch, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Throughout life, every person is constantly exposed to different types of ionising radiation, without even noticing the exposure. The mean radiation exposure for people living in Germany amounts to approximately 4 mSv per year and encompasses the exposure from natural and man-made sources. The risks associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are still the subject of intense and highly controversial discussions, emphasizing the social relevance of studies investigating the effects of low radiation doses. In this thesis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed within three projects covering different aspects. DSBs are among the most hazardous DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation, because this type of damage can easily lead to the loss of genetic information. Consequently, the DSB presents a high risk for the genetic integrity of the cell. In the first project, extensive results uncovered the track structure of charged particles in a biological model tissue. This provided the first biological data that could be used for comparison with data that were measured or predicted using theoretical physical dosimetry methods and mathematical simulations. Charged particles contribute significantly to the natural radiation exposure and are used increasingly in cancer radiotherapy because they are more efficient in tumor cell killing than X- or γ-rays. The difference in the biological effects of high energy charged particles compared with X- or γ-rays is largely determined by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition and the track structure inducing a three-dimensional damage pattern in living cells. This damage pattern consists of cells directly hit by the particle receiving a high dose and neighboring cells not directly hit by primary particles but exposed to far-reaching secondary electrons (δ-electrons). These cells receive a much lower dose deposition in the order of a few mGy. The radial dose distribution of single particle tracks was

  4. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  5. Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    André P. Schuch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.

  6. Proceedings of the European medical and biological engineering conference EMBEC '99 (Part I)

    Rehak, P.; Hutten, H.

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings books of the EMBEC '99 - European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference - are published in two parts as supplement 2 to the volume 37 of 'Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing', the official journal of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. More then 800 papers have been arranged in the order of the main topics and the topics of the special sessions of the conference. The paper of INIS relevance were worked up for INIS data bank. (author)

  7. The molecular theory of radiation biology

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    In this book we have tried to gather, in a logical sequence, the thoughts and reasoning which have led us from the raw and primitive beginning to the broader, more generally applicable, model. In doing this, it has been necessary to cover a wide range of topics in both cellular biology and radiation physics, and we apologize now to the reader who finds that we have gone into too much detail in one area and made too rough an approximation in the other. We have written what we feel is essential for the physicist to follow the influence exerted on the model by the biology, and for the biologist to follow the mathematical definition of the biological effect. (orig./VJ)

  8. Proceedings of the Second All African IRPA Regional Radiation Protection Congress

    2008-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the radiation protection conference. the conference consistes of Radiation Protection Infrastructure and training; the Environmental; Occupational; Medical; Transport and Waste Safety; Emergency and Security; Non Ionizing Radiation and Miscellaneous. This conference consistes of 310p., figs., tabs., refrs

  9. Proceedings of the 13th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2014 Tokushima

    2014-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 3rd through 5th of 2014. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are education on radiation, radiation measurement, risk communication, dose level evaluation, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection, decontamination, management of radiation emission equipment and its effective use. (J.P.N)

  10. Proceedings of the 10. national radiation protection congress

    Cousins, Claire; Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert; Lochard, Jacques; Vaillant, L.; Masse, Roland; Stricker, Laurent; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Bernier, M.O.; Biau, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Laurier, D.; Guipaud, Olivier; Leuraud, Klervi; Rage, Estelle; Villeneuve, Sara; Clero, Enora; Samson, E.; Scanff, P.; Rannou, A.; Caldeira Ideias, P.; Paradis, H.; Boussetta, B.; Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Carreau Gaschereau, E.; Hartemann, P.; Menechal, P.; Mougniot, S.; Le Coz, E.; Le Goff, Pierre; Abela, G.; Chirent, T.; De Vita, A.; Drouet, F.; Hillaireau, B.; Marcillet, C.; Michoux, X.; Yadani, Fatima; Blanc, Pauline; Canal, E.; Perier, A.; Lahaye, T.; Andresz, Sylvain; Barbey, P.; Gagna, Gerald; Guetat, Ph.; Schneider, Thierry; Vaillant, Ludovic; Cherin, Herve; Roy, Catherine; Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Monnereau, Alain; Lefranc, Agnes; Vacquier, Blandine; Baysson, H.; Etard, C.; Maurice, Jean-Baptiste; Milliat, Fabien; Moan, Gwennael; Petitguillaume, Alice; Roch, Patrice; Marie, Laurent; Dufay, Emilie; Magne, Isabelle; Mathieu, Peggy; Perrin, Anne; Veyret, Bernard; Clauss, Nicolas; Dabli, D.; Guillot, Sebastien; Kamoun, Hager; Mackowiak, Julien; Bensimon, Julie; Bez, Jeremy; Petitfrere, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) celebrated its 50 anniversary at the occasion of the 10. national radiation protection (RP) congress. This document brings together the abstracts of the different talks given at the congress. A - Invited talks: A1 - Forward through the rearview mirror: Reflections on ICRP Past and Future (C. COUSINS); A3 - Origin and evolution of the intervening parties involvement approach in RP (J. LOCHARD); A4 - Knowledge influence and biological uncertainties on RP evolution (R. MASSE); A5 - RP history in nuclear industry: EDF an anticipation example (L. STRICKER); B - Tutorial presentations: B1 - Environment RP: towards its explicit integration in French law? (K. BEAUGELIN-SEILLER, J. GARNIER-LAPLACE); B2 - Scanner exposure in child and radio-induced risk: recent epidemiological results (M.O. BERNIER); B3 - Ionizing radiations professional exposure dose measurement: goals and evolutions (A. BIAU, J.M. BORDY); B4 - Workers RP at dismantling sites (B. BOUSSETTA, L. VAILLANT); B5 - Environment RP (part 2): EDF's methodology and experience feedback (C. BOYER, G. GONTIER, P.Y. HEMIDY); B6 - Revision of SCENIHR's 2009 opinion about the potential health impact of electromagnetic fields, from the 2011 European inaugural meeting to its 2015 publication (P. HARTEMANN); B8 - Advances in low dose epidemiological knowledge (D. LAURIER); B9 - Use of ionizing radiations at the operating theatre: what RP issues? (P. MENECHAL, S. MOUGNIOT); Session 1: RP regulations and standards, RP and society (6 presentations); Session 2: effects of Ionizing radiations on men and ecosystems (6 presentations); Session 3: patients RP (7 presentations); Session 4: Populations and ecosystems RP (4 presentations); Session 5: Occupational RP - Industry (8 presentations); Session 6: non-ionizing radiations (5 presentations); Session 7: Occupational RP - Medical (6 presentations); Session 8: Advances in dosimetry and metrology (4 presentations)

  11. Proceedings of the Seventh Radiation Physics and Protection Conference (RPC-2004)

    2005-04-01

    The Conference of radiation physics and protection was held on 27-30 November, 2004 in Egypt. the specialists discussed radiation physics and protection, fundamental radiation physics and application, Natural and man made radiation sources and radiation measurements, radiation protection and environmental, applied radiation physics, physics in medicine and biology were disscused at the conference. More than 800 papers were presented in the conference

  12. Biological research for the radiation protection

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H 2 O 2 )- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H 2 O 2 , ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H 2 O 2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H 2 O 2 (or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  13. Proceedings of Scientific Meeting on Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology

    Hilmy, Nazly; Ismachin, Moch; Suhadi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Proceedings of Scientific Meeting On Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology has been presented On Nopember 6-7, 2000 this activity that was held by Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technolgy. The Scientific meeting is an information exchange facility among Researcher Industrialist for using isotope Technology in Industry Environment, Health, Agriculture and Farming. The proceedings Consist of 3 articles from keynotes speaker and 54 articles from BATAN participants as well outside. The articles is indexing separately

  14. Radiation biology: a century of hopes and disappointments

    Singh, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    In the history of science, radiation biology will rank perhaps as the most popular subject to have attracted researchers from many disciplines of basic as well as applied sciences. Apart from the excitement arising in clinics relating to radiation treatment of cancers the tragedies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought numerous scientists together to investigate the harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. It is then radiation biology picked up a great momentum. It started developing in two different directions what may be called basic radiation biology and radiation biology applied to radiotherapy of cancer. While great strides were being made in basic radiation biology trying to understand the biological effects of radiation and mechanisms thereof, clinical aspect remained confined mainly to the medical fraternity where empiricalism became the rule

  15. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  16. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the year 2000 we completed our study of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human cells, and their susceptibility to radiation in particular. Examining blood samples from four countries: Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain we found that exposure to pesticides usually resulted in an increased susceptibility to the UV-C radiation, although statistical significance could only be concluded for inhabitants of Poland. In Spain, exposure to pesticides was proved to impair the lymphocyte DNA repair capability, while for the Polish group this repair capability appeared enhanced in people exposed to pesticides (see the research reports below). The possible influence of lifestyle or particular diet on the observed national differences would probably be worth analyzing. We also investigate the biological effectiveness of therapeutic beams (neutrons and X-rays). Experimental part of such study, concerning neutrons of different mean energies, is over and the results are now being processed. Our work covers hot issues of environmental and radiation biology making us research partners to many domestic and foreign scientific institutions. Our proficiency in the field is also reflected by membership in various expert boards (e.g. evaluating research applications for the Fifth EU Framework Programme for RTD and Demonstration Activities in the field 'Environment and Health', lecturing in the 2000 NATO IOS Life Science Books). We have entered the 5 th EU Programme Scheme within the EXPAH project starting January 1, 2001. (author)

  17. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects

    Rames, J.; Bencko, V.

    1993-01-01

    In connexion with contamination of the atmosphere with freons, the interest is increasing in geophysical and health aspects of 'ozone holes' - the seasonal incidence of increased intensity of UV radiation. Its biological effects depend on the intensity of the radiation, the exposure time and the wavelength. There is a wide range of various sorts of damage, local as well as general. In addition to skin pigmentation and symptoms produced by an elevated histamine blood level, also changes are found which may have more serious and permanent consequences: changes in the number and structure of Langerhans islets, changes of the peripheral capillary walls, dimerization of pyrimidine and thymine in DNA. These changes demonstrably contribute to the development of skin malignancies. After exposure of the eye, changes in pigmentation are found, and depending on the dose, possibly also development of conjunctivitis or retinal damage. Recently the interaction of UV radiation with arsenic was investigated. On the other side, therapeutic effects of UV radiation combined with chemotherapy are used in dermatology, eg., for inhibition of contact sensitization. (author) 42 refs

  19. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    NONE

    1978-06-15

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  20. Decontamination of biological ferment by gamma radiation

    Sabundjian, Ingrid T.; Salum, Debora C.; Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Duarte, Renato; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Biological ferment is a product obtained from pure yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture by a suitable technological process and employed to increase the size and porosity of the baker's products. Foods containing high microorganisms count indicate that Good Manufacturing Practices were not applied. The aim of this study was to observe the viability of Dry Biological Ferment after the radiation process using different doses of 60 Co gamma rays and different storage times. Dry baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae samples were purchased from a local supermarket in Sao Paulo (Brazil) and irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell source at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy doses (dose-rate of 3.51 kGy/h) at room temperature (25 deg C). The fluorescent method was performed to observe the viability of yeast cells. The viability decrease with the increase of the radiation dose, as shown: the amount of the viable cell found in the non-irradiated samples (control) at 0 day was 87.2%; 30 days 67.7%; 60 days 77.4% and 90 days 60.1%. With 1.0 kGy at 0 day was 61.4%; 30 days 22.7%; 60 days 56.9% and 90 days 24.2%. With 3.0 kGy at 0 day was 57.00%; at the next periods the most of the cells become not viable. (author)

  1. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    Kotzerke, J.; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.; Oehme, L.; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  2. Proceeding of The Third International on Radiation Sciences and Applications

    2012-11-01

    The proceeding contains of 920 pages, the available of 62 contributions: and covering of conference topics: Plenary, Invited, Keynote Talks. Insects, Chemical preparation, Separation Processes, Radioactive materials, contaminations, Radioactive wastes and Medicine

  3. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text:The year 1999 we devoted mainly to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of three research projects. The environmental project from the European Community was supporting our research in the issues of human monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides. The two other radiobiology projects from the State Committee of Research were supporting our search on the biological efficiency and its enhancement of radio-therapeutic sources of various LET radiation. We succeeded fruitful co-operation with colleagues from Academy of Mining and Metallurgy that let us go faster with modernization of our laboratory by automation of our methods for screening cytogenetic damages. A lot of efforts were paid to modify our work by automatic reports of the coordinates of aberrant metaphases, and to make a smooth work of our new and own metaphase finder. We are sure that our new and unique research tool will not only enhance the accuracy and speed of measurements, but will also be useful for the purpose of the retrospective biological dosimetry of absorbed doses. We have applied fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic studies of biological effects induced by neutrons. Now, we are looking forward to apply this technique in a combination with the DNA damage measures done by SCGE assay, to our research on mechanisms of the induction and repair, or interaction of the lesions induced by genotoxic agents. Understanding of the regulation of these processes could be a good goal for the new century to come. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Azarko, I.I.; Prikhod'ko, Zh.L.

    2001-10-01

    The 132 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the fourth forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Processes of ion interaction with solids', 'Plasma interaction with surface' and 'Radiation effects in solids'

  5. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Krajcar Bronic, I; Kopjar, N; Milic, M; Branica, G

    2011-07-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  6. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Kopjar, N.; Milic, M.; Branica, G.

    2011-01-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  7. Ionizing radiation induced biological response and its public health implication

    Koeteles, Gy.

    1994-01-01

    Several sources of ionizing radiation exist in natural and artificial environment of humanity. An overview of their biological effects and the biological response of man is present. Emphasize is given to the differences caused by high and low doses. The interrelation of radiology, radiation hygiene and public health is pointed out. Especially, the physical and biological effects of radiation on cells and their responses are discussed in more detail. (R.P.)

  8. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  9. Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2010 Hiroshima

    2010-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 1st through 3rd of 2010. The sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, shielding design, radioactive waste handling and its effective use, radiation measurement, safety control of radiation source, radioactive waste management (aerosol, liquid), education on radiation, molecular imaging, image analysis, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection. (J.P.N)

  10. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  11. Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection

    Bohunice NPP

    2001-11-01

    Already the 24 th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

  12. XXXIII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of Abstracts; XXXIII. Dni radiacnej ochrany. Zbornik abstraktov

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 120 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

  13. Applications of synchrotron radiation in biology and medicine

    Khole, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the important role of synchrotron radiation in dealing with problems in various branches of biology and medicine, viz. molecular biology, molecular biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, X-ray microscopy, molecular surgery, medical diagnostics (angiography, X-ray radiography, forensic medicine, element analysis), environmental biology, pollution control and photobiology. (author). 15 refs., 9 figs

  14. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on neutron dosimetry. Radiation protection aspects

    Schraube, H.; Burger, G.; Booz, J.

    1985-01-01

    Proceedings of the fifth symposium on neutron dosimetry, organized at Neuherberg, 17-21 September 1984, by the Commission of the European Communities and the GSF Neuherberg, with the co-sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research. The proceedings deal with research on concepts, instruments and methods in radiological protection for neutrons and mixed neutron-gamma fields, including the generation, collection and evaluation of new dosimetric data, the derivation of relevant radiation protection quantities, and the harmonization of experimental methods and instrumentation by intercomparison programmes. Besides radiation protection monitoring, the proceedings also report on the improvement of neutron beam dosimetry in the fields of radiobiology and radiation therapy

  15. Activities in biological radiation research at the AGF

    1984-01-01

    The AGF is working on a wide spectrum of biological radiation research, with the different scientific disciplines contributing different methodologies to long-term research projects. The following fields are studied: 1. Molecular and cellular modes of action of radiation. 2. Detection and characterisation of biological radiation damage, especially in humans. 3. Medical applications of radiation effects. 4. Concepts and methods of radiation protection. The studies will lead to suggestions for radiation protection and improved radiotherapy. They may also contribute to the development of environmental protection strategies. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Proceedings of the Third international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'. Part 2

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Popok, V.N.; Prikhod'ko, Zh.L.

    1999-10-01

    The 128 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the third forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the second part of the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Properties modification of materials ' and 'Equipment and technologies'

  17. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  18. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  19. Proceedings of the neutrons in biology conference, Santa Fe, NM, October 1994

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Neutrons in Biology Conference held in Sante Fe, New Mexico October 1994. The volume is composed of full papers authored by the presenters at the conference. The sessions by which the presentations were organized are entitled Neutron Anatomy, Neutron Sources, Neutron Instrumentation, Small Angle Scattering, Membrane Structures and Dynamics, Protein Structures, Fiber Diffraction, and New Analysis and Experimental Techniques. Each paper has been separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  20. Proceedings of the neutrons in biology conference, Santa Fe, NM, October 1994

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Neutrons in Biology Conference held in Sante Fe, New Mexico October 1994. The volume is composed of full papers authored by the presenters at the conference. The sessions by which the presentations were organized are entitled Neutron Anatomy, Neutron Sources, Neutron Instrumentation, Small Angle Scattering, Membrane Structures and Dynamics, Protein Structures, Fiber Diffraction, and New Analysis and Experimental Techniques. Each paper has been separately indexed and abstracted for the database

  1. Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation. In relation to radiation chemistry as an initial process

    Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1995-01-01

    Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation have been investigated, focusing on the mechanism of the formation of molecular damage. This paper introduces recent outcome of these studies. First, the process from imparted energy to the formation of molecular damage is outlined. The previous studies can be largely categorized as dealing with (1) biological effects of inner-shell ionization on elements composing the living body and (2) X-ray energy dependence of biological effects. Bromine and phosphorus are used as elements for the study of inner-cell ionization. In the study on lethal effects of monochromatic soft X-rays on the BrdUMP-incorporated yeast cells, Auger enhancement was found to occur. The first report on the effects of K-shell absorption of cellular phosphorus atoms has revealed that biological effects on cellular lethality and genetic changes was enhanced by 40%. Plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide have been used to study biological effects of vacuum ultraviolet rays to monochromatic soft X-ray, which makes it possible to study strand breaks. Because experimental production of energy required for the formation of double strand breaks has become possible, synchrotron radiation plays a very important role in radiation biological studies. Finally, future issues are presented. (N.K.)

  2. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of 8. International conference

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Azarko, I.I.; Dorozhkina, O.L.

    2009-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 8 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' and covering the following topics: the processes of interaction of radiation with solids and radiation effects in solids, the interaction of plasma with the surface modification of materials properties, formation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties.

  3. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of 11. International conference

    Anishchik, V.M.

    2015-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 11 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (23-25 September 2015) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation and plasma with solids, radiation effects in solids, ray methods of formation of nanomaterials and nanostructures, modification of material properties, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties. (authors)

  4. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of 9. International conference

    Anishchik, V.M.; Uglov, V.V.; Baran, L.V.; Azarko, I.I.

    2011-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 9 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (20-22 September 2011) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects in solids, interaction of plasma with the surface, modification of material properties, formation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties.

  5. The progress of molecular biology in radiation research

    Wei Kang

    1989-01-01

    The recent progress in application of molecular biology techniques in the study of radiation biology is reviewed. The three sections are as follows: (1) the study of DNA damage on molecular level, (2) the molecular mechanism of radiation cell genetics, including chromosome abberation and cell mutation, (3) the study on DNA repair gene with DNA mediated gene transfer techniques

  6. Proceedings

    1989-01-01

    This course reviewed the adverse effects of ionizing radiation on man, the development of radiation protection criteria and standards, the administrative structure required for radiation protection and the consequences of some major radiation accidents. Overviews were given of the technical requirements for occupational radiation protection and for controlling the impacts from uses of radionuclides. Presentations were made on regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and on international resources and agreements for radiation protection. Examples of the development of codes and guidelines for specific purposes were also given. Refs., figs., tabs

  7. Proceedings of 9th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Knezevic, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Majer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 9th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and instrumentation and measuring techniques. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  8. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Barisic, D; Grahek, Z; Krajcar Bronic, I; Miljanic, S

    2008-07-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  9. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Barisic, D.; Grahek, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.

    2008-01-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide

  10. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  11. Proceedings of the fourth workshop on radiative capture 1990, October 19--21, 1990

    Wender, S.A.; Gossett, C.; Feldman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Fourth Workshop on Radiative Capture was held at the Berkeley Conference Center, Berkeley, CA, on October 19--21, 1990. This two-day workshop, which had seventeen presentations, addressed current theoretical and experimental issues in the field of nucleon capture and other nuclear radiative processes. The scientific program was divided into three sessions: (1) radiative capture at low energies; (2) few-nucleon systems and capture at intermediate energies; and (3) nucleon capture and other radiative processes. This proceedings of the conference contains the abstracts of the presented talks and the transparencies used by the speakers. Summary papers of the talks are also included when they were supplied by the speaker

  12. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author)

  13. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  14. Proceedings of the 12th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2013 Hokkaido

    2013-11-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from November 27th through 29th of 2013. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are risk communication and dose level evaluation, radiation measurement, radioactivity in environment, radioactive cesium kinetics in environment, radioactive material management, environmental contamination and its measures, education on radiation. (J.P.N)

  15. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The year 2001 started for us with new demanding tasks connected with participation in a new research project performed in collaboration with a excellent teams from six countries under the 5 th EU the Quality of Life Programme. The aim of the project EXPAH is to propose methods of molecular epidemiology for the risk assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the air. The exploration of cause-effect relationships for carcinogenic agents will be based on the study of exogenous and endogenous influence on DNA damage in exposed population, and will determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility in the exposed populations. Analysis of this damage is carried out using highly specialising multidisciplinary techniques brought together by seven laboratories specialised in chemical, biochemical and biological techniques for analysing DNA damage and repair, together with access to populations exposed to environmental pollution and experience in collecting samples. In the year 2001 all the members of the department put much effort in co-organizing 12. Meeting of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. The Meeting was held in the September in Cracow and rewarded hard work of everybody with many applauding comments for the high scientific and organization level. Our parallel activities were concentrated on arrangement and preparation of the forthcoming Course on Human Monitoring for Genetic Effects proposed to us by the Alexander Hollaender Committee of the International Environmental Mutagenesis Society. The Alexander Hollaender ''HUMOGEF'' Course will concentrate on the commonly measured biomarkers (chromosome aberrations; micronuclei; DNA damage), but others (p53 protein levels; metabolic genotypes) will also be addressed. Scientists of international standing from the fields of toxicology, molecular biology, cytogenetics, mutation, and epidemiology, will present and discuss the state

  16. Emerging applications of radiation processing. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 160 gamma irradiators and 1200 electron accelerator based processing units are in operation worldwide. In recent years the IAEA has prepared a directory of industrial gamma irradiators and held several meetings on developments in radiation technology applications. Developments involving the engineering of new sources (both isotope and electrical), high power accelerator applications, etc. have been reported recently, making a review and evaluation of this progress timely. Therefore the IAEA organized a technical meeting in Vienna, Austria, from 28 to 30 April 2003 to review the present situation and the potential contribution of radiation technology to sustainable development. Engineering developments and other features of radiation sources, both isotope and accelerator, were discussed. Recent research has concentrated on three fields: medical and food products, polymers, and environmental pollution control. The stability of radiation sterilized medical implants, as well as the uses of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials, radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications have been studied. Since separation and enrichment technologies play an important role in product recovery and pollution control, the possibility of radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and adsorbents is being investigated. Finally, aside from the technologies for flue gas and wastewater treatment already in use, further research is ongoing on the treatment of organic contaminants in both gaseous and liquid phases. Environmental applications, which also offer new opportunities, should be carefully reviewed to reflect existing regulations and current knowledge. The increasingly serious problem of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions may be solved in part by the application of radiation technology. This is being studied on a pilot scale for the removal of

  17. Emerging applications of radiation processing. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 160 gamma irradiators and 1200 electron accelerator based processing units are in operation worldwide. In recent years the IAEA has prepared a directory of industrial gamma irradiators and held several meetings on developments in radiation technology applications. Developments involving the engineering of new sources (both isotope and electrical), high power accelerator applications, etc. have been reported recently, making a review and evaluation of this progress timely. Therefore the IAEA organized a technical meeting in Vienna, Austria, from 28 to 30 April 2003 to review the present situation and the potential contribution of radiation technology to sustainable development. Engineering developments and other features of radiation sources, both isotope and accelerator, were discussed. Recent research has concentrated on three fields: medical and food products, polymers, and environmental pollution control. The stability of radiation sterilized medical implants, as well as the uses of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials, radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications have been studied. Since separation and enrichment technologies play an important role in product recovery and pollution control, the possibility of radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and adsorbents is being investigated. Finally, aside from the technologies for flue gas and wastewater treatment already in use, further research is ongoing on the treatment of organic contaminants in both gaseous and liquid phases. Environmental applications, which also offer new opportunities, should be carefully reviewed to reflect existing regulations and current knowledge. The increasingly serious problem of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions may be solved in part by the application of radiation technology. This is being studied on a pilot scale for the removal of

  18. Proceedings of the recent developments in radiation dosimetry

    Bhat, Nagesh; Palani Selvan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst 'Dosimetry' in its original sense deals with methods for a quantitative determination of energy deposited in a given medium by directly or indirectly ionizing radiations, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. Dosimetry is used extensively for radiation protection and is routinely applied to ensure radiological safety of occupational radiation workers. Internal dosimetry due to the ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials relies on a variety of physiological or imaging techniques. External dosimetry, due to irradiation from an external source is based on measurements with a dosimeter, or inferred from other radiological protection instruments. Radiation dosimetry is one of the important research areas of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). This research work is centered on the facilities such as nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants, high energy accelerators (research/industry/medical), radiation standards, food processing, radiation technology development, etc. In each of these facilities, radiation field environment is different and the associated dosimetry concepts are different. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Proceedings of 11th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Radolic, V.; Poje Sovilj, M.; Krajcar Bronic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The 11th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: ethics and culture in radiation protection; general topics; radiation protection and dosimetry in medicine; biological effects of radiation; instrumentation and measuring techniques; radioecology; public exposure; radon; non-ionising radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  20. Proceedings of the Final Conference on Scientific-Technological Cooperation in the Field of Radiation Protection between the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR from 1976 - 1978, held at Vladimir 28 August - 1 September, 1978

    1979-01-01

    The present proceedings comprise 47 papers concerning different aspects of radiation protection and related problems. The effects of various radionuclides on the human and animal metabolism and their kinetics are investigated. Biological radiation effects are discussed especially as to problems of occupational medicine and such of X-ray diagnosis and radiotherapy

  1. A Paradigm Shift in Low Dose Radiation Biology

    Z. Alatas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of

  2. Proceedings of a Workshop on Genetic Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    TerMarsch, D.J.; Gentner, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    Nine papers were presented at this workshop held to mark the retirement of Dr. D.K. Myers. The papers reviewed recent literature on the heritable effects of ionizing radiation and identified areas of uncertainty. (L.L.)

  3. CAS CERN Accelerator School. Synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Proceedings

    Turner, S.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the tenth specialised course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers'. A similar course was already given at Chester, UK in 1989 and whose proceedings were published as CERN 90-03. However, recent progress in this field has been so rapid that it became urgent to present a revised version of the course. Starting with a review of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation there follows introductory lectures on electron dynamics in storage rings, beam insertion devices, and beam current and radiation brightness limits. These themes are then developed with more detailed lectures on lattices and emittance, wigglers and undulators, current limitations, beam lifetime and quality, diagnostics and beam stability. Finally lectures are presented on linac and storage ring free-electron lasers. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of 6th International Microbeam Workshop/12th L.H. Gray Workshop Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    Prise, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology

  5. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    NONE

    1962-02-15

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 - 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended by

  6. Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Detection and Use of Tritium in the Physical and Biological Sciences

    1962-01-01

    The use of tritium for research in physics, chemistry, biology and hydrology has in recent years become increasingly important. It was for this reason that the first international conference to discuss the progress of new developments was organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity and held from 3 — 10 May 1961, in Vienna. The first five sessions of the Symposium were devoted to the use of tritium in hydrology, physics and chemistry. Special emphasis was laid on the role of tritium as a tracer in hydrology, especially in the study of water movement. The establishment and improvement of counting and detection techniques to facilitate the application of tritium as a tracer was another aspect discussed in this part of the proceedings. Papers were read on the preparation of tritiated compounds and it was generally agreed that further clarification of the mechanism of various techniques, and of the Wilzbach gas exposure technique in particular, would lead to further developments in the synthesis of a number of tritium compounds important in biology. Other papers were concerned with tritium applications to studies of the mechanism of some chemical reactions together with the effects of tritium isotopes. During the second part of the Symposium the biological applications of tritium and tritiated compounds were discussed. These included general problems connected with the biological uses of tritium and the radiation effects of tritium on living organisms such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The value of tritium in biological studies became apparent because of the ease with which a large number of metabolically active compounds such as hormones, vitamins and other important constituents in the body can be labelled with tritium. Tritium is also a weak beta-emitter and autoradiographs of tissues and single cells containing tritium-labelled compounds allow an excellent localization of the tracer. The Symposium was attended

  7. The use of nuclear reactor in radiation biology

    Ujeno, Yowri

    1991-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is widely used not only in biology, but also in applied biology, today. These studies were surveyed in the present paper and the future possibility to use KUR in radiation biology was discussed. The researches on the effects of thermal neutrons on various normal tissues, the biological effects of neutrons except thermal neutrons, especially intermediate neutrons between thermal and high speed neutrons or cold neutrons, the adaptive response of cells to thermal neutron radiation, the application of nuclear reactor-produced radionuclides including 195m Pt to biology, and the mutation in botanical science and so on, should be continued using nuclear reactor. The necessity of nuclear reactor in biology and applied biology is emphasized. (author)

  8. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    Hrynkiewicz, A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the monograph is to review practical aspects of dosimetry. The work describes basic units which are used in dosimetry and natural as well as industrial sources of ionizing radiation. Information given in the monograph help in assessment of the radiation risk. 8 refs, 15 tabs

  9. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Ingersoll, J.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone?, a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory

  10. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  11. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  12. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 19. Proceedings; Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie. Bd. 19. Proceedings

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H Peter; Zips, Daniel [eds.

    2010-12-18

    The proceedings include review contributions on radio-oncology, and new radiation technologies and molecular prediction; and poster sessions on the following topics: hypoxia; molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; molecular targeting; DNA repair; biological imaging; biology of experimental radiations; normal tissue toxicity; modern radiotherapy; tumor hypoxia and metabolic micro milieu; immune system and radiotherapy.

  13. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    1994-01-01

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  14. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  15. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Marko, A.M.

    1980-05-01

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  16. Role of cytogenetic techniques in biological dosimetry of absorbed radiation

    Rao, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In most of the radiation accidents, physical dosimetric information is rarely available. Further, most of the accidental exposures are non-uniform involving either partial body or localized exposure to significant doses. In such situations, physical dosimetry does not provide reliable dose estimate. It has now been realized that biological dosimetric techniques can play an important role in the assessment of absorbed dose. In recent years, a number of biological indicators of radiation have been identified. These include the kinetics of onset and persistence of prodromal syndromes (radiation sickness), cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes, hematological changes, biochemical indicators, ESR spectroscopy of biological samples, induction of gene mutations in red blood cells, cytogenetic and physiological changes in skin and neurophysiological changes. In general, dosimetric information is derived by a combination of several different methods, as they have potential to serve as prognostic indicators. The role of cytogenetic techniques in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as biological indicators of absorbed radiation is reviewed here

  17. Proceedings of the symposium on 'radiation research in life science'

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1993-06-01

    This report is the collection of the papers presented at the title symposium on radiation research in life science. The themes included in this report are as follows: (1) cellular aging process, (2) senescence gene and cellular immortalization, (3) molecular mechanism of replicative senescence, (4) programmed cell death during differentiation, (5) thymocyte apoptosis, (6) neuronal death, (7) apoptosis by HIV infection, (8) apoptosis and immunology, (9) radiation induced apoptosis, and so on. Separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this report. The remaining 10 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  18. Proceedings

    1974-01-01

    These 1974 Proceedings of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture contain reports in the form of minutes of the meetings of various working groups of the Society, the programme and official addresses of the fifth annual meeting including annual reports of the chairman and the secretary of the Society, and the reports of each of the eleven working groups as well as the four following surveys entitled: 1) some aspects of research in plant breeding, conservation of genetic resources in connection with irradiation processes (by A. Jacques from FAO), 2) our responsibility for the environment (by D. Zeeuw from ITAL), 3) pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge (by A. Suesz from Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau, Munich), 4) nuclear agronomy in France (by P. Guerin de Montgareuil from CEN, Cadarache). Summaries and provisional papers on presented topics will be published in ''ESNA Newsletter''

  19. Proceedings:

    Sidhu, S.S. (comp.)

    1987-12-01

    With increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of accelerators and storage rings, there is a wide interest in modeling-based control. The organizers recognized the need to have an overview and discussion on the current status of modeling-based accelerator control and how advances in computer technology, software engineering, and expert systems can impact control and diagnosis. As a result, a workshop was organized at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on August 17-18, 1987. It was made possible by the joint support of the AGS, NSLS and Applied Mathematics Departments of BNL. The talks and discussions were divided into three main topics: elements of modeling, knowledge representation, and integration of modeling-based control systems with AI and workstations. This volume is the unedited collection of papers, presented at the Workshop. Separate abstracts were prepared for 10 papers in these proceedings.

  20. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    Tarachand, U.; Singh, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented

  1. Current research in Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division

    Tarachand, U; Singh, B B [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Div.

    1996-12-31

    The Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay has been engaged in research in the frontier areas of (i) radiation biology related to tumour therapy and injury caused by free radicals; (ii) molecular basis of diseases of physiological origin; (iii) molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis and (iv) structure of genome and genome related functions. The gist of research and development activities carried out in the Division during the last two years are documented.

  2. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  3. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  4. Proceedings of international symposium on radiation education (ISRE 98)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The International Symposium on Radiation Education, which commemorates the centenary of the discovery of radium by the Curies, was held on December 11-14, 1998 in Kanagawa, Japan. At present, radiation and radioactivity are not indispensable in medical diagnosis and treatment, but also are widely used in scientific research and industrial activities. Nuclear power generation is also playing an important role in saving nonrenewable natural energy resources, and without producing the potentially hazardous carbon dioxide. However, a majority of people has a insufficient knowledge or information about radiation and radioactivity. The symposium intended to generalize the scientific knowledge about radiation and radioactivity and also about various aspects of risks associated with the life in the civilized society, by discussing how to improve education in general and young generations at schools in particular, and by exchanging the newest scientific information relevant to the education. The symposium consisted of 5 sessions with 61 submitted papers, and involved about 170 participants from Australia, Bangladesh, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Korea, Philippine, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, UK and USA. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations

  6. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings

    2011-12-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  7. Proceedings: Radiation Protection Technology Conference: Providence, RI, November 2001

    2002-01-01

    Health physics (HP) professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their respective programs with new methods and technologies. The move to shorter outages combined with a diminishing group of contract HP technicians and demanding emergent work makes such changes even more important. The EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference focused on a number of key health physics issues and developments

  8. Cells, targets, and molecules in radiation biology

    Elkind, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cellular damage and repair are discussed with regard to inactivation models, dose-effect curves and cancer research, repair relative to damage accumulation, potentially lethal damage, repair of potentially lethal vs. sublethal damage, cell killing and DNA damage due to nonionizing radiation, and anisotonicity vs. lethality due to nonionizing radiation. Other topics discussed are DNA damage and repair in cells exposed to ionizing radiation, kinetics of repair of single-strand DNA breaks, effects of actinomycin D on x-ray survival curve of hamster cells, misrepair and lethality, and perspective and prospects

  9. 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences. Proceedings

    2010-09-01

    This 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences was the occasion for nuclear professionals to share their experience and to present the tools and techniques implemented in dismantling operations in the respect of radiation protection rules. This document brings together the abstracts and the available presentations given at this forum: 1 - Dismantling organisation and management - regulations: dismantling environment (A. Gay, Areva NC); Dismantling at the CEA (Ph. Guiberteau, DEN-Saclay); Optimisation of future dismantlement at the design and operation stage of facilities (P. Poncet, Areva); Action of the labour Ministry for workers radiation protection (T. Lahaye, DGT); 2 - Dismantling experience feedbacks 1: Radiation protection and dismantlement at Marcoule (J. Chardin, Areva NC); INB 106 dismantling (N. Pauwels, UDIL); Dismantling wastes management and valorisation of ALS and Saturne accelerators at Saclay (C. Salmon, CEA-Saclay); Chooz power plant deconstruction (L. Bardou, EDF); 3-4 - Dismantling projects: Phenix power plant dismantling (C. Beretti, CEA-Marcoule); Radiological characterization impact on the DGB project (H.C. Turbatte, F. Lemperiere, DGB Eurodif); Contribution of scientific calculations to reactor dismantling studies (A. Van Lauwe, CEA-Saclay); Acceptance committee of radiological cleansing companies (S. Faure, DPSN); Externalizing of the radiation protection skilled person (J.P. Piferrer, ATSR); International network of radiation protection professionals (G. Abela, EDF); 5 - Dismantling experience feedback 2: gloveboxes dismounting at La Hague plant (R. Choquet, P. Mougnard, Areva NC); Nuclear submarines dismantling in Russia (C. Deregel, Topp-Decide); Radioactive waste management of CERN accelerators (Y. Algoet, CERN); Nuclear facilities decommissioning (M. Berton, CEA, B. Marc, DRIM Sogeris); Asbestos removal in radiological environment (R. Blanc, Areva NC); 6-7-8 - Tools and methods: Aspilaser, decontamination by laser ablation (F

  10. 8. national congress of radiation protection 'SFRP 2011' - Proceedings

    Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Perrin, A.; Magne, I.; Bedja, M.; Fleury, G.; Le Brusquet, L.; Barbe, R.; Lahaye, T.; Laurier, D.; Tomasek, L.; Tirmarche, M.; Guseva Canu, I.; Garsi, J.P.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Jacob, S.; Acker, A.; Fernandez, F.; Bertho, J.M.; Synhaeve, N.; Stefani, J.; Desbree, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Dublineau, I.; Petitot, F.; Lestaevel, P.; Tourlonias, E.; Mazzucco, C.; Jacquinot, S.; Dhieux, B.; Delissen, O.; Tournier, B.; Gensdarmes, F.; Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C.; Voytchev, M.; Doursout, T.; Chapalain, E.; Dandrieux, G.; Cazala, C.; Gay, D.; Chabanis, O.; Palut-Laurent, O.; Ringeard, C.; Thomassin, A.; Roxin, A.M.; Gschwind, R.; Makovicka, L.; Roxin, I.; Henriet, J.; Martin, E.; Klopfenstein, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Guillaumont, R.; Marignac, Y.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Devin, P.; Sene, M.; Barbey, P.; Reaud, C.; Schneider, T.; Achikian, S.; Le Clerc, A.; Rochereau, S.; Schneider, C.; Vigneron, H.; Charron, S.; Delattre, A.; Luccioni, C.; Monti, P.; Bernaud, J.Y.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denoziere, M.; Gualdrini, G.; Mariotti, F.; Barre, A.; Beauval, A.; Davi, J.N.; Dupic, S.; Grincourt, D.; Kandil, A.; Marteel, C.; Vrammout, D.; Saintamon, F.; Aberkane, J.; Paquet, F.; Barbey, P.; Bardies, M.; Biau, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Chetioui, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Pasquier, J.L.; Broggio, D.; Beurrier, J.; Farah, J.; Franck, D.; Sauget, M.; Bertrand, A.; Boveda, S.; Bar, O.; Brezin, A.; Maccia, C.; Bernier, M.O.; Struelens, L.; Carinou, E.; Dominiek, J.; Brodecki, M.; Donadille, L.; Ferrari, P.; Koukorava, C.; Krim, S.; Nikodemova, D.; Ruiz-Lopez, N.; Sans Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Clairand, I.; Bordy, J.M.; Debroas, J.; Ginjaume, M.; Itie, C.; Krim, S.; Lebacq, A.L.; Martin, P.; Struelens, L.; Sans-Merce, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Gauron, C.; Wild, P.; Grzebyk, M.; Derock, C.; Champion, K.; Cohen, P.; Menez, C.; Tellart, A.S.; Thiel, H.; Pennarola, R.; Choudat, D.; Dillenseger, P.; Rehel, J.L.; Aubert, B.; Gagna, G.; Amabile, J.C.; Laroche, P.; Grandcoing, A.; Roch, P.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.; Franck, D.; Roy, C.; Doucet, J.; Jancon, G.; Pelletier, B.; Marchal, C.; Megnigbeto, C.; Franchi, C.; Cillard, P.; Etard, C.; Sinno-Tellier, S.; Guersen, J.; Chabrot, P.; Cassagnes, L.; Gabrillargues, J.; Boyer, L.; Kien, N.; Schieber, C.; Almen, A.; Magne, S.; Spasic, E.; Ngo, C.; Bordy, J.M.; Carlan, L. de; Bridier, A.; Ginestet, C.; Malet, C.; Ferdinand, P.; Courdi, A.; Rucka, G.; Bondiau, P.Y.; Cazoulat, A.; Bohand, S.; Schoen, V.; Bey, E.; Roche, H.; Quesne, B.; Monier, C.; Leonard, J.G.; Cordier, G.; Gurriaran, R.; De Vismes, A.; Picolo, J.L.; Elbast, M.; Saudo, A.; Holler, V.; Blanchin, N.

    2011-06-01

    This document brings together the available presentations (slides) given at the 8. national congress of the French society of radiation protection SFRP and dealing with: 1 - Electro-hypersensitivity syndrome as seen by French physicians; 2 - French population exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field: main findings from EXPERS study; 3 - Regulation relative to workers protection against artificial optical radiation risks; 4 - Radon-related full-life risk; 5 - Risk of Cardiovascular disease mortality in a cohort of French uranium conversion workers potentially exposed to low uranium doses via inhalation; 6 - Epidemiological study in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Spain; 7 - Comparison of absorbed doses after contamination by chronic ingestion of 137 Cs or 90 Sr; 8 - Uranium nano-particulates biokinetics after inhalation; 9 - Evolution of radiation protection basic standards at the European scale; 10 - Present day situation of radiation protection applied to instrumentation standardisation in CEI's and CENELEC's international bodies; 11 - Revision of the guidebook about the management of potentially contaminated sites: new approach elements; 12 - Distance training platform for medical radiation protection; 13 - Stakeholders involvement in uranium mining sites management: the GEP-Limousin experience; 14 - Radiation protection workshops: experience of the Notre Dame high school of Boulogne-Billancourt; 15 - Implementation of a citizen workshop about radon in private housing; 16 - Thoron influence on radon measurement in air - the case of a ionization chamber; 17 - Application of the equivalent dose concept for the lens of the eye; 18 - The radiation protection supervisory position - experience feedback from 3 partial visits at the Gravelines NPP; 19 - Evaluation and management of risks linked with the exposure to Auger and beta emitting radionuclides; 20 - Development of an extended man's phantom library: method and results; 21 - Use of computer-learning techniques in

  11. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  12. Proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2006 Nagoya

    2006-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 29th through December 1st of 2006. The sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement 1, (2) Education Method, (3) Radiation Control, (4) Waste Handling, Contamination Inspection, and Renewal, (5) Exposure Reduction, Radiation Evaluation, and Radioactivity Control (6) Radiation Measurement 2, (7) Operation Environment, (8) Medical Exposure, (9) Radiation Measurement 3, (10) Software, IT Technology, and Data Processing, (11) Emission and Drainage Handling, and (12) Radiation Effect and Contamination Countermeasure. The poster sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement, (2) Environmental Radiation, (3) Scattering Rate, Penetration Rate, and Contamination Inspection, (4) Education Method, (5) Medical Exposure, (6) Access Control and Software, and (7) Radiation Control Method and Monitoring. The symposia held are: (1) 'Toward Establishment of Guideline for Safe X-ray Handling Education' and 'International Situation of Radiation Safety'. 2 keynote lectures were also held. (S.K.)

  13. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  14. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1960-12-08

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation.

  15. A new radiation biology: epigenetics, exosomes and metabolism

    Atkinson, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to chronic disease, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive deficits and possibly metabolic diseases. The prevailing paradigm of radiation biology considers DNA damage to be the initiating event. Misrepair of initial DNA damage leads to gene mutations that promote clonal expansion and eventually malignancy. However, the paradigm is inconsistent with some recent radiobiological observations

  16. Early mechanisms in radiation-induced biological damage

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    An introduction to the mechanisms of radiation action in biological systems is presented. Several questions about the nature of the radiation damage process are discussed, including recognition of the oxygen effects, dose-response relationships, and the importance of the hydroxyl radical

  17. Biophysical interpretation on the biological actions of radiations

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1960-01-01

    It is known that nuclear radiations such as alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays and neutron, proton and other heavy ion beams have many different actions on living cells; as killing, delaying growth, abnormal cell divisions and various genetical mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This document describes the mechanisms and kinetics of biological effects of ionizing radiation

  18. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  19. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  20. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  1. Radiation protection monitoring. Proceedings of a regional seminar for Asia and the Far East on radiation protection monitoring

    1969-01-01

    Proceedings of a regional seminar for Asia and the Far East jointly organized by the IAEA and the World Health Organization, and held in Bombay, 9-13 December 1968. The meeting was attended by 83 participants from 12 countries In the region, and by eight experts from countries outside the region who presented review papers. Contents: Purpose of radiation protection monitoring (4 papers); Radiation monitoring and dosimetry (7 papers); Monitoring of the working environment (12 papers); Individual monitoring (14 papers); Monitoring instruments (7 papers); Calibration and maintenance of instruments (3 papers); List of participants; Author index. All papers, which are preceded by an abstract, as well as the discussions, are in English

  2. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast

    Flury-Herard, A.; Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Toledano, M.

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  3. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Yong [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belinsky, Steven [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung, and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis, which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  4. Biological effects of radiation human health and safety

    1977-05-01

    The biological hazards of nuclear energy usage are a growing source of public concern. The medical profession may well be expected to contribute to public debate on the issue. This document, therefore, attempts a balanced review of the known and suspected human biological consequences of exposure to different types of ionizing radiation, emphasizing in particular the nuclear industry

  5. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    Janasek, D.; Svetlik, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  6. Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Georgievskij, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptation hypothesis of biological efficiency of ionizing radiation is based on acknowledgement of invariance of fundamental laws and principles of biology related to unity of biota and media, evolution and adaptation for radiobiology. The basic arguments for adaptation hypothesis validity, its correspondence to the requirements imposed on scientific hypothes are presented

  7. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed

  8. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  9. Course on medical aspects of nuclear and radiation accidents. Proceedings

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Nentwich, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Tchernobyl event deflected the attention from other potential hazards related to ionizing radiation as can result from misfunction or misuse of radioactive sources widely applied in human medicine or in industry. It was only after the Goiania accident in Brazil that these radiation sources retrieved the attention they deserve. Around the world, great efforts have been undertaken by the producers and users of these sources, supported by scientific investigations and by legislative backing, to minimize to the greatest extent possible any risk to public health. Nevertheless, accidents involving serious overexposures of individuals cannot be excluded entirely for the future. It is therefore a matter of professional responsibility to carefully evaluate the experiences gathered in the wake of radiation accidents and proliferate this knowledge to those professionals-health physicists, decontamination specialists, medical and paramedical staff - that might be confronted with the consequences of an accident and from whose expertise and proper handling human lifes might depend. It was with this aim that the Atomic Energy Authority and the International Bureau of the Forschungszentrum Juelich undertook to organize a joint training course within the German-Egyptian governmental agreement on bilateral cooperation in scientific research and technological development signed on 11.4.1979. Selected experts from both sides convened and presented both compended text book knowledge as well as own recent scientific data reflecting the state of the art. This material was selected and prepared in order to fit the needs of the invited 25 Egyptian physicians and paramedical course participants who where to be given guidelines on how to react to radiation overexposure incidents. (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  11. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  12. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Few weeks ago, when the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) submitted to the U.N. General Assembly the UNSCEAR 1994 report, the international community had at its disposal a broad view of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The 1994 report (272 pages) specifically addressed the epidemiological studies of radiation carcinogenesis and the adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms. The report was aimed to supplement the UNSCEAR 1993 report to the U.N. General Assembly- an extensive document of 928 pages-which addressed the global levels of radiation exposing the world population, as well as some issues on the effects of ionizing radiation, including: mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis due to radiation exposure, influence of the level of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation, hereditary effects of radiation effects on the developing human brain, and the late deterministic effects in children. Those two UNSCEAR reports taken together provide an impressive overview of current knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the essential issues of both reports, although it cannot cover all available information. (Author)

  13. Proceedings of the 8. Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing (Medicon `98)

    Christofides, Stelios; Pattichis, Constantinos; Schizas, Christos; Keravnou-Papailiou, Elpida; Kaplanis, Prodromos; Spyros, Spyrou; Christodoulides, George; Theodoulou, Yiannis [eds.

    1999-12-31

    Medicon `98 is the eighth in the series of regional meetings of the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) in the Mediterranean. The goal of Medicon `98 is to provide updated information on the state of the art on medical and biological engineering and computing. Medicon `98 was held in Lemesos, Cyprus, between 14-17 June, 1998. The full papers of the proceedings were published on CD and consisted of 190 invited and submitted papers. A book of abstracts was also published in paper form and was available to all the participants. Twenty seven papers fall within the scope of INIS and are dealing with Nuclear Medicine,Computerized Tomography, Radiology, Radiotherapy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Personnel Dosimetry (eds).

  14. Proceedings of the 8. Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing (Medicon '98)

    Christofides, Stelios; Pattichis, Constantinos; Schizas, Christos; Keravnou-Papailiou, Elpida; Kaplanis, Prodromos; Spyros, Spyrou; Christodoulides, George; Theodoulou, Yiannis

    1998-01-01

    Medicon '98 is the eighth in the series of regional meetings of the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) in the Mediterranean. The goal of Medicon '98 is to provide updated information on the state of the art on medical and biological engineering and computing. Medicon '98 was held in Lemesos, Cyprus, between 14-17 June, 1998. The full papers of the proceedings were published on CD and consisted of 190 invited and submitted papers. A book of abstracts was also published in paper form and was available to all the participants. Twenty seven papers fall within the scope of INIS and are dealing with Nuclear Medicine,Computerized Tomography, Radiology, Radiotherapy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Personnel Dosimetry (eds)

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiation - changing worker attitudes

    Johnson, N.; Schenley, C.

    1989-01-01

    Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Radiation Protection Training Special Interest Group has taken an innovative approach to providing DOE contractors with radiation worker training material information. Newly-hired radiation workers may be afraid to work near radiation and long-term radiation workers may become indifferent to the biological hazard of radiation. Commercially available training material is often presented at an inappropriate technical level or in an uninteresting style. These training problems have been addressed in the DOE system through development of a training videotape and supporting material package entitled Understanding Ionizing Radiation and its Biological Effects. The training package, developed and distributed by TRADE specifically to meet the needs of DOE contractor facilities, contains the videotape and accompanying paper supporting materials designed to assist the instructor. Learning objectives, presentation suggestion for the instructor, trainee worksheets, guided discussion questions, and trainee self-evaluation sheets are included in the training package. DOE contractors have agreed that incorporating this training module into radiation worker training programs enhances the quality of the training and increase worker understanding of the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  16. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Research and Development of Isotopes Application and Radiation

    Singgih Sutrisno; Sofyan Yatim; Pattiradjawane, EIsje L.; Ismachin, Moch; Mugiono; Marga Utama; Komaruddin Idris

    2004-02-01

    The Proceedings of Scientific Meeting on Research and Development of Isotopes Application and Radiation has been presented on February 17-18, 2004 in Jakarta. The aims of the Meeting is to disseminate the results of research on application of nuclear techniques on agricultural, animal, industry, hydrology and environment. There were 4 invited papers and 38 papers from BATAN participants as well as outside. The articles are indexing separately. (PPIN)

  17. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  18. Request for Travel Funds for Systems Radiation Biology Workshop

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen [NYU School of Medicine

    2014-03-22

    The 3rd International Systems Radiation Biology Workshop brought together the major European, US and Japanese research programs on radiation risk as well as selected experts representing systems biological approaches to discuss how the new methodologies could be best exploited for low dose research. A significant part of the workshop was devoted to discussions organised as breakout group sessions. To facilitate discussions number of participants was limited to 60 persons. To achieve the goals of this symposium in this international conference, support from DOE is vital. Hence, this proposal requested support in the amount of $15,000 to cover the travel expenses of international experts and radiation biology scientists from the United States. This supporting mechanism was clearly identified to the selected US participants as a conference support award from the DOE (See attached PDF). The workshop was an outstanding opportunity to strengthen interactions between leading experts in the emerging areas of radiation sciences, and will also provide opportunities for younger scientists to meet with experts and discuss their results. This workshop was designed to endorse active engagement in international collaboration. A major objective of this conference was to effectively communicate research results, in order to ensure that current thinking reflects sound science of radiation biology. Further, this international event addressed the use and success of scientific initiatives in radiation biology for policymakers, standard-setters, and the general public.

  19. Radiation biology as a basis for multidisciplinary cancer therapy

    Hosoya, N.

    2017-01-01

    The research field of radiation biology has progressed greatly thanks to the advances in molecular biology. DNA in the cell nucleus is the principal target of radiation. The biological effect of radiation can be determined by how the DNA damage is processed in the cell. In order to prevent deleterious biological effects due to DNA damage, the cells possess a system termed 'DNA damage response'. The DNA damage response finally induces cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair pathways, or cell death. If accurately repaired, DNA damage will result in survival of cells with no biological effects. If inaccurately repaired, DNA damage may result in survival of cells exhibiting genetic alterations, which can lead to the development of various diseases including cancer. If unrepaired, fatal DNA damage such as the DNA double-strand break will result in cell depth. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy are designed to specifically kill cancer cells by inducing DNA double-strand breaks, it is important to take advantage of cancer-specific abnormalities in DNA damage response. In this review, I describe the impact of targeting DNA damage response in cancer therapy and show how progress in radiation biology has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. (author)

  20. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  1. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described

  2. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  3. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    1998-01-01

    New Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection is in a final stage of genesis. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute and the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. Responsibilities include all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Papers from the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association are presented in seven sessions: 1. General Topics of Interest for Radiation Protection 2. Biological Effects of Radiation 3. Radioactive Waste Management 4. Radioecology 5. Dosimetry and Instrumentation 6. Radiation Protection in Medicine 7. Radon

  4. Radiations at the physics-biology interface. Utilization of radiations for research

    Douzou, P.

    1997-01-01

    Structural biology, which study the relation between the structure of biomolecules and their function, is at the interface between physics and biology. With the help of large radiation instruments such as X ray diffraction and neutron scattering, important advancements have been accomplished in the understanding of specific biological functions and led to the development of protein engineering (such as directed mutagenesis)

  5. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  6. Proceedings of the fourth JAEA-US EPA workshop on radiation risk assessment

    Endo, Akira; Boyd, Michael

    2007-02-01

    This report is the proceedings of the fourth workshop jointly organized by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under the terms of agreement for cooperation in the field of radiation protection. The workshop was sponsored by the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate and was held at the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the Tokai Research and Development Center, JAEA, on November 7-8, 2006. The objective of the workshop was to exchange and discuss recent information on radiation effects, radiation risk assessment, radiation dosimetry, emergency response, radiation protection standards, and waste management. Twenty-two papers were presented by experts from JAEA, US EPA, the National Academies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Washington State University and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three keynotes addressed research on radiation effects and radiation protection at JAEA, the latest report on health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation published by the National Research Council (BEIR VII Phase 2), and recent developments in Committee 2 for the forthcoming recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The workshop provided a good opportunity for identifying future research needed for radiation risk assessment. The 22 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Proceedings of the 4th workshop on ion-beam-applied biology

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Wada, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2005-09-01

    In order to promote research on biological application using ion beam at TIARA, we have annually hold the Workshop on Ion-beam-applied Biology at JAERI Takasaki since 2002. The 4th workshop entitled 'New Frontiers of Biological Research using microbeam - Application to Radio-microsurgery and Cellular Response to Radiations -' was held on June 22nd, 2005, aimed to overview the recent progress in microbeam-applied researches, and discuss the future direction of application of microbeam not to researches in life science and biotechnology, but also to clinical medicine. This workshop was hosted by JAERI Takasaki, with the cooperation of The Ion Beam Breeding Society, The Japan Radiation Research Society, The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space, The Kanto-Kohetsu Branch of The Atomic Energy Society of Japan, and The Japan Radioisotope Association. There were 104 participants including clinicians attended from universities, public research institutions, and private companies. The papers presented in the workshop were about the ion-beam-applied biological researches at JAERI, the present status of microbeam facilities in Japan and foreign countries, and the microbeam-based analyses of damage repair machinery in insects and radiation-induced bystander effects. It was realized again that microbeam is quite useful for functional analyses by targeted disruption of specific tissues in bio-organisms, and is of critical importance in investigating biological influences of low-dose radiations as well as in its radiological application. These researches using microbeam are expected to further march on. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on neutrons in biology at KENS (1990)

    Niimura, Nobuo; Furusaka, Michihiro

    1991-12-01

    This proceedings is the summary of a part of the lectures in ''Neutron scattering workshop - Neutrons in biology at KENS'' held on September 29, 1990, at the Booster Utilization Facility, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. This time, the topics were limited to those in KENS. Part 1 is the reports on those in which certain extent of results were obtained or are being obtained. Part 2 is special lectures, the talk by Professor Mitsuhiro Hirai who returned from Germany and the topic on DNA bonded proteins as the possibility of neutrons in biology by Professor Isao Tanaka. In Part 3, the subjects in KENS for hereafter were proposed. In Part 4, free discussion was carried out. The objective was made clear as neutrons in biology at KENS, and the number of participants was small, therefore, the discussion concentrated to the focus was able to be carried out, and the meeting was successful. However, the utterance expecting the discussion from wider viewpoint and the opinion of increasing machine time, budget, staffs and so on for neutrons in biology were expressed. (K.I.)

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    Machi, Sueo

    1990-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Radiation Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was held from 26 to 28 July 1989 at Tokyo and Takasaki. In these proceedings, thirty six papers presented at the Symposium are compiled. Main topics are commercial application of RVNRL, characterization of NR latex and vulcanization, properties of radiation vulcanized NR latex, development of sensitizers, mechanism of RVNRL, RVNRL with electron beams, and new Co-60 irradiator for RVNRL. Absence of nitrosamines and low cytotoxicity of radiation vulcanized NR latex are recognized as the remarkable advantages of RVNRL. The radiation vulcanization process for the production of protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination was presented as the first commercial success in RVNRL. It was reported that various kinds of rubber articles for medical uses have being developed in West Germany. A sensitizer system consisting of n-butyl acrylate and t-butyl hydroperoxide was found to reduce the vulcanization dose to 8 kGy. (author)

  10. Radiation carcinogenesis: Epidemiology and biological significance

    Boice, J.D.; Fraumeni, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation have led to the identification of a preventable cause of cancer, but in the long run perhaps the most important contribution of radiation studies will be to provide insights into the basic processes of human carcinogenesis. In this volume, key investigators of major epidemiologic projects summarize their observations to date, including information to help assess the effects of low-level exposures. Experimentalists and theorists emphasize the relevance of laboratory and epidemiologic data in elucidating carcinogenic risks and mechanisms in man. This volume was prepared with several objectives in mind: (a) organize and synthesize knowledge on radiation carcinogenesis through epidemiologic and experimental approaches; (b) illustrate and explore ways of utilizing this information to gain insights into the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development; (c) stimulate the formation of hypotheses suited to experimental or epidemiologic testing, theoretical modeling, and multidisciplinary approaches; and (d) identify recent advances that clarify dose-response relationships and the influence of low-dose exposures, provide leads to carcinogenic mechanisms and host-environmental interactions, and suggest strategies for future research and preventive action

  11. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    Reiners, Christoph; Yasumura, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsui, Shiro; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Schuez, Joachim; Miyauchi; Gamhewage, Gaya; Van Deventer, Emilie; Kurihara, Osamu; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, M.; Akiba, S.; Chung, Jae Hoon; Jacob, Peter; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian; Bouville, Andre; Hatch, Maureen; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Shore, Roy; Furukawa, Kyoji; Imaizumi, Misa; Ivanov, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Bogdanova, T.; Oliynik, V.; Shpak, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Zurnadzgy, L.; Zamotaeva, G.; Mabuchi, K.; Hatch, M.; Bouville, A.; Brenner, A.; Likhtarev, I.; Gulak, L.; Shchepotin, I.; Demidchik, Yuri; Fridman, M.; Vaswani, Ashok; Sobue, Tomotaka; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Momose, Takumaro; Siemann, Michael; Lazo, Ted; ); Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry; Takamura, Noboru; Bolch, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation detector and its application

    1996-01-01

    This workshop was held from January 23 to 25, 1996 at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. At the workshop, lectures were given on the development of the single ion detector using MCP in heavy ion microbeam device, the response of MCP to single heavy ion, the response of a superheated liquid drop type detector to low LET radiation, the response characteristics of a CR-39 flight track detector to hydrogen isotopes, the analysis of small nuclear flight tracks on CR-39 with an interatomic force microscope, charge-sensible amplifiers, the signal-processing circuit for position detection, time and depth-resolved measurement of ion tracks in condensed matter, the response of a thin Si detector to electrons, the method of expressing gas-amplifying rate curves in proportional count gas for low temperature, the characteristics of self annihilating streamer by ultraviolet laser, the development of slow positron beam using radioisotopes, the development of a tunnel junction type x-ray detector, the development of the pattern-analyzing system for PIXE spectra, the characteristics of NE213-CaF 2 bond type neutron detector and many others. In this report, the gists of these papers are collected. (K.I.)

  13. The biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiations in the environment

    Craven, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Although heavy ions are rarely encountered in the majority of terrestrial environments, the exposure of humans to this fascinating class of ionizing radiation is becoming more frequent. Long-duration spaceflight, new radiotherapeutic procedures and enhanced levels of radon, and other naturally-occurring alpha particle emitters, have all increased concern and stimulated interest recently within the radiological protection and radiobiological communities. Significant data concerning the long-term effects of low levels of heavy ions on mammalian systems are correspondingly scarce, leading to increased emphasis on modelling all aspects of the radiation-organism interaction. Contemporary radiation protection procedures reflect the need for a more fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the biological actions of such radiations. Major deficiencies exist in the current recommendations for assessment of relative effectiveness, the enhanced severity of the biological consequences instigated by heavy ions, over conventional sparsely ionizing radiations. In an attempt to remedy some of the inadequate concepts and assumptions presently employed and, simultaneously, to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms behind the notion of radiation quality, a series of algorithms have been developed and executed as computer code, to evaluate the biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiation ''tracks'' according to a number of criteria. These include consideration of the spatial characteristics of physical energy deposition in idealised cellular structures (finite particle range, radial extension of tracks via δ-ray emission) and the likelihood of induction and mis-repair of severe molecular lesions (double-strand breaks, multiply-damaged sites). (author)

  14. Proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2005 Kyoto

    2005-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 23rd through the 25th of 2005. The sessions held were: (1) Medical Exposure, (2) Environmental Measurement and Radiation Source Handling, (3) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (4) Utilization of Irradiation, (5) Countermeasures against Contamination and Inspection of Contamination, (6) Imaging Plate, (7) Controlled Measurement and Dose Evaluation, (8) Working Environment Measurement 1, (9) Working Environment Measurement 2, (10) Establishment of Software and System, (11) Radiation Education 1, (12) Radiation Education 2, and (13) Exposure Reduction and Safety Control. The poster sessions held were: (1) Exposure Reduction and Radiation Evaluation, (2) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (3) Education Training, (4) Safety Control, (5) Software, Data Handling, and Shielding Calculation, and (6) Environmental Radioactivity. The keynote lectures held were: (1) 'Situation of Medical Exposure' and (2) 'Cosmic Radiation While Boarding on Airplanes'. The symposia held were: (1) 'Food Irradiation' and (2) 'Life Science'. (S.K.)

  15. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  16. Proceedings of Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2015

    Silver, Pamela [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); SEED 2015 Conference Chair; Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers; SEED 2015 Conference Organizer

    2016-10-27

    synthetic biology centers and related infrastructure (synthesis/software/foundries) meet to discuss technology, standards, and education. SEED2015 will be the second in an annual series of meeting held to bring researchers from industry and academia in the area of Synthetic Biology. The first SEED conference was highly successful, attracting 285 attendees with varying backgrounds from academia, industry and government. The SEED series provides leadership in the development of the field of synthetic biology and serves to broaden the participants in the field by appealing to broad sectors in industry and providing a means for young investigators and those outside of the field to participate. Further, the series closely integrates with groups such as the SBCC to provide a means by which the synthetic biology community can communicate with policy makers. Further, we will pursue making the meeting the center for the exchange of educational materials as centers for synthetic biology emerge globally. Proceedings will be published each year in the journal ACS Synthetic Biology. After each SEED meeting, surveys are distributed to assess the success of the conference and to help guide changes year-to-year. The diverse application areas further extend the expertise needed from people in areas such as plant biology, agriculture and soil science, environmental science, medicine, and the chemical industry. These areas could have a widespread impact on society in a number of ways. For example, the CRISPR/Cas9 system that serves to immunize bacteria from phage has provided the fundamental chemistry that is used to edit the genomes of diverse organisms, including human stem cells, crop plants, and livestock animals.

  17. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  18. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  19. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  20. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    1965-01-01

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  1. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  2. Oxygen effect in radiation biology: caffeine and serendipity

    Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The 'hit theory' developed in 1920s to explain the actions of ionizing radiation on cells and organisms was purely physical, and its limitation was its inadequacy to address the contemporary findings such as the oxygen enhancement of radiobiological damage, and the increased radio- sensitivity of dividing compared to non-dividing cells. The textbooks written prior to 1970s did not either refer at all to oxygen as a radiosensitizer, or had mentioned it only in a passing manner; yet 'oxygen effect' was emerging as the central dogma in radiation biology. The oxygen effect in radiation biology is highly interdisciplinary encompassing atomic physics (i.e. interaction of photon with matter), radiation chemistry (formation of reactive oxygen species), molecular signalling, gene expression and genetic alterations in cells (mutation, cancer) or the cell death (apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe, etc.). Cell death in higher organisms is now recognized as the precursor of possible error-free cell replacement repair. (author)

  3. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  4. The mechanism for the primary biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Byakov, Vsevolod M; Stepanov, Sergei V

    2006-01-01

    The primary biological response of living organisms to the passage of fast charged particles is traditionally believed to be dominated by the chemical reactions of the radical products from the radiolysis of cellular water (OH, H, e aq - , O 2 - , H 2 O 2 ) and by the bioradicals that they produce (and which can also result from the direct electronic activation of biomolecules). This understanding has provided insight into how ionizing radiations affect biological systems and, most importantly, what radioprotection and radiosensibilizing effects are produced by chemical compounds introduced into an organism. However, a number of key radiobiological facts remain unexplained by the current theory, stimulating a search for other biologically active factors that may be triggered by radiation. This review examines a fact that is usually ignored in discussing the biological impact of ionizing radiation: the local increase in acidity in the water solution along the track of a charged particle. The acidity in the track is very different from its value for cellular water in a living organism. Biological processes are well-known to be highly sensitive to changes in the environmental acidity. It seems that the biological impact of ionizing radiations is dominated not by the water radiolysis products (mostly radicals) listed above but particles of a different nature, hydroxonium ions H 3 O + , where the term hydroxonium refer to protonated water molecules. This modification of the mechanism of primary radiobiological effects is in good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the extremal dependence of the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of radiations on their ionizing energy losses is accounted for in quantitative terms, as is the increase in the RBE in the relativistic energy range. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. The biological effects of low doses of radiation: medical, biological and ecological aspects

    Gun-Aajav, T.; Ajnai, L.; Manlaijav, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The results of recent studies show that low doses of radiation make many different structural and functional changes in a cell and these changes are preserved for a long time. This phenomenon is called as effects of low doses of radiation in biophysics, radiation biology and radiation medicine. The structural and functional changes depend on doses and this dependence has non-linear and bimodal behaviour. More detail, the radiation effect goes up and reaches its maximum (Low doses maximum) in low doses region, then it goes down and takes its stationary means (there is a negative effect in a few cases). With increases in doses and with further increases it goes up. It is established that low dose's maximum depends on physiological state of a biological object, radiation quality and dose rate. During the experiments another special date was established. This specialty is that many different physical and chemical factors are mutually connected and have synergetic behaviour. At present, researches are concentrating their attention on the following three directions: 1. Direct and indirect interaction of radiation's low doses: 2. Interpretation of its molecular mechanism, regulation of the positive effects and elaboration of ways o removing negative effects: 3. Application of the objective research results into practice. In conclusion the authors mention the current concepts on interpretation of low doses effect mechanism, forward their own views and emphasize the importance of considering low doses effects in researches of environmental radiation pollution, radiation medicine and radiation protection. (author)

  6. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation

    Czerski, P; Ostrowski, K; Shore, M L; Silverman, C., Suess, M.J.; Waldeskog, B

    1974-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, 15--18 Oct. 1973, sponsored by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Polish Scientific Council to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare are presented. It covered numerous aspects of exposure to microwave radiation. The papers more specifically relating to occupational exposure to microwaves deal with: measurement of microwave radiations, clinical manifestations, neurological findings, health status of microwave workers, blood protein disorders, effects of electromagnetic fields in densely populated areas, microwave cataract and concomitant pathology, retinal changes, assessment of lens translucency in microwave workers. A list of participants at the symposium and an author and subject index are appended.

  7. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  8. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  9. Proceedings of the FNCA 2006 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    Tamada, Masao; Kume, Tamikazu

    2007-08-01

    This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Malaysia and jointly organized by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objectives of the workshop were to discuss the commercial status of radiation processing of natural polymer in the participating countries and to prepare the work plan for the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) activities on radiation processing of natural polymer. The workshop was attended by experts on radiation processing from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. The radiation processing of natural polymer is divided into radiation crosslinking and degradation of polysaccharides. The radiation crosslinking of polysaccharides is mainly used to prepare hydrogel for healthcare and environment. Several hydrogels were commercialized in Korea, Japan and Malaysia, respectively. Hydrogels containing chitosan and carrageenan are currently in trial in China, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. Cassava hydrogel is developing in Thailand. Radiation degraded chitosan is actually used in Vietnam and China in agriculture and aquaculture, respectively. Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand are trying in laboratory and pilot scale as plant growth promoter. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the 109th basic science seminar on research for quantum radiation measurement

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In the field of radiation measurement in next century, one of the main themes for researchers will be to develop new radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects. Thus three research projects for development of new neutron detection method using He-Ne laser cells, radiation-resistant optical fibers, and superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors have been started five years before in our research group for quantum radiation measurement of the advanced science research center (ASRC) of JAERI. The joint workshop `Research for Quantum Radiation Measurement` was held as one of basic science seminars in ASRC on 19-20th of January 1998 on the occasion of the ending of the projects. There were many presentations concerning the above three themes and the participants had a good opportunity to exchange relating research information. This proceedings includes 13 papers of the presentations. It is not only useful to know the present status of advanced study but also very suggestive to see the direction and evolution of `radiation detection techniques based on quantum effects` in the future. (J.P.N.)

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers in this progress report which deal with radiobiological physics, the biological effects of ionizing radiations, and the modification of these effects by chemical and pharmacological agents

  12. Proceedings of the 42nd basic science seminar. (The 7th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1996-02-01

    42nd advanced science seminar (the 7th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology) was held on October, 25-26, 1995 at Tokai. Forty three participants from university, research institute and private company took part in the workshop and there were 17 lectures given. The proceedings collect the figures and tables which the speakers used in their lectures. (author)

  13. Biological indicators for radiation absorbed dose: a review

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Biological dosimetry has an important role to play in assessing the cumulative radiation exposure of persons working with radiation and also in estimating the true dose received during accidents involving external and internal exposure. Various biodosimetric methods have been tried to estimate radiation dose for the above purposes. Biodosimetric methods include cytogenetic, immunological and mutational assays. Each technique has certain advantages and disadvantages. We present here a review of each technique, the actual method used for detection of dose, the sensitivity of detection and its use in long term studies. (author)

  14. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  15. Radiation-resistant composite for biological shield of personnel

    Barabash, D. E.; Barabash, A. D.; Potapov, Yu B.; Panfilov, D. V.; Perekalskiy, O. E.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the results of theoretical and practical justification for the use of polymer concrete based on nonisocyanate polyurethanes in biological shield structures. We have identified the impact of ratio: polymer - radiation-resistant filling compound on the durability and protection properties of polymer concrete. The article expounds regression dependence of the change of basic properties of the aforementioned polymer concrete on the absorbed radiation dose rate. Synergy effect in attenuation of radioactivity release in case of conjoint use of hydrogenous polymer base and radiation-resistant powder is also addressed herein.

  16. Proceedings of 19. symposium on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H. Peter; Zips, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include review contributions on radio-oncology, and new radiation technologies and molecular prediction; and poster sessions on the following topics: hypoxia; molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; molecular targeting; DNA repair; biological imaging; biology of experimental radiations; normal tissue toxicity; modern radiotherapy; tumor hypoxia and metabolic micro milieu; immune system and radiotherapy.

  17. Proceedings of the Fourth international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'; Materialy chetvertoj mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii 'Vzaimodejstvie izluchenij s tverdym telom'

    Anishchik, V M [ed.; Zhukova, S I; Azarko, I I; Prikhod' ko, Zh L

    2001-10-01

    The 132 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the fourth forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Processes of ion interaction with solids', 'Plasma interaction with surface' and 'Radiation effects in solids'.

  18. Biological radiation effects of Radon in Drosophila

    Pimentel P, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge on the effects of radon and its decay products, the aim of this investigation is to study the biological effects of radon using Drosophila melanogaster throught the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the analysis of some adaptative factors exposing larvaes to controlled radon atmosphers, considering that this insect could be used as biological monitor. Using the somatic mutation test a mutagenic effect was observed proportional to radon concentration, into an interval of 1 ± 0.3 to 111 ± 7.4 KBq/m 3 equivalent to doses under 0.0106 Gy. The correlation analysis gives a linear (r=0.80) relationship with a positive slope of 0.2217. The same happens when gamma rays are used in the interval of 1 to 20 Gy, given a linear dose-dependent effect (r=0.878) is obtained; nevetheless the slop is smaller (m=0.003) than for radon. Analysing the results of adaptative factors of the nine exposed generations, it was found that probably radon exposition induced dominant lethals during gametogenesis or/and a selection of the more component gamets of the treated individuals in larval state. It was reflected in the significant decrease on fecundity of the generation exposed. Nevertheless the laying eggs had an increase in egg-to-adult viability and the develop velocity was higher than in control for 3 KBq/m 3 , this suggest that radon concentrations used were able to induce repair mechanisms. These data agree with the Hormesis hypothesis that says: low doses have positive effects on health. It was not possible to obtain a dose-effect relationship except with the develop velocity where it was found a dose-effect inverse proportion. In conclusion, Drosophila melanogaster could be a good system to obtain in vivo damaged induction concentration dependent of radon and its decay products, as well as to study the effects in an exposed population by the analysis of adaptative factors. (Author)

  19. Influence of biological variables on radiation carcinogenesis

    Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1989-01-01

    1. Age at exposure: Female B6C3F 1 mice were irradiated at day 17 of the prenatal age, or day 0, 7, 35, 105, 240 or 365 of the postnatal age with 1.9, 3.8 or 5.7 Gy of gamma-rays from 137 Cs. All mice were allowed to live through their entire lifespan under a specific pathogen free condition. It has become evident that mice of the late fetal period have susceptibility to induction of pituitary tumors, bone tumors, liver tumors, lung tumors, lymphocytic lymphomas and ovarian tumors. Neonatal mice were found to be more susceptible to induction of lymphocytic lymphomas, liver tumors and ovarian tumors than fetal mice. Irradiation of fetal or neonatal mice did not result in the excess development of myeloid leukemias and Harderian gland tumors, whereas these neoplasms were induced by irradiation at the adult period. 2. Combination effects of radiation and chemicals: Both sexes of B6WF 1 mice were exposed to X-rays at day 5 of postnatal age. After weaning, pellet diet containing 0.05 % phenobarbital was given until their natural death. It was rather surprising that life-shortening effect of X-irradiation was decreased by oral administration of phenobarbital. This effect seemed to be due to delayed development of neoplastic diseases. Administration of phenobarbital did not result in decrease in incidences of neoplasms. (author)

  20. Environmental radiation: basic principles, biological facts, potential risks

    Rodemann, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the complex processes that underlie the effects of different types of radiation at the cellular, organ and organismic level. Technical terms central to the subject matter are printed in italicize and explained in a glossary along with all physical quantities and dimensional units referred to. Through a systematic presentation of various aspects of the effects of environmental radiation on humans the author has endeavoured to make it clear that any discussion on potential health hazards must be conducted specific to the type of radiation in question. Furthermore, to study these issues meaningfully one must have a knowledge of the scientific basis of interactions between the various types of radiation and biological systems and be able to assess the relative impact of environmental radiation compared with other environmental health hazards

  1. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D.

    1997-01-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  2. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SRT). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT), microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  3. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    1993-01-01

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber

  4. Proceedings of workshop on surface finishing by radiation curing technology: radiation curing for better finishing

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book compiled the paper presented at this workshop. The papers discussed are 1. Introduction to radiation curing, 2. Radiation sources -ultraviolet and electron beams, 3. UV/EB curing of surface coating - wood and nonwood substrates, 4. Development of EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) and its application, 5. Development of radiation-curable resin based natural rubber.

  5. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology - Overview

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The year 1998 might again be called as the ''Comet Year''. The rain of bolides expected in the sky resembles pictures of DNA damages in shapes, numbers, mysterious processes and sometimes challenges to detect them. It was in this year that we detected, in a fluorescent light under the microscope, another ''shinning star'' a long time expected translocation induced by neutrons and then transferred to its glitter through fluorescence in situ hybridization technic. The year was filled in with measurements and brought plenty of scientific events that are partly reflected in the following pages; strong will and hard work to maintain research standards equal to technologically advanced partners in Europe and in other parts of the World; the USA, Sth Korea. We mainly devoted the year 1998 to the activities concerning our basic research, and requirements and expectations of various Committees in the issues of three research projects. We gather results on genotoxicity of pesticides, occupational exposures, and also the importance of life styles as factors affecting the levels of damage induced in human cells. We have also succeeded to go faster with modernization of our methodology by transferring the single cell ''Comet Assay'' to the routine work for the analysis of DNA damage induced by UV and X-rays radiation and for the studies on individual variability in the damage repair capacity. On January 13th we installed a new powerful RTG machine. Polish Atomic Energy supported this investment. And this was really the meaningful celebration of 100 anniversary of the discovery of POLONIUM and RADIUM. So, now, before a new therapeutic tool will be used in routine applications for radiotherapy, we with our new beautiful and powerful roentgen machine are deeply involved in the exploration of the strength of radiotherapeutic efficiency of sources and schedules. With the use of gene mutations in TSH-assay, we have finally established good dose response curves for

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1984-November 30, 1985

    Rossi, H.H.

    1985-07-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University. The report consists of 17 individual reports plus an overall summary. Reports survey research results in neutron dosimetry, microdosimetry of electron beams and x-radiation, development of theoretical models for biological radiation effects and induction of oncogenic transformations. Individual abstracts were also prepared for each paper

  7. DEGRO 2012. 18. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the contributions and posters of the 18th annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society DEGRO 2012. The lectures covered the following topics: Radiation physics, therapy planning; gastrointestinal tumors; radiation biology; stererotactic radiotherapy/breast carcinomas; quality management - life quality; head-neck-tumors/lymphomas; NSCL (non-small cell lung carcinomas); pelvic tumors; brain tumors/pediatric tumors. The poster sessions included the following topics: quality management, recurrent tumor therapy; brachytherapy; breast carcinomas and gynecological tumors; pelvis tumors; brain tumors; stereotactic radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; NSCL, proton therapy, supporting therapy; clinical radio-oncology, radiation biology, IGRT/IMRT.

  8. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    Koeteles, G.J.; Kormos, C.; Kerekes, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  9. Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology

    NONE

    1968-06-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and held in Vienna, 4-8 December 1967. The meeting was attended by 82 participants from 29 countries and six international organizations. Contents: Isotope applications - ecology (7 papers); Radiation effect studies - non-genetic (8 papers); Isotope applications - physiology and biochemistry (2 papers); Isotope applications - chemosterilants (2 papers); Sterile-male technique (9 papers); Radiation effect studies - genetic (5 papers); Isotope applications - genetic (1 paper). Each paper is in its original language (21 English, 11 French, 1 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with a second one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting

    1992-12-01

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, in October 1991. The five-day meeting provided a forum for a technical exchange among the members of the ARM Science Team and a discussion of the technical aspects of the project infrastructure. The meeting included several activities: Science Team presentations, discussions of the first site occupation plan, experiment design sessions, and poster sessions. This Proceedings document includes papers presented at the meeting. The papers included are those from the technical sessions, the experiment design sessions, the first site occupation, and descriptions of locales for future sites. Individual projects are processed separately for the database

  11. On the mechanism of the biological effect of ionizing radiation

    Margulis, M.A.; Margulis, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of the biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and ultrasound (US) were considered. The current views on the nature of toxicity of IR, which is usually assigned to the formation of radicals in living tissues and to the straight-line collision of an ionizing particle with the DNA molecule, were analyzed. It was established that the amount of radicals formed in biological tissues in conditions of ultrasonically induced cavitation can be as large as that for IR; however, the biological effect of US is much softer as compared to IR. It was shown that the contribution of the indirect mechanism to the total biological effect of IR can be estimated by comparing US and IR in their chemical action; the contribution of the indirect mechanism to the biological effect of IR was found to be negligibly small. An alternative mechanism was proposed to explain the biological effect of IR. In accordance with the proposed model, IR with a high linear energy transfer (LET) value breaks through cell walls and biological membranes and causes damage to them, such that the cell can lose its regenerative capacity. Moreover, high-energy heavy ionizing particles perforate cytoplasm to form channels. Ionizing radiation with a low LET value (γ- and X-rays) causes multiple damages to biological membranes. Ionizing particles can also cause damages to membranes of mitochondria thus affecting the mechanism of cellular respiration, which will cause neoplastic diseases. The straight-line collision of an ionizing particle with a DNA molecule was found to be 5-7 orders of magnitude less probable as compared to the collision with a wall or membrane. It was shown that multiple perforations of cell walls and damages to membranes are characteristic only of ionizing particles, which have sufficiently long tracks, and do not occur upon exposure to ultrasonic waves, microwaves, UV radiation, and magnetic fields [ru

  12. Proceedings of the 8th Japan-China bilateral symposium on radiation chemistry

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Hase, Hirotomo; Makuuchi, Keizou [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This issue is the collection of papers presented at The 8th Japan-China Bilateral Symposium on Radiation Chemistry held on October 25-29, 1999 at Kyodai Kaikan in Kyoto. The total number of the contributed papers is 69 which consists of 41 and 28 papers for oral and poster presentations, respectively. The papers presented are classified into five categories: A: Radiation Chemistry - Fundament (21 papers), B: Radiation Chemistry - Polymer (10 papers), C: Radiation Chemistry - Biological System (8 papers), D: Radiation Processing (19 papers), and E: Advanced Radiation Chemistry - Ion Beams and Positron (11 papers). The output of the Symposium and the history of the Bilateral Symposium were compiled in the Closing. (J.P.N.)

  13. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Miljanic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia) and State Institute of Radiation Protection, State Office for Standardization and Metrology and APO Ltd. - Hazardous Waste Management Agency. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Sixth symposium shows same parts with articles from radiation dosimetry and instrumentation, biological effects of radiation, public exposure, radiation protection in medicine, as well as radioecology. Also, non-ionising radiations take their share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  14. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    NONE

    1963-08-15

    introducing controlled radiation damage. The subjects of corrosion and radiation chemistry were excluded. The Symposium was attended by 220 participants from 24 Member States and one international organization. Of the 78 papers before the Symposium, 35 on radiation damage in solids generally and 3 on reactor materials were presented and discussed in full, while 35 papers formed the background for five panel discussions, which were introduced by five survey papers. The present volume contains the survey papers and panel discussions on radiation damage in reactor materials, the 27 papers that formed the background to these discussions, and the 3 papers on this subject which were presented and discussed in full. With the three volumes published in 1962 and early 1963 under the title Radiation Damage in Solids, the present volume completes the proceedings of the Venice Symposium.

  15. Radiation Damage in Reactor Materials. Part of the Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation Damage in Solids and Reactor Materials

    1963-01-01

    introducing controlled radiation damage. The subjects of corrosion and radiation chemistry were excluded. The Symposium was attended by 220 participants from 24 Member States and one international organization. Of the 78 papers before the Symposium, 35 on radiation damage in solids generally and 3 on reactor materials were presented and discussed in full, while 35 papers formed the background for five panel discussions, which were introduced by five survey papers. The present volume contains the survey papers and panel discussions on radiation damage in reactor materials, the 27 papers that formed the background to these discussions, and the 3 papers on this subject which were presented and discussed in full. With the three volumes published in 1962 and early 1963 under the title Radiation Damage in Solids, the present volume completes the proceedings of the Venice Symposium

  16. Proceedings of the 6. Argentine congress on radiation protection and nuclear safety

    1998-01-01

    The 6th Argentine Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety was organized by the Radioprotection Argentine Society, in Buenos Aires, between the 22 and 24 of september of 1998. In this event, were presented almost 66 papers in the following sessions, about these subjects: 1.- Safety in nuclear installations. 2.- Control of nuclear material and physical protection of nuclear installations. 3.- Programs of quality assurance. 4.- Training, technical information and public information. 5.- Physical dosimetry. 6.- Physical dosimetry and occupational radiation protection. 7.- Exposure of the natural radiation. 8.- Environmental radiological safety. 9.- Biological effects of the ionizing radiations and biological dosimetry. 10.- Radiological protection of the medical practice and the radiological emergencies. 11.- Radioactive wastes management. 12.- Transport of radioactive materials

  17. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  18. Proceedings of the FNCA 2007 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    Tamada, Masao; Kume, Tamikazu

    2008-12-01

    This workshop was co-sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Vietnam. The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) jointly executed the workshop in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The main objectives of the workshop were the following: - to discuss for the promotion of the commercial applications of radiation processing of natural polymer. - to prepare the work plan for the FNCA activities for 2007-2008. The workshop was attended by experts on radiation processing from Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The radiation processing of natural polymer is divided into crosslinking, degradation and graft polymerization. The radiation crosslinked polysaccharides are mainly used to prepare hydrogel for healthcare and environment. Hydrogels were commercialized in India, Korea, and Malaysia and are going to be commercialized in Philippines and Vietnam as wound dressings. Radiation degraded polysaccharides (alginate and chitosan) are commercialized in China and Vietnam in aquaculture and agriculture, respectively. Indonesia successfully carried out field test of radiation degraded chitosan as plant growth promoter. Also the radiation degraded chitosan was demonstrated to preserve post harvest fruit and to extend the shelf life of papaya in Pakistan and Sri Lanka, respectively. Radiation graft polymerization onto polysaccharide is applied for production of soil conditioner in Vietnam. Several applications of grafting technique were also reported. Manuscripts submitted by presenters were compiled in the proceedings. The 31 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. 5. Conference cycle. The radiations and the Biological Sciences

    Balcazar G, M.; Chavez B, A.

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear technologies and their development have influenced many aspects of modern life. Besides used for electricity production nuclear technologies are applied in many other fields, especially in biological sciences. In genetics and molecular biology they enable research resulting in increased food production and better food preservation. Usage in material sciences lead to new varieties of plastics or improved characteristics. Nuclear applications are used in pe troleum industries and in forecasting geothermic power. Radiobiology and radiotherapy enable diagnosis and therapy of several diseases, e.g. cancer. Nuclear technologies also contribute to preserve the environment. They offer methods to analyse as well as decrease the environmental impacts. The 5. conference cyle entitled 'The Radiations and the Biological Sciences' aims to inform students of biological sciences about new nuclear technologies applied in their field of interest

  20. Assessment of the biological effects of 'strange' radiation

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Tryapitsina, G.A.; Urutskoyev, L.I.; Akleyev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The results from studies of the effects produced by electrical explosions of foils made from super pure materials in water point to the emergence of new chemical elements. An additional finding was the discharge of 'strange' radiation accompanying the transformation of chemical elements. However, currently, the mechanism involved in the interaction between 'strange' radiation and a substance or a biological entity remains obscure. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to investigate the biological effects of the 'strange' radiation. Pilot studies were performed at the RECOM RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in April-May of 2004. The animals used in the experiment were female mice of C57Bl/6 line aged 80 days with body weight 16-18 g. The animals were exposed to radiation discharged during explosions of Ti foils in water and aqueous solutions. The cages with animals were placed at 1 m from the epicenter of the explosion. Explosions were carried out on the 19. (3 explosions), 20. (4 explosions) and 22. (3 explosions) of April, 2004 (explosions No1373 - No1382, respectively). The animals were assigned to 4 experimental groups comprised of 17-20 mice per group. The animals received experimental exposure within 1, 2 and 3 days of the experiment. In total, the experimental groups were exposed to 3, 7 and 10 explosions, respectively. In order to identify the biological reactions, the following parameters were estimated: number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow, number of CFU in the spleen after additional gamma-irradiation (6 Gy), cell composition of the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the different level of maturation in the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the micronuclei in the bone marrow, the reaction of bone marrow cells to additional gamma-irradiation (2 Gy), number of leucocytes in the peripheral blood, and cell composition of the peripheral blood. The following conclusions were drawn from these studies: 1. 'strange' radiation resulting

  1. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts; DEGRO 2009. Radioonkologie - Medizinische Physik - Strahlenbiologie. Abstracts

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity.

  2. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment

    Rajamanickam eBaskar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET, total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE. In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.

  3. Chemical and biological effects of radiation sterilization of medical products

    Gupta, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation is extensively used for the sterilization of plastic materials, pharmaceuticals and biological tissue grafts. The pharmaceuticals may be solid, liquid, or suspension in a liquid or a solution. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation, generally used for sterilization, primarily interacts with these materials through the Compton process. The resulting damage may be direct or indirect. In aqueous systems the primary species produced compete for interaction among themselves and the dissolved solutes. The nature, the G-values and the reactions of the primary species very much depend on the pH of the solution. The important chemical changes in plastic materials are gas liberation, change in concentration of double bonds, cross-linking, degradation and oxidation. These chemical changes lead to some physical changes like crystallinity, specific conductivity and permeability. The reactions in biological systems are very complex and are influenced by the presence or absence of water and oxygen. Water produces indirect damage and the radiation effect is generally more in the presence of oxygen. Most microorganisms are relatively radioresistant. Various tissues of an animal differ in their response to radiation. Catgut is not stable to irradiation. Lyophilized human serum is stable to irradiation whereas, when irradiated in aqueous solutions, several changes are observed. Generally, pharmaceuticals are considerably more stable in the dry solid state to ionizing radiations than in aqueous solutions or in any other form of molecular aggregation. (author)

  4. Biological Complexities in Radiation Carcinogenesis and Cancer Radiotherapy: Impact of New Biological Paradigms

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although radiation carcinogenesis has been shown both experimentally and epidemiologically, the use of ionizing radiation is also one of the major modalities in cancer treatment. Various known cellular and molecular events are involved in carcinogenesis. Apart from the known phenomena, there could be implications for carcinogenesis and cancer prevention due to other biological processes such as the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity and radioadaptation. Bystander effects have consequences for mutation initiated cancer paradigms of radiation carcinogenesis, which provide the mechanistic justification for low-dose risk estimates. The abscopal effect is potentially important for tumor control and is mediated through cytokines and/or the immune system (mainly cell-mediated immunity. It results from loss of growth and stimulatory and/or immunosuppressive factors from the tumor. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is a feature of some cancer prone chromosomal breakage syndromes such as ataxia telangectiasia. Radiosensitivity is manifested as higher chromosomal aberrations and DNA repair impairment is now known as a good biomarker for breast cancer screening and prediction of prognosis. However, it is not yet known whether this effect is good or bad for those receiving radiation or radiomimetic agents for treatment. Radiation hormesis is another major concern for carcinogenesis. This process which protects cells from higher doses of radiation or radio mimic chemicals, may lead to the escape of cells from mitotic death or apoptosis and put cells with a lower amount of damage into the process of cancer induction. Therefore, any of these biological phenomena could have impact on another process giving rise to genome instability of cells which are not in the field of radiation but still receiving a lower amount of radiation. For prevention of radiation induced carcinogenesis or risk assessment as well as for successful radiation

  5. Biological effects of radiation and estimation of risk to radiation workers

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation have three stages: physical, chemical and biological. A precise mathematical description of biological effects and of one-to-one correspondence between the initial energy absorption and final effect has not been possible, because several factors are involved in biological effects and their manifestation period varies from less than one second to several years. The mechanism of biological radiation effects is outlined. The two groups of these effects are (1) immediate and (2) delayed. The main aim of radiation protection programme is to eliminate the risk of non-stochastic effects to an acceptable level. The mean annual dose for 30,000 radiation workers in India is 2.7 m Sv. Estimated risk of fatal cancer from this dose is about 50 cases of cancer per year per million workers which is well below the ICRP standard for safe occupation stipulated at fatality rate less than or equal to 100 per year per milion workers. When compared with risk in other occupations, the risk to radiation workers is much less. (M.G.B.)

  6. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting on Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. 1999/2000

    Suhadi, F.; Ismachin, Moch; Manurung, Simon

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of scientific meeting on research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology has been presented on Feb 23-24 2000. This activity for a routine activity that was held by Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology to disseminate research and development results of BATAN activity. The Scientific meeting is an information exchange facility among researcher manager and industrialist for using isotope technology in industry efficiency. The proceeding consist of 6 article from keynotes' speaker and 39 articles from BATAN participant as well as outside. The articles is indexing separately

  7. View of environmental radiation effects from the study of radiation biology in C. elegans

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans is a non-parasitic soil nematode and is well-known as a unique model organism, because of its complete cell-lineage, nervous network and genome sequences. Also, C. elegans can be easily manipulated in the laboratory. These advantages make C. elegans as a good in vivo model system in the field of radiation biology. Radiation effects in C. elegans have been studied for three decades. Here, I briefly review the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation in C. elegans with a scope of environmental radiation effects. Firstly, basic information of C. elegans as a model organism is described. Secondly, historical view is reported on the study of radiation biology in C. elegans. Thirdly, our research on learning behavior is presented. Finally, an opinion of the use of C. elegans for environmental radiation protection is referred. I believe that C. elegans may be a good promising in vivo model system in the field of environmental radiation biology. (author)

  8. Routine medicare and radiation exposure (3) biology about radiation exposure for its understanding

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological responses are easily explained as follows. The process of cancer formation is on the hypothesis of multi-step carcinogenesis of the initiation, promotion and progression. Radiation is an exogenous physical initiator. Physical process of ionization in biomaterials by radiation occurs within the time of 10 -12 sec order, which resulting in chemical process (10 -6 sec) leading to tissue response or to cancerous change (several tens hours to several decades). Direct and indirect effects on DNA are yielded with the high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and low, through OH-radical formation, respectively. Double strand break of DNA induced by radiation is repaired by the error-free homologous recombination or error-prone non-homologous end-joining. At the early phase of the damage, DNA damage response begins to work for repairing, and when the response is inoperable, cellular response is induced to lead radiation apoptosis as an exclusion mechanism of abnormal cells. The biological effects differ even at the same dose of different radiations when their LET is different, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used. For correction of the stochastic radiation effect, the radiation weighting factor (W R ) is used for conversion to the single photon beam dose that ICRP defines as the equivalent dose (H T , Sv). ICRP (Pub. 103) also recommends the use of RBE (Gy) for the definitive effect. Radiation effects are known to be modified by such phenomena as the bystander effect, cluster damage of DNA, radiation adaptation, hormesis, dose rate effect and non-tumor inducing dose. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for low dose and low dose rate carcinogenesis. (T.T.)

  9. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    Nestle, Ursula; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang [Nuclear Medicine, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.nestle@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required. (topical review)

  10. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography.

    Nestle, Ursula; Weber, Wolfgang; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required.

  11. Proceedings of the Takasaki symposium on radiation application of natural polymers in Asia

    Kume, Tamikazu; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2002-03-01

    This Takasaki symposium was annually held as the 3rd meeting for radiation processing of natural polymers through research cooperation among Asian countries. The symposium includes the presentations of research outcomes on radiation processing of starches, silk proteins and marine carbohydrates. In the researches of starch and cellulose, radiation crosslinking of biodegradable polysaccharides was achieved by modifying it to be water-soluble paste, showing the wide range of its application to wound dressing and biodegradable plastics. In silk protein researches, pulverization and water-solubilization of the irradiated silk proteins and its antibacterial properties were reported. In the researches of marine carbohydrates, it was reported that radiation-degraded chitosan and alginate showed promotion effects for plant growth, enhancement of antibacterial properties, and capability to be applied for bioadhesive materials. In addition, in estimation of economic scale of radiation application, comparisons between Japan and U.S. in medical, agricultural and industrial fields were introduced. Many domestic and foreign attendants were very interested in reports and exchanged their opinions actively. Radiation application of natural polymers are the most important subjects from the view points of resource recycling and environment protection and are good agreement with the needs of Asian countries. Outcomes of this symposium are expected to contribute the progress in radiation applications in south Asian countries as well as Japan. In the symposium we had the 63 participants consisted of 16 foreign researchers from not only bilaterally cooperated Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, but also Indonesia and China, 28 from domestic universities, governmental institutes and companies, and 32 from JAERI. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers. The 22 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Fujiwara, Satoru

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  13. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  14. Effects of gamma radiations on some aspects of the biology of salmonella

    Ben Miloud, Najla

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed at the study of the effect of gamma radiation on certain aspects of the biology of Salmonella, few works joined this type and gamma radiations. The lethal effect of ionizing radiations was associated at other bacterial types, to an oxidative stress due to the presence of reactive spices of oxygen and leading to deteriorations of membrane cells, proteins and nucleic acids.Thus, we proceeded to an analysis of the viability of four Salmonella serovars subject to different radiation doses going from 0.5 to 2 KGy. The results showed a viability reduction dose dependent with a differential behavior, statistically significant. In order to detect possible radio induced changes at the restriction site of the enzymes XbaI and BlnI usually used for the typing of Salmonella, we carried out a DNA restriction profile analyse of the four serovars by pulsed filed gel electrophoresis. The results showed that no change appeared on the level of these restriction sites for the used enzymes following an irradiation of 2KGy. The study of the sensitivity of Salmonella to antibiotics after a gamma radiation showed that gamma radiation has increased the sensitivity of Salmonella isolates to porin associated antibiotics. Statistical analyses showed that the effect of different irradiation dose treatment on the antibiotic sensitivity is increasingly significant. The irradiation didn't induce modifications of the sensitivity to other antibiotics, probably because of their nature, of their penetration mode inside the cell or their action way. To tray to explain the differential behavior of different serovars to irradiation. We analyzed by Quantitative real time PCR (RT- PCR), the expression level of the ARNm of the genes KATN (catalase non-hemique), DNAK (protein of thermal shock), RNA polymerase as well as of the 16S rRNA. The results showed either a repression or an induction of certain genes under the effect of an irradiation of 2 KGy. (Author)

  15. Radiation Biology: A Handbook for Teachers and Students

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiobiology of normal tissues and tumours is a core prerequisite for the practice of radiation oncology. As such the study of radiobiology is mandatory for gaining qualification as a radiation oncologist in most countries. Teaching is done partly by qualified radiobiologists in some countries, and this is supplemented by teaching from knowledgeable radiation oncologists. In low and middle income (LMI) countries the teachers are often radiation oncologists and/or medical physicists. In Europe, a master's course on radiobiology is taught jointly by a consortium of five European Universities. This is aimed at young scientists from both Western and Eastern Europe, training in this discipline. Recently the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) initiated the launch of a radiobiology teaching course outside Europe (Beijing, 2007; Shanghai, 2009). Radiation protection activities are governed by many regulations and recommendations. These are based on knowledge gained from epidemiological studies of health effects from low as well as from high dose radiation exposures. Organizations like the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have put a lot of effort into reviewing and evaluating the biological basis to radiological protection practices. Personnel being trained as future radiation protection personnel should have a basic understanding of the biological and clinical basis to the exposure limitations that they are subject to and that they implement for industrial workers and the public at large. It is for these reasons that aspects of Radiobiology related to protection issues are included in this teaching syllabus. In LMI countries, many more teachers are needed in radiobiology, and the establishment of regional training centres or special regional training courses in radiobiology, are really the only options to solve the obvious deficit in knowledge of radiobiology in such countries. Radiobiology teaching

  16. [Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    Fedorowski, A; Steciwko, A

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic

  17. Radiation biological technology for preservation of agricultural products

    Kudryasheva, A.

    1988-01-01

    A study is reported on the food irradiation procedures experimented in the Moskow Institute for National Economy. The effect of gamma radiation on the quality, mass loss and storage life of fruits and vegetables is investigated. The combined effect of several biological and environmental factors on the microorganisms affecting foodstuffs are discussed. The influence of dose rate is illustrated quantitatively for different species of fruits and vegetables. 3 tabs., 6 refs

  18. Biological effects of ionizing radiation; Efectos biologicos de la radiacion

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  19. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  20. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  1. Biological mechanisms of radiation effects; Biologische Mechanismen der Strahlenwirkung

    Gruber, S.; Doerr, W. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, ATRAB - Angewandte und Translationale Radiobiologie, Univ.-Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2017-07-15

    Exposure to ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes is inevitable in modern medicine. The therapeutic application of irradiation is highly effective against cancer; however, this implies exposure of normal tissue structures to significant doses of radiation. Diagnostic or therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation can result in tissue changes and tumor induction in the long term. Knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these effects is essential for individualization of the application. This article examines the biological mechanisms at the tissue and molecular level, the clinical manifestation of radiation effects, dose-dependence of the risk and the temporal progression as well as influencing factors. The time course of the reaction of tissues to radiation exposure extends over wide ranges up to many decades. The effects of radiation on tissues are classified into early and late and their pathobiology is significantly different. Various factors (R) influencing the clinical manifestation of radiation effects have been identified related to the exposure pattern. The radiation tolerance of normal tissue structures regarding the induction of functional deficits shows great variation but always has a threshold value, which is usually not exceeded in diagnostic procedures. The risk of a radiation-induced fatal malignancy (total body exposure 5%/Gy) for a medical administration of radiation must be considered as very low in comparison to the natural risks. Informed consent of patients must reflect this in a balanced way. (orig.) [German] Eine Exposition mit ionisierender Strahlung fuer diagnostische Zwecke ist in der modernen Medizin unumgaenglich. Bei einer Tumorerkrankung ist die therapeutische Anwendung dieser Strahlung hoch effektiv. Dies impliziert immer eine Exposition normaler Gewebestrukturen mit signifikanten Strahlendosen. Die diagnostische oder therapeutische Exposition mit ionisierender Strahlung kann langfristig zu Gewebeveraenderungen und

  2. Overview. Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology. Section 7

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1995-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology in 1994 cover the following goals: application of fission neutrons to cancer therapy, studies on neutron efficiency to induce mutation and chromosomal damage, study on the formula for alteration of the repair process observed in case of gene mutation in TSH assay, investigation of new methods for more accurate measurements of molecular and cellular damage caused by radiation and environmental agents and studies on possible improvement in the application of different radiation sources to clinical cancer therapy. In this section of the Annual Report, the description of the mentioned activities as well as the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  3. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  4. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  5. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    1980-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  7. Personal recollections of radiation biology research at Hanford

    Thompson, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the Hanford biology programme over a period of nearly five decades. The programme began in the 1940s with a focus on understanding the potential health effects of radionuclides such as 131 I associated with fallout from the atomic bomb. These studies were extended in the 1950s to experiments on the toxicity and metabolism of plutonium and fission products such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In the 1960s, a major long term project was initiated on the inhalation toxicology and carcinogenic effects of plutonium oxide and plutonium nitrate in dogs and rodents. The project remained a major effort within the overall Hanford biology programme throughout the 1970s and 1980s, during which time a broad range of new projects on energy-related pollutants, radon health effects, and basic radiation biology were initiated. Despite the many evolutionary changes that have occurred in the Hanford biology programme, the fundamental mission of understanding the effects of radiation on human health has endured for nearly five decades. (author)

  8. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  9. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. (note)

  10. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  11. Flow cytometric life cycle analysis in cellular radiation biology

    Wood, J.C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to flow cytometric histogram analysis were developed: (1) differential histogram analysis, (2) DNA histogram analysis, and (3) multiparameter data analysis. These techniques were applied to an important unresolved problem in radiation biology. The initial responses to irradiation of a mammalian cell which occur during the first two cell cycles following the irradiation are of considerable interest to the radiation biologist. During the first two post-irradiation cell cycles, cells which ultimately will survive repair radiation-induced damage, while some cells begin to express some of the radiation-induced nuclear and chomatin damage. Caffeine- and thymidine-treated, and untreated gamma-irradiated cell populations were studied with respect to the radiation-induced G2 delay, deficient DNA synthesis, and the appearance of cells with abnormal DNA contents. It is hypothesized that the measured deficiency in DNA synthesis observed in the first post-irradiation cell cycle may be a result of daughter cells from abnormal first post-irradiation mitoses

  12. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    Maclot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  13. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  14. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  15. Proceedings of the national workshop on radiation safety and the Nigerian legal system

    Mallam, S.P.; Elegba, S.B.; Maiyaki, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the National Workshop on Radiation Safety and the Nigeria Legal System held at The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria from 7 - 9 June, 1995. The Sole aim of the workshop was to encourage the Federal Government of Nigeria to promulgate the Decree on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. The focal point of the workshop was the presentation of the various peaceful applications of nuclear energy in the national economy, albeit without any legal backing. Thus there were presentations from legal practitioners. Particular consideration was given to contribution from the Agency which dealt in great details with both the legal and infra structural requirements for nuclear safety and radiation protection. Presentation by the ministry of Foreign Affairs, Federal Ministry of Health and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency underscored the multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional nature of the concern. This volume contains the full text of 11 technical papers and also speeches by invited dignitaries presented at the workshop. The papers were fully discussed during the workshop. The organizing committee wishes to thank all authors for their presentation and cooperation in submitting manuscript promptly and the participants for there excellent contribution during the workshop

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    Frasch, G.; Anatschkowa, E.

    1999-02-01

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.) [de

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  18. Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting

    1971-01-01

    After an organism has suffered a radiation insult, knowledge of the dose and localization of the exposure is of the greatest importance for the treatment of any radiation damage. Supplementary to the information obtained from physical dosimetry, data obtained by biochemical indicators can, on the basis of metabolic changes in the irradiated organism, help in making early diagnosis, in assessing the extent of the radiation injury, and making a prognosis. Biochemical tests under optimal conditions would not depend on the quality and distribution of the dose in the body and would also reflect the sensitivity of the individual organisms. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization convened a joint scientific meeting on Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man in Paris-Le Vésinet, France, from 22 to 26 June 1970. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss recent problems in determining which biochemical and metabolic changes occurring in irradiated organisms could be used as indicators of radiation injury and its extent, and could thus be of help in planning the proper treatment of the injured persons. During the meeting the results obtained with various biochemical indicators, and experimental techniques and laboratory methods used in this field, were evaluated and compared. Both research workers and clinicians were invited to participate at the meeting. They discussed the possible value of several tests, used successfully in experimental animals, for clinical application; ways of standardizing suitable tests; and mutual collaboration between laboratories and clinics. The outcome of their discussions is summarized in the conclusions and recommendations which are included in these Proceedings together with the papers presented

  19. An intractable empyema proceeded from radiation pneumonitis after operation of lung cancer

    Masuya, Daiki; Gotoh, Masashi; Nakashima, Takashi; Okamoto, Taku; Liu, Dage; Ishikawa, Shinya; Yamamoto, Yasumichi; Huang, Cheng-Long; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2005-01-01

    A 54-year-old man underwent left upper lobectomy with c-stage IIIA lung squamous cell carcinoma after concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Radiation pneumonitis focusing on the residual left S 6 appeared after operation. Following steroid pulse treatment, the pneumonitic focus was cavitated and proceeded to pulmonary abscess. Although chest drainage was performed, control of the pulmonary fistula was poor, so an operation was performed. Pulmonary decortication and pleurodesis were performed, but failed to control the fistula and infection. Finally, thoracoplasty, omentoplasty and free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap were filled in intrathorasic to manage the fistula. In this case of operation following concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, the original recovery power declined. We therefore conclude this was an intractable case of empyema. (author)

  20. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The concept of RBE, which introduced by ICRP and ICRU about 50 years ago to compare biological effects of ionizing radiation of different types, still continues to be the essential element of current and projected radiation protection systems in terms of deriving quantities (quality factor and radiation weighting factor). For example, RBE for the stochastic effects induction has to be considered for appropriate radiation weighting of the absorbed dose while estimating equivalent dose. Simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung in comparison with external reference radiation allows assessment of RBE for alpha-radiation. Specific radiation risk models were developed by results of the direct epidemiological studies and used for such simulation. Simulation included published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally lung cancer risk model was developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model develop ed using data of Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. By results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation using Monte Carlo approach estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 (with 90% range 0.4 to 7). In case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 (with 90% ranges 0.3 to 17 and 0.7 to 45) respectively.Two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 (with 90% range 4 to 104 and 4 to 136) respectively. Considerable discrepancy between RBE

  2. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  3. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology: Progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.; Delegianis, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiation therapy. At the current level of funding, approximately one quarter of the research of the Laboratory could be regarded as in support of radiotherapy, with the remainder addressing more basic issues. The new initiatives have been in two directions. First, there has been an increased emphasis on research in radiation chemistry, inasmuch as this subject which involves the study of free radicals and fast radiation chemistry processes starts to bridge the gap between physics and biology, between the initial deposition of radiant energy and its final expression in terms of biological consequences. Second, the emphasis in the biological research has moved towards studies at the molecular level, with the appointment of new members of staff with expertise in this area. Individual chapters were processed separately for the data base

  4. Studies on the Promotion of Biological Application by Radiation

    No, Y. C.; Kuk, I. H.; Song, H. S.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation Technology (RT) has been widely used in most of all fields of industries, medical, bioresources, food and agriculture, public hygiene, and environment. Therefore, its application has been also researched in various parts. For industrialization of the developed technology, not only the application technology will be developed, but the accurate dosimetry and improvement of the services of irradiation practice should be performed as soon as possible. Evaluation of effects and reaction mechanism of biological materials by irradiation was performed in this year in the long term research planning. The researches and experiments were well performed and the good results were obtained. The results may be donated in the progress of radiation biology and the new establishment on the application of RT. Also, one of the results was the evaluation of the structural changes of biomolecules and its application in the fields of food and biotechnology industries. Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI) will be well settled down and promotion of research activity of newly established institute by the fundamental support of KAERI. And, ARTI can get the goal where the vision of the hub of RT in Asia/Pacific region by 2020

  5. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Ley-Chavez, E. [ISSEMYM Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Reyes-Frias, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P. [Hospital ' Dr. Nicolas San Juan' , Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A. [Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  7. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  8. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E.; Ley-Chavez, E.; Reyes-Frias, M.L.; Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  9. Proceedings of the 8. LOWRAD: International conference on the effects of low doses and very low doses of ionizing radiation on human health and biotopes

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings covering the following subjects: radiation protection, dosimetry, radiation dosimetry, cells, technetium, plutonium, uranium, thorium, low dose irradiation, radiation doses, cesium, radiation chemistry, nuclear medicine, safety and occupational exposure, neoplasm, cytology and radioisotopes

  10. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  11. Assessment of radiation safety awareness and attitude toward biological effect of radiation for employees in nuclear workplace

    Youngchuay, U.; Jetawattana, S.; Toeypho, V.; Eso, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated a potential relevance of data pertaining to the interaction of awareness in radiation biology and their attitude towards radiation hazards. The obtained information is useful in ascertaining the effectiveness of the ongoing radiation safety program and will be further used to determine the relationships between the radiation effective dose and cytogenetic approach in these groups of workers. (author)

  12. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  13. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde; Smith, Jim T.; Ford, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  14. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  15. Biological efficiency of interaction between various radiation and chemicals

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Yu, Dong Han; Lee, Byoung Hun; Petin, Vladislav G.; Geras'kin, Stanislav A.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina; Panek, Agnieszka; Wiechec, Anna

    2004-06-01

    This research project has been carried out jointly with INP (Poland) to develop technologies to assess the biological efficiency of interaction between radiation and chemicals. Through the cooperative project, KAERI and INP have established wide variety of bioassay techniques applicable to radiation bioscience, human monitoring, molecular epidemiology and environmental science. The joint experiment, in special, made it possible to utilize the merits of both institutes and to upgrade and verify KAERI's current technology level. All results of the cooperative research will be jointly published in high standard scientific journals listed in the Science Citation Index (SCI), which can make the role of fundamental basis for improving relationship between Korea and Poland. Research skills such as Trad-MCN assay, SCGE assay, immunohistochemical assay and molecular assay developed through joint research will be further elaborated and will be continuously used for the collaboration between two institutes

  16. Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters

    Carver, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

  17. Epigenetics in radiation biology: a new research frontier

    Agarwal, Sural

    2014-01-01

    The number of people that receive exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) via occupational, diagnostic, or treatment-related modalities is progressively rising. It is now accepted that the negative consequences of radiation exposure are not isolated to exposed cells or individuals. Exposure to IR can induce genome instability in the germ line, and is further associated with transgenerational genomic instability in the off spring of exposed males. The exact molecular mechanisms for transgenerational genome instability have yet to be elucidated, although there is support for it being an epigenetically induced phenomenon. This review is centered on the long-term biological effects associated with IR exposure, mainly focusing on the epigentic mechanisms and also some facts about whether dental radiology (IOPA, OPG, CT, MRI, CBCT) can lead to carcinogenesis. (author)

  18. Biological rhythms for rehabilitation of radiation damage of population

    Goncharova, T.G.; Vasil'eva, G.S.; Efimov, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Considerable disturbances in biological eurhythmycal structure of redoracu were discovered for people living in Borodulikha area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The deep desynchronise may result in a development of the cardiovascular, bronco-pulmonary, endocrine, oncologic, neuro psychic diseases. A method to correct the biological eurhythmycal structure was developed. Homeopathic doses of melatonin ('rhythm driver' managing the most regenerating and immune systems) and uthynol (promoting production of dehydroepiandrosterone of maternal prehormone of 27 hormones) were used to provide the general correction. The endocrine diseases are not practically subjected to the homeopathic correction. The sub correction was sometimes carried out after 5 months. The developed methods of rehabilitation of the radiation damages are unique, since they allow performing the homeopathic correction using the acupuncture monitoring

  19. UV and vacuum-UV biological spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Ito, Amando Siuiti

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Synchrotron radiation has been used as light source in the UV and VUV region for the study of many biological systems. In the time domain, measurements are made that allow the observation of dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules like proteins and peptides, using the fluorescent properties of either intrinsic or extrinsic probes. Optical activity of groups inside biomolecules allows the use of circular dichroism techniques to generate structural information and to follow processes like protein folding. Confocal scanning of synchrotron light generates microscopy resolution below 100 nm, allowing the creation of high quality three dimensional images of biological samples, and the collection of fluorescence originated from microvolumes inside the samples. We propose a station at LNLS for these three techniques: time-resolved fluorescence, circular dischroism and confocal microscopy, using UV and VUV light. (author)

  20. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β 1 D + β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    Navlet Armenta, J.M.; Gonzalez, S.; Silva, A.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haemathological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study of chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 o C has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y = α+β 1 D+β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author)

  2. Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume

  3. Proceedings of the FNCA 2002 workshop on application of electron accelerator. Radiation system for liquid samples

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-10-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Atomic Industry Forum (JAIF). It was held at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE), JAERI, Takasaki, Japan from 16 to 20 December 2002. The attendants at the workshop were consisted of 13 experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e., China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, and 40 participants from Japan. A total of 18 papers including invited papers on liquid waste treatment by electron beam, reviews of the radiation systems, and designing and cost analysis of EB irradiation system were presented. The major areas of interest of FNCA countries for cooperation were identified for application of low energy electron accelerator as liquid, thin film and granules. The gas and wastewater treatments were added to the above major areas. Based on the proposal from the participating countries, discussions were carried out to re-formulate the work plan of the project for three years until FY 2004. All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 17 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Vanguards of paradigm shift in radiation biology. Radiation-induced adaptive and bystander responses

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. In other words, there are accumulated findings which cannot be explained by the classical ''target theory'' of radiation biology. The radioadaptive response, radiation-induced bystander effects, low-dose radio-hypersensitivity, and genomic instability are specifically observed in response to low dose/low dose-rate radiation, and the mechanisms underlying these responses often involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. Recently, correlations between the radioadaptive and bystander responses have been increasingly reported. The present review focuses on the latter two phenomena by summarizing observations supporting their existence, and discussing the linkage between them from the aspect of production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. (author)

  5. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  6. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  7. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    Mukherjee, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants

  8. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1978-06-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants.

  9. Biological indicators for the assessment of a radiation exposure

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes, though a useful method of biological dosimetry, is techious, difficult to carry out, and time-consuming. It is most appropriate for an assessment of the probability of late damage of low doses up to 20 rad. The many attempts at using biochemical indicators for the absorbed dose have not had satisfactory results so far. Morphological changes especially of the peripheral blood cells and bone narrow cells are a sure sign of a radiolesion. However, there is the problem of quantitative measurement of these processes which has made it impossible so far to elaborate a useful biological dosimetry on this basis. Apart from the analysis of peripheral lymphocytes and leucocythes, there are three new approaches of potential value: 1. Analysis of up to 19 clinical and chemical parameters of the blood serum, - it gives a rough estimate of the probability of lethality of high prognostic value. 2. Observation of the peripheral reticulocyte count - a quick and rather uncomplicated method that does not require specific laboratories. 3. Measurement of the rate of incorporation of labelled iododeoxyuridine in bone narrow cells of radiation-exposed persons or in cell cultures in a medium containing serum of radiation-exposed persons; this method appears promising for the narrow dose range and also raises same questions concerning basic research into intercellular signal substances. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  11. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  12. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yokoyama, Kumiko; Okuyama, Shinichi; Yamaura, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C 2 W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C 2 W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37 0 C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising. (J.P.N.)

  13. Biological basis of combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin

    Fukuda, H; Matsuzawa, T; Yokoyama, K; Okuyama, S; Yamaura, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1976-01-01

    The biological basis for combination therapy with radiation and bleomycin (BLM) was studied on C/sub 2/W cells growing in vitro. When BLM was added to the medium before or after irradiation, a potentiating effect was observed. The potentiation remained for 4-6 hours after irradiation. To make clear the mechanism, both type of repair from radiation damage (Elkind type and PLD) by BLM were examined. BLM didn't inhibit the Elkind type recovery but it did inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD repair). Plateau phase C/sub 2/W cells were irradiated, incubated at 37/sup 0/C for a various number of hours, then trypsinized for colony formation. PLD repair was inhibited when BLM was added immediately after irradiation. Based on such experimental results, we treated lung cancer with combination of radiation and BLM. BLM was injected intravenously within 30 minutes after irradiation. Although it seems too early to discuss the result of the combination therapy, it is very promising.

  14. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 μT magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  15. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  16. Biology panel: coming to a clinic near you. Translational research in radiation biology

    Travis, Elizabeth L.; Thames, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    The explosion of knowledge in molecular biology coupled with the rapid and continuing development of molecular techniques allow a new level of research in radiation biology aimed at understanding the processes that govern radiation damage and response in both tumors and normal tissues. The challenge to radiation biologists and radiation oncologists is to use this knowledge to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors by rapidly translating these new findings into clinical practice. This panel will focus on both sides of the therapeutic ratio coin, the manipulation of tumor control by manipulating the processes that control cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and the reduction of normal tissue morbidity by applying the emerging information on the genetic basis of radiosensitivity. Apoptosis is a form of cell death believed to represent a minor component of the clinical effects of radiation. However, if apoptosis is regulated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms, then it may be possible to produce a pro-apoptotic phenotype in the tumor cell population by modulating the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms by pharmacological intervention. Thus signaling-based apoptosis therapy, designed to overcome the relative resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis, may improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors. The explosion of information concerning cell cycle regulation in both normal and tumor cells has provided the opportunity for insights into the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic agents that can act as radiosensitizers. The second talk will explore the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints in some cancers can be exploited to improve the therapeutic index of radiation sensitizers, specifically the fluoropyrimidines which appear to act at the G1/S transition. Finally, efforts to increase tumor control will be translated into clinical practice only if such treatments do not increase the complication

  17. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1985-November 30, 1986

    Hall, E.J.

    1986-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Radiological Research Laboratory of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University. The bulk of the research of the Laboratory involves basic and fundamental aims, not confined to radiotherapy. Research carried out in the Laboratory covers the determination of microdosimetry quantities, computer simulation of particle tracks, determination of oncogenic transformation, and the transfection of DNA into cells. The Hallmark of the Laboratory is the interaction between physics and biology

  18. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1982-November 1983

    1983-07-01

    A wide range of research is carried out at the Radiological Research Laboratory, from computer simulation of particle tracks to the determination of oncogenic transformation in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies remain the central mission in an attempt to understand the biological action of ionizing radiations. Collaborative research is carried out on the use of radiosensitizers on chemosensitizers on the effect of hormones on oncogenic transformation and on cataractogenesis

  19. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a

  20. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries

  1. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Valentin, J; Cederlund, T; Drake, P; Finne, I E; Glansholm, A; Jaworska, A; Paile, W; Rahola, T [eds.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  2. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  3. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.; Obelic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia) and State Office for Standardization and Metrology. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Fifth symposium shows same parts with articles from radioecology and radon, biological and medical topics, as well as professional and public exposure and dosimetry. Also, non-ionising radiations take its share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  4. 13th AINSE radiation biology conference: conference handbook

    1991-01-01

    The forty one papers presented at this conference covered the areas of radiation induced lesions, apoptosis, genetics and radiobiological consequences of low level radiation exposure, clinical applications of radiation, mammalian cells radiosensitivity and radiation-activated proteins

  5. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Huang, Min-yan; Ruan, Jian-lei; Bai, Yu-shu; Xu, Su

    2008-01-01

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 10 10 Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  6. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO)

    2010-01-01

    delivery, quality assurance and optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technology in clinical practice and future trends were discussed. It was underscored that clinical studies should be carried out to demonstrate the clinical and cost effective benefits of advanced technology and that each country must decide whether adequate resources exist to implement such technology. Its implementation requires good diagnostic imaging, modern treatment planning capabilities, ongoing quality assurance processes, and experience with three dimensional techniques, all of which require increased levels of training, support and quality assurance. The role of the IAEA is unique in developing resource adapted guidelines and protocols for the transition to new technologies in radiation oncology. ICARO was co-sponsored by leading professional societies in the field, and delivered in cooperation with major societies in radiation oncology, medical physics and nuclear medicine. Contributions from 22 commercial companies present at the exhibition are acknowledged. These proceedings contain the presentations as agreed with the speakers, selected posters and the opening addresses, conclusions and recommendations

  7. The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the literature relevant to the selection of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for use in arriving at values of the quality factor (Q). Emphasis is placed on response to small ( M . In a wide variety of systems, the RBE M for fast (fission) neutrons, with low doses and dose rates, appears to be of the order of 20 or more compared to moderately filtered 250 kVp x rays and 40 or more compared to higher energy gamma rays. These values, which are much larger than those observed with large doses delivered at high dose rates, are due mainly, but not entirely, to a decrease in the slope of the curve for the ow-LET reference radiation at low dose

  8. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    Sakabe, N.

    1996-01-01

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  9. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  10. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  11. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  12. Scientific projection paper on biologic effects of ionizing radiation

    Matanoski, G.

    1980-01-01

    There is widespread knowledge about the effects of radiation in human populations but the studies have had some limitations which have left gaps in our knowledge. Most populations have had exposure to high doses with little information on the effect of dose rate. The characteristics of the populations have been restricted by the location of the disaster, the occupational limitations, or the basic risks associated with the under-lying disease for which radiation was given. All doses have been estimated and such values are subject to marked variability particularly when they rely on sources of data such as hospital records. The biological data although extensive have several deficits in information. Which are the sites in which cancer is produced by irradiation and what are the cell types which are produced. The sensitivity of various tissues and organs are not similar and it is important to rank them according to susceptibility. This has been done in the past but the results are not complete for all cell types and organs. The temporal patterns for tumor development, the latent period, the period of expressed excess, the life-time risks need to be defined more precisely for the cancers. Many populations have not been followed long enough to express the complete risk

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Final report, October 1, 1971--September 30, 1977

    Rossi, H.H.; Hall, E.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research under Contract EY-76-C-02-3243 has been carried out in the area of Radiation Physics, Biophysics and Radiation Biology. During the period of this contract the major accomplishments include, in Physics, the refinement of tissue equivalent dosimetry, the formulation of the concepts of microdosimetry, the development of apparatus used in microdosimetry, and the development of ionization chambers with internal gas multiplication. Principal contributions in Radiobiology have included the determination of RBE and OER as a function of neutron energy, the study of combined effects of radiation and a variety of other agents, and the investigation of the transformation of cells in tissue culture. Theoretical research centered around the development of the theoretical framework of microdosimetry and the establishment of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action. In a cooperative effort with Brookhaven National Laboratory, a major accelerator facility dedicated exclusively to Radiobiology and Radiation Physics, has been developed. Members of the laboratory have performed extensive service to national and international organizations

  14. Effect of high linear energy transfer radiation on biological membranes

    Choudhary, D.; Srivastava, M.; Kale, R.K.; Sarma, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cellular membranes are vital elements, and their integrity is extremely essential for the viability of the cells. We studied the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the membranes. Rabbit erythrocytes (1 x 10 7 cells/ml) and microsomes (0.6 mg protein/ml) prepared from liver of rats were irradiated with 7 Li ions of energy 6.42 MeV/u and 16 O ions of energy 4.25 MeV/u having maximum LET values of 354 keV/μm and 1130 keV/μm, respectively. 7 Li- and 16 O-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation was found to increase with fluence. The 16 O ions were more effective than 7 Li ions, which could be due to the denser energy distribution in the track and the yield of free radicals. These findings suggested that the biological membranes could be peroxidized on exposure to high-LET radiation. Inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was observed in the presence of a membrane-active drug, chlorpromazine (CPZ), which could be due to scavenging of free radicals (mainly HO. and ROO.), electron donation, and hydrogen transfer reactions. The 7 Li and 16 O ions also induced hemolysis in erythrocytes. The extent of hemolysis was found to be a function of time and fluence, and showed a characteristic sigmoidal pattern. The 16 O ions were more effective in the lower fluence range than 7 Li ions. These results were compared with lipid peroxidation and hemolysis induced by gamma-radiation. (orig.)

  15. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-15

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation.

  16. Study on the radiation-induced biological responses based on the analysis of metabolites

    Jo, Sungkee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Haeran; Roh, Changhyun; Shin, Heejune; Ryu, Dongkyoung

    2013-01-01

    1. Objectives □ Establishment of basis of biological radiation response study by metabolite analysis 2. Project results □ Establishment of analytical basis of radiation-responsive metabolites in biological samples - Large scale collection of tissue samples from irradiated animal for radiation metabolomics research - Establishment of mass spectromety (GC MS, LC MS-MS) analysis methods of biological samples - 3 Standard Operation Protocols (SOP) for ultra high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS, Q-TOF MS) analysis of metabolites from biological samples - Establishment of database for radiation metabolites □ Basic research on radiation-responsive metabolites and the interpretation of their functions - Validation of spermidine as a candidate biomarker of acute radiation response in mouse blood - Verification of 5 radiation-responsive steroid hormones and alteration of their metabolic enzyme activities in mouse blood - Verification of 13 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain -Verification of 10 radiation-responsive amino acids (related to oxidative stress, neurotransmission, energy metabolism) in regional mouse brain - Verification of 74 radiation-responsive metabolites in whole rat brain by ultra high resolution FT-ICR MS and Q-TOF MS analysis 3. Expected benefits and plan of application □ Establishment of research basis of radiation metabolomics in Korea □ Provision of core technology in radiation bioscience and safety field by application of radiation metabolomics results to the technology development in radiation biodosimetry, and radiation response evaluation and modulation

  17. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  18. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F{sub 1} Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F{sub 1} progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F{sub 1} sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F{sub 1} sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are

  19. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  20. Technology and science at a high-power spallation source: Proceedings

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings cover many aspects of the usefulness of spallation neutrons. Nine different areas are considered: surfaces and interfaces, engineering, materials science, polymers and complex fluids, chemistry, structural biology, nuclear engineering and radiation effects, condensed matter physics and fundamental physics.

  1. Technology and science at a high-power spallation source: Proceedings

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings cover many aspects of the usefulness of spallation neutrons. Nine different areas are considered: surfaces and interfaces, engineering, materials science, polymers and complex fluids, chemistry, structural biology, nuclear engineering and radiation effects, condensed matter physics and fundamental physics

  2. Radiation efficacy and biological risk from whole-breast irradiation via intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Desantis, David M.

    Radiotherapy is an established modality for women with breast cancer. During the delivery of external beam radiation to the breast, leakage, scattered x-rays from the patient and the linear accelerator also expose healthy tissues and organs outside of the breast, thereby increasing the patient's whole-body dose, which then increases the chance of developing a secondary, radiation-induced cancer. Generally, there are three IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery techniques from a conventional linear accelerator; forward planned (FMLC), inverse planned 'sliding window' (DMLC), and inverse planned 'step-and-shoot' (SMLC). The goal of this study was to determine which of these three techniques delivers an optimal dose to the breast with the least chance of causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. A conventional, non-IMRT, 'Wedge' plan also was compared. Computerized Tomography (CT) data sets for both a large and small sized patient were used in this study. With Varian's Eclipse AAA algorithm, the organ doses specified in the revised ICRP 60 publication were used to calculate the whole-body dose. Also, an anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at each organ site for measured doses. The risk coefficient from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report of 4.69 x 10-2 deaths per Gy was used to convert whole-body dose to risk of a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. The FMLC IMRT delivered superior tumor coverage over the 3D conventional plan and the inverse DMLC or SMLC treatment plans delivered clinically equivalent tumor coverage. However, the FMLC plan had the least likelihood of inadvertently causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer compared to the inverse DMLC, SMLC, and Wedge plans.

  3. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  4. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  5. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 17. Proceedings

    Baumann, M.; Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Petersen, C.; Rodemann, H.P.; Zips, D.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings contain the lectures and poster sessions on the following topics: modulation of the immune system for the improvement of tumor radiotherapy; molecular factors and predictors of radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; DNA repair; molecular factors and modulation of radiation reactions of normal tissue; biological studies with differential experimental radiations; tumor stem cells: importance for the radiotherapy; DNA repair and its importance for the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological modification of the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological imaging and tumor microenvironment

  6. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    Brugere, H.; Hours, M.; Seze, R. de; Bernier, M.; Letertre, Th.; Aurengo, A.; Burais, N.; Bedja, M.; Merckel, O.; Decat, G.; Lagroye, I.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Aurengo, A.; Souques, M.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lagroye, I.; Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  7. Stochastic biological response to radiation. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression

    Inoue, Tohru; Hirabayashi, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Authors explain that the radiation effect on biological system is stochastic along the law of physics, differing from chemical effect, using instances of Cs-137 gamma-ray (GR) and benzene (BZ) exposures to mice and of resultant comprehensive analyses of gene expression. Single GR irradiation is done with Gamma Cell 40 (CSR) to C57BL/6 or C3H/He mouse at 0, 0.6 and 3 Gy. BE is given orally at 150 mg/kg/day for 5 days x 2 weeks. Bone marrow cells are sampled 1 month after the exposure. Comprehensive gene expression is analyzed by Gene Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix) and data are processed by programs like case normalization, statistics, network generation, functional analysis etc. GR irradiation brings about changes of gene expression, which are classifiable in common genes variable commonly on the dose change and stochastic genes variable stochastically within each dose: e.g., with Welch-t-test, significant differences are between 0/3 Gy (dose-specific difference, 455 pbs (probe set), in stochastic 2113 pbs), 0/0.6 Gy (267 in 1284 pbs) and 0.6/3 Gy (532 pbs); and with one-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) and hierarchial/dendrographic analyses, 520 pbs are shown to involve the dose-dependent 226 and dose-specific 294 pbs. It is also shown that at 3 Gy, expression of common genes are rather suppressed, including those related to the proliferation/apoptosis of B/T cells, and of stochastic genes, related to cell division/signaling. Ven diagram of the common genes of above 520 pbs, stochastic 2113 pbs at 3 Gy and 1284 pbs at 0.6 Gy shows the overlapping genes 29, 2 and 4, respectively, indicating only 35 pbs are overlapping in total. Network analysis of changes by GR shows the rather high expression of genes around hub of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at 0.6 Gy, and rather variable expression around CREB hub/suppressed expression of kinesin hub at 3 Gy; in the network by BZ exposure, unchanged or low expression around p53 hub and suppression

  8. Proceedings of the first international conference on trends in cell and molecular biology: conference abstract book

    2015-01-01

    This conference throws light on topics for understanding the importance of nanotechnology as a potential treatment option for some important diseases. Computational biology with its vibrant research outputs needs to be integrated with modern cell biology as a whole to understand, analyze and predict the impacts in a much better way. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Physical grounds for biological effect of laser radiation

    Rubinov, A N

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to the understanding of biological activity caused by low-intensity laser radiation, in which coherence is a factor of paramount importance, has been developed. It is based on the dipole interaction of gradient laser fields with cells, organelles and membranes. The laser intensity gradients in an object arise due to the interference of the light scattered by the tissue with the incident light beam (speckle formation). Apart from speckles, different types of light spatial modulation can be created deliberately using different schemes for beam interference. It is shown that gradient laser fields may cause spatial modulation of the concentration of particles and increase their 'partial temperature'. This paper presents the results of experimental observation of trapping of different types of particles, including human lymphocytes, in the interference fields of the He-Ne laser. The sweep-net effect on particles of different sizes on moving the laser field is demonstrated and crystal-like self-organization of particles in the laser gradient field is observed. The influence of gradient laser fields on erythrocyte rouleaus, on the apoptosis of human lymphocytes as well as on their chromosome aberrations is demonstrated. It may be concluded from the experimental studies that the influence of an interference laser field with a rightly chosen period can stimulate the repair system of a cell, increasing its viability

  10. Biological effect of focal alpha radiation on the hamster lung

    Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.; Prine, J.R.; Holland, L.M.; Richmond, C.R.

    1975-11-01

    Monodispersed 10-μm diameter ZrO 2 ceramic microspheres, containing varying amounts of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , were injected into the jugular vein of 100-day-old Syrian hamsters. These biologically inert microspheres lodged subsequently in pulmonary capillaries and remained static in position throughout the life span of the animals with no discernible inflammatory response. The numbers of microspheres injected ranged from 2000 to 10,000 and the specific activity from 0 to 59 pCi/sphere so that the lung burdens were 0 to 354 nCi/animal. At these numbers, each plutonium-laden microsphere served as an independent, focal source of alpha radiation. No consistent alteration of life spans post-exposure was seen in the experimental hamsters compared to controls. Pulmonary tissue responses were minimal with only 0.5 percent of the animals given Pu/ZrO 2 microspheres ultimately developing primary tumors of the lung. No unexpected gross or histologic lesion were found in other major body tissues

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on 'effect of radiation on non-human biota'

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2011-03-01

    Safety assessment and protection for the radiation exposure were so far mainly based on the radiation effects on human health, because it has been generally recognized that, when human beings are protected, other environmental life, at least in the level of species or groups, will be protected from the radiation hazards, even if individuals may be affected. Recently, with increasing concern on environmental protection, a new framework of radiation protection has been proposed, where non-human biota as well as human beings is included. Researches on the environmental radiation protection need a contribution of multi-disciplinary researchers as similar to the other environmental sciences. Especially, a research field on the biological effect of radiation on non-human biota is fundamental and essential. Therefore, we planned the Workshop entitled Effect of Radiation on the Non-human Biota this time. All the 13 papers presented at the entitled meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Metabolomics in Radiation-Induced Biological Dosimetry: A Mini-Review and a Polyamine Study

    Changhyun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elucidate that polyamine metabolite is a powerful biomarker to study post-radiation changes. Metabolomics in radiation biodosimetry, the application of a metabolomics analysis to the field of radiobiology, promises to increase the understanding of biological responses by ionizing radiation (IR. Radiation exposure triggers a complex network of molecular and cellular responses that impacts metabolic processes and alters the levels of metabolites. Such metabolites have potential as biomarkers for radiation dosimetry. Among metabolites, polyamine is one of many potential biomarkers to estimate radiation response. In addition, this review provides an opportunity for the understanding of a radiation metabolomics in biodosimetry and a polyamine case study.

  13. Molecular biology in radiation oncology. Radiation oncology perspective of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Coleman, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are used to illustrate the application of molecular biology to clinical radiation oncology. Identified by linkage analysis and cloned, the structure of the genes and the numerous mutations are determined by molecular biology techniques that examine the structure of the DNA and the proteins made by the normal and mutant alleles. Mutations in the non-transcribed portion of the gene will not be found in protein structure assays and may be important in gene function. In addition to potential deleterious mutations, normal polymorphisms of the gene will also be detected, therefore not all differences in gene sequence may represent important mutations, a finding that complicates genetic screening and counseling. The localization of the protein in the nucleus, the expression in relation to cell cycle and the association with RAD51 led to the discovery that the two BRCA genes may be involved in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The defect in DNA repair can increase radiosensitivity which might improve local control using breast-conserving treatment in a tumor which is homozygous for the loss of the gene (i.e., BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes). This is supported by the early reports of a high rate of local control with breast-conserving therapy. Nonetheless, this radiosensitivity theoretically may also lead to increased susceptibility to carcinogenic effects in surviving cells, a finding that might not be observed for decades. The susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage appears also to make the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. Understanding the role of the normal BRCA genes in DNA repair might help define a novel mechanism for radiation sensitization by interfering with the normal gene function using a variety of molecular or biochemical therapies

  14. Towards biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT): Selective IMRT dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution

    Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the spatial biology distribution (e.g., clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate, functional importance) in most tumors and sensitive structures is heterogeneous. Recent progress in biological imaging is making the mapping of this distribution increasingly possible. The purpose of this work is to establish a theoretical framework to quantitatively incorporate the spatial biology data into intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning. In order to implement this, we first derive a general formula for determining the desired dose to each tumor voxel for a known biology distribution of the tumor based on a linear-quadratic model. The desired target dose distribution is then used as the prescription for inverse planning. An objective function with the voxel-dependent prescription is constructed with incorporation of the nonuniform dose prescription. The functional unit density distribution in a sensitive structure is also considered phenomenologically when constructing the objective function. Two cases with different hypothetical biology distributions are used to illustrate the new inverse planning formalism. For comparison, treatments with a few uniform dose prescriptions and a simultaneous integrated boost are also planned. The biological indices, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), are calculated for both types of plans and the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional dose escalation scheme is demonstrated. Our calculations revealed that it is technically feasible to produce deliberately nonuniform dose distributions with consideration of biological information. Compared with the conventional dose escalation schemes, the new technique is capable of generating biologically conformal IMRT plans that significantly improve the TCP while reducing or keeping the NTCPs at their current levels. Biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT

  15. Influence of vitamins on cytostatic drugs: radiation-chemical and radiation-biological investigations in vitro

    Heinrich, E.

    2002-03-01

    Many environmental burdens (air pollution, formation of ozone etc.), humans nowadays are exposed to, in connection with unhealthy way of living promote the formation of free radicals e.g. OH and peroxylradicals in the organism. Those show an enormous cell-damaging effect, and can weaken the immune system or cause cancer diseases. The number of humans suffering from different forms of cancer is rising world-wide. Therefore it is necessary to find new and better therapy forms for this illness. The organism has its own protective system, which is able to capture free radicals and make them innocuous to a large extent. Apart from various enzyme systems the antioxidizing vitamins C (ascorbic acid), E (α-tocopherol) and β-carotin play an important role in this process. Now it was of interest whether vitamin B1 (thiamine) also possesses the ability to work as a radiation protector or to influence the effect of different cytostatic drugs. In the context of this thesis the radiation-chemical and radiation-biological behaviour of vitamin B1 was examined under different conditions (in presence and absence of oxygen as well as in media saturated with N 2 O). HPLC analysis were performed to establish radiolysis products. Furthermore the synergistic effect of vitamin B1 on cytostatic drugs (sanazole, mitomycin C) was studied alone or in combination with other vitamins (C, E and β-carotin) by using two different E. coli bacteria strains as a model for living systems. (author)

  16. Proceedings of Twentieth Forum for Biological Sciences : The Fifth congress of biotechnology

    2009-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of the oral presentations and posters that were presented during Twentieth Forum for Biological Sciences : The fifth congress of biotechnology that was held in Hammamet from 22 to 25 mars 2009

  17. Proceedings of the ninth annual conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 100 papers. Some of the titles are: Angular integrations and inter-projections correlation effects in CT reconstruction; Supercomputing environment for biomedical research; Program towards a computational molecular biology; Current problems in molecular biology computing; Signal averaging applied to positron emission tomography; First experimental results from a high spatial resolution PET prototype; and A coherent approach in computer-aided radiotherapy

  18. Proceedings of the IRPA regional symposium on radiation protection in neighbouring countries of Central Europe

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    At the Symposium, a total of 169 papers were presented at six sessions: 1. General aspects of radiation protection; 2. Natural radiation exposure; 3. Radiation protection at workplaces; 4. Environmental aspects of radiation protection; 5. Instrumentation of methods; 6. Non-ionizing radiation protection. Of the papers, 162 were input to INIS. (A.K.)

  19. Proceedings of the IRPA regional symposium on radiation protection in neighbouring countries of Central Europe

    1998-01-01

    At the Symposium, a total of 169 papers were presented at six sessions: 1. General aspects of radiation protection; 2. Natural radiation exposure; 3. Radiation protection at workplaces; 4. Environmental aspects of radiation protection; 5. Instrumentation of methods; 6. Non-ionizing radiation protection. Of the papers, 162 were input to INIS. (A.K.)

  20. Proceedings of the 14. Congress of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Society

    Lankoff, A.; Wojcik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Held every three years Congress of the Polish Radiation Research Society presents the latest achievements in the radiation research. In 2007 participants presented 9 plenary lectures, 38 section lectures and 61 posters. Communications and posters covered four disciplines: (a) radiobiology and radiotherapy, (b) radiation chemistry and photochemistry, (c) non-ionizing radiation, (d) radioprotection and the environmental radiation

  1. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  2. The radiation biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Coderre, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) produces a complex mixture of high and low-LET radiations in tissue. Using data on the biological effectiveness of these various dose components, derived primarily in small animals irradiated with thermal neutrons, it has been possible to express clinical BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units. The accuracy of these calculated doses in normal tissue and tumor will be reviewed. Clinical trials are underway at a number of centers. There are differences in the neutron beams at these centers, and differences in the details of the clinical protocols. Ideally, data from all centers using similar boron compounds and treatment protocols should be compared and combined, if appropriate, in a multi-institutional study in order to strengthen statistical analysis. An international dosimetry exchange is underway that will allow the physical doses from the various treatment centers to be quantitatively compared. As a first step towards the comparison of the clinical data, the normal brain tolerance data from the patients treated in the initial Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Harvard/MIT BNCT clinical trials have been compared. The data provide a good estimate of the normal brain tolerance for a somnolence syndrome endpoint, and provide guidance for setting normal brain tolerance limits in ongoing and future clinical trials. Escalation of the dose in BNCT can be accomplished by increasing the amount of the boron compound administered, increasing the duration of the neutron exposure, or both. The dose escalations that have been carried out to date at the various treatment centers will be compared and contrasted. Possible future clinical trials using BNCT in combination with other modalities will be discussed

  3. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    Koeteles, G.J.; Bianco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  4. Cytogenetic techniques as biological indicator and dosimeter of radiation damage

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The cytogenetic methods are established techniques for bio monitoring and bio dosimetry of professionally and accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation subjects. They are applied to continue the evaluation of the physical dosimetry and to consider the individual radiosensitivity. The results of cytogenetic monitoring and dosimetry of radiation exposed subjects carried out during the last 5 years in laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP is reported. Laboratory of Radiation genetics performs cytogenetic monitoring of low dose radiation professionally or medically exposed subjects: workers in Kozloduy NPP, radioactive waste repository workers, X-rays diagnostically exposed patients, and radiotherapy exposed as well. Three cytogenetic indicators are applied as the most sensitive indicators for human radiation exposure: analysis of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and stable translocations (FISH). The optimized methodology for application of different cytogenetic techniques for radiation estimation is discussed

  5. Current status of biological indicators to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation. Biological Indicators Working Group

    Lushbaugh, C.; Eisele, G.; Burr, W. Jr.; Hubner, K.; Wachholz, B.

    1991-01-01

    Hematologic changes following whole-body exposure to gamma or x-ray radiation have been used to estimate dose. The usefulness of this biological indicator is limited because of the recovery of these cells with time, thus making it unsuitable for estimation of dose years after exposure. The same is true for spermatogenic indicators; recovery and restoration of sperm numbers and fertility makes this biological indicator impractical for assessing radiation dose decades after radiation exposure. As noted in the text of the report, immunological concepts are in a state of rapid development, and it is possible that improved methods for applying immunologic procedures as biological indicators of radiation may be developed in the future. However, at the time, immunological indicators are not useful, even in an early time period, for quantitating radiation dose after total-body irradiation. A semiquantitative effect is observable in the early phase after total-body irradiation over a period of days to weeks, but there is little data available to indicate whether any of the immunological parameters can be indicative of a dose when the test is applied several years after radiation exposure. More detailed information regarding immunological indicators for estimating irradiation dose has been summarized elsewhere (Wasserman 1986). There is good agreement that ionizing radiation causes biochemical changes in the body; however, attempts to apply these changes to provide a reliable biological dosimetry system have not been particularly successful. The status of this research has been summarized by Gerber (1986). One of the difficulties has been the problem of establishing clear dose-effect relationships in humans. The lack of specificity in the response for radiation is another problem

  6. Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management

    Robert F. Powers; Donald L. Hauxwell; Gary M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Biotic properties of forest soil are the linkages connecting forest vegetation with an inert rooting medium to create a dynamic, functioning ecosystem. But despite the significance of these properties, managers have little awareness of the biotic world beneath their feet. Much of our working knowledge of soil biology seems anchored in myth and misunderstanding. To...

  7. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: Proceedings of the ninth nestle international nutrition symposium

    This 9th Nestle Nutrition Symposium on “Nutrition and the Biology of Human Ageing” is presented at a time of unprecedented demographic change worldwide. The UN population division forecasts that the number of people living over age 65 will rise to almost 1 billion (12% percent of the world’s populat...

  8. Mini-Proceedings, 18th Meeting of the Working Group on Radiative Corrections and MC Generators for Low Energies

    Masjuan, P; Venanzoni, G

    2016-01-01

    The mini-proceedings of the 18$^{\\mathrm{th}}$ Meeting of the "Working Group on Radiative Corrections and MonteCarlo Generators for Low Energies" held in Frascati, 19$^{\\mathrm{th}}$ - 20$^{\\mathrm{st}}$ May, are presented. These meetings, started in 2006, have as aim to bring together experimentalists and theoreticians working in the fields of meson transition form factors, hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the leptons, and the effective fine structure constant. The development of MonteCarlo generators and Radiative Corrections for precision $e^+e^-$ and $\\tau$-lepton physics are also covered, with emphasis on meson production. At this workshop, a documentary entitled {\\it Bruno Touschek with AdA in Orsay} commemorating the first observation of electron-positron collisions in a laboratory was also presented. With this edition, the working group reaches 10 years of continuous activities.

  9. The applications of microdosimetry in radiation biology study

    Kim, Eunhee

    2002-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the ionizing radiation causes these damages, the spatial patterns of interaction and energy deposition by radiations should be explained in cellular level. All the descriptions of the physical process of radiation interaction and energy transfer in cellular or microscopic scale constitute the field of microdosimetry. The underlying motivations of microdosimetry study range from the efficient control of the radiation protection measures to the improvement of the diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness in medical applications of radiation. The major quantity in the conventional radiation dosimetry or the macroscopic dosimetry is the 'absorbed dose' defined as the mean value of the possible energy depositions per unit mass of the target. With the microscopic targets such as cells and subcellular organelles, the average quantity can not represent the radiation actions on the targets any more because of the inhomogeneous and stochastic nature in radiation interaction with matter. The essence of microdosimetry is to study the fluctuation of energy deposition in a microscopic volume and its deviation from the mean value attributed to the inherent randomness of radiation interactions with matter

  10. Confronting actual influence of radiation on human bodies and biological defense mechanism

    Matsubara, Junko

    2012-01-01

    After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, social, economical, psychological pressures on local residents and fears of radiation among the general public have not been resolved. Based on the assumption that the negligence of specialists to clearly explain the influence of radiation on human bodies to the general public is the factor for above mentioned pressures and fears, the influence of radiation from a realistic view was discussed. The topics covered are: (1) understanding the meaning of radiation regulation, (2) radiation and threshold values, (3) actual influence of low-dose radiation, (4) chemical and biological defense in defense mechanism against radiation, (5) problems raised by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Furthermore, the article explains the principles and the applications of biological defense function activation, and suggested that self-help efforts to fight against stress are from now on. (S.K.)

  11. Biological effects of very low doses of ionizing radiation

    Evseev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper deals with a qualitative microdosimetric analysis of a new radiobiological phenomenon (physiological reaction of the cell as a whole to very low doses of ionizing radiations). The analysis is aimed at identifying the type of the primary interaction of radiation with the cell and finding its place in the cell

  12. Radiations from GSM Base Stations and its Biological Effects

    Michael Horsfall

    All rights reserved ... radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and ... information in Nigeria on the possible effects of the .... The slides were left to dry on the hot plate ... potential health effect of the RF radiations. It is also a pointer to the need for .... The telecommunication industry is an essential.

  13. Thyroid cancer due to biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Galvão, T.; Castro, N.; Teixeira, D.; Matuo, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is considered the most common in the region of the head and neck. It can be caused by spontaneous mutations, but also by ionizing radiation. The effect of ionizing radiation on the thyroid has been studied for several decades. The exact cause of the cancer is not known, but people with certain risk factors are more vulnerable, such as exposure to radiation, family history and age over 40 years. The thyroid is susceptible to the effects of radiation and is involved in the field of diagnostic or therapeutic irradiation, and may present functional and structural changes. Radiation can act in different ways, such as inhibiting or activating specific functions of the follicular epithelium, reducing the number of functioning follicles, altering vascularization or vascular permeability and inducing immune reactions. These morphological and histological changes may be related to the development of thyroid cancer

  14. Biological Effects of Interaction between Radiation and Chemicals

    Hyun, Kyung Man; Han, Min; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. The combined action between radiation and various chemicals is a distinguishing feature of modern life. Mercury chloride is a widespread environmental pollutant that is known to have toxic effects. Synergistic effects of radiation and HgCl{sub 2} on human cells was previously reported. NAC is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been explored in several studies. There has been an increasing interest of studying the role of NAC as a radioprotective substance. The present study was designed not only to assess the synergistic effects between radiation and HgCl{sub 2}, but also to investigate protective effects of NAC on cells.

  15. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  16. Radiation physics and biology: Progress report for period December 1, 1986-November 30, 1987

    Rubin, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    This annual report describes progress made on 14 individual research projects. These projects fall naturally into theoretical biophysics, experimental microdosimetry and radiation biology. Each project has been separately abstracted for the Energy Data Base

  17. ISRE04. Proceedings of the third international symposium on radiation education

    2005-03-01

    The Third International Symposium on Radiation Education was held on August 23-26, 2004 at Nagasaki, Japan. The fundamental knowledge of radiation and related nuclear matters should be properly communicated to students and general public. The symposium has been devoted for developing an effective method of radiation education. To remove unnecessary fears for radiation and to utilize radiation and nuclear energy to contribute to the human welfare, the spirit of radiation education was first announced internationally in 1998 at Hayama, Japan, and then confirmed in 2002 at Debrecen, Hungary, and now was reassured in August 2004 at Nagasaki. The 80 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on ion-beam-applied biology

    Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishioka, Noriko S.

    2005-09-01

    In order to encourage research on biological application using ion beam at TIARA, we have had the workshop on ion beam applied biology at JAERI Takasaki every year since 2002. The 3rd workshop titled 'Future development of plant research using the positron imaging method - Understanding the plant functions through visualization images-' is held this year. The main topics of this workshop are introduction of the latest studies on the assimilation and transportation of nutrients by plant using positron imaging method. Further, related technologies of the positron imaging and prospect of positron imaging for is discussed. We hope this workshop popularizes positron imaging technology for plants, accelerates cooperation between industries, universities and governmental institutes and contributes future projects of understanding of the physiological functions of plants using the positron imaging method. This workshop was held on September 29th 2004, hosted by JAERI Takasaki and cooperated by The Japan Radioisotope Association, Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, The Japanese Society of Nuclear and Radiochemical Science and The Ion Beam Breeding Society. There were 85 participants from not only universities and laboratories but also private company developing the environment conservation technology, so on. Highly qualified presentations were given on biological studies with ion beam, on analysis of plant functions using the positron imaging method and on supporting technology for the positron imaging monitoring. Progress in the elucidation of plant functions is expected to develop the technologies for production of safe provisions and conservation of environment with plant. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Proceedings of the 2013 MidSouth Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society (MCBIOS) Conference.

    Wren, Jonathan D; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Burian, Dennis; Kaundal, Rakesh; Perkins, Andy; Perkins, Ed; Kupfer, Doris M; Springer, Gordon K

    2013-01-01

    The tenth annual conference of the MidSouth Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society (MCBIOS 2013), "The 10th Anniversary in a Decade of Change: Discovery in a Sea of Data", took place at the Stoney Creek Inn & Conference Center in Columbia, Missouri on April 5-6, 2013. This year's Conference Chairs were Gordon Springer and Chi-Ren Shyu from the University of Missouri and Edward Perkins from the US Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Research and Development Center, who is also the current MCBIOS President (2012-3). There were 151 registrants and a total of 111 abstracts (51 oral presentations and 60 poster session abstracts).

  20. Proceedings of the Stakeholders Conference on Review of the Radiation Health and Safety Bill 2010

    2010-01-01

    Kenya enacted a radiation protection law in 1982 largely to control the use of radiation sources in medical field. The use of radiation has now been extended to sectors and significantly increased in the medical field. Radiation protection Board held its second a stake holders conference to review the radiation health and safety law to make more inclusive and the scope of the proposed legislation relevant. The conference discussed usage, classification and regulation of conventional radiation sources and the associated radiation practices. The conference discussed an overview on the recent development towards the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation by Ministry of Energy.It was noted 95% of public exposure to radiation comes conventional sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, education and 5% of public exposure comes from natural sources and power plants

  1. Conference Proceedings of RADTECH ASIA '99. Radiation Curing: the technology for the next millenium

    1999-01-01

    Radiation curing (i.e. ultraviolet radiation, electron beams, etc) technology were discussed. All aspects of this technology included equipment , applications, chemistry, performance characterization and measurement, market and economic, new breakthrough were discussed and presented in details

  2. Conference Proceedings of RADTECH ASIA '99. Radiation Curing: the technology for the next millenium

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Radiation curing (i.e. ultraviolet radiation, electron beams, etc) technology were discussed. All aspects of this technology included equipment , applications, chemistry, performance characterization and measurement, market and economic, new breakthrough were discussed and presented in details.

  3. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on ion beam applied biology

    Shikazono, Naoya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Ayako; Oono, Yutaka; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2003-03-01

    Application of ion beam-irradiation to biology has been undertaken in JAERI. To establish further development of the research by strengthening the industrial, governmental, and academic cooperation, to share the knowledge of the present status of the field with researchers outside JAERI, and to find out future plans, the 1st workshop on ion beam-applied biology was held. The theme of the workshop was on 'Development of breeding techniques using ion beam-irradiation'. This workshop was held by JAERI on November 19, 2002 under the joint auspices of Kanto·Kouetsu branch of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Breeding Science Society of Japan, and Genetics Society of Japan. One hundred and thirty people participated in the workshop. Highly qualified presentations were given on irradiation techniques, on outcomes of research, and on novel varieties that had been put to practical use, which were the results obtained at the irradiation facilities of JAERI, RIKEN, and WERC. Many new plant resources are expected to be produced by ion beam irradiation, and application of new irradiation techniques, such as microbeams, would be useful in the near future. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N)

  4. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of the 10th international conference

    Anishchik, V.M.; Uglov, V.V.; Baran, L.V.; Azarko, I.I.

    2013-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 10 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (24-27 September 2013) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects in solids, interaction of plasma with the surface, modification of material properties, formation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties.

  5. Proceedings of the Eigth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference (RPC-2006)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The publication's has been set up in 487 papers and also as electronic of the conference of Radiation Physics and Protection, it consists of the following session (1) nuclear physics; (2) neutron physics, shielding and applications; (3) radiation detection and dosimetry; (4) environmental and protection; (5) nuclear physics; (6) radiation effects; (7) medical physics and biophysics; (8) atmospheric dispersion, atomic physics; (9) radiation physics and protection awarded contribution.

  6. Proceedings of the Eigth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference (RPC-2006)

    2007-06-01

    The publication's has been set up in 487 papers and also as electronic of the conference of Radiation Physics and Protection, it consists of the following session (1) nuclear physics; (2) neutron physics, shielding and applications; (3) radiation detection and dosimetry; (4) environmental and protection; (5) nuclear physics; (6) radiation effects; (7) medical physics and biophysics; (8) atmospheric dispersion, atomic physics; (9) radiation physics and protection awarded contribution

  7. An introduction to radiation induced degradation of biological molecules in aqueous solutions

    Lal, Manohar

    1991-01-01

    Radiation chemistry of aqueous systems is the chemistry of H, OH, e aq - , H 3 O + and H 2 O * formed when a solute in aqueous solutions is exposed to ionising radiation. The pulse radiolysis technique has helped in the production, the detection and understanding of the reactions of primary species with solutes. A great deal of data on radiation biochemical studies e.g. degradation of DNA, its constituents and their protection, radiation protection and sensitisation, generation of superoxide ion and their reactions has already been reported but a great deal still needs to be done for the understanding of radiation biology. (author). 12 refs

  8. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment; Prosiding Presentasi Ilmiah Keselamatan Radiasi dan Lingkungan

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect.

  9. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  10. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  11. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  12. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiations. Radiological accident from Goiania, GO, Brazil

    Okuno, Emico

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the fundaments of radiation physics, the natural and artificial sources, biological effects, radiation protection. We also examine the sequence of events that resulted in Goiania accident with a source of caesium-137 from abandoned radiotherapy equipment and its terrible consequences. (author)

  14. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference

  15. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Contributed papers

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, organized an international conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, held in seville, Spain, from 17 to 21 November 1997. This technical document contains concise papers submitted to the conference. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Medical and biological aspects of ionizing radiation influence in consequence with accident at ChNPP

    Shidlovs'ka, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph presents the issues on systematic influence of ionizing radiation on the biological systems. The results of personal complex studies because of influence of ionizing radiation in consequence with accident at ChNPP on auditory analyzer, creating voice, cardiovascular system and central nervous system are submitted.

  17. Exposures at low doses and biological effects of ionizing radiations

    Masse, R.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radiation from natural, man-made and medical sources, and world-wide average annual exposure can be set at about 3.5 mSv. Exposure to natural sources is characterised by very large fluctuations, not excluding a range covering two orders of magnitude. Millions of inhabitants are continuously exposed to external doses as high as 10 mSv per year, delivered at low dose rates, very few workers are exposed above the legal limit of 50 mSv/year, and referring to accidental exposures, only 5% of the 116 000 people evacuated following the Chernobyl disaster encountered doses above 100 mSv. Epidemiological survey of accidentally, occupationally or medically exposed groups have revealed radio-induced cancers, mostly following high dose-rate exposure levels, only above 100 mSv. Risk coefficients were derived from these studies and projected into linear models of risk (linear non-threshold hypothesis: LNT), for the purpose of risk management following exposures at low doses and low dose-rates. The legitimacy of this approach has been questioned, by the Academy of sciences and the Academy of medicine in France, arguing: that LNT was not supported by Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies when neutron dose was revisited; that linear modelling failed to explain why so many site-related cancers were obviously nonlinearly related to the dose, and especially when theory predicted they ought to be; that no evidence could be found of radio-induced cancers related to natural exposures or to low exposures at the work place; and that no evidence of genetic disease could be shown from any of the exposed groups. Arguments were provided from cellular and molecular biology helping to solve this issue, all resulting in dismissing the LNT hypothesis. These arguments included: different mechanisms of DNA repair at high and low dose rate; influence of inducible stress responses modifying mutagenesis and lethality; bystander effects allowing it to be considered that individual

  18. Peculiarities of biological effect of pulsed laser radiation and 60Co γ rays on microorganisms

    Petin, V.G.; Rusina, L.K.; Sebrant, Yu.V.; Baranov, V.Yu.; Malyuta, D.D.; Nyz'ev, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of yeast cells of different ploidy and bacterial cells of different strains to pulsed laser radiation and combined action of laser and ionizing radiation has been studied. Laser preirradiation of yeast cells did not change the cell sensitivity to the ionizing radiation. The biological effect was non-additive after the exposure to sequence of pulses in comparison with the exposure to a single pulse. The failure of cell reproductive ability after laser irradiation was irrepairable

  19. Non-ionizing radiations : physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazard assessment

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Workshop was a project of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA and comprised a series of educational lectures and demonstrations intended to give a comprehensive overview of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation: physical characteristics, sources of concern, levels of exposure, mechanisms of interaction and reported effects of these fields and radiations with biological tissues, human studies, health risk assessment, national and international standards and guidelines, and protective measures

  20. The use of biologically based cancer risk models in radiation epidemiology

    Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; Hazelton, W.D.; Garner, M.J.; Moolgavkar, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Biologically based risk projection models for radiation carcinogenesis seek to describe the fundamental biological processes involved in neoplastic transformation of somatic cells into malignant cancer cells. A validated biologically based model, whose parameters have a direct biological interpretation, can also be used to extrapolate cancer risks to different exposure conditions with some confidence. In this article, biologically based models for radiation carcinogenesis, including the two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model and its extensions, are reviewed. The biological and mathematical bases for such models are described, and the implications of key model parameters for cancer risk assessment examined. Specific applications of versions of the TSCE model to important epidemiologic datasets are discussed, including the Colorado uranium miners' cohort; a cohort of Chinese tin miners; the lifespan cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and a cohort of over 200,000 workers included in the National Dose Registry (NDR) of Canada. (author)