WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation belt electron

  1. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  2. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  3. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  4. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  5. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing multiple data sources from the year 1997–2007, this study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... Center for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North–West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

  6. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  7. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail: g.h.jones@ic.ac.uk

    1999-10-01

    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  8. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.

    2003-12-01

    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  9. Large enhancement of highly energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its transport into the inner radiation belt inferred from MDS-1 satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, T.; Matsumoto, H.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined a large increase of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its penetration into the inner radiation belt over slot region using the MDS-1 satellite observations. Result of analyses demonstrates that a large increase took place in the spring and autumn seasons, and we have newly confirmed that the penetration of outer belt electrons to the inner radiation zone took place during the big magnetic storms by examining a pitch angle distribution of the penetrating electrons.

  10. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  11. Detailed Characteristics of Radiation Belt Electrons Revealed by CSSWE/REPTile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D. T.; Millan, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit Cubesat, which transverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 hr) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitations. Among the features of the relativistic electrons, we show the measured electron distribution as a function of geomagnetic activities and local magnetic field strength. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 Jan 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE and the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL). In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58 1.63 MeV electrons (L=3.5 6) is estimated to account for 6.84% of the total electron content.

  12. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  13. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. In this paper, we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. Finally, these results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  14. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  15. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  16. Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Selesnick, RS; Baker, DN; Jaynes, AN; Kanekal, SG; Schiller, Q; Blum, L; Fennell, J; Blake, JB

    2015-01-01

    No instruments in the inner radiation belt are immune from the unforgiving penetration of the highly energetic protons (tens of MeV to GeV). The inner belt proton flux level, however, is relatively stable; thus, for any given instrument, the proton contamination often leads to a certain background noise. Measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment CubeSat, in a low Earth orbit, clearly demonstrate that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt because their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background, while higher-energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Detailed analysis of high-quality measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope on board Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, provides, for the first time, quantified upper limits on MeV electron fluxes in various energy ranges in the inner belt. These upper limits are rather different from flux levels in the AE8 and AE9 models, which were developed based on older data sources. For 1.7, 2.5, and 3.3 MeV electrons, the upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted model fluxes. The implication of this difference is profound in that unless there are extreme solar wind conditions, which have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even though such enhancements are commonly seen in the outer belt. Key Points Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt Actual MeV electron intensity likely much lower than the upper limit More detailed understanding of relativistic electrons in the magnetosphere PMID:26167446

  17. Precipitated Fluxes of Radiation Belt Electrons via Injection of Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of energetic (a few MeV) electrons in the inner radiation belts may be moderated by in situ injection of whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program (along with an accurate estimation of the path-integrated Landau damping based on data from the HYDRA instrument on the POLAR spacecraft) to determine the distribution of wave energy throughout the inner radiation belts as a function of injection point, wave frequency and injection wave normal angle. To determine the total wave power injected and its initial distribution in k-space (i.e., wave-normal angle), we apply the formulation of Wang and Bell ( T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resistance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4 (2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna placed at a variety of locations throughout the inner radiation belts. For many wave frequencies and wave normal angles the results establish that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normals are located near the resonance cone. The combined use of the radiation pattern and ray-tracing including Landau damping allows us to make quantitative estimates of the magnetospheric distribution of wave power density for different source injection points. We use these results to estimate the number of individual space-based transmitters needed to significantly impact the lifetimes of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belts. Using the wave power distribution, we finally determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected.

  18. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.W.; Teague, M.J.; Schofield, N.J.; Vette, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated

  19. Study the Precipitation of Radiation Belt Electrons during the Rapid Dropout Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Li, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    During the main phase of storms, the relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours. Where do the electrons go? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Radiation belt electrons can be lost either by transport across the magnetopause into interplanetary space or by precipitation into the atmosphere. In this work we first conduct a survey of the MeV electron dropouts using the Van Allen Probes data in conjunction with the low-altitude measurements of precipitating electrons by 6 NOAA/POES satellites. The dropout events are categorized into three types: precipitation-loss dominant, outward radial diffusion dominant, or with contributions from both mechanisms. The survey results suggest the relative importance of precipitation and outward radial diffusion to the fast dropouts of radiation belt electrons, and their extent in L-shell and electron energy. Then, for specific events identified as dominated by precipitation loss, we use the Drift-Diffusion model, which includes the effects of azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion, to simulate both the electron dropout observed by Van Allen Probes and the distributions of drift-loss-cone electrons observed by multiple low-earth-orbit satellites (6 POES and the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment). The model quantifies the electron precipitation loss and pitch angle diffusion coefficient, Dxx, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Finally, by comparing the Dxx derived from the model with those estimated from the quasi-linear theory using wave data from Van Allen Probes and other event-specific wave models, we are able to test the validity of quasi-linear theory and seek direct evidence of the wave-particle interactions during the dropouts.

  20. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  1. Low altitude observations of the energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt during isolated substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.; Venkatesan, D.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD; Meng, C.I.

    1985-01-01

    The low energy (1-20 keV) detector registering particles onboard the polar-orbiting low altitude (approx. 850 km) DMSP-F2 and -F3 satellites also records high energy electrons penetrating the detector walls. Thus the dynamics of this electron population at L=3.5 can be studied during isolated periods of magnetospheric substorms identified by the indices of auroral electrojet (AE), geomagnetic (Ksub(p)) and ring current (Dsub(st)). Temporal changes in the electron flux during the substorms are observed to be an additional contribution riding over the top of the pre-storm (or geomagnetically quiet-time) electron population; the duration of the interval of intensity variations is observed to be about the same as that of the enhancement of the AE index. This indicates the temporal response of the outer radiation belt to the substorm activity, since the observation was made in the ''horns'' of the outer radiation belt. The observed enhanced radiation at low altitude may associate with the instantaneous increase and/or dumping of the outer radiation belt energetic electrons during each isolated substorm activity. (author)

  2. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons during a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on May 1, 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L>4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolution and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell, and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L>4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate show strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The estimated pitch angle diffusion rates from the model are then compared with in situ wave measurements from Van Allen Probes to uncover the underlying wave-particle-interaction mechanisms that are responsible for the fast electron precipitation. Comparing the resolved precipitation loss with the observed electron dropouts at high altitudes, our results will suggest the relative role of electron precipitation loss and outward radial diffusion to the radiation belt dropouts during storm and non-storm times, in addition to its energy and L dependence.

  3. The Magnetic Local Time Distribution of Energetic Electrons in the Radiation Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using fourteen years of electron flux data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), a statistical study of the magnetic local time (MLT) distribution of the electron population is performed across a range of activity levels, defined by AE, AE*, Kp, solar wind velocity (Vsw), and VswBz. Three electron energies (>30, >100, and >300 keV) are considered. Dawn-dusk flux asymmetries larger than order of magnitude were observed for >30 and >100 keV electrons. For >300 keV electrons, dawn-dusk asymmetries were primarily due to a decrease in the average dusk-side flux beyond L* ˜ 4.5 that arose with increasing activity. For the >30 keV population, substorm injections enhance the dawn-side flux, which may not reach the dusk-side as the electrons can be on open drift paths and lost to the magnetopause. The asymmetries in the >300 keV population are attributed to the combination of magnetopause shadowing and >300 keV electron injections by large electric fields. We suggest that 3D radiation belt models could set the minimum energy boundary (Emin) to 30 keV or above at L* ˜6 during periods of low activity. However, for more moderate conditions, Emin should be larger than 100 keV and, for very extreme activities, ˜300 keV. Our observations show the extent that in-situ electron flux readings may vary during active periods due to the MLT of the satellite and highlight the importance of 4D radiation belt models to fully understand radiation belt processes.

  4. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  5. HEPD on NEXTSat-1: A High Energy Particle Detector for Measurements of Precipitating Radiation Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jongdae; Lee, Jaejin; Min, Kyoungwook; Lee, Junchan; Lee, Seunguk; Lee, Daeyoung; Jo, Gyeongbok; Yi, Yu; Na, Gowoon; Kang, Kyung-In; Shin, Goo-Hwan

    2018-05-01

    Radiation belt particles of the inner magnetosphere precipitate into the atmosphere in the subauroral regions when they are pitch-angle scattered into the loss cone by wave-particle interactions. Such particle precipitations are known to be especially enhanced during space storms, though they can also occur during quiet times. The observed characteristics of precipitating electrons can be distinctively different, in their time series as well as in their spectra, depending on the waves involved. The present paper describes the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) on board the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1), which will measure these radiation belt electrons from a low-Earth polar orbit satellite to study the mechanisms related to electron precipitation in the sub-auroral regions. The HEPD is based on silicon barrier detectors and consists of three telescopes that are mounted on the satellite to have angles of 0°. 45°, and 90°, respectively with the local geomagnetic field during observations. With a high time resolution of 32 Hz and a high spectral resolution of 11 channels over the energy range from 350 keV to 2 MeV, together with the pitch angle information provided by the three telescopes, HEPD is capable of identifying physical processes, such as microbursts and dust-side relativistic electron precipitation (DREP) events associated with electron precipitations. NextSat-1 is scheduled for launch in early 2018.

  6. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  7. Multi-Point Measurements to Characterize Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled. To better characterize and quantify radiation belt precipitation loss, we utilize multi-point measurements both to study precipitating electrons directly as well as the potential drivers of this loss process. Magnetically conjugate CubeSat and balloon measurements are combined to estimate of the temporal and spatial characteristics of dusk-side precipitation features and quantify loss due to these events. To then understand the drivers of precipitation events, and what determines their spatial structure, we utilize measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes to estimate spatial and temporal scales of various wave modes in the inner magnetosphere, and compare these to precipitation characteristics. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of waves are compared to those of MeV electron precipitation during a few individual events to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. Magnetically conjugate measurements provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss. Finally, understanding the drivers controlling the spatial scales of wave activity in the inner magnetosphere is critical for uncovering the underlying physics behind the wave generation as well as for better predicting where and when waves will be present. Again using multipoint measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we estimate the spatial and temporal extents and evolution of plasma structures and their gradients in the inner magnetosphere, to better understand the drivers of magnetospheric wave characteristic scales. In particular, we focus on EMIC waves and the plasma parameters important for their growth, namely cold plasma density and cool and warm ion density, anisotropy, and composition.

  8. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Zhang, X.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electron evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.

  9. The quiet time structure of energetic (35--560 keV) radiation belt electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed Explorer 45 equatorial observations of the quiet time structure of radiation belt electrons (35--560 keV) for 1.7approximately-less-thanLapproximately-less-than5.2 are presented. Throughout the slot region and outer regions of the plasmasphere the observed pitch angle distributions are found to agree with those expected from resonant interactions with the plasmaspheric whistler mode wave band. Coulomb collisions become the dominant loss mechanism within the inner zone. The overall two-zone structure of the observed radial profiles is found to agree with the equilibrium structure expected to result from a balance between pitch angle scattering losses and radial diffusion from an average outer zone source. This agreement suggests that the dominant quiet time source and loss mechanisms have been identified and evaluated for energetic radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere. In the outer regions of the plasmasphere (Lapprox.5) the equilibrium structure is observed to be modified by daily flux variations associated with changes in the level of magnetic activity that occur even during relatively quiet times. Within the inner region of the plasmasphere (Lapproximately-less-than3.5), electron fluxes are decoupled from these magnetic activity variations by the long time scales (>10 days) required for pitch angle and radial diffusion. Consequently, fluxes of these electrons are observed to remain nearly constant at equilibrium levels throughout the quiet periods examined

  10. Detailed characteristics of radiation belt electrons revealed by CSSWE/REPTile measurements: Geomagnetic activity response and precipitation observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Schiller, Q.; Gerhardt, D.; Zhao, H.; Millan, R.

    2017-08-01

    Earth's outer radiation belt electrons are highly dynamic. We study the detailed characteristics of relativistic electrons in the outer belt using measurements from the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) mission, a low Earth orbit (LEO) CubeSat, which traverses the radiation belt four times in one orbit ( 1.5 h) and has the advantage of measuring the dynamic activities of the electrons including their rapid precipitation. We focus on the measured electron response to geomagnetic activity for different energies to show that there are abundant sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. These electrons are further enhanced during active times, while there is a lack of >1.63 MeV electrons in these regions. We also show that the variation of measured electron flux at LEO is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field strength, which is far from a dipole approximation. Moreover, a specific precipitation band, which happened on 19 January 2013, is investigated based on the conjunctive measurement of CSSWE, the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, and one of the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites. In this precipitation band event, the net loss of the 0.58-1.63 MeV electrons (L = 3.5-6) is estimated to account for 6.8% of the total electron content.

  11. Relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt and methods of their forecast (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies of the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the geosynchronous region. It lists the physical processes that lead to the acceleration of electrons filling the outer radiation belt. As one of the space weather factors, high-energy electron fluxes pose a serious threat to the operation of satellite equipment in one of the most populated orbital regions. Necessity is emphasized for efforts to develop methods for forecasting the situation in this part of the magnetosphere, possible predictors are listed, and their classification is given. An example of a predictive model for forecasting relativistic electron flux with a 1–2-day lead time is proposed. Some questions of practical organization of prediction are discussed; the main objectives of short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecasts are listed.

  12. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  13. A virtual radiation belt observatory: Looking forward to the electronic geophysical year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Kroehl, H. W.; Kihn, E.; Virbo Team

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We are developing the concept of a Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory (ViRBO) that will bring together near-earth particle and field measurements acquired by NASA, NOAA, DoD, DOE, and other spacecraft. We discuss plans to aggregate these measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make radiation belt information available and useful both to the scientific community and to the user community. We envision that data from the various agencies along with models being developed under the auspices of the National Science Foundation Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) will help us to provide an excellent `climatology' of the radiation belts over the past several decades. In particular, we would plan to use these data to drive physical models of the radiation belts to form a gridded database which would characterize particle and field properties on solar-cycle (11-year) time scales. ViRBO will also provide up-to-date specification of conditions for event analysis and anomaly resolution. We are even examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of

  14. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  15. Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations over two solar cycles, and operational forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Podladchikova, T.; Drozdov, A.; Subbotin, D.; Makarevich, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Nagai, T.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the dynamics in Earth's radiation belts is critical to accurate modeling and forecasting of space weather conditions, both which are important for design, and protection of our space-borne assets. In the current study, we utilize the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, multi-spacecraft measurements, and a split-operator Kalman filter to recontructe the global state of the radiation belt system in the CRRES era and the current era. The reanalysis has revealed a never before seen 4-belt structure in the radiation belts during the March 1991 superstorm, and highlights several important aspects in regards to the the competition between the source, acceleration, loss, and transport of particles. In addition to the above, performing reanalysis in adiabatic coordinates relies on specification of the Earth's magnetic field, and associated observational, and model errors. We determine the observational errors for the Kalman filter directly from cross-spacecraft phase-space density (PSD) conjunctions, and obtain the error in VERB by comparison with reanalysis over a long time period. Specification of errors associated with several magnetic field models provides an important insight into the applicability of such models for radiation belt research. The comparison of CRRES area reanalysis with Van Allen Probe era reanalysis allows us to perform a global comparison of the dynamics of the radiation belts during different parts of the solar cycle and during different solar cycles. The data assimilative model is presently used to perform operational forecasts of the radiation belts (http://rbm.epss.ucla.edu/realtime-forecast/).

  16. Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations of a four-zone structure using five spacecraft and the VERB code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Kondrashov, D.; Subbotin, D.; Makarevich, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Nagai, T.

    2014-11-01

    Obtaining the global state of radiation belt electrons through reanalysis is an important step toward validating our current understanding of radiation belt dynamics and for identification of new physical processes. In the current study, reanalysis of radiation belt electrons is achieved through data assimilation of five spacecraft with the 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code using a split-operator Kalman filter technique. The spacecraft data are cleaned for noise, saturation effects, and then intercalibrated on an individual energy channel basis, by considering phase space density conjunctions in the T96 field model. Reanalysis during the CRRES era reveals a never-before-reported four-zone structure in the Earth's radiation belts during the 24 March 1991 shock-induced injection superstorm: (1) an inner belt, (2) the high-energy shock-injection belt, (3) a remnant outer radiation belt, and (4) a second outer radiation belt. The third belt formed near the same time as the second belt and was later enhanced across keV to MeV energies by a second particle injection observed by CRRES and the Northern Solar Terrestrial Array riometer network. During the recovery phase of the storm, the fourth belt was created near L*=4RE, lasting for several days. Evidence is provided that the fourth belt was likely created by a dominant local heating process. This study outlines the necessity to consider all diffusive processes acting simultaneously and the advantage of supporting ground-based data in quantifying the observed radiation belt dynamics. It is demonstrated that 3-D data assimilation can resolve various nondiffusive processes and provides a comprehensive picture of the electron radiation belts.

  17. Solar cyclic behavior of trapped energetic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Bob; Thorne, Richard M.

    1994-10-01

    Magnetic electron spectrometer data from six satellites (OV3-3, OV1-14, OGO 5, S3-2, S3-3, and CRRES) have been used to study long-term (1966-1991) behavior of trapped energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt. Comparison of the observed energy spectra at L equal to or greater than 1.35 for different phases of the solar cycle reveals a clear trend toward enhanced fluxes during periods of solar maximum for energies below a few hundred keV; we suggest that this is caused by an increase in the rate of inward radial diffusion from a source at higher L. In contrast, for L less than 1.30, where atmospheric collisions become increasingly important, the electron flux is reduced during solar maximum; we attribute this to the expected increase in upper atmospheric densities. The electron flux above 1 MeV exhibits a systematic decay beyond 1979 to values well below the current NASA AE-8 model. This indicates that the natural background of high-energy electrons has previously been overestimated due to the long lasting presence of electrons produced by nuclear detonations in the upper atmosphere in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

  18. Wave-Particle Interactions Involving Correlated Electron Bursts and Whistler Chorus in Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During the recovery phase of substorm plasma injections, the Van Allen Probes commonly observe events of quasi-periodic energetic electron bursts correlating with simultaneously detected upper-band, whistler-mode chorus emissions. These electron bursts exhibit narrow ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) and energies (20-40 keV). Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions are also commonly detected, but typically do not display correlation with the electron bursts. To examine sources of free energy and the generation of these wave emissions, an observed electron velocity distribution on January 13, 2013 is used as the starting condition for a particle in cell (PIC) simulation. Effects of temperature anisotropy (perpendicular temperature greater than parallel temperature), the presence of a loss cone and a cold electron population on the generation of whistler and ECH waves are examined to understand wave generation and nonlinear interactions with the particle population. These nonlinear interactions produce energy diffusion along with strong pitch angle scattering into the loss cone on the order of milliseconds, which is faster than a typical bounce period of seconds. To examine the quasi-periodic nature of the electron bursts, a loss-cone recycling technique is implemented to model the effects of the periodic emptying of the loss cone and electron injection on the growth of whistler and ECH waves. The results of the simulations are compared to the Van Allen Probe observations to determine electron acceleration, heating and transport in Earth's radiation belts due to wave-particle interactions.

  19. Combined convective and diffusive modeling of the ring current and radiation belt electron dynamics using the VERB-4D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ring current and radiation belts are key elements in the global dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. Comprehensive mathematical models are useful tools that allow us to understand the multiscale dynamics of these charged particle populations. In this work, we present results of simulations of combined ring current - radiation belt electron dynamics using the four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-4D) code. The VERB-4D code solves the modified Fokker-Planck equation including convective terms and models simultaneously ring current (1 - 100 keV) and radiation belt (100 keV - several MeV) electron dynamics. We apply the code to the number of geomagnetic storms that occurred in the past, compare the results with different satellite observations, and show how low-energy particles can affect the high-energy populations. Particularly, we use data from Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) mission that provides a very good MLT coverage with 1.5-hour time resolution. The POES data allow us to validate the approach of the VERB-4D code for modeling MLT-dependent processes such as electron drift, wave-particle interactions, and magnetopause shadowing. We also show how different simulation parameters and empirical models can affect the results, making a particular emphasis on the electric and magnetic field models. This work will help us reveal advantages and disadvantages of the approach behind the code and determine its prediction efficiency.

  20. ICME-driven sheath regions deplete the outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K.; Turner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is an outstanding question in space weather and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction studies, why some storms result in an increase of the outer radiation belt electron fluxes, while others deplete them or produce no change. One approach to this problem is to look at differences in the storm drivers. Traditionally drivers have been classified to Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). However, an 'ICME event' is a complex structure: The core is a magnetic cloud (MC; a clear flux rope structure). If the mass ejection is fast enough, it can drive a shock in front of it. This leads to the formation of a sheath region between the interplanetary shock and the leading edge of the MC. While both the sheath and the MC feature elevated solar wind speed, their other properties are very different. For instance, the sheath region has typically a much higher dynamic pressure than the magnetic cloud. Moreover, the sheath region has a high power in magnetic field and dynamic pressure Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range fluctuations, while the MC is characterised by an extremely smooth magnetic field. Magnetic clouds have been recognised as important drivers magnetospheric activity since they can comprise long periods of very large southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that sheath regions can also act as storm drivers. In this study, we analyse the effects of ICME-driven sheath regions on the relativistic electron fluxes observed by GOES satellites on the geostationary orbit. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of 31 sheath regions from solar cycle 23. Our results show that the sheaths cause an approximately one order of magnitude decrease in the 24h-averaged electron fluxes. Typically the fluxes also stay below the pre-event level for more than two days. Further analysis reveals that the decrease does not depend on, e.g., whether the sheath interval contains predominantly northward

  1. Effects of Drift-Shell Splitting by Chorus Waves on Radiation Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. A.; Zheng, L.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drift shell splitting in the radiation belts breaks all three adiabatic invariants of charged particle motion via pitch angle scattering, and produces new diffusion terms that fully populate the diffusion tensor in the Fokker-Planck equation. Based on the stochastic differential equation method, the Radbelt Electron Model (REM) simulation code allows us to solve such a fully three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation, and to elucidate the sources and transport mechanisms behind the phase space density variations. REM has been used to perform simulations with an empirical initial phase space density followed by a seed electron injection, with a Tsyganenko 1989 magnetic field model, and with chorus wave and ULF wave diffusion models. Our simulation results show that adding drift shell splitting changes the phase space location of the source to smaller L shells, which typically reduces local electron energization (compared to neglecting drift-shell splitting effects). Simulation results with and without drift-shell splitting effects are compared with Van Allen Probe measurements.

  2. Characteristics of pitch angle distributions of hundreds of keV electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-the-art pitch angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of hundreds of keV electron PADs below L = 4 is performed, in which the PADs are categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90°), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90°), and 90° minimum (lower flux at 90°) PADs. By examining the characteristics of the PADs of ˜460 keV electrons for over a year, we find that the 90° minimum PADs are generally present in the inner belt (Lpitch angle scattering of hiss waves. Fitting the normal PADs into sinnα form, the parameter n is much higher below L = 3 than that in the outer belt and relatively constant in the inner belt but changes significantly in the slot region (2 mechanism can hardly explain the formation of 90° minimum PADs at the center of inner belt.

  3. Neoclassical Diffusion of Radiation-Belt Electrons Across Very Low L-Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory S.; Loridan, Vivien; Ripoll, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael

    2018-04-01

    In the presence of drift-shell splitting intrinsic to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field magnetic field model, pitch angle scattering from Coulomb collisions experienced by radiation-belt electrons in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere produces extra radial diffusion, a form of neoclassical diffusion. The strength of the neoclassical radial diffusion at L nuclear detonation. The data show apparent lifetimes 10-100 times as long as would have been expected from collisional pitch angle diffusion and Coulomb drag alone. Our model reproduces apparent lifetimes for >0.5-MeV electrons in the region 1.14 < L < 1.26 to within a factor of 2 (comparable to the uncertainty quoted for the observations). We conclude that neoclassical radial diffusion (resulting from drift-shell splitting intrinsic to International Geomagnetic Reference Field's azimuthal asymmetries) mitigates the decay expected from collisional pitch angle diffusion and inelastic energy loss alone and thus contributes importantly to the long apparent lifetimes observed at these low L-shells.

  4. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  5. Reanalyses of the radiation belt electron phase space density using nearly equatorial CRRES and polar-orbiting Akebono satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Shprits, Yuri; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Thorne, Richard; Chen, Yue; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Kim, Hee-jeong

    2009-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques provide algorithms that allow for blending of incomplete and inaccurate data with physics-based dynamic models to reconstruct the electron phase space density (PSD) in the radiation belts. In this study, we perform reanalyses of the radial PSD profile using two independent data sources from the nearly equatorial CRRES Medium Electron A (MEA) observations and the polar-orbiting Akebono Radiation Monitor (RDM) measurements for a 50-day period from 18 August to 6 October 1990. We utilize the University of California, Los Angeles, One-Dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (UCLA 1-D VERB) code and a Kalman filtering approach. Comparison of the reanalyses obtained independently using the CRRES MEA and Akebono RDM measurements shows that the dynamics of the PSD can be accurately reconstructed using Kalman filtering even when available data are sparse, inaccurate, and contaminated by random errors. The reanalyses exhibit similarities in the locations and magnitudes of peaks in radial profiles of PSD and the rate and radial extent of the dropouts during storms. This study shows that when unidirectional data are not available, pitch angle averaged flux measurements can be used to infer the long-term behavior (climatology) of the radiation belts. The methodology of obtaining PSD from pitch angle averaged and unidirectional fluxes using the Tsyganenko and Stern (1996) magnetic field model is described in detail.

  6. Polar PWI and CEPPAD observations of chorus emissions and radiation belt electron acceleration: Four case studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigsbee, K.; Menietti, J. D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Blake, J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 14 (2008), s. 1774-1788 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others: NASA (US) NNG05GM52G; NSF(US) 0307319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus * outer radiation belt Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  7. Observational evidence of competing source, loss, and transport processes for relativistic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Drew; Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Rodriguez, Juan; Henderson, Mike; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Morley, Steven; Claudepierre, Seth; Li, Wen; Kellerman, Adam; Boyd, Alexander; Kim, Kyung-Chan

    Earth’s outer electron radiation belt is a region of extreme variability, with relativistic electron intensities changing by orders of magnitude over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Extreme variations of outer belt electrons ultimately result from the relative impacts of various competing source (and acceleration), loss, and transport processes. Most of these processes involve wave-particle interactions between outer belt electrons and different types of plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, and in turn, the activity of these waves depends on different solar wind and magnetospheric driving conditions and thus can vary drastically from event to event. Using multipoint analysis with data from NASA’s Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions, NOAA’s GOES and POES constellations, and ground-based observatories, we present results from case studies revealing how different source/acceleration and loss mechanisms compete during active periods to result in drastically different distributions of outer belt electrons. By using a combination of low-Earth orbiting and high-altitude-equatorial orbiting satellites, we briefly review how it is possible to get a much more complete picture of certain wave activity and electron losses over the full range of MLTs and L-shells throughout the radiation belt. We then show example cases highlighting the importance of particular mechanisms, including: substorm injections and whistler-mode chorus waves for the source and acceleration of relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves for sudden losses; and ULF wave activity for driving radial transport, a process which is important for redistributing relativistic electrons, contributing both to acceleration and loss processes. We show how relativistic electron enhancement events involve local acceleration that is consistent with wave-particle interactions between a seed population of 10s to 100s of keV electrons, with a

  8. Intensity increase of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth in July 1972 according to data of the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyudov, V.A.; Volodichev, N.N.; Nechaev, O.Yu.; Savenko, I.A.; Saraeva, M.A.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carried out is the investigation of the 6-10 MeV electrons in the outer radiation belt of the Earth at the ''Prognoz-2'' artificial Earth satellite along the trajectory of the satellite motion according to the Mac Ilvain parameter L. With the help of a ternary coincidance telescope in Juny 1972, the formationand decay of the belt of energetic electrons with the maximum intensity in the L=3.7 region was recorded. The maximum fluxer of this belt electrons are estimated. It is supposed that the event recorded is the consequence of the magnetospherical disturbance that occured on 18.4.1972

  9. Spatial characterization of relativistic electron enhancements in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the Van Allen Probes era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. A.; Bortnik, J.; Moya, P. S.; Lyons, L. R.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) instrument we have identified 73 relativistic electron enhancement events in the outer radiation belt that occurred at different L values between L = 2.5 and L = 6.0. To determine an enhancement, we have used three different identification methods. We then determine the radial location, MLT location, timing and strength of those enhancements. We discuss the differences of each of the methods and test them to pinpoint the origin and spatial propagation of each enhancement. We have classified the events based on the radial propagation, speed of enhancement and intensity of fluxes and response for energy channels ranging from 1.8 MeV to 6.3 MeV. In addition, we have used OMNI data to study the statistical properties of the solar wind during each event and have classified similarities and differences that might be relevant for each group of enhancements and help us determine the physical process responsible for different types of enhancements. Additionally, we have used >2 MeV electron fluxes at geostationary orbit as measured by the GOES 13 and 15 Energetic Particle Sensor (EPS) instrument to compare our results with the geostationary orbit. Our results suggest that under certain conditions GOES data can be used to predict fluxes at the core of the radiation belt and vice-versa.

  10. Calibration of an electron/proton monitor for the earth's radiation belt at 4 R/sub E/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Argo, H.V.; Baker, D.N.

    1982-03-01

    A charged particle dosimeter (the Burst Detector Dosimeter or BDD) was designed and fabricated and will be flown on certain of the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) series of spacecraft. The BDD will monitor the dose received by the GPS spacecraft from the fluxes of electrons and protons in the Earth's radiation belt. The BDD uses absorbers in front of silicon sensors to determine the energy thresholds for measuring incident particle fluxes; and the magnitude of energy loss in a single sensor distinguishes between ions and electrons over a wide range of energies. Our electron calibrations were performed to determine accurately the energy response function of the dosimeter. The experimentally determined energy and angular responses are used to determine the equivalent energy thresholds and geometric factors for idealized step function responses

  11. Thermal electron acceleration by electric field spikes in the outer radiation belt: generation of field-aligned pitch angle distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance non-linear electrostatic stucture called Time Domain Structures (TDS). One of the type of TDS is electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). Observed DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bi-directional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV (rarely up to tens of keV). We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e. due to reflections from DL potential humps. Due to this interaction some fraction of electrons is scattered into the loss cone. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi mechanism electrons can be trapped by DLs in their generation region and accelerated due to transport to higher latitudes. Both mechanisms result in formation of field-aligned PADs for electrons with energies comparable to those found in observations. The Fermi mechanism provides field-aligned PADs for <1 keV electrons, while the trapping mechanism extends field-aligned PADs to higher energy electrons.

  12. FIREBIRD: A Dual Satellite Mission to Examine the Spatial and Energy Coherence Scales of Radiation Belt Electron Microbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B. A.; Blake, J. B.; Springer, L.; Crew, A. B.; Mosleh, E.; Mashburn, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    FIREBIRD (Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst Intensity, Range, and Dynamics), a mission under NSF’s “CubeSat-based Science Missions for Space Weather and Atmospheric Research”, will address the broad scientific question: What is the role of microburst electron precipitation in radiation belt dynamics? There are four major candidate processes for losses of relativistic electrons from the outer radiation belt [Millan and Thorne, 2007]: wave-particle interactions with whistler-mode chorus, wave-particle interactions with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves, outward radial diffusion to the magnetopause, and loss of adiabaticity on stretched magnetic field lines. FIREBIRD will further investigate the role of whistler-mode chorus, by examining the microburst electron precipitation phenomenon attributed to chorus. Microbursts are thought to be a hallmark of rapid radiation belt losses, possibly removing the entire pre-storm outer zone in a single day [Lorentzen 2001b; O'Brien et al., 2004], yet they are also intimately tied to in-situ acceleration mechanisms. FIREBIRD’s two 1.5U (10 x 10 x 15 cm) CubeSats, each weighing up to 2 kg, will be placed into a common high-inclination bead-on-a-string orbit. The two satellites will remain within ~500 km of one another for six to twelve months, allowing characterization over the spatial scale regime from 10 - 500 km. Each satellite will carry an identical co-aligned pair of solid-state detectors sensitive to electrons from 30 keV to ~3 MeV with 100 msec time resolution. Simultaneous dual measurements provided by the twin FIREBIRD satellites will permit, for the first time, the determination of spatial scales of single microburst events. Along with energy-resolved spectra, these measurements will provide the critically needed answers on the radiation belt loss rate attributed to microbursts. There are three critical questions about relativistic electron microbursts that FIREBIRD can answer: 1) What

  13. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  14. Pitch-angle diffusion of electrons through growing and propagating along a magnetic field electromagnetic wave in Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.-R.; Dokgo, K.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Choi, E.-J.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of electrons via a linearly polarized, growing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating along a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The diffusion of electrons that interact with the growing EM wave is investigated through the autocorrelation function of the parallel electron acceleration in several tens of electron gyration timescales, which is a relatively short time compared with the bounce time of electrons between two mirror points in Earth's radiation belts. Furthermore, the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived for the resonant and non-resonant electrons, and the effect of the wave growth on the electron diffusion is discussed. The results can be applied to other problems related to local acceleration or the heating of electrons in space plasmas, such as in the radiation belts

  15. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  16. A positive correlation between energetic electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves in the radiation belt slot region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Z.; Xiao, F.; Zheng, H.

    2017-01-01

    Energetic (hundreds of keV) electrons in the radiation belt slot region have been found to exhibit the butterfly pitch angle distributions. Resonant interactions with magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves are two potential mechanisms for the formation of these peculiar distributions. Here we perform a statistical study of energetic electron pitch angle distribution characteristics measured by Van Allen Probes in the slot region during a three-year period from May 2013 to May 2016. Our results show that electron butterfly distributions are closely related to magnetosonic waves rather than to whistlermode waves. Both electron butterfly distributions and magnetosonic waves occur more frequently at the geomagnetically active times than at the quiet times. In a statistical sense, more distinct butterfly distributions usually correspond to magnetosonic waves with larger amplitudes and vice versa. The averaged magnetosonic wave amplitude is less than 5 pT in the case of normal and flat-top distributions with a butterfly index BI = 1 but reaches ~ 35–95 pT in the case of distinct butterfly distributions with BI > 1:3. For magnetosonic waves with amplitudes > 50 pT, the occurrence rate of butterfly distribution is above 80%. Our study suggests that energetic electron butterfly distributions in the slot region are primarily caused by magnetosonic waves.

  17. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  18. Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and experimental determination of neutron density in near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhang, K.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The galaxy is filled with cosmic ray particles, mostly protons with kinetic energy above hundreds of mega-electron volts (MeV). Soon after the discovery of Earth's Van Allen radiation belts almost six decades ago, it was recognized that the main source of inner belt protons, with kinetic energies of tens to hundreds of MeV, is Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND). In this process, cosmic rays reaching the upper atmosphere from throughout the galaxy interact with neutral atoms to produce albedo neutrons which, being unstable to 𝛽 decay, are a potential source of geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons. Protons retain most of the neutrons' kinetic energy while the electrons have lower energies, mostly below 1 MeV. The viability of the electron source was, however, uncertain because measurements showed that electron intensity can vary greatly while the neutron decay rate should be almost constant. Recent measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) onboard the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat now show that CRAND is the main electron source for the radiation belt near its inner edge, and also contributes to the inner belt elsewhere. Furthermore, measurement of the CRAND electron intensity provides the first experimental determination of the neutron density in near-Earth space, 2x10-9/cm3, confirming earlier theoretical estimates.

  19. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  20. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  1. Storm-time electron flux precipitation in the inner radiation belt caused by wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tadokoro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been believed that electrons in the inner belt do not show the dynamical variation during magnetic storms except for great magnetic storms. However, Tadokoro et al. (2007 recently disclosed that low-altitude electrons in the inner belt frequently show flux variations during storms (Storm Time inner belt Electron Enhancement at the Low altitude (STEEL. This paper investigates a possible mechanism explaining STEEL during small and moderate storms, and shows that it is caused not by radial transport processes but by pitch angle scattering through wave-particle interactions. The waves related to wave-particle interactions are attributed to be banded whistler mode waves around 30 kHz observed in the inner magnetosphere by the Akebono satellite. The estimated pitch angle distribution based on a numerical calculation is roughly consistent with the observed results.

  2. Characteristics of Pitch Angle Distributions of 100s Kev Electrons in the Slot Region and Inner Radiation Belt­­­­­­­­

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Malaspina, D.

    2014-12-01

    The pitch angle distribution (PAD) of energetic electrons in the slot region and inner radiation belt received little attention in the past decades due to the lack of quality measurements. Using the state-of-art pitch-angle-resolved data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, a detailed analysis of 100s keV electron PADs below L =4 is performed, in which the PADs is categorized into three types: normal (flux peaking at 90°), cap (exceedingly peaking narrowly around 90°) and 90°-minimum (lower flux at 90°) PADs. By examining the characteristics of the PADs of 460 keV electrons for over a year, we find that the 90°-minimum PADs are generally present in the inner belt (Lpitch angle scattering of hiss waves. Fitting the normal PADs into sinnα form, the parameter n is much higher below L=3 than that in the outer belt and relatively constant in the inner belt but changes significantly in the slot region (2mechanism can hardly explain the formation of 90°-minimum PADs at the center of inner belt. These new and compelling observations, made possible by the high-quality measurements of MagEIS, present a challenge for the wave modelers, and future work is still needed to fully understand them.

  3. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G. D.; Cunningham, G. S.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Turner, D. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 11 (2016), s. 5616-5625 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radiation belts * slot region * electron losses * wave particle interactions * hiss wave s * electron lifetimes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL068869/full

  4. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  5. Discovery of high energy electrons in the radiation belt by devices with gas Cherenkov counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov-Ugryumov, V.G.; Galper, A.M.; Dmitrenko, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed study of the trapped electrons was undertaken with Bulgary-1300 satellite, the orbit altitude and the inclination being proportional900 km and 81 0 , respectively. The instrument axis in this case was perpendicular to the orbit plane. A scintillation-Cherenkov telescope, Electron, with parameters similar to that of Elena was used. (orig./HSI)

  6. A revised model of Jupiter's inner electron belts: Updating the Divine radiation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Levin, Steven M.; Bolton, Scott J.; Evans, Robin W.; Bhattacharya, Bidushi

    2005-02-01

    In 1983, Divine presented a comprehensive model of the Jovian charged particle environment that has long served as a reference for missions to Jupiter. However, in situ observations by Galileo and synchrotron observations from Earth indicate the need to update the model in the inner radiation zone. Specifically, a review of the model for 1 MeV data. Further modifications incorporating observations from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft will be reported in the future.

  7. Van Allen Probe Observations of Chorus Wave Activity, Source and Seed electrons, and the Radiation Belt Response During ICME and CIR Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K. W.; Huang, C. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are electromagnetic waves that have been shown to be a major contributor to enhancements in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. The temperature anisotropy of source electrons (10s of keV) provides the free energy for chorus waves, which can accelerate sub-relativistic seed electrons (100s of keV) to relativistic energies. This study uses Van Allen Probe observations to examine the excitation and plasma conditions associated with chorus wave observations, the development of the seed population, and the outer radiation belt response in the inner magnetosphere, for 25 ICME and 35 CIR storms. Plasma data from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) are used to identify chorus wave activity and to model a linear theory based proxy for chorus wave growth. A superposed epoch analysis shows a peak of chorus wave power on the dawnside during the storm main phase that spreads towards noon during the storm recovery phase. According to the linear theory results, this wave activity is driven by the enhanced convection driving plasma sheet electrons across the dayside. Both ICME and CIR storms show comparable levels of wave growth. Plasma data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) are used to observe the seed and relativistic electrons. A superposed epoch analysis of seed and relativistic electrons vs. L shows radiation belt enhancements with much greater frequency in the ICME storms, coinciding with a much stronger and earlier seed electron enhancement in the ICME storms.

  8. Variations of the Electron Fluxes in the Terrestrial Radiation Belts Due To the Impact of Corotating Interaction Regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacquista, R.; Boscher, D.; Rochel, S.; Maget, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the variations of the radiation belts electron fluxes induced by the interaction of two types of solar wind structures with the Earth magnetosphere: the corotating interaction regions and the interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We use a statistical method based on the comparison of the preevent and postevent fluxes. Applied to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Polar Operational Environmental Satellites data, this gives us the opportunity to extend previous studies focused on relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit. We enlighten how corotating interaction regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections can impact differently the electron belts depending on the energy and the L shell. In addition, we provide a new insight concerning these variations by considering their amplitude. Finally, we show strong relations between the intensity of the magnetic storms related to the events and the variation of the flux. These relations concern both the capacity of the events to increase the flux and the deepness of these increases.

  9. Energetic electrons at Uranus: Bimodal diffusion in a satellite limited radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesnick, R.S.; Stone, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 cosmic ray experiment observed intense electron fluxes in the middle magnetosphere of Uranus. High counting rates in several of the solid-state detectors precluded in the normal multiple coincidence analysis used for cosmic ray observations, and the authors have therefore performed laboratory measurements of the single-detector response to electrons. These calibrations allow a deconvolution from the counting rate data of the electron energy spectrum between energies of about 0.7 and 2.5 MeV. They present model fits to the differential intensity spectra from observations between L values of 6 and 15. The spectra are well represented by power laws in kinetic energy with spectral indices between 5 and 7. The phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants generally increases with L, indicative of an external source. However, there are also local minima associated with the satellites Ariel and Umbriel, indicating either a local source or an effective source due to nonconservation of the first two adiabatic invariants. For electrons which mirror at the highest magnetic latitudes, the local minimum associated with Ariel is radically displaced from the minimum L of that satellite by ∼0.5. The latitude variation of the satellite absorption efficiency predicts that if satellite losses are replenished primarily by radial diffusion there should be an increasing pitch angle anisotropy with decreasing L. The uniformity in the observed anisotropy outside the absorption regions then suggests that it is maintained by pitch angle diffusion. The effective source due to pitch angle diffusion is insufficient to cause the phase space density minimum associated with Ariel. Model solutions of the simultaneous radial and pitch angle diffusion equation show that the displacement of the high-latitude Ariel signature is also consistent with a larger effective source

  10. Intensity maps of MeV electrons and protons below the radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, T.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuchi, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    The global distributions of energetic electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.64 - 35 MeV) are shown in the form of contour maps. The data were obtained by two sets of energetic particle telescopes on board the satellite OHZORA. The observed altitude range is 350 - 850 Km. Ten degress meshes in longitude and latitude were used to obtain the intensity contours. A pitch angle distribution of J(α) = J(90). sin n α with n = 5 A is assumed to get the average intensity in each mesh. (author) [pt

  11. Two Step Acceleration Process of Electrons in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt by Time Domain Electric Field Bursts and Large Amplitude Chorus Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  12. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  13. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  14. Drift-resonant, relativistic electron acceleration at the outer planets: Insights from the response of Saturn's radiation belts to magnetospheric storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Dialynas, K.; Sergis, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The short, 7.2-day orbital period of Cassini's Ring Grazing Orbits (RGO) provided an opportunity to monitor how fast the effects of an intense magnetospheric storm-time period (days 336-343/2016) propagated into Saturn's electron radiation belts. Following the storms, Cassini's MIMI/LEMMS instrument detected a transient extension of the electron radiation belts that in subsequent orbits moved towards the inner belts, intensifying them in the process. This intensification was followed by an equally fast decay, possibly due to the rapid absorption of MeV electrons by the planet's main rings. Surprisingly, all this cycle was completed within four RGOs, effectively in less than a month. That is considerably faster than the year-long time scales of Saturn's proton radiation belt evolution. In order to explain this difference, we propose that electron radial transport is partly controlled by the variability of global scale electric fields which have a fixed local time pointing. Such electric fields may distort significantly the orbits of a particular class of energetic electrons that cancel out magnetospheric corotation due to their westward gradient and curvature drifts (termed "corotation-resonant" or "local-time stationary" electrons) and transport them radially between the ring current and the radiation belts within several days and few weeks. The significance of the proposed process is highlighted by the fact that corotation resonance at Saturn occurs for electrons of few hundred keV to several MeV. These are the characteristic energies of seed electrons from the ring current that sustain the radiation belts of the planet. Our model's feasibility is demonstrated through the use of a simple test-particle simulation, where we estimate that uniform but variable electric fields with magnitudes lower that 1.0 mV/m can lead to a very efficient transport of corotation resonant electrons. Such electric fields have been consistently measured in the magnetosphere, and here we

  15. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  16. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  17. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  18. Mapping lightning discharges on Earth with lightning-generated whistlers wave emission in space and their effects on radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Ripoll, J. F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the slot region of the Van Allen radiation belts is sculpted by the presence of whistler mode waves especially by plasmaspheric hiss emissions. In this work, we investigate the role of lightning-generated whistler waves (LGW), which also contribute to scatter electrons trapped in the plasmaphere but, in general, to a lesser extent due to their low mean amplitude and occurrence rate. Our goal is to revisit the characterization of LGW occurrence in the Earth's atmosphere and in space as well as the computation of LGW effects by looking at a series of particular events, among which intense events, in order to characterize maximal scattering effects. We use multicomponent measurements of whistler mode waves by the Waves instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft as our primary data source. We combine this data set with local measurements of the plasma density. We also use the data of the World Wide Lightning Location Network in order to localize the source of lightning discharges on Earth and their radiated energy, both locally at the footprint of the spacecraft and, globally, along the drift path. We discuss how to relate the signal measured in space with the estimation of the power emitted in the atmosphere and the associated complexity. Using these unique data sets we model the coefficients of quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion and we estimate effects of these waves on radiation belt electrons. We show evidence that lightning generated whistlers can, at least in some cases, influence the radiation belt dynamics.

  19. Resonance zones and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients for radiation belt energetic electron interaction with oblique chorus waves in the Dungey magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu Xudong; Zhao Zhengyu; Zhou Chen

    2012-01-01

    The resonance regions for resonant interactions of radiation belt electrons with obliquely propagating whistler-mode chorus waves are investigated in detail in the Dungey magnetic fields that are parameterized by the intensity of uniform southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz or, equivalently, by the values of D=(M/B z,0 ) 1/3 (where M is the magnetic moment of the dipole and B z,0 is the uniform southward IMF normal to the dipole’s equatorial plane). Adoption of background magnetic field model can considerably modify the determination of resonance regions. Compared to the results for the case of D = 50 (very close to the dipole field), the latitudinal coverage of resonance regions for 200 keV electrons interacting with chorus waves tends to become narrower for smaller D-values, regardless of equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and wave normal angle. In contrast, resonance regions for 1 MeV electrons tend to have very similar spatial lengths along the field line for various Dungey magnetic field models but cover different magnetic field intervals, indicative of a strong dependence on electron energy. For any given magnetic field line, the resonance regions where chorus-electron resonant interactions can take place rely closely on equatorial pitch angle, resonance harmonics, and kinetic energy. The resonance regions tend to cover broader latitudinal ranges for smaller equatorial pitch angles, higher resonance harmonics, and lower electron energies, consistent with the results in Ni and Summers [Phys. Plasmas 17, 042902, 042903 (2010)]. Calculations of quasi-linear bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients for radiation belt electrons due to nightside chorus waves indicate that the resultant scattering rates differ from using different Dungey magnetic field models, demonstrating a strong dependence of wave-induced electron scattering effect on the adoption of magnetic field model. Our results suggest that resonant wave-particle interaction processes

  20. The Contribution of Compressional Magnetic Pumping to the Energization of the Earth's Outer Electron Radiation Belt During High-Speed Stream-Driven Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Horne, Richard B.; Meredith, Nigel P.

    2017-12-01

    Compressional magnetic pumping is an interaction between cyclic magnetic compressions and pitch angle scattering with the scattering acting as a catalyst to allow the cyclic compressions to energize particles. Compressional magnetic pumping of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit in the dayside magnetosphere is analyzed by means of computer simulations, wherein solar wind compressions of the dayside magnetosphere energize electrons with electron pitch angle scattering by chorus waves and by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The magnetic pumping is found to produce a weak bulk heating of the electron radiation belt, and it also produces an energetic tail on the electron energy distribution. The amount of energization depends on the robustness of the solar wind compressions and on the amplitude of the chorus and/or EMIC waves. Chorus-catalyzed pumping is better at energizing medium-energy (50-200 keV) electrons than it is at energizing higher-energy electrons; at high energies (500 keV-2 MeV) EMIC-catalyzed pumping is a stronger energizer. The magnetic pumping simulation results are compared with energy diffusion calculations for chorus waves in the dayside magnetosphere; in general, compressional magnetic pumping is found to be weaker at accelerating electrons than is chorus-driven energy diffusion. In circumstances when solar wind compressions are robust and when EMIC waves are present in the dayside magnetosphere without the presence of chorus, EMIC-catalyzed magnetic pumping could be the dominant energization mechanism in the dayside magnetosphere, but at such times loss cone losses will be strong.

  1. Study of energetic electrons in the outer radiation-belt regions using data obtained by the LLL spectrometer on OGO-5 in 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Buck, R.M.; Davidson, G.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of measurements of electrons made by the LLL magnetic electron spectrometer (60 to 3000 keV in seven differential energy channels) on the Ogo-5 satellite in the earth's outer-belt regions during 1968 and early 1969. The data were analyzed specifically to determine pitch-angle diffusion lifetimes as a function of energy in the L-range 2 to 5. As a part of this effort, the general dynamics of these regions were studied in terms of the time-dependent energy spectra, and pitch-angle distributions for the seven energy groups were obtained as a function of L with representative values presented for L = 2.5 to 6. The pitch-angle-diffusion results were used to analyze the dynamics of the electrons injected following the intense storms on October 31 and November 1, 1968, in terms of radial diffusion; the derived diffusion coefficients provide a quite reasonable picture of electron transport in the radiation belts. Both the radial- and pitch-angle-diffusion results are compared with earlier results. 53 references

  2. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  3. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States undertook the launching of an artificial Earth satellite as part of its contribution to the International Geophysical Year. The Vanguard program was established to meet that commitment, and it developed a launch vehicle, ground station network, and suite of scientific payloads, including the cosmic ray experiment proposed by James A. Van Allen. Although Vanguard eventually exceeded all of its pre-stated goals, the preemptive launches of Sputniks I and II by the Soviets in October and November 1957 spurred the U.S. into a frenzy of activity, resulting in the launches of Explorers I and III in January and March of 1958. The data from those two satellites quickly revealed the lower boundary of an unexpected region of high intensity radiation trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. The original announcement in May 1958 stated that the radiation was probably composed of either protons or electrons, and that, if electrons, it was probably bremsstrahlung formed in the satellite shell. Immediately following that announcement, approval was received for what became Explorer IV, whose announced purpose was to follow up on the new discovery. Another reason for the satellite, unmentioned at the time, was its inclusion as a component of the highly classified Argos program, a covert military program to test whether the detonation of nuclear devices at high altitude would inject measurable numbers of charged particles into durable trajectories in the Earth's magnetic field. Our team at Iowa produced the satellites under the oversight of, and with assistance by, the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, and with the contributions of key hardware from several other government laboratories. The project was completed in the unbelievably short period of seventy-seven days from approval to launch. Launched into a higher-inclination orbit than the earlier Explorers, Explorer IV confirmed the discovery and greatly expanded our understanding of the natural

  4. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  5. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  6. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  7. Average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report average profiles of the solar wind and outer radiation belt during the extreme flux enhancement of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit (GEO. It is found that seven of top ten extreme events at GEO during solar cycle 23 are associated with the magnetosphere inflation during the storm recovery phase as caused by the large-scale solar wind structure of very low dynamic pressure (<1.0 nPa during rapid speed decrease from very high (>650 km/s to typical (400–500 km/s in a few days. For the seven events, the solar wind parameters, geomagnetic activity indices, and relativistic electron flux and geomagnetic field at GEO are superposed at the local noon period of GOES satellites to investigate the physical cause. The average profiles support the "double inflation" mechanism that the rarefaction of the solar wind and subsequent magnetosphere inflation are one of the best conditions to produce the extreme flux enhancement at GEO because of the excellent magnetic confinement of relativistic electrons by reducing the drift loss of trapped electrons at dayside magnetopause.

  8. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  9. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Nonlinear Scattering of VLF Waves in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Ganguli, Guru; Mithaiwala, Manish

    2014-10-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering. Since the pitch-angle scattering rate is a strong function of the wave properties, a solid understanding of VLF wave sources and propagation in the magnetosphere is critical to accurately calculate electron lifetimes. Nonlinear scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is a mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation, and has not been accounted for in previous models of radiation belt dynamics. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Recent results show that the threshold for nonlinear scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear scattering can then dramatically alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al. 2012]. By considering these effects, the lifetimes of electrons can be dramatically reduced. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  11. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  12. Variations of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt near the boundary of a trapping region during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, E.A.; Malyshev, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Variations of electron fluxes with the energy Esub(e) > 0.7 MeV have been investigated near the high-latitude boundary of electron trapping region in the night and day sections of the magnetosphere. It is found that during substorms the natural changes of the structure of electron fluxes take place. On the night side of the magnetosphere after the flux boundary drift to the equator at the preliminary phase, its sharp drift to the pole at the explosion phase takes place with further slow ( during 1-2 hours) shift to the initial position. The boundary position reconstruction period coincide by duration with the life time of negative bays at magnetograms of the night section stations. On the day side the boundary of electron fluxes recorded drifts to the pole in 30-60 min after the beginning of the substorm exposion phase. The results obtained are interpreted within the framework of the theory of adiabatic drift of trapped electrons and their pitch-angular diffusion under the effect of very low frequency waves

  13. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  14. Parametric excitation of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic whistler waves and interaction with energetic electrons in radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Caplinger, J.; Main, D.; Mishin, E.; Gershenzon, N.; Genoni, T.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    2018-04-01

    The concept of a parametric antenna in ionospheric plasma is analyzed. Such antennas are capable of exciting electromagnetic radiation fields, specifically the creation of whistler waves generated at the very low frequency (VLF) range, which are also capable of propagating large distances away from the source region. The mechanism of whistler wave generation is considered a parametric interaction of quasi-electrostatic whistler waves (also known as low oblique resonance (LOR) oscillations) excited by a conventional loop antenna. The interaction of LOR waves with quasi-neutral density perturbations in the near field of an antenna gives rise to electromagnetic whistler waves on combination frequencies. It is shown in this work that the amplitude of these waves can considerably exceed the amplitude of whistler waves directly excited by a loop. Additionally, particle-in-cell simulations, which demonstrate the excitation and spatial structure of VLF waves excited by a loop antenna, are presented. Possible applications including the wave-particle interactions to mitigate performance anomalies of low Earth orbit satellites, active space experiments, communication via VLF waves, and modification experiments in the ionosphere will be discussed.

  15. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  16. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.

    2017-12-01

    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  17. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA (www.carisma.ca) magnetometer array, as well as from

  18. Inner Radiation Belt Representation of the Energetic Electron Environment: Model and Data Synthesis Using the Salammbo Radiation Belt Transport Code and Los Alamos Geosynchronous and GPS Energetic Particle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, R. H. W.; Bourdarie, S.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Cayton, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    The highly energetic electron environment in the inner magnetosphere (GEO inward) has received a lot of research attention in resent years, as the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration and transport are not yet fully understood. These electrons can cause deep dielectric charging in any space hardware in the MEO to GEO region. We use a new and novel approach to obtain a global representation of the inner magnetospheric energetic electron environment, which can reproduce the absolute environment (flux) for any spacecraft orbit in that region to within a factor of 2 for the energy range of 100 KeV to 5 MeV electrons, for any levels of magnetospheric activity. We combine the extensive set of inner magnetospheric energetic electron observations available at Los Alamos with the physics based Salammbo transport code, using the data assimilation technique of "nudging". This in effect input in-situ data into the code and allows the diffusion mechanisms in the code to interpolate the data into regions and times of no data availability. We present here details of the methods used, both in the data assimilation process and in the necessary inter-calibration of the input data used. We will present sample runs of the model/data code and compare the results to test spacecraft data not used in the data assimilation process.

  19. Observations of MeV electrons in Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions by the Juno radiation monitoring investigation: Perijoves 1 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2017-01-01

    Juno's “Perijove 1” (27 August 2016) and “Perijove 3” (11 December 2016) flybys through the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere (radial distances ... Investigation collected particle counts and noise signatures from penetrating high-energy particle impacts in images acquired by the Stellar Reference Unit and Advanced Stellar Compass star trackers, and the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper infrared imager. This coordinated observation campaign sampled radiation...

  20. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1976-07-01

    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  1. The impact of radiation belts region on top side ionosphere condition during last solar minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Przepiórka, Dororta; Matyjasiak, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The wave particle interactions in radiation belts region are one of the key parameters in understanding the global physical processes which govern the near Earth environment. The populations of outer radiation belts electrons increasing in response to changes in the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, and decreasing as a result of scattering into the loss cone and subsequent absorption by the atmosphere. The most important question in relation to understanding the physical processes in radiation belts region relates to estimate the ratio between acceleration and loss processes. This can be also very useful for construct adequate models adopted in Space Weather program. Moreover the wave particle interaction in inner radiation zone and in outer radiation zone have significant influence on the space plasma property at ionospheric altitude. The aim of this presentation is to show the manifestation of radiation belts region at the top side ionosphere during the last long solar minimum. The presentation of longitude and seasonal changes of plasma parameters affected by process occurred in radiation belts region has been performed on the base of the DEMETER and COSMIC 3 satellite registration. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  2. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results From the PROGRESS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Arber, T. D.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Walker, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results from the PROGRESS Project. The overall goal of the PROGRESS project, funded in frame of EU Horizon2020 programme, is to combine first principles based models with the systems science methodologies to achieve reliable forecasts of the geo-space particle radiation environment.The PROGRESS incorporates three themes : The propagation of the solar wind to L1, Forecast of geomagnetic indices, and forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons within the magnetosphere. One of the important aspects of the PROGRESS project is the development of statistical wave models for magnetospheric waves that affect the dynamics of energetic electrons such as lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise. The error reduction ratio (ERR) concept has been used to optimise the set of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters for organisation of statistical wave models for these emissions. The resulting sets of parameters and statistical wave models will be presented and discussed. However the ERR analysis also indicates that the combination of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters accounts for only part of the variance of the emissions under investigation (lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise). In addition, advances in the forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons, exploiting empirical models and the first principles IMPTAM model achieved by the PROGRESS project is presented.

  4. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.

    2017-09-01

    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  5. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  6. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  7. Nonlinear VLF Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Mithaiwala, M.; Rudakov, L.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, both control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering and are responsible for the energization of electrons during storms. Traditional approaches to understanding the influence of waves on trapped electrons have assumed that the wave characteristics (frequency spectrum, wave-normal angle distribution, etc.) were both stationary in time and amplitude independent from event to event. In situ data from modern satellite missions, such as the Van Allen probes, are showing that this assumption may not be justified. In addition, recent theoretical results [Crabtree et al. 2012] show that the threshold for nonlinear wave scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear wave scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is an amplitude dependent mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Nonlinear scattering can alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al., 2012]. Such nonlinear wave effects can dramatically reduce electron lifetimes. Nonlinear wave dynamics such as these occur when there are more than one wave present, such a condition necessarily violates the assumption of traditional wave-normal analysis [Santolik et al., 2003] which rely on the plane wave assumption. To investigate nonlinear wave dynamics using modern in situ data we apply the maximum entropy method [Skilling and Bryan, 1984] to solve for the wave distribution function

  8. The Global Statistical Response of the Outer Radiation Belt During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Mann, I. R.; Jonathan Rae, I.; Sibeck, D. G.; Boyd, A. J.; Forsyth, C. F.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.

    2018-05-01

    Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density, the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using phase space density reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ)-dependent behavior in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1,000 MeV/G), and ultrarelativistic (4,000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, while the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of CRAND Contribution to the Inner Belt Electron Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, X.; Selesnick, R.; Schiller, Q. A.; Zhao, H.; Baker, D. N.; Temerin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Following the direct identification and measurements of Cosmic Ray Albedo Neutron Decay (CRAND) produced electrons near the inner edge of the inner belt by Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE)1, we extend the study by addressing more comprehensive questions: (1) what is the relative CRAND contribution to the inner belt compared with electrons injected from further out? (2) How does this relative contribution vary with geomagnetic activity and electron energy? (3) What is the solar cycle dependence of CRAND electrons? In order to answer the above questions, extended data of relativistic electrons in the inner belt are needed for a much longer time period and also finer energy resolution is required. Therefore, we will show results regarding the above questions based on data including other low Earth orbit measurements in addition to CSSWE, such as SAMPEX/PET, DEMETER/IDP, and PROBA-V/EPT. [1] Li, Xinlin, Richard Selesnick, Quintin Schiller, Kun Zhang, Hong Zhao, Daniel Baker, and Michael Temerin (2017), Direct detection of albedo neutron decay electrons at the inner edge of the radiation belt and determination of neutron density in near-Earth space, Nature, under review.

  10. Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  11. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  12. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  13. Jupiter radiation belt models (July 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.

    1974-01-01

    Flux profiles which were derived from data returned by Pioneer 10 during Jupiter encounter, form the basis for a new set of numerical models for the energy spectra of electrons and protons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere

  14. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  15. Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in situ data and implications for environment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Jun, Insoo; Evans, Robin

    2017-09-01

    The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In low Earth orbit (LEO), the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles. The shape of the South Atlantic anomaly (SAA) from Jason-2 data is better captured by AP9 compared to AP8, while the peak SAA flux is better reproduced by AP8. The <1.5 MeV inner belt electrons from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles, while AE8 overpredicts the measurements. In the outer radiation belt, MagEIS and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) electrons closely follow the median estimate from AE9, while AP9 5th and 95th percentiles generally envelope REPT proton measurements in the inner belt and slot regions. While AE9/AP9 offer the flexibility to specify the environment with different confidence levels, the dose and trapped proton peak flux for POES and Jason-2 trajectories from the AE9/AP9 50th percentile and above are larger than the estimates from the AE8/AP8 models.

  16. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyu Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  17. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  18. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  19. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Earth's Radiation Belts: Recent Advances and Unprecedented Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    In the collisionless heliospheric plasmas, wave-particle interaction is a fundamental physical process in transferring energy and momentum between particles with different species and energies. This presentation focuses on one of the important wave-particle interaction processes: interaction between whistler-mode waves and electrons. Whistler-mode waves have frequencies between proton and electron cyclotron frequency and are ubiquitously present in the heliospheric plasmas including solar wind and planetary magnetospheres. I use Earth's Van Allen radiation belt as "local space laboratory" to discuss the role of whistler-mode waves in energetic electron dynamics using multi-satellite observations, theory and modeling. I further discuss solar wind drivers leading to energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, which is critical in predicting space weather that has broad impacts on our technological systems and society. At last, I discuss the unprecedented future opportunities of exploring space science using multi-satellite observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling.

  20. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Combined Global MHD and Test-Particle Simulation of a Radiation Belt Storm: Comparing Depletion, Recovery and Enhancement with in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorathia, K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms the intensities of radiation belt electrons exhibit dramatic variability. In the main phase electron intensities exhibit deep depletion over a broad region of the outer belt. The intensities then increase during the recovery phase, often to levels that significantly exceed their pre-storm values. In this study we analyze the depletion, recovery and enhancement of radiation belt intensities during the 2013 St. Patrick's geomagnetic storm. We simulate the dynamics of high-energy electrons using our newly-developed test-particle radiation belt model (CHIMP) based on a hybrid guiding-center/Lorentz integrator and electromagnetic fields derived from high-resolution global MHD (LFM) simulations. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use MHD flow information to identify and seed test-particles into regions of strong convection in the magnetotail. We address two science questions: 1) what are the relative roles of magnetopause losses, transport-driven atmospheric precipitation, and adiabatic cooling in the radiation belt depletion during the storm main phase? and 2) to what extent can enhanced convection/mesoscale injections account for the radiation belt buildup during the recovery phase? Our analysis is based on long-term model simulation and the comparison of our model results with electron intensity measurements from the MAGEIS experiment of the Van Allen Probes mission.

  2. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  3. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Radiation Belts, Aurora,and Solar Wind: Opportunities for Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physics of the creation, loss, and transport of radiation belt particles is intimately connected to the electric and magnetic fields which mediate these processes. A large range of field and particle interactions are involved in this physics from large-scale ring current ion and magnetic field dynamics to microscopic kinetic interactions of whistler-mode chorus waves with energetic electrons. To measure these kinds of radiation belt interactions, NASA implemented the two-satellite Van Allen Probes mission. As part of the mission, the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) investigation is an integrated set of instruments consisting of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer (MAG) and a Waves instrument which includes a triaxial search coil magnetometer (MSC). We show a variety of waves thought to be important for wave particle interactionsin the radiation belts: low frequency ULF pulsations, EMIC waves, and whistler mode waves including upper and lower band chorus. Outside ofthe radiation belts, Alfven waves play a key role in both solar wind turbulenceand auroral particle acceleration. Several of these wave modes could benefit (or have benefitted) from laboratory studies to further refineour understanding of the detailed physics of the wave-particle interactionswhich lead to energization, pitch angle scattering, and cross-field transportWe illustrate some of the processes and compare the wave data with particle measurements to show relationships between wave activity and particle processobserved in the inner magnetosphere and heliosphere.

  4. Proton flux under radiation belts: near-equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, O.R.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Petrov, A.N.; Kudela, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the features of low-energy proton flux increases in near-equatorial region (McIlvein parameter L th the proton flux (with energy from tens keV up to several MeV) increases are registering regularly. However modern proton flux models (for example AP8 model) works at L>1.15 only and does not take into account near-equatorial protons. These fluxes are not too big, but the investigation of this phenomenon is important in scope of atmosphere-ionosphere connections and mechanisms of particles transport in magnetosphere. In according to double charge-exchange model the proton flux in near-equatorial region does not depend on geomagnetic local time (MLT) and longitude. However the Azur satellite data and Kosmos-484, MIR station and Active satellite data revealed the proton flux dependence on longitude. The other feature of near-equatorial proton flux is the dependence on geomagnetic local time revealed in the Sampex satellite experiment and other experiments listed above. In this work the dependences on MLT and longitude are investigated using the Active satellite (30-500 keV) and Sampex satellite (>800 keV). This data confirms that main sources of near-equatorial protons are radiation belts and ring current. The other result is that near-equatorial protons are quasi-trapped. The empirical proton flux dependences on L, B at near-equatorial longitudes are presented. (author)

  5. Explaining the Diverse Response of the Ultra-relativistic Van Allen Radiation Belt to Solar Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Rae, J.; Milling, D. K.; Kale, A.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Van Allen Probes have opened a new window on the dynamics of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. Under different solar wind forcing the outer belt is seen to respond in a variety of apparently diverse and sometimes remarkable ways. For example, sometimes a third radiation belt is carved out (e.g., September 2012), or the belts can remain depleted for 10 days or more (September 2014). More usually there is a sequential response of a strong and sometimes rapid depletion followed by a re-energization, the latter increasing outer belt electron flux by orders of magnitude on hour timescales during some of the strongest storms of this solar cycle (e.g., March 2013, March 2015). Such dynamics also appear to be often bounded at low-L by an apparently impenetrable barrier at L 2.8 through which ultra-relativistic electrons do not penetrate. Many studies in the Van Allen Probes era have sought explanations for these apparently diverse features, often incorporating the effects from multiple plasma waves. In contrast, we show how this apparently diverse behaviour can instead be explained by one dominant process: ULF wave radial transport. Once ULF wave transport rates are accurately specified by observations, and coupled to the dynamical variation of the outer boundary condition at the edge of the outer belt, the observed diverse responses can all be explained. However, in order to get good agreement with observations, the modeling reveals the importance of still currently unexplained very fast loss in the main phase which results in an almost total extinction of the belts and decouples pre- and post-storm ultra-relativistic electron flux on hour timescales. Similarly, varying plasmasheet source populations are seen to be of critical importance such that near-tail dynamics play a crucial role in Van Allen belt dynamics. Nonetheless, simple models incorporating accurate transport rates derived directly from ULF wave measurements are shown to

  6. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.

    2017-04-01

    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  7. RF communications subsystem for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Dipak K.; Artis, David; Baker, Ben; Stilwell, Robert; Wallis, Robert

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, currently in Phase B, is a two-spacecraft, Earth-orbiting mission, which will launch in 2012. The spacecraft's S-band radio frequency (RF) telecommunications subsystem has three primary functions: provide spacecraft command capability, provide spacecraft telemetry and science data return, and provide accurate Doppler data for navigation. The primary communications link to the ground is via the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory's (JHU/APL) 18 m dish, with secondary links to the NASA 13 m Ground Network and the Tracking and Data Relay Spacecraft System (TDRSS) in single-access mode. The on-board RF subsystem features the APL-built coherent transceiver and in-house builds of a solid-state power amplifier and conical bifilar helix broad-beam antennas. The coherent transceiver provides coherency digitally, and controls the downlink data rate and encoding within its field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The transceiver also provides a critical command decoder (CCD) function, which is used to protect against box-level upsets in the C&DH subsystem. Because RBSP is a spin-stabilized mission, the antennas must be symmetric about the spin axis. Two broad-beam antennas point along both ends of the spin axis, providing communication coverage from boresight to 70°. An RF splitter excites both antennas; therefore, the mission is designed such that no communications are required close to 90° from the spin axis due to the interferometer effect from the two antennas. To maximize the total downlink volume from the spacecraft, the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) has been baselined for the RBSP mission. During real-time ground contacts with the APL ground station, downlinked files are checked for errors. Handshaking between flight and ground CFDP software results in requests to retransmit only the file fragments lost due to dropouts. This allows minimization of RF link margins, thereby maximizing data rate and

  8. Solar Rotational Periodicities and the Semiannual Variation in the Solar Wind, Radiation Belt, and Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Barbara A.; Richardson, Ian G.; Evans, David S.; Rich, Frederick J.; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of a number of solar wind, radiation belt, auroral and geomagnetic parameters is examined during the recent extended solar minimum and previous solar cycles, covering the period from January 1972 to July 2010. This period includes most of the solar minimum between Cycles 23 and 24, which was more extended than recent solar minima, with historically low values of most of these parameters in 2009. Solar rotational periodicities from S to 27 days were found from daily averages over 81 days for the parameters. There were very strong 9-day periodicities in many variables in 2005 -2008, triggered by recurring corotating high-speed streams (HSS). All rotational amplitudes were relatively large in the descending and early minimum phases of the solar cycle, when HSS are the predominant solar wind structures. There were minima in the amplitudes of all solar rotational periodicities near the end of each solar minimum, as well as at the start of the reversal of the solar magnetic field polarity at solar maximum (approx.1980, approx.1990, and approx. 2001) when the occurrence frequency of HSS is relatively low. Semiannual equinoctial periodicities, which were relatively strong in the 1995-1997 solar minimum, were found to be primarily the result of the changing amplitudes of the 13.5- and 27-day periodicities, where 13.5-day amplitudes were better correlated with heliospheric daily observations and 27-day amplitudes correlated better with Earth-based daily observations. The equinoctial rotational amplitudes of the Earth-based parameters were probably enhanced by a combination of the Russell-McPherron effect and a reduction in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling efficiency during solstices. The rotational amplitudes were cross-correlated with each other, where the 27 -day amplitudes showed some of the weakest cross-correlations. The rotational amplitudes of the > 2 MeV radiation belt electron number fluxes were progressively weaker from 27- to 5-day periods

  9. Conceptual design of a Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) shuttle-attached experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1990-01-01

    The conceptual design of a shuttle-attached Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) experiment is presented. The MBR is an advanced radiator concept in which a rotating belt is used to radiate thermal energy to space. The experiment is developed with the primary focus being the verification of the dynamic characteristics of a rotating belt with a secondary objective of proving the thermal and sealing aspects in a reduced gravity, vacuum environment. The mechanical design, selection of the belt material and working fluid, a preliminary test plan, and program plan are presented. The strategy used for selecting the basic sizes and materials of the components are discussed. Shuttle and crew member requirements are presented with some options for increasing or decreasing the demands on the STS. An STS carrier and the criteria used in the selection process are presented. The proposed carrier for the Moving Belt Radiator experiment is the Hitchhiker-M. Safety issues are also listed with possible results. This experiment is designed so that a belt can be deployed, run at steady state conditions, run with dynamic perturbations imposed, verify the operation of the interface heat exchanger and seals, and finally be retracted into a stowed position for transport back to earth.

  10. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth's radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscher, D. M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth's radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained

  11. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E

    2012-01-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  12. Coherent Radiation of Electron Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cloud in positron storage rings is pinched when a bunch passes by. For short bunches, the radiation due to acceleration of electrons of the cloud is coherent. Detection of such radiation can be used to measure the density of the cloud. The estimate of the power and the time structure of the radiated signal is given in this paper

  13. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  14. Measurement of charge composition of electron flows with an energy above hundreds MeV in inner radiaion belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Pugacheva, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    A detector for studying the charge composition of a high-energy electron component of an internal radiation belt when measuring the precipitation of charged particles in the region of Brazil magnetic anomaly is suggested. The detector is a telescope consisting of two semiconductors and CsI crystal housed into a protection detector in the form of a cup made of plastic scintillator. An absorber of plastic scintillator is placed between semiconductive detections. The detector may record positrons with energy up to 5 MeV in the composition of precipitating particles from the belt in definite detector signal combination and specific energy release 511 keV in CsI crystal. 16 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, Vania K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Evans, D.S.; Albert, Jay; Connors, M

    2008-01-01

    The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's

  16. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  17. Trapping in stochastic mechanics and applications to covers of clouds and radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Blanchard, P.; Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Sirugue, M.; Sirugue-Collin, M.

    1984-11-01

    It is possible to assign a stochastic acceleration to conservative stochastic diffusion processes. As a basic assumption, this stochastic acceleration is set equal to the deterministic smooth component of the external force acting on the particle, whereas the influences of the remainder is modelled by a diffusion coefficient. In this paper, we shall try to see whether it can account for the observation in two cases: the cover of clouds of planets and the radiation belts in the planetary magnetic field. We describe the basic properties of Newtonian Diffusion Stochastic Processes and indicate their connection with Schroedinger-like equations. Furthermore we give a heuristic interpretation of the nodal surfaces as impenetrable barriers for Newtonian Stochastic Diffusion Processes. The possible applications to the observed average cloud covering in the planetary atmosphere are presented we discuss the radiation belts (Van Allen Belts) along the previous ideas

  18. Lognormal Kalman filter for assimilating phase space density data in the radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, D.; Ghil, M.; Shprits, Y.

    2011-11-01

    Data assimilation combines a physical model with sparse observations and has become an increasingly important tool for scientists and engineers in the design, operation, and use of satellites and other high-technology systems in the near-Earth space environment. Of particular importance is predicting fluxes of high-energy particles in the Van Allen radiation belts, since these fluxes can damage spaceborne platforms and instruments during strong geomagnetic storms. In transiting from a research setting to operational prediction of these fluxes, improved data assimilation is of the essence. The present study is motivated by the fact that phase space densities (PSDs) of high-energy electrons in the outer radiation belt—both simulated and observed—are subject to spatiotemporal variations that span several orders of magnitude. Standard data assimilation methods that are based on least squares minimization of normally distributed errors may not be adequate for handling the range of these variations. We propose herein a modification of Kalman filtering that uses a log-transformed, one-dimensional radial diffusion model for the PSDs and includes parameterized losses. The proposed methodology is first verified on model-simulated, synthetic data and then applied to actual satellite measurements. When the model errors are sufficiently smaller then observational errors, our methodology can significantly improve analysis and prediction skill for the PSDs compared to those of the standard Kalman filter formulation. This improvement is documented by monitoring the variance of the innovation sequence.

  19. Studies on the evaluation of thermal belts and radiation fog over mountainous regions by LANDSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Horiguchi, I.; Fukaishi, K.; Kanechika, O.; Ishida, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Local meteorological phenomena and characteristics under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter were investigated using Landsat data and physiographic parameters over the hilly and mountainous regions of the western part of shikoku. (1) Relative elevation between thermal belts and underlying ground such as bottom of basin or valley was 400m on an average. (2) Thermal belts appeared in the zone between 400m and 1000m above the sea level in the western part of Shikoku. (3) Temperature of the thermal belts varied with the elevation in a ratio of about 1 degrees C/100m. This observation indicated that the thermal belt temperature was closely related to the altitude of the zone where the thermal belts originated. (4) Radiation fog was frequently recorded over some part along the Hiji river and over the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama; fog was present even at 10 a.m. (3 hours after sunrise). (5) Upper surface of the fog layer was located at 200m and 600m above the sea level in the Oozu basin and in the area along Ootoyo to Motoyama respectively. (6) In the Oozu basin, the distribution of hamlets on the mountainside was often recognized in the localities within the upper limit of foggy areas

  20. Detection of the strange bodies on the conveyor belt using gamma radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, A.; Ochiana, G.; Oncescu, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method for the computation of the activity of a gamma radiation source used in a radiometric assembly designed to detect the strange bodies (iron, stone or wood-made granules) within the textile material on the conveyor belt. The mathematical modelling method based on the Monte Carlo procedure has been used, with different values of the errors of types I and II; the investigation method is the transmission of gamma radiations. (Author)

  1. Electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Addresses the developments in the design of semiconductor detectors and integrated circuits, in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explains how circuits for radiation are built, focusing on practical information about how they are being used, rather than mathematical details.

  2. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  3. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  4. Effects of Electromagnetic Perturbations on Particles Trapped in the Radiation Belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungey, J. W. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1965-06-15

    Since the radiation belts were discovered by Van Allen in 1958, observations of trapped particles have rapidly built up a large body of information. Knowledge of the neutral atmosphere as well as the ionosphere shows that for energetic particles the probable time before colliding with another particle of any kind may be extremely long. Then the only feature known to affect the motion of the particle is the electromagnetic field and, conversely, over a long time even weak electromagnetic disturbances can be important. Consequently, electromagnetic disturbances should be important in determining the form of the radiation belts, and it will be seen that certain features encourage an interpretation of this kind. The physics of the radiation belts may be regarded as a part of plasma physics, namely the realm in which collisions are negligible. This needs qualifying in that there is a boundary layer (the ionosphere) where collisions are important, and this is analogous to laboratory plasma containment devices. The energy range of trapped particles is wide, but includes the energy range required for fusion reactors. The mean free time in the radiation belts is extreme, but the neglect of collisions yields a great simplification in theoretical work, and an understanding of collision-free plasmas is expected to be useful. Observations in space have great advantages. The quantity measured by a particle-detector sensitive to a limited range of energy and with a limited cone of acceptance is the velocity distribution function, which is fundamental in theoretical work. Local electric and magnetic measurements are also made with very little disturbance by the spacecraft. The disadvantage is that simultaneous measurements cannot be made at many different points.

  5. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  6. Dynamics of Quasi-Electrostatic Whistler waves in Earth's Radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Gupta, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to study the dynamics of high amplitude quasi-electrostatic whistler waves propagating near resonance cone angle and their interaction with finite frequency kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in Earth's radiation belts. The quasi-electrostatic character of whistlers is narrated by dynamics of wave propagating near resonance cone. A high amplitude whistler wave packet is obtained using the present analysis which has also been observed by S/WAVES instrument onboard STEREO. The numerical simulation technique employed to study the dynamics, leads to localization (channelling) of waves as well as turbulent spectrum suggesting the transfer of wave energy over a range of frequencies. The turbulent spectrum also indicates the presence of quasi-electrostatic whistlers and density fluctuations associated with KAW in radiation belts plasma. The ponderomotive force of pump quasi-electrostatic whistlers (high frequency) is used to excite relatively much lower frequency waves (KAWs). The wave localization and steeper spectra could be responsible for particle energization or heating in radiation belts.

  7. Galileo Measurements of the Jovian Electron Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) has been used to map Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). The electron count rates from the instrument were averaged into 10-minute intervals over the energy range 0.2 MeV to 11 MeV to form an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and end of mission in 2003. These data were then used to provide differential flux estimates in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance (organized by magnetic L-shell position). These estimates provide the basis for an omni-directional, equatorial model of the jovian electron radiation environment. The comparison of these results with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation and their implications for missions to Jupiter will be discussed. In particular, it was found that the electron dose predictions for a representative mission to Europa were about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimates over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeded the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding for the assumed Europa orbiter trajectories. The findings are a significant step forward in understanding jovian electron radiation and represent a valuable tool for estimating the radiation environment to which jovian science and engineering hardware will be exposed.

  8. Radiation hardening of smart electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, C.W.; Cain, V.R.; Marks, K.A.; Millward, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    Microprocessor based ''smart'' pressure, level, and flow transmitters were tested to determine the radiation hardness of this class of electronic instrumentation for use in reactor building applications. Commercial grade Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits used in these transmitters were found to fail at total gamma dose levels between 2500 and 10,000 rad. This results in an unacceptably short lifetime in many reactor building radiation environments. Radiation hardened integrated circuits can, in general, provide satisfactory service life for normal reactor operations when not restricted to the extremely low power budget imposed by standard 4--20 mA two-wire instrument loops. The design of these circuits will require attention to vendor radiation hardness specifications, dose rates, process control with respect to radiation hardness factors, and non-volatile programmable memory technology. 3 refs., 2 figs

  9. To the problem on a charge state of energetic ions of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Estimation of the effect of recharging processes upon formation of intensity maxima of radiation belt ions of different types is obtained as well as the ion charge states in the area of intensity maxima. Comparison of spatial position of intensity maxima of the H, He, C, O ions with the energies more than 1 MeV with the calculation results is presented. It provides the particle radial drift under the effect of sudden impulses and death at the expence of ionization losses. Application of adiabaticity criterion of the particle movement to the analysis of position of outer edge of radiation belt of heavy ions permitted to carry out estimation of the He, C, O ion charge state. He ions with the energy more than 1 MeV possess mainly the charge state of +2, C and O ions with the energy of several MeV over L=5-6 are in the ionized state almost completely, and during the drift into the depth of the belts the ion charge decreases to 3-4 over L approximately 3.5 with the energy increase. At the energies higher than several MeV the recharge processes are significant for the C and.O ions. For He ions with the energy higher 1 MeV and for H ions with more than 0.1 MeV the recharge role is not considerable

  10. Empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the Earth's outer radiation belt at altitudes of up to 1000 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Barinova, W. O.; Myagkova, I. N.; Eremeev, V. E.; Parunakyan, D. A.; Nguyen, M. D.; Barinov, O. G.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the outer Earth's radiation belt (ERB) has been presented, which is based on the measurement data of electron fluxes on the polar low-orbit CORONAS-Photon, Meteor-M1, and Meteor-M2 satellites. The boundary was determined by a sharp decrease to the background level of the flux of trapped electrons with energies of 100 or 200 keV in the polar part of the profile of the outer radiation belt. A numerical algorithm has been implemented to determine the time moment, when the fastest flux changes are recorded. The primary search was carried out, first, on 30 s averaged data, then repeated on data with a higher resolution. A functional dependence was obtained in order to approximate the obtained set of intersections of the boundary by elliptical curve. The empirical model constructed using the CORONAS-Photon measurement data in the epoch of anomalously low geomagnetic activity reflects the longitude structure of the high-latitude boundary of the outer radiation belt associated with the internal Earth's magnetic field (MF), as well as its dependence on the universal time. Based on the data of intersections of the high-latitude boundary of the outer ERB (OERB) in the epoch of 2014-2016, the latitudinal shift of the boundary to the equator dependent on geomagnetic activity has been determined, as well as the nightside shift of the boundary due to the diurnal rotation of the Earth.

  11. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  12. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  13. Mass spectrometer determinations of solar wind He, Ne, and Ar and radiation belt He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warasila, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A unique mass spectrometer system was built and used to measure He, Ne, and Ar abundances and isotopic ratios in various samples of spacecraft that have been exposed to the space environment. The Apollo 12 mission brought back sections of the Surveyor 3 vehicle suitable for mass spectrometric studies of implanted solar wind and solar cosmic ray particles. Using the mass spectrometer, a 4 He flux of 6-8 x 10 6 ions/cm 2 --sec was measured, and in addition 4 He/ 3 He = 2700 +- 50; 4 He/ 20 Ne = 410 + 30; 20 Ne/ 22 Ne = 13.5 +- 0.2; 20 Ne/ 36 Ar = 24.5 +- 2.5; and 36 Ar/ 38 Ar = 5.41 +- 0.20 isotopic abundances were measured. An upper limit for the flux of SCR 3 He in the 10-20 MeV/nucleon range was also determined, for the thirty-one month exposure period. In the radiation belt environment, 3 He was found in the aluminum antenna housing from the recovered second stage of a pre-Apollo Saturn test flight launched January 28, 1964 and returned to earth on April 28, 1966. The amount of 3 He found was about 6 x 10 -10 cc(STP)/cm 2 with a 4 He/ 3 He ratio of 145 or less. The 3 He was shown to come from the lower radiation belt as all other sources of 3 He were orders of magnitude lower than the observed value

  14. Automated Identification and Shape Analysis of Chorus Elements in the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Ananya; Kletzing, Craig; Howk, Robin; Kurth, William; Matheny, Morgan

    2017-12-01

    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave-particle interaction by chorus emissions in terrestrial Van Allen radiation belts. To test models, statistical characterization of chorus properties, such as amplitude variation and sweep rates, is an important scientific goal. The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields as well as DC magnetic fields for the Van Allen Probes mission. However, manual inspection across terabytes of EMFISIS data is not feasible and as such introduces human confirmation bias. We present signal processing techniques for automated identification, shape analysis, and sweep rate characterization of high-amplitude whistler-mode chorus elements in the Van Allen radiation belts. Specifically, we develop signal processing techniques based on the radon transform that disambiguate chorus elements with a dominant sweep rate against hiss-like chorus. We present representative results validating our techniques and also provide statistical characterization of detected chorus elements across a case study of a 6 s epoch.

  15. Radiation damage to electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, S.; Bossart, R.; Schoenbacher, H.; Van de Voorde, M.

    1975-01-01

    Characteristic properties are presented of some 40 different electronic components (resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits) which were irradiated in a nuclear reactor up to 1015 n/cm 2 (E > 1 MeV). Complete circuits (e.g. RF amplifiers and detectors, mixers, differential amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters, oscillators, power supplies) were irradiated near the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings up to 106 rad(RPL) (dose measured with radiophotoluminescent dosimeters) under simulated operational conditions. Representative measured parameters, such as resistance, capacitance, forward voltage, reverse current, toggle frequencies, are given in graphs as a function of radiation dose. The results are discussed in detail and lead to the over-all conclusion that the operation of electronic components and circuits is seriously affected by radiation environments with doses in the order of 10 13 n/cm 2 or 10 4 rad(RPL); some components and circuits fail completely at doses of 10 14 n/cm 2 or 10 5 rad(RPL). (Author)

  16. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF KUIPER BELT SURFACE ICES: TERNARY N2-CH4-CO MIXTURES AS A CASE STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2012-01-01

    The space weathering of icy Kuiper Belt Objects was investigated in this case study by exposing methane (CH 4 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) doped nitrogen (N 2 ) ices at 10 K to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. Online and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the radiation-induced chemical processing of these ices. Along with isocyanic acid (HNCO), the products could be mainly derived from those formed in irradiated binary ices of the N 2 -CH 4 and CO-CH 4 systems: nitrogen-bearing products were found in the form of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), diazomethane (CH 2 N 2 ), and its radical fragment (HCN 2 ); oxygen-bearing products were of acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), formyl radical (HCO), and formaldehyde (H 2 CO). As in the pure ices, the methyl radical (CH 3 ) and ethane (C 2 H 6 ) were also detected, as were carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the azide radical (N 3 ). Based on the temporal evolution of the newly formed products, kinetic reaction schemes were then developed to fit the temporal profiles of the newly formed species, resulting in numerical sets of rate constants. The current study highlights important constraints on the preferential formation of isocyanic acid (HNCO) over hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), thus guiding the astrobiological and chemical evolution of those distant bodies.

  17. Ducting of the Whistler-Mode Waves by Magnetic Field-Aligned Density Enhancements in the Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Bengtson, M.; English, D.; Miller, M.; Turco, L.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode waves (or whistlers) are the right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves with a frequency in the range above the lower hybrid frequency and below the electron cyclotron frequency. They can efficiently interact with energetic electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere and remediate them from the earth's radiation belt. These interactions are non-linear, they depend on the wave amplitude, and for them to be efficient the wave power needs to be delivered from the transmitter to the interaction region without significant losses. The main physical mechanism which can solve this problem is ducting/guiding of whistlers by magnetic field-aligned density inhomogeneities or ducts. We present results from a modeling of whistler-mode waves observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites inside the ducts formed by density enhancements (also known as, high-density ducts or HDD). Our previous studies suggest that HDD can confine without leakage only waves with some particular parameters (frequency, perpendicular and parallel wavelength) connected with the parameters of the duct (like duct's "width" and "depth"). Our numerical results confirm that 1) the high-density ducts with amplitudes and perpendicular sizes observed by the RBSP satellites can indeed guide whistlers over significant distances along the ambient magnetic field with small leakage, and 2) the quality of the ducting indeed depends on the wave perpendicular and parallel wavelengths and, therefore, the fact that the wave is ducted by HDD can be used to determine parameters of the wave.

  18. Status of the Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of these data formed an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and 2002. These data were then averaged to provide a differential flux spectrum at 0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, 11.0, and 31 MeV in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance. This omni-directional, equatorial model was combined with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation to yield estimates of the out-of-plane radiation environment. That model, referred to here as the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (or GIRE) model, was then used to calculate the Europa mission dose for an average and a 1-sigma worst-case situation. The prediction of the GIRE model is about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimate over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeds the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding. The model, the steps leading to its creation, and relevant issues and concerns are discussed. While work remains to be done, the GIRE model clearly represents a significant step forward in the study of the jovian radiation environment, and it is a useful and valuable tool for estimating that environment for future space missions.

  19. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  20. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads

  1. Electron beams in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinvis, I.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical electron beams in interaction with beam flattening and collimating devices are studied, in order to obtain the means for adequate electron therapy. A treatment planning method for arbitrary field shapes is developed that takes the properties of the collimated electron beams into account. An electron multiple-scattering model is extended to incorporate a model for the loss of electrons with depth, in order to improve electron beam dose planning. A study of ionisation measurements in two different phantom materials yields correction factors for electron beam dosimetry. (Auth.)

  2. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  3. Radiation Dose from Reentrant Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Cleghorn, T. E.; Watts, J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating the crew exposures during an EVA, the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more than 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO.

  4. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  5. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  6. Radiation from systems with relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternov, I.M.; Khalilov, V.R.; Bagrov, V.G.; Nikitin, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of generation of electromagnetic radiation in the course of electron motion in external electromagnetic fields are considered. Singularities of ''free electron lasers'' (FEL), synchrotronous, ondulator and Compton radiation sources are discussed. The effect of induced radiation of electrons moving in a magnetic field is studied on the basis of the quantum theory methods. The results obtained are compared with the results of the classical theory. The theoretical and experimental results of the main singularities of the ondulator radiation (OR) are presented. It is shown that when the recoil effects are negligible and nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum of an electron in a magnetic field is of an error character, the results for the dose rate calculated by the quantum and classical theory methods completely coincide in the range of great filling numbers. Both in the quantum and classical theories the effects of the induced radiation of electrons moving in external electromagnetic fields (nonstationary in a general case) of a rather general type depend on two main mechanisms, which are nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum and the recoil effect (the quantum theory); appearance of phase and longitudinal electron bunching under the effect of an alternating radiation field (the classical theory). On the basis of the investigations the conclusion is made that OR can be successfully used for measuring the charged particle beam parameters (dispersion of angular spread and the absolute energy), as well as for measuring the amplitude of the magnetic field intensity in a space-periodic system

  7. Status of Galileo interim radiation electron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EDP) were used to develop a new model of Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii.

  8. Radiation dose effects, hardening of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Nivet, E.

    1991-01-01

    This course reviews the mechanism of interaction between ionizing radiation and a silicon oxide type dielectric, in particular the effect of electron-hole pairs creation in the material. Then effects of cumulated dose on electronic components and especially in MOS technology are examined. Finally methods hardening of these components are exposed. 93 refs

  9. Observations of energetic helium ions in the Earth's radiation belts during a sequence of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spjeldvik, W.N.; Fritz, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Every year a significant number of magnetic storms disturb the earth's magnetosphere and the trapped particle populations. In this paper, we present observations of energetic (MeV) helium ions made with Explorer 45 during a sequence of magnetic storms during June through December of 1972. The first of these storms started on June 17 and had a Dst index excursion to approx.190 gamma, and the MeV helium ions were perturbed primarily beyond 3 earth radii in the equatorial radiation belts with a typical flux increase of an order of magnitude at L = 4. The second storm period took place during August and was associated with very major solar flare activity. Although the Dst extremum was at best 35 gamma less than the June storm, this period can be characterized as irregular (or multi-storm) with strong compression of the magnetosphere and very large (order of magnitude) MeV helium ion flux enhancements down to Lapprox.2. Following this injection the trapped helium ion fluxes showed positive spectral slope with the peak beyond 3.15 MeV at L = 2.5; and at the lowest observable L shells (Lapprox.2--3) little flux decay (tau>100 days) was seen during the rest of the year. Any effects of two subsequent major magnetic storms in September and November were essentially undetectable in the prolonged after-effect of the August solar flare associated MeV helium ion injection. The helium ion radial profile of the phase space density showed a significant negative slope during this period, and we infer that radial diffusion constitutes a significant loss of helium ions on L shells above Lapprox. =4 during the aftermath of the August 1972 magnetic storm

  10. Command and Data Handling Flight Software test framework: A Radiation Belt Storm Probes practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. A.; Reid, W. M.; Wortman, K. A.

    During the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission, a test framework was developed by the Embedded Applications Group in the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The test framework is implemented for verification of the Command and Data Handling (C& DH) Flight Software. The RBSP C& DH Flight Software consists of applications developed for use with Goddard Space Flight Center's core Flight Executive (cFE) architecture. The test framework's initial concept originated with tests developed for verification of the Autonomy rules that execute with the Autonomy Engine application of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. The test framework was adopted and expanded for system and requirements verification of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. During the evolution of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software test framework design, a set of script conventions and a script library were developed. The script conventions and library eased integration of system and requirements verification tests into a comprehensive automated test suite. The comprehensive test suite is currently being used to verify releases of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software. In addition to providing the details and benefits of the test framework, the discussion will include several lessons learned throughout the verification process of RBSP C& DH Flight Software. Our next mission, Solar Probe Plus (SPP), will use the cFE architecture for the C& DH Flight Software. SPP also plans to use the same ground system as RBSP. Many of the RBSP C& DH Flight Software applications are reusable on the SPP mission, therefore there is potential for test design and test framework reuse for system and requirements verification.

  11. Detection of Chorus Elements and other Wave Signatures Using Geometric Computational Techniques in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A.; Kletzing, C.; Howk, R.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    An important goal of the Van Allen Probes mission is to understand wave particle interactions that can energize relativistic electron in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The EMFISIS instrumentation suite provides measurements of wave electric and magnetic fields of wave features such as chorus that participate in these interactions. Geometric signal processing discovers structural relationships, e.g. connectivity across ridge-like features in chorus elements to reveal properties such as dominant angles of the element (frequency sweep rate) and integrated power along the a given chorus element. These techniques disambiguate these wave features against background hiss-like chorus. This enables autonomous discovery of chorus elements across the large volumes of EMFISIS data. At the scale of individual or overlapping chorus elements, topological pattern recognition techniques enable interpretation of chorus microstructure by discovering connectivity and other geometric features within the wave signature of a single chorus element or between overlapping chorus elements. Thus chorus wave features can be quantified and studied at multiple scales of spectral geometry using geometric signal processing techniques. We present recently developed computational techniques that exploit spectral geometry of chorus elements and whistlers to enable large-scale automated discovery, detection and statistical analysis of these events over EMFISIS data. Specifically, we present different case studies across a diverse portfolio of chorus elements and discuss the performance of our algorithms regarding precision of detection as well as interpretation of chorus microstructure. We also provide large-scale statistical analysis on the distribution of dominant sweep rates and other properties of the detected chorus elements.

  12. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  13. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored.

  14. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored

  15. Bioinspired electronic white cane implementation based on a LIDAR, a tri-axial accelerometer and a tactile belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacin, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user's forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  16. Bioinspired Electronic White Cane Implementation Based on a LIDAR, a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Tactile Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user’s forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  17. Coupled electron-photon radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.; Kensek, R.P.; Valdez, G.D.; Drumm, C.R.; Fan, W.C.; Powell, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Massively-parallel computers allow detailed 3D radiation transport simulations to be performed to analyze the response of complex systems to radiation. This has been recently been demonstrated with the coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code, ITS. To enable such calculations, the combinatorial geometry capability of ITS was improved. For greater geometrical flexibility, a version of ITS is under development that can track particles in CAD geometries. Deterministic radiation transport codes that utilize an unstructured spatial mesh are also being devised. For electron transport, the authors are investigating second-order forms of the transport equations which, when discretized, yield symmetric positive definite matrices. A novel parallelization strategy, simultaneously solving for spatial and angular unknowns, has been applied to the even- and odd-parity forms of the transport equation on a 2D unstructured spatial mesh. Another second-order form, the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, also shows promise for electron transport

  18. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  19. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic radiation of electrons in periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation and the Smith-Purcell effect. Characteristics of such radiation sources and perspectives of their usage are discussed. The recent experimental results as well as their interpretation are presented. (orig.)

  1. Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to nonrandom types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Electron migration along DNA is significantly influenced by the DNA base sequence and DNA conformation. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution which compares to average migration distances of 6 to 10 bases for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 base pairs for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5' to 3' direction along DNA. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation

  2. Effects of radiations on electronic components - Course IN2P3, release 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    As many off-the-shelf electronic components are now present onboard satellites, launchers and planes, this course proposes an overview of effects radiations can have on these components, notably in space applications. A first part proposes an overview of radiative environments, and more particularly presents the space radiative environment (solar wind, solar flares, cosmic radiation, radiation belts). It also presents the atmospheric and Earth radiative environment due to cosmic radiation, the alpha radiation (origin of particles, particle flow), the radiative environment within an accelerator. The second part addresses the effects of these radiative environments on electronic components, and the associated standards and tests. It addresses cumulative effects and proposes a detailed analysis of the effects of an ionizing dose on a MOS transistor, an analysis of the effects of ionising dose rate on a bipolar NPN or PNP vertical or lateral transistor, an analysis of the effects of atomic displacements, and a discussion of structure modifications. The next part describes various single events: the Single Event Upset (SEU) and the Multiple Bit Upset (MBU) in the case of a SRAM, the SEL (Single Event Latch-up) phenomenon, the SEGR (Single Event Gate Rupture) phenomenon in the case of a Power MOSFET, and the SEB (Single Event Burnout) phenomenon in the case of a Power MOSFET

  3. Research on the Influence of Weighing Accuracy Caused by the Position of Tension Wheel on the Electronic Belt-Conveyor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hu; Song, Qiuzhi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a Single- Idler electronic belt-conveyor scale is the Object of study. The contact force between the belt and the supporting roller is calculated by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The relationship between the tension distance of the tension wheel and the contact force between the belt and the weighing roller is obtained. The best stretching distance is found through analysis. And the conclusion which is the weighing error is different at the same stretching distance but the different weight of material is obtained. A compensation mechanism is proposed to improve the weighing accuracy.

  4. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  5. The effects of radiation on electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, G.C.; Ash, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first unified treatment of the analysis and design methods for protection of principally electronic systems from the deleterious effects of nuclear and electro-magnetic radiation. Coverage spans from a detailed description of the nuclear radiation sources to pertinent semiconductor physics, then to hardness assurance. This work combines the disciplines of solid state physics, semiconductor physics, circuit engineering, nuclear physics, together with electronics and electromagnetic theory into a book that can be used as a text with problems at the end of the majority of the chapters. Written by veterans in the field, the most significant feature of this book is its comprehensive treatment of the phenomena involved. This treatment includes the analysis and design of the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic systems from the experimental, theoretical, and engineering viewpoints. Unique pedagogical attempts are employed to make the material more understandable from the position of an enlightened engineering and scientific readership whose task is the design and analysis of radiation hardened electronic systems

  6. Atomic electron spectrometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of atomic electron spectrometry were applied to atoms in the gaseous and solid states to derive information about fundamental atomic properties. A new method was developed to measure Coster-Kronig yields in metals by photoionization with synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy sensitive Si L-VV Auger satellites were investigated via electron spectrometry. The krypton 1s photoionization spectrum was measured in an experiment which was motivated by the need to understand the krypton 1s satellite spectrum for calibration of an experiment to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino

  7. Electron dynamics with radiation and nonlinear wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowett, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    The physics of electron motion in storage rings is described by supplementing the Hamiltonian equations of motion with fluctuating radiation reaction forces to describe the effects of synchrotron radiation. This leads to a description of radiation damping and quantum diffusion in single-particle phase-space by means of Fokker-Planck equations. For practical purposes, most storage rings remain in the regime of linear damping and diffusion; this is discussed in some detail with examples, concentrating on longitudinal phase space. However special devices such as nonlinear wigglers may permit the new generation of very large rings to go beyond this into regimes of nonlinear damping. It is shown how a special combined-function wiggler can be used to modify the energy distribution and current profile of electron bunches

  8. Radiation processing of carrageenan using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Aranilla, C.T.; Relleve, L.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator has been widely employed in the modification of natural polymers for the development of materials used in biomedical and agricultural applications. The carrageenans are among these materials that show a vast potential for these types of applications. Previous studies at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute focused on the utilization of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans. Radiation degradation of carrageenan found valuable use as plant growth promoter. Hydrogels for burn dressing using blends of carrageenan and synthetic polymers have also been made using gamma radiation. While previous studies have been focused on the use of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans, recent studies expanded the technology to electron beam. Concretely, researches are along the following two areas: a) Degradation studies of aqueous carrageenan using the LEEB and b) Preparation of blend polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with kappa-carrageenan (KC) by EB radiation. These works were done at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) by two PNRI colleagues under the nuclear researcher exchange program of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The first area had already been reported and discussed in the last project meeting held in Malaysia. (author)

  9. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  10. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  11. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, Josep [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10{sup 5} calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand

  12. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, Josep; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H.W.

    2008-01-01

    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10 5 calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand physical

  13. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, D.; Panaitescu, J.; Axinescu, S.; Manolache, D.; Matei, C.; Corcodel, C.; Ulmeanu, M..; Bestea, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account. (orig.)

  14. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, D. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Panaitescu, J. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Axinescu, S. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Manolache, D. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Matei, C. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Corcodel, C. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Ulmeanu, M.. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Bestea, V. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1995-05-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account. (orig.).

  15. Van Allen Probes Mission Space Academy: Educating middle school students about Earth's mysterious radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, L.; Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Smith, D.; Simon, M.

    2013-12-01

    How's the weather in space? Why on Earth did NASA send two satellites above Earth to study radiation belts and space weather? To learn the answer to questions about NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, 450 students and their teachers from Maryland middle schools attended Space Academy events highlighting the Van Allen Probes mission. Sponsored by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and Discovery Education, the events are held at the APL campus in Laurel, MD. Space Academies take students and teachers on behind-the-scenes exploration of how spacecraft are built, what they are designed to study, and introduces them to the many professionals that work together to create some of NASA's most exciting projects. Moderated by a public relations representative in the format of an official NASA press conference, the daylong event includes a student press conference with students as reporters and mission experts as panelists. Lunch with mission team members gives students a chance to ask more questions. After lunch, students don souvenir clean room suits, enjoy interactive science demonstrations, and tour APL facilities where the Van Allen Probes were built and tested before launch. Students may even have an opportunity to peek inside a clean room to view spacecraft being assembled. Prior to the event, teachers are provided with classroom activities, lesson plans, and videos developed by APL and Discovery Education to help prepare students for the featured mission. The activities are aligned to National Science Education Standards and appropriate for use in the classroom. Following their visit, student journalists are encouraged to write a short article about their field trip; selections are posted on the Space Academy web site. Designed to engage, inspire, and influence attitudes about space science and STEM careers, Space Academies provide an opportunity to attract underserved populations and emphasize that space science is for everyone. Exposing students to a diverse group of

  16. Radiative electron capture by channeled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarke, J.M.; Ritchie, R.H.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1989-01-01

    Considerable experimental data have been accumulated relative to the emission of photons accompanying electron capture by swift, highly stripped atoms penetrating crystalline matter under channeling conditions. Recent data suggest that the photon energies may be less than that expected from simple considerations of transitions from the valence band of the solid to hydrogenic states on the moving ion. We have studied theoretically the impact parameter dependence of the radiative electron capture (REC) process, the effect of the ion's wake and the effect of capture from inner shells of the solid on the photon emission probability, using a statistical approach. Numerical comparisons of our results with experiment are made. 13 refs., 6 figs

  17. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  18. Electronic radiative capture in solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregliasco, R.; Nemirovsky, I.; Suarez, S.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray spectra originating from electron radiative capture from aluminium target to K shell on F 9+ and F 8+ beams with 115MeV are studied. Using an electrostatic analyzer, it was obtained the charge fractions Fi to aluminiun thicknesses of 39 and 58 micrograms/cm 2 . These thicknesses are determined by the stopping power of alpha particles. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Radiation to Electronics: Reality or Fata Morgana?

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Losito, R; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Spiezia, G; Thornton, A; Thurel, Y

    2011-01-01

    A first year of successful LHC operation has passed reaching about 50pb-1 of integrated luminosity (1‰ of nominal, 5% of 1fb-1) and more than 1% of peak luminosity, as well as a successful ion run. It is thus time having a first look on the observed radiation levels around LHC critical areas and to compare them to available simulation results. In spite of the still very low integrated intensities and cumulative luminosities, this paper summarizes the failure rate predictions by evaluating the observed radiation levels and early electronics failures, as well as the additional results from 2010 CNRAD radiation tests. Upcoming possibly in early 2011, electron cloud and scrubbing issues and their impact on radiation levels are also briefly discussed. Based on this, updated predictions for 2011 operation and beyond will be deduced, on the base of the envisaged LHC intensity, energy and luminosity reach. Starting from these estimates, priorities for short-term improvements and beam tests are presented, as well as...

  20. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koller

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new method for calculating the magnetic drift invariant, L*, that is used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and for other space weather applications. L* (pronounced L-star is directly proportional to the integral of the magnetic flux contained within the surface defined by a charged particle moving in the Earth's geomagnetic field. Under adiabatic changes to the geomagnetic field L* is a conserved quantity, while under quasi-adiabatic fluctuations diffusion (with respect to a particle's L* is the primary term in equations of particle dynamics. In particular the equations of motion for the very energetic particles that populate the Earth's radiation belts are most commonly expressed by diffusion in three dimensions: L*, energy (or momentum, and pitch angle (the dot product of velocity and the magnetic field vector. Expressing dynamics in these coordinates reduces the dimensionality of the problem by referencing the particle distribution functions to values at the magnetic equatorial point of a magnetic "drift shell" (or L-shell irrespective of local time (or longitude. While the use of L* aids in simplifying the equations of motion, practical applications such as space weather forecasting using realistic geomagnetic fields require sophisticated magnetic field models that, in turn, require computationally intensive numerical integration. Typically a single L* calculation can require on the order of 105 calls to a magnetic field model and each point in the simulation domain and each calculated pitch angle has a different value of L*. We describe here the development and validation of a neural network surrogate model for calculating L* in sophisticated geomagnetic field models with a high degree of fidelity at computational speeds that are millions of times faster than direct numerical field line mapping and integration. This new surrogate model has

  1. Comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radition 2. East--west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a functon of Jovian longitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Pater, I.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiaton the 'hot region' or east--west asymmetry in the planet's radiation belts is proposed to be due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 and the existence of a dusk dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere, generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere. The model calculations were based upon the magnetic field configurations derived from the Pioneer data by Acuna and Ness [1976] (the O 4 model) and Davis, Jones and Smith (quoted in Smith and Gulkis [1979]) (the P 11 (3,2)A model), with an electron distribution derived in the first paper of this series [de Pater, this issue]. We would infer from the calculations that the O 4 model gives a slightly better fit to the data; the relatively large number density at lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 , however, might indicate the presence of even higher order moments in the field

  2. Electron correlation explored through electron spectrometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.D.; Whitfield, S.B.; Flemming, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation facilities as a research tool has made possible experiments which provide new insights into the role which correlation plays in electron dynamics and atomic and molecular structure. Features such as autoionizing resonances, normal and resonant Auger decay modes, and ionization threshold structure have become visible in a wealth of new detail. Some aspects of this information drawn from recent experiments on the alkaline earth metals and the rare gases are presented. The potential for increased flux and resolution inherent in insertion device-based facilities like the Advanced Light Source should advance this understanding even further, and some future directions are suggested. 8 refs., 8 figs

  3. Radiation processing with the Messina electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auditore, L.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.; Emanuele, U.; Loria, D.; Morgana, E.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades radiation processing has been more and more applied in several fields of industrial treatments and scientific research as a safe, reliable and economic technique. In order to improve existing industrial techniques and to develop new applications of this technology, at the Physics Department of Messina University a high power 5 MeV electron linac has been studied and set-up. The main features of the accelerating structure will be described together with the distinctive features of the delivered beam and several results obtained by electron beam irradiations, such as improvement of the characteristics of polymers and polymer composite materials, synthesis of new hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, reclaim of culture ground, sterilization of medical devices, development of new dosimeters for very high doses and dose rates required for monitoring of industrial irradiations

  4. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  5. Radiation at planar channeling of relativistic electrons in thick crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution kinetics with respect to the transverse energy at electron channeling is discussed. The asymptotic expressions for the radiation intensity into a given collimator at electron channeling in thick crystals are derived. An optimal thickness at which the radiation output is maximal is found. The spectral distribution of the radiation intensity is analysed for the case of a single diamond crystal. (author)

  6. Radiation leakage from linac electron applicator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam applicator system currently in use on the linear accelerator is constructed of light-weight fiberglass and aluminum. With an applicator in place on the accelerator, the photon collimator jaws are automatically set several centimeters greater than the electron field size projected at the patient's surface. To ensure that no regions of high dose levels exist outside the useful beam, ionization and film measurements were made to quantitate the amount of leakage radiation through the 10 cm x 10 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm applicators. In most regions, the ionization levels at the patient's surface were below 5% of the central axis dose. In one area for the 25 cm applicator, the percentage ionization was 8.5%, which could be reduced by the addition of a small piece of 1/8 inch thick lead. However, ionization levels on the outside surface of the applicator were found to be considerably higher at certain locations for the 25 cm applicator. Results for 6, 9, 12 and 20 MeV electrons are reported here

  7. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  8. Vacuum electron acceleration by coherent dipole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Hartemann, F.V.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Li, K.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Hartemann, F.V.; Unterberg, Z.A.; Kerman, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    The validity of the concept of laser-driven vacuum acceleration has been questioned, based on an extrapolation of the well-known Lawson-Woodward theorem, which stipulates that plane electromagnetic waves cannot accelerate charged particles in vacuum. To formally demonstrate that electrons can indeed be accelerated in vacuum by focusing or diffracting electromagnetic waves, the interaction between a point charge and coherent dipole radiation is studied in detail. The corresponding four-potential exactly satisfies both Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz gauge condition everywhere, and is analytically tractable. It is found that in the far-field region, where the field distribution closely approximates that of a plane wave, we recover the Lawson-Woodward result, while net acceleration is obtained in the near-field region. The scaling of the energy gain with wave-front curvature and wave amplitude is studied systematically. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  10. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  11. Radiative shocks with electron thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studies the influence of electron thermal conduction on radiative shock structure for both one- and two-temperature plasmas. The dimensionless ratio of the conductive length to the cooling length determines whether or not conduction is important, and shock jump conditions with conduction are established for a collisionless shock front. He obtains approximate solutions with the assumptions that the ionization state of the gas is constant and the cooling rate is a function of temperature alone. In the absence of magnetic fields, these solutions indicate that conduction noticeably influences normal-abundance interstellar shocks with velocities 50-100 km s -1 and dramatically affects metal-dominated shocks over a wide range of shock velocities. Magnetic fields inhibit conduction, but the conductive energy flux and the corresponding decrease in the post-shock electron temperature may still be appreciable. He calculates detailed steady-state radiative shock models in gas composed entirely of oxygen, with the purpose of explaining observations of fast-moving knots in Cas A and other oxygen-rich supernova remnants (SNRs). The O III ion, whose forbidden emission usually dominates the observed spectra, is present over a wide range of shock velocities, from 100 to 170 kms -1 . All models with conduction have extensive warm photoionization zones, which provides better agreement with observed optical (O I) line strengths. However, the temperatures in these zones could be lowered by (Si II) 34.8 μm and (Ne II) 12.8 μm cooling if Si and Ne are present in appreciable abundance relative to O. Such low temperatures would be inconsistent with the observed (O I) emission in oxygen-rich SNRs

  12. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  13. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  14. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetahović, Irfan; Pejović, Milić; Vujisić, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simula...

  15. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  16. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 2. Transient radiation effects in electronics (TREE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 2 deals with the following topics: radiation effects on quartz crystals, tantalum capacitors, bipolar semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous electronic devices; hardening electronic systems to photon and neutron radiation; nuclear radiation source and/or effects simulation techniques; and radiation dosimetry

  17. Exfoliated β-Ga2O3 nano-belt field-effect transistors for air-stable high power and high temperature electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Oh, Sooyeoun; Mastro, Michael A; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-06-21

    This study demonstrated the exfoliation of a two-dimensional (2D) β-Ga2O3 nano-belt and subsequent processing into a thin film transistor structure. This mechanical exfoliation and transfer method produces β-Ga2O3 nano-belts with a pristine surface as well as a continuous defect-free interface with the SiO2/Si substrate. This β-Ga2O3 nano-belt based transistor displayed an on/off ratio that increased from approximately 10(4) to 10(7) over the operating temperature range of 20 °C to 250 °C. No electrical breakdown was observed in our measurements up to VDS = +40 V and VGS = -60 V between 25 °C and 250 °C. Additionally, the electrical characteristics were not degraded after a month-long storage in ambient air. The demonstration of high-temperature/high-voltage operation of quasi-2D β-Ga2O3 nano-belts contrasts with traditional 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides that intrinsically have limited temperature and power operational envelopes owing to their narrow bandgap. This work motivates the application of 2D β-Ga2O3 to high power nano-electronic devices for harsh environments such as high temperature chemical sensors and photodetectors as well as the miniaturization of power circuits and cooling systems in nano-electronics.

  18. Enhanced coherent undulator radiation from bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.; Smith, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    When energetic bunches of electrons traverse an undulator field, they can spontaneously emit radiation both coherently and incoherently. Although it has generally been assumed that undulator radiation is incoherent at wavelengths short compared to the longitudinal size of the electron bunch, several recent observations have proved this assumption false. Furthermore, the appearance of coherent radiation is often accompanied by a significant increase in radiated power. Here we report observations of strongly enhanced coherent spontaneous radiation together with direct measurements, using transition radiation techniques, of the electron distributions responsible for the coherent emission. We also report demonstrated enhancements in the predicted spontaneous radiated power by as much as 6x10 4 using electron bunch compression. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Ultrarelativistic electron and positron radiation in planar channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.P.; Olchack, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The coherent electromagnetic radiation from channeling electrons and positrons is given by similar expression. However for the channeling positrons the close collisions are suppressed due to the fact that the positron wave function is exponentially small near the atoms of the crystal lattice. It follows that the coherent bremsstrahlung decreases for the channeling positrons. We have investigated the ultrarelativistic channeling electron and positron radiations, connected with the electromagnetic transitions from the continuum spectrum states to the quasi-bound spectrum states and between the different quasi-bound spectrum states. The radiation probabilities are calculated by using the model continuum planar potential. It is shown that the radiation from the channeling electrons is several orders of magnitude larger than the positron radiation, while the electron and positron radiation have similar characteristics such as frequency limitation and angular distribution of the radiation. (orig.)

  20. Resonant and non-resonant whistlers-particle interaction in the radiation belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the wave-particle interactions between lower band chorus whistlers and an anisotropic tenuous population of relativistic electrons. We present the first direct comparison of first-principle Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations with a quasi-linear diffusion code. In the PIC

  1. Resonant and non-resonant whistlers-particle interaction in the radiation belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the wave-particle interactions between lower band chorus whistlers and an anisotropic tenuous population of relativistic electrons. We present the first direct comparison of first-principle Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations with a quasi-linear diffusion code, in this context.

  2. High-altitude cosmic ray neutrons: probable source for the high-energy protons of the earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, F.; Wilson, J.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Several High-altitude cosmic-ray neutron measurements were performed by the NASA Ames Laboratory in the mid-to late-1970s using airplanes flying at about 13km altitude along constant geomagnetic latitudes of 20, 44 and 51 degrees north. Bonner spheres and manganese, gold and aluminium foils were used in the measurements. In addition, large moderated BF-3 counters served as normalizing instruments. Data analyses performed at that time did not provide complete and unambiguous spectral information and field intensities. Recently, using our new unfolding methods and codes, and Bonner-sphere response function extensions for higher energies, 'new' neutron spectral intensities were obtained, which show progressive hardening of neutron spectra as a function of increasing geomagnetic latitude, with substantial increases in the energy region iron, 1 0 MeV to 10 GeV. For example, we found that the total neutron fluences at 20 and 51 degrees magnetic north are in the ratio of 1 to 5.2 and the 10 MeV to 10 GeV fluence ratio is 1 to 18. The magnitude of these ratios is quite remarkable. From the new results, the derived absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the main source of the high-energy protons trapped in the Earth's inner radiation belt. In addition, the results, depending on the extrapolation scheme used, indicate that the neutron dose equivalent rate may be as high as 0.1 mSv/h near the geomagnetic north pole and thus a significant contributor to the radiation exposures of pilots, flight attendants and the general public. (author)

  3. A long-lived refilling event of the slot region between the Van Allen radiation belts from Nov 2004 to Jan 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    A powerful relativistic electron enhancement in the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts is investigated by multi-satellites measurements. The measurement from Space Particle Component Detectors (SPCDs) aboard Fengyun-1 indicates that the relativistic electron (>1.6MeV) flux began to enhance obviously on early 10 November with the flux peak fixed at L~3.0. In the next day, the relativistic electron populations increased dramatically. Subsequently, the flux had been enhancing slowly, but unceasingly, until 17 November, and the maximum flux reached up to 7.8×104 cm-2·sr-1·s-1 at last. The flux peak fixed at L~3.0 and the very slow decay rate in this event make it to be an unusual long-lived slot region refilling event. We trace the cause of the event back to the interplanetary environment and find that there were two evident magnetic cloud constructions: dramatically enhanced magnetic field strength and long and smooth rotation of field vector from late 7 to 8 November and from late 9 to 10 November, respectively; solar wind speed increased in 'step-like' fashion on late 7 November and persisted the level of high speed >560 km·s-1 for about 124 hours. Owed to the interplanetary disturbances, very strong magnetic storms and substorms occurred in the magnetosphere. Responding to the extraordinarily magnetic perturbations, the plasmasphere shrank sharply. The location of plasmapause inferred from Dst indicates that the plasmapause shrank inward to as low as L~2.5. On account of these magnetospheric conditions, strong chorus emissions are expected near the earth. In fact, the STAFF on Cluster mission measured intensive whistler mode chorus emissions on 10 and 12 November, corresponding to the period of the remarkable enhancement of relativistic electron. Furthermore, we investigate the radial profile of phase space density (PSD) by electron flux from multi-satellites, and the evolution of the phase space density profile reveals that the local

  4. Radiation Damage in Electronic Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fetahović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of semiconductor memories exposed to radiation in order to establish their applicability in a radiation environment. The experimental procedure has been used to test radiation hardness of commercial semiconductor memories. Different types of memory chips have been exposed to indirect ionizing radiation by changing radiation dose intensity. The effect of direct ionizing radiation on semiconductor memory behavior has been analyzed by using Monte Carlo simulation method. Obtained results show that gamma radiation causes decrease in threshold voltage, being proportional to the absorbed dose of radiation. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation interaction with material proved to be significant and can be a good estimation tool in probing semiconductor memory behavior in radiation environment.

  5. Hydrogen and helium isotope inner radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Pugacheva

    Full Text Available Radial transport theory for inner radiation zone MeV ions has been extended by combining radial diffusive transport and losses due to Coulomb friction with local generation of D, T and 3He ions from nuclear reactions taking place on the inner edge of the inner radiation zone. Based on interactions between high energy trapped protons and upper atmospheric constituents we have included a nuclear reaction yield D, T and 3He flux source that was numerically derived from a nuclear reaction model code originally developed at the Institute of Nuclear Researches in Moscow, Russia. Magnetospheric transport computations have been made covering the L-shell range L=1.0–1.6. The resulting MeV energy D, T and 3He ion flux distributions show a strong influence of the local nuclear source mechanism on the inner zone energetic D, T and 3He ion content.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (Thermosphere-composition and chemistry · Magnetospheric physics (Energetic particles · trapped.

  6. On electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic electrons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgoretskij, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is considered caused by ultrarelativistic channeling electrons moving inside cylindrical regions formed with nuclear heat oscillations of a crystal lattice. An energy asymmetry is predicted for electrons and positrons, generated by γ-quanta falling to a crystal along the crystallographic axes. A possible connection of the above mentioned radiation with the anomalous multiphoton Schein showers is discussed

  7. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  8. Synchrotron radiation and free electron laser activities in Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, V.N.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Panchenko, V.E.; Pindyurin, V.F.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Sheromov, M.A.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Zolotarev, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The results of studies realized in the Siberian synchrotron radiation centre within the frameworks of wide program of synchrotron radiation and free electron laser research are summarized. The technical information on the VEPP-2M, VEPP-3 and VEPP-4M storage rings used as synchrotron radiation sources is given. 10 refs.; 8 figs.; 12 tabs

  9. Transition and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons and particle discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, B.; Repellin, J.-P.; Sauvage, G.; Chollet, J.C.; Dialinas, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.

    1976-01-01

    Transition radiation from a radiator of 650 lithium foils has been studied in a multiwire proportional chamber filled with a Xenon-CO 2 mixture for two experimental configurations. With the chamber immediately after the radiator, particle discrimination comparable to those reported in the litterature (90% efficiency for electrons, 10% for hadrons) have been observed. With magnetic bending between the radiator and the xenon chamber typical efficiencies of 87% for electrons and less than 0.4% for hadrons have been measured. The discrimination obtained is at least a factor 20 better than for the more conventional configuration. In the latter case, synchrotron radiation has also been observed

  10. Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed

  11. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a combined electron-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G; Samoshenkov, Yu K [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Optiko-Fizicheskikh Izmerenij, Moscow (USSR)

    1977-07-01

    The intensity of coherent electromagnetic radiation due to interaction of a modulated electron beam with a modulated ion beam is calculated. It is shown that the radiation intensity has a sharp maximum at the frequency equal to the difference of the modulation frequency of the electron and ion beams. The results obtained are compared with those corresponding to the scattering of a modulated electron beam on randomly distributed gas ions.

  12. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  13. A 2D simulation of the proton radiation belt with PELLPACK code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.; Martin, I.; Pugacheva, G.; Christy, A.; Spjeldvik, W.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical solution of diffusion equation for geomagnetically trapped protons taking into account deceleration of protons by Coulomb interactions with free and bounded electrons, the charge exchange process, the cosmic ray albedo neutron decay source and electric and magnetic radial diffusion was obtained using the PELLPACK code based on the finite element method. The advantage of the method in comparison with the traditional finite differences method is a several order greater speed of computation at the same precision. When boundary conditions at L=7 are given with the distribution function extracted from proton spectrum obtained on board of ATS 6 satellite, the PELLPACK code produces 2D unidirectional proton flux at the top of geomagnetic lines from L=1 up to L=7 that satisfactory agrees with the AP8 model proton flux for all proton energies more than ∼ 300-500 keV. For less proton energies AP8 model predicts the trapped protons fluxes on several orders of magnitude greater than the PELLPACK code at L < 4 that possibly could be explained by uncertainty of very low energy proton flux data at L=7. The detailed fitness of observational model proton fluxes by numerical theoretical solution of transport equation is still not attained. (author)

  14. Optimization of equipment for electron radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartz, M.; Hartmann, E.; Lenk, M.; Mehnert, R.

    1999-05-01

    In the course of the last decade, IOM Leipzig has developed low-energy electron accelerators for electron beam curing of polymer coatings and printing inks. In order to optimize the electron irradiation field, electron optical calculations have been carried out using the commercially available EGUN code. The present study outlines the design of the diode-type low-energy electron accelerators LEA and EBOGEN, taking into account the electron optical effects of secondary components such as the retaining rods installed in the cathode assembly.

  15. Optimization of equipment for electron radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartz, M.; Hartmann, E.; Lenk, M.; Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, IOM Leipzig has developed low-energy electron accelerators for electron beam curing of polymer coatings and printing inks. In order to optimize the electron irradiation field, electron optical calculations have been carried out using the commercially available EGUN code. The present study outlines the design of the diode-type low-energy electron accelerators LEA and EBOGEN, taking into account the electron optical effects of secondary components such as the retaining rods installed in the cathode assembly

  16. Radiation of an electron in an electric field. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosov, N.I.; Flesher, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of electron radiation in a field of a travelling electric wave is solved by methods of classical electrodynamics. Such a field may serve as a model of a field on the linear accelerator axis. It is shown that the total radiation power, as well as the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation energy of an electron travelling in a longitudinal electric wave coincide with radiation in a stationary uniform electric field with the strength equal to that of the wave at the point where the particle velocity becomes close to the velocity of light [ru

  17. Spin-polarized free electron beam interaction with radiation and superradiant spin-flip radiative emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gover

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.

  18. Radiation effects on and dose enhancement of electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; Long, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes radiation effects on and dose enhancement factors for electronic materials. Alteration of the electrical properties of solid-state devices and integrated circuits by impinging radiation is well-known. Such changes may cause an electronic subsystem to fail, thus there is currently great interest in devising methods for avoiding radiation-induced degradation. The development of radiation-hardened devices and circuits is an exciting approach to solving this problem for many applications, since it could minimize the need for shielding or other system hardening techniques. Part 1 describes the basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials, devices, and integrated circuits. Radiation effects in bulk silicon and in silicon devices are treated. Ionizing radiation effects in silicon dioxide films and silicon MOS devices are discussed. Single event phenomena are considered. Key literature references and a bibliography are provided. Part II provides tabulations of dose enhancement factors for electronic devices in x-ray and gamma-ray environments. The data are applicable to a wide range of semiconductor devices and selected types of capacitors. Radiation environments discussed find application in system design and in radiation test facilities

  19. Soft component of channeled electron radiation in silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vnukov, I.E.; Kalinin, B.N.; Kiryakov, A.A.; Naumenko, G.A.; Padalko, D.V.; Potylitsyn, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation spectrum and orientation dependences of photon yield with the energy much lower than characteristic radiation energy during channeling were measured using a crystal-diffraction spectrometer. For electron drop along axis radiation intensity in the spectral range 30 ≤ ω ≤ 360 keV exceeds by nearly an order the intensity of Bremsstrahlung. The shape of radiation spectrum does not coincide with Bremsstrahlung spectrum. Radiation intensity increases gradually with photons energy growth. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from a disoriented crystalline target is described in a satisfactory manner by the currently used theory with phenomenological account of the medium polarization [ru

  20. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-05-12

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime.

  1. Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime

  2. Longitudinal Electron Bunch Diagnostics Using Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Happek, Uwe; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab A0 photo-injector was determined by using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The auto-correlation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. Kramers-Kroning technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).

  3. The Theory of Coherent Radiation by Intense Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buts, Vyacheslav A; Kurilko, V.I

    2006-01-01

    Spurred by the development of high-current, high-energy relativistic electron beams this books delves into the foundations of a device and geometry independent theoretical treatment of a large collection of interacting and radiating electron bunches. Part I deals with the basics of the radiation emission of a single charged particle, paying particular attention to the effect of radiation reaction and dwelling on the corresponding well-known paradoxes. Part II investigates the collective behaviour of a high-density electron bunch where both discrete and continous beam modelling is explored. Part III treats the application to modern systems while still keeping the treatment as general as possible. This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.

  4. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  5. Electron bunch length measurement with a wakefield radiation decelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure the electron bunch length with a dielectric wakefield radiation (DWR decelerator which is composed of two dielectric-lined waveguides (DLWs and an electron spectrometer. When an electron beam passes through a DLW, the DWR is excited which leads to an energy loss of the electron beam. The energy loss is found to be largely dependent on the electron bunch length and can be easily measured by an electron spectrometer which is essential for a normal accelerator facility. Our study shows that this method has a high resolution and a great simplicity.

  6. Heat- and radiation-resistant scintillator for electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosov, A.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Puzyr', A.P.; Chetvergov, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a scintillator consisting of a single crystal of bismuth orthogermanate, which has high heat and radiation resistance, in REM-100, REM-200, and REM-100U electron microscopes is described. A study of the heat and radiation stabilities of single crystals of bismuth orthogermanate (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) has shown that they withstood multiple electron-beam heating redness (T ∼ 800 0 C) without changes in their properties

  7. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  8. Effect of electronic radiation in Nb monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, M.P.; Lucki, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the electronic irradiation in the Nb monocrystalline samples is studied. The irradiation source were the electrons from the high voltage electronic microscopy from the Argonne National Laboratory operating in 900 KeV. With the irradiation and deformation 'in-situ' experiments, dislocations in the samples were observed and the effect of the electrons in those dislocations during 59m of irradiation was studied. The follow applied deformation, show the differences in the displacements behavior of the non-irradiated and irradiated region. The growth rate of the displacements rings were determined. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Radiation field mapping using a mechanical-electronic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czayka, M., E-mail: mczayka@kent.ed [College of Technology, Kent State University-Ashtabula 3300 Lake Road West, Ashtabula, OH 44004 (United States); Program on Electron Beam Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 1028, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); Fisch, M. [Program on Electron Beam Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 1028, Middlefield, OH 44062 (United States); College of Technology, Kent State University, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A method of radiation field mapping of a scanned electron beam using a Faraday-type detector and an electromechanical linear translator is presented. Utilizing this arrangement, fluence and fluence rate measurements can be made at different locations within the radiation field. The Faraday-type detector used in these experiments differs from most as it consists of a hollow stainless steel sphere. Results are presented in two- and three-dimensional views of the radiation field.

  10. Intense synchrotron radiation from a magnetically compressed relativistic electron layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Nowak, D.A.; Garelis, E.; Condit, W.C.

    1975-10-01

    Using a simple model of a relativistic electron layer rotating in an axial magnetic field, energy gain by an increasing magnetic field and energy loss by synchrotron radiation were considered. For a typical example, initial conditions were approximately 8 MeV electron in approximately 14 kG magnetic field, at a layer radius of approximately 20 mm, and final conditions were approximately 4 MG magnetic field approximately 100 MeV electron layer energy at a layer radius of approximately 1.0 mm. In the final state, the intense 1-10 keV synchrotron radiation imposes an electron energy loss time constant of approximately 100 nanoseconds. In order to achieve these conditions in practice, the magnetic field must be compressed by an imploding conducting liner; preferably two flying rings in order to allow the synchrotron radiation to escape through the midplane. The synchrotron radiation loss rate imposes a lower limit to the liner implosion velocity required to achieve a given final electron energy (approximately 1 cm/μsec in the above example). In addition, if the electron ring can be made sufficiently strong (field reversed), the synchrotron radiation would be a unique source of high intensity soft x-radiation

  11. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  13. CMOS front-end electronics for radiation sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071026

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive treatment of front-end electronics for radiation detection. It discusses the fundamental principles of signal processing for radiation detectors and describes circuits at the level of functional building blocks, omitting transistor-level implementation. It also covers important system-level topics commonly found in the world of front-end electronics for radiation sensors. The book develops the topics in detail, with a constant focus on practical problems. It also provides real implementation examples that offer insights and stimuli for more experienced engineers already working in the field.

  14. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  15. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, L.J. van; Zee, W. van der; Huizenga, H.

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight

  16. FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    FEL radiation power available in electron storage rings was studied in the small signal regime in considering the increase of the energy spread of the electron beam caused by the FEL interaction and the decrease of the FEL gain with the increase of the energy spread in addition to the radiation damping and the quantum excitation. All these effects were considered separately, and combined with FEL power equations. The radiation power available was expressed explicitly with the parameters of the storage ring, the wiggler and the mirrors. The transient process of FEL lasing is simulated with the power equations. A rough estimation is made of the radiation power available by the FEL at different beam energies, and optimization of FEL parameters for a higher radiation power is discussed. ((orig.))

  17. Silicon radiation detector analysis using back electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guye, R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for the observation and analysis of defects in silicon radiation detectors is described. This method uses an electron beam from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) impinging on the rear side of the p + n junction of the silicon detector, which itself is active and detects the electron beam induced current (EBIC). It is shown that this current is a sensitive probe of localized trapping centers, either at the junction surface or somewhere in the volume of the silicon crystal. (orig.)

  18. Radiation Testing of Electronics for the CMS Endcap Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00070357; Celik, A.; Durkin, L.S.; Gilmore, J.; Haley, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Lakdawala, S.; Liu, J.; Matveev, M.; Padley, B.P.; Roberts, J.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Wood, D.; Zawisza, I.

    2013-01-01

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels o...

  19. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity

  20. Electromagnetic radiation of electrons in corrugated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ktitorov, S. A., E-mail: ktitorov@mail.ioffe.ru; Myhamadiarov, R. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Bremsstrahlung in corrugated single-layer graphene in the presence of a ballistic transport current is analyzed. Radiation of a similar nature is observed in undulators and wigglers. Regular and chaotic corrugations (ripples) are considered. It is shown that the quadratic relation between the Monge membrane function and the synthetic calibration field leads to the appearance of a central peak in the radiation spectral density. Possible formation mechanisms of single-layer graphene corrugation are proposed. In one case, the corrugation is considered as an incommensurate superstructure in a two-dimensional crystal, resulting from instability developing in the optical phonon subsystem with the formation of a periodic soliton train. Corrugation results from the interaction of subsystems. Another possible mechanism consists in instability of the membrane flat state due to strong fluctuations characteristic of two-dimensional systems.

  1. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by γ-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with γ-ray should be carried out. (author)

  2. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by {gamma}-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with {gamma}-ray should be carried out. (author)

  3. Radiation testing of electronics for the CMS endcap muon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylsma, B. [Ohio State University (United States); Cady, D.; Celik, A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Durkin, L.S. [Ohio State University (United States); Gilmore, J., E-mail: gilmore@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Haley, J. [Northeastern University (United States); Khotilovich, V.; Lakdawala, S. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Liu, J.; Matveev, M.; Padley, B.P.; Roberts, J. [Rice University (United States); Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wood, D. [Northeastern University (United States); Zawisza, I. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-01-11

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels of neutron radiation expected at the HL-LHC. The highest total ionizing dose (TID) for the muon system is expected at the innermost portion of the CMS detector, with 8900 rad over 10 years. Our results show that Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components selected for the new electronics will operate reliably in the CMS radiation environment.

  4. Radiation testing of electronics for the CMS endcap muon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylsma, B.; Cady, D.; Celik, A.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Haley, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Lakdawala, S.; Liu, J.; Matveev, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Wood, D.; Zawisza, I.

    2013-01-01

    The electronics used in the data readout and triggering system for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator at CERN are exposed to high radiation levels. This radiation can cause permanent damage to the electronic circuitry, as well as temporary effects such as data corruption induced by Single Event Upsets. Once the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) accelerator upgrades are completed it will have five times higher instantaneous luminosity than LHC, allowing for detection of rare physics processes, new particles and interactions. Tests have been performed to determine the effects of radiation on the electronic components to be used for the Endcap Muon electronics project currently being designed for installation in the CMS experiment in 2013. During these tests the digital components on the test boards were operating with active data readout while being irradiated with 55 MeV protons. In reactor tests, components were exposed to 30 years equivalent levels of neutron radiation expected at the HL-LHC. The highest total ionizing dose (TID) for the muon system is expected at the innermost portion of the CMS detector, with 8900 rad over 10 years. Our results show that Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components selected for the new electronics will operate reliably in the CMS radiation environment.

  5. Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Richard A.; Lowry, Mark E.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Stewart, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    A new class of high-speed detectors, called RadOptic detectors, measures ionizing radiation incident on a transparent semiconductor by sensing changes in the refractive index with an optical probe beam. We describe the role of radiation-initiated electron cascades in setting the sensitivity and the spatial and temporal resolution of RadOptic detectors. We model electron cascades with both analytical and Monte Carlo computational methods. We find that the timescale for the development of an electron cascade is less than of order 100 fs and is not expected to affect the time response of a detector. The characteristic size of the electron cloud is typically less than 2 μm, enabling high spatial resolution in imaging systems. The electron-hole pair density created by single x-rays is much smaller than the saturation density and, therefore, single events should not saturate the detector

  6. Radiative interaction of electrons in a short electron bunch moving in an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents investigations of the longitudinal radiative force in an electron bunch. The model of the electron bunch assumes line density distribution. General formulas are presented for the calculation of the radiative force in the bunch moving along an arbitrary small-angle trajectory. The case of a motion in an undulator (wiggler) has been studied in detail. Analytical solutions are obtained for a rectangular and for a Gaussian bunch shape. It is shown that the rate of the bunch energy loss due to the radiative interaction is equal to the power of the coherent radiation in the far zone. Numerical estimations presented in the paper show that the effects of induced energy spread due to the radiative interaction can be important for free electron lasers operating in the infrared wavelength range

  7. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  9. Spectroscopical studies of impurities in the belt pinch HECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singethan, J.

    1981-04-01

    In this paper UV-line-intensity measurements of impurities are presented, which have been performed in the belt-pinch HECTOR. From the line-intensities impurity concentrations and information on the radiation losses is be obtained. At temperatures below 100 eV, the energy loss due to line emission of oxygen and carbon impurities is one of the most important electron energy loss mechanisms. Thus the measurement and calculation of the radiation losses is of particular relevance. Furthermore the electron temperature time dependence can be obtained by comparing the line intensity time dependence with the solution of the respective rate equations. (orig./HT) [de

  10. Radiation from silver films bombarded by low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.S.; Callcott, T.A.; Kretschmann, E.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1980-01-01

    Emission spectra from Ag films irradiated by low energy electrons (20-1500 eV) have been measured, and the results compared with theory. For relatively smooth films, two peaks in the spectra are resolved. One at 3.73 eV, the volume plasmon energy, is attributed to transition radiation and/or bremsstrahlung. The second, at about 3.60 eV, is very sensitive to surface roughness in both position and magnitude and is produced by roughness-coupled radiation from surface plasmons. For rough films, the roughness-coupled radiation dominates the emission. In addition to spectral shapes, the polarization of the radiation and its intensity as a function of electron energy were measured. The experimental results are compared with new calculations of roughness-coupled emission which account for most of our observations. They indicate that high wavevector roughness components play the dominant role in the emission process. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of microwave radiation from electron beam in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, I.S.; Akimune, H. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inome, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Matthews, J.N. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 4112-0830 (United States); Ogio, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, H. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sako, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tokonatu@konan-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-02-21

    We report the use of an electron light source (ELS) located at the Telescope Array Observatory in Utah, USA, to measure the isotropic microwave radiation from air showers. To simulate extensive air showers, the ELS emits an electron beam into the atmosphere and a parabola antenna system for the satellite communication is used to measure the microwave radiation from the electron beam. Based on this measurement, an upper limit on the intensity of a 12.5 GHz microwave radiation at 0.5 m from a 10{sup 18} eV air shower was estimated to be 3.96×10{sup −16} W m{sup −2} Hz{sup −1} with a 95% confidence level.

  12. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to non-random types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids has been examined using oligonucleotides containing 5-bromouracil (5-BrU). Interaction of 5-BrU with solvated electrons results in release of bromide ions and formation of uracil-5-yl radicals. Monitoring either bromide ion release or uracil formation provides an opportunity to study electron migration processes in model nucleic acid systems. Using this approach we have discovered that electron migration along oligonucleotides is significantly influenced by the base sequence and strandedness. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution, which compares with mean migration distances of 6-10 bp for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 bp for E. coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5' to 3' direction along a double-stranded oligonucleotide containing a region of purine bases adjacent to the 5-BrU moiety. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation. (Author)

  13. Orientation acoustic radiation of electrons in silicon thick crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejnik, A.N.; Afanas'ev, S.G.; Vorob'ev, S.A.; Zabaev, V.N.; Il'in, S.I.; Kalinin, B.N.; Potylitsyn, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Results of measuring orientation acoustic radiation of 900 and 500 MeV electrons during their movement along crystallographic axis in thick silicon crystal (h=20 mm thickness) are presented for the first time. Analysis of obtained results shows that dynamic mechanism describes rather completely the main regularities of orientation dependence of the amplitude of acoustic signal occuring under electron motion near crystallographic axis of the crystal. Phenomena of orientation acoustic radiation can be also used for investigation of solid bodies. Orientation both of thin and rather thick monocrystals can be conducted on the basis of dynamic mechanism of elastic wave excitation in crystals

  14. IMPELA electron accelerators for industrial radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    IMPELA electron accelerators are derived from a common basic design of rf accelerating structure which is capable of handling beams with powers from 20 to 250 kW at 5 to 18 MeV. A prototype has been built which operates at 50 kW and 10 MeV. The paper describes the major elements of the system with particular reference to features which assist in maintaining irradiation quality, simple operation and high reliability. A cost model based on the prototype is used to demonstrate the economies of scale available and the impact of local prices for utilities. (author)

  15. Radiation produced by electrons incident on molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with light intensity measurements of emission spectra (1850-9000 A) produced by a continuous or pulsed beam of monoenergetic electrons (0 - 2000 eV) incident on a variety of molecular gases like H 2 , D 2 , H 2 O, HCl, NH 3 and several hydrocarbons. The emission spectra are dominated by fluorescence from excited fragments produced via dissociative excitation, besides fluorescence from excited parent molecules themselves. The experimental results thus obtained are expressed in terms of emission cross sections and lifetimes

  16. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  17. Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chronous altitudes during solar energetic proton events of 2005. ... discussed the radiation belt electron drop outs with respect to their local time, radial and ... number density (Nsw), solar wind speed (Vsw), solar wind pressure (Psw), average.

  18. Coherent synchrotron radiation by an electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, T.; Oyamada, M.; Niimura, N.

    1990-01-01

    Coherent effects in synchrotron radiation (SR) have been observed for the first time from 180 MeV short electron bunches of 1.7 mm using the Tohoku 300 MeV Linac. The intensity of the coherent SR was about 10 5 times as strong as that of incoherent SR at wavelengths of 0.33 to 2.0 mm. This enhancement factor roughly corresponds to the number of electrons in a bunch. The SR intensity showed a quadratic dependence on the electron beam current. The radiation was mainly polarized in the orbital plane. The possibility of induced rf in a vacuum chamber was excluded experimentally. An electron linear accelerator will be applied to a strong light source from infrared to millimeter wavelengths instead of the storage rings. The bunch length of shorter than 1 mm can be observed by the spectrum measurement of coherent SR. (author)

  19. Nonrelativistic electron bunch train for coherently enhanced terahertz radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuelin; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2008-01-01

    We propose to generate a train of prebunched electron beams for producing coherently enhanced Smith-Purcell radiation [S. J. Smith and E. M. Purcell, Phys. Rev. 92, 1069 (1953)] in the terahertz wavelength range. In this scheme, a train of picosecond laser pulses is produced to drive a photoemission gun to generate a train of 50 keV electron pulses. The parameters are chosen so that the space-charge effect does not destroy the pulse time structure. Smith-Purcell radiation from the electron pulse train is enhanced due both to the short length of the individual electron bunch and to the repetitive structure of the beam. Example systems producing coherent terahertz power at about 1 mW are described

  20. Use of synchrotron radiation for electron identification at high luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used successfully to identify electrons of 10 to 30 GeV traversing a field length of 30 kG-m. Since comparable field lengths are a feature of many proposed collider detectors, and since this is an electron energy range of interest at √s approx. = 1 TeV, we consider whether such a device could be useful in the L = 10 33 environment

  1. Dynamics of the outer radiation belts and their links with the polar substorms and the injection of hot plasma at the geostationary orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaud, J.A.; Winckler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the results obtained aboard geostationary satellites and on the ground, in the auroral zone, on the dynamic changes in the outer radiation belts and their link with the time development of auroral forms during magnetospheric substorms. The measurements of high-energy particles, plasma, and magnetic induction at 6.6 Rsub(E) in the local midnight sector indicate the existence of a pre-expansion phase in substorms during which the outer belts move toward the Earth under the effect of the modification in the topology of the local magnetic induction. The pre-expansion phase coincides with an increase in the AE index, suggesting a direct link between the electrojet and the currents flowing across the tail of the magnetosphere. It also coincides in the auroral zone with the intensification and movement of the quiet arc system toward the equator. The phase is invariably terminated at the beginning of the expansion of the substorm by the break-up of the auroral arcs and the injection of hot plasma at the geostationary orbit near local midnight under the action of the induced electric field associated with the collapse of the geomagnetic field force lines. The study of the data, event by event, shows the complexity of phenomena which may be involved during the pre-expansion phase particularly with the possible presence of pseudo-substorms or aborted (minor) substorms which do not modify the general evolution described above [fr

  2. Radiation disinfestation of used packagings: irradiation trials with electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Zaedee, I.

    1994-01-01

    Used bags, sacks and other packagings are often infested with insects and mites - pest of stored products. Such packagings provide a source of infestation of a new lot or unit of agricultural products. Cleaning of repeatedly used packages is the most important preventive method. After using, the bags and sacks should be carefully beaten with a mechanical or hand beater. When pests are found, the packages should be disinfested with hot air or hot water. Larger numbers of bags are usually fumigated in a special fumigation chamber. Disinfestation by radiation processing is potentially a feasible substitute for chemical fumigation. In the present paper trials of radiation disinfestation of used bags are described and discussed. Information about using electron beams for pest disinfestation of jute and polyvinyl chloride bags (plastic bags) is provided. The absorbed dose is the most important irradiation process parameter. The lethal effects equivalent to chemical insecticides are obtained by high doses of ionizing radiation. Control of insect and/or mite infestation of the repeatedly used packagings may be secured by ionizing radiation applied at 2-3 kGy. These doses result in complete mortality of stored product pests within a few days. The radiation must penetrate deeply into the target product at sufficient level. Gamma rays and X-rays penetrate into the treated products easily but electron radiation penetrating is much lower, depending on electron energy applied. The results of this study indicate that bags made of polyvinyl chloride may be disinfested with electron beams when are created as separate units or batches up to 50 bags. Penetrability of jute bags is lower than the plastic bags. Therefore the jute bags should be irradiated with electrons as batches containing no more than 30 bags. (author)

  3. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  4. Radiation-hardened micro-electronics for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The successful development and deployment of future fission and thermonuclear fusion reactors depends to a large extent on the advances of different enabling technologies. Not only the materials need to be custom engineered but also the instrumentation, the electronics and the communication equipment need to support operation in this harsh environment, with expected radiation levels during maintenance up to several MGy. Indeed, there are yet no commercially available electronic devices available off-the-shelf which demonstrated a satisfying operation at these extremely high radiation levels. The main goal of this task is to identify commercially available radiation tolerant technologies, and to design dedicated and integrated electronic circuits, using radiation hardening techniques, both at the topological and architectural level. Within a stepwise approach, we first design circuits with discrete components and look for an equivalent integrated technology. This will enable us to develop innovative instrumentation and communication tools for the next generation of nuclear reactors, where both radiation hardening and miniaturization play a dominant role

  5. Radiation from nitrogen molecule due to electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, S P; Kumar, A

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of the experimental results of the collisional cross sections of the nitrogen molecules due to electron impact which give rise to radiations in the 3,000 Angstrom to 10,500 Angstron wavelength region. Calculations of the fluorescence efficiencies are described and are compared with experimental data. (GHT)

  6. Electronic-excitation induced radiation damage in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, J P

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the microscopic nature of radiation induced defects in insulators, we have studied localization of negative and positive charges in amorphous and monocrystalline SiO2. The behaviour of these charges is linked to creation of point defects by electronic excitation. The role of intense electric fields under irradiation is pointed out.

  7. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  8. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  9. A 600 keV electron radiation accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Youyi; Wang Xurong

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe a 600 keV two-body multi-functional electron and positive ion radiation accelerator based on a 400 keV Cockroft-Walton, Which was successfully used to accelerate electron and positive ion. Through test on coating solidification of decoration materials, such as colorful surface plaster plate and relief plate, and researches on metal plate, plastic plate, wood and paper coating decorations and radiation workmanship, as well as experiment of brach-linking by radiation for filling materials of petroleum pipings, it is proved that the device is reliable and stable in operation and reaches the pre-set design indexes and satisfies the requirements called for

  10. Trapped electronic states in YAG crystal excited by femtosecond radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavedeev, E.V.; Kononenko, V.V.; Konov, V.I. [General Physics Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The excitation of an electronic subsystem of an yttrium aluminum garnet by 800 nm femtosecond radiation was studied theoretically and experimentally. The spatio-temporal dynamics of the refractive index (n) inside the beam waist was explored by means of the pump-probe interferometric technique with a submicron resolution. The observed increase in n indicated the formation of bound electronic states relaxed for ∝ 150 ps. We showed that the experimental data agreed with the computational simulation based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation only if these transient states were considered to arise from a direct light-induced process but not from the decay of radiatively generated free-electron-hole pairs. (orig.)

  11. Dosimetry of electron and gamma radiation with DL-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Z.M. da; Campos, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dosimetric method based on the quantitative determination of stabilised free radicals in irradiated crystalline DL-alanine by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was proposed as early in 1962. Since then, alanine dosemeters owing to their unique properties have been investigated by many authors and used in dosimetry of various types of radiation, namely gamma rays, electron and neutrons. Alanine is a simple aminoacid, on irradiation at room temperature predominantly free paramagnetic radicals of the type CH 3 -CH-COOH are produced. This paper reports the application of powder DL-alanine/ESR dosemeter for measurement of absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 60 Co sources and reactor nucleus and electron beams from accelerator. The obtained results give useful information about the instrumental care necessary to obtain the needed overall accuracy in determination of absorbed dose. (author)

  12. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards

  13. Modeling of the response under radiation of electronic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.

    2003-01-01

    The simulation with with calculation codes the interactions and the transport of primary and secondary radiations in the detectors allows to reduce the number of developed prototypes and the number of experiments under radiation. The simulation makes possible the determination of the response of the instrument for exposure configurations more extended that these ones of references radiations produced in laboratories. The M.C.N.P.X. allows to transport, over the photons, electrons and neutrons, the charged particles heavier than the electrons and to simulate the radiation - matter interactions for a certain number of particles. The present paper aims to present the interest of the use of the M.C.N.P.X. code in the study, research and evaluation phases of the instrumentation necessary to the dosimetry monitoring. To do that the presentation gives the results of the modeling of a prototype of a equivalent tissue proportional counter (C.P.E.T.) and of the C.R.A.M.A.L. ( radiation protection apparatus marketed by the Eurisys Mesures society). (N.C.)

  14. Radiation processing of natural polymers using low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing is widely used in Japan and the economic scale of radiation application amounted to about 71 b$ (ratio relative to GDP: 1.7%) in total. It consisted of 60 b$ (85%) in industry, 10 b$ (14%) in medicine and 1 b$ (1%) in agriculture. Irradiation using gamma-ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Utilization of natural polymers by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. Low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation has a variety of applications and good safety. A self-shielded low energy electron accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a 60 Co facility. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective not only for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides but also for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  15. Interactions of free electrons with an electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zel' dovich, Ya B [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Prikladnoj Matematiki

    1975-02-01

    The interaction of a chaotic field of electromagnetic radiation with free electrons in plasma is considered as applied to astrophysical problems, in particular, to the theory of establishing thermodynamic equilibrium of radiation in the hot universe. The kinetic equation describes a change in the spectrum; particular attention is paid to the induced scattering and to the classical interpretation of the induced transfer of energy and momentum. In spectra of radiosources with a high brightness temperature the induced scattering may lead to the Bose condensation of photons, shock wave and appearance of solutions. The scattering of strong low-frequency waves is considered as applied to pulsars and laboratory coherent generators.

  16. Dosimetry study for electron beam irradiation in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Kojima, Takuji; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1995-01-01

    For certain critical applications such as medical device sterilization and food irradiation, accurate calibration of electron energy and absorbed dose is required to assure the quality of irradiated products. To meet this requirement, TRCRE, JAERI has carried out research and development on high dose radiation dosimetry for electron beams in the energy range used in radiation processing (0.15 - 3.0 MeV). JAERI has developed a simultaneous electron beam energy and dosimeter calibration system that consist of a total absorption calorimeter, an electron current density meter, and a stacked thin-film dosimeter set. For low energy electrons, where it is important to measure the depth-dose profile in materials with high depth resolution, we studied the feasibility of a method using Gafchromic film dosimeters. This film, which has an 8-μm thick sensitive layer, is combined with a stepped array of absorber films of the same thickness to produce a high-resolution depth-dose profile on the Gafchromic film. The depth-dose profile obtained in this manner has about five times greater resolution than conventional radiochromic film dosimetry. (author)

  17. Energy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    In recent years intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons (xIMRT) has gained attention due to its ability to reduce the dose in the tissues close to the tumour volume. However, this technique also results in a large low dose volume. Electron IMRT (eIMRT) has the potential to reduce the integral dose to the patient due to the dose fall off in the electron depth dose curves. This dose fall off makes it possible to modulate the dose distribution in the direction of the beam by selecting...

  18. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  19. Electronic radiation of a plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.; Consoli, T.; Ichtchenko, G.; Parlance, F.

    1965-01-01

    The influence on the microwave spectrum of the number of fast electrons, density, pressure and plasma inhomogeneities, has been studied in a hot cathode reflex discharge, operating either in a steady state either in a pulsed regime. Under some conditions a strong emission is observed between the harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. A theoretical interpretation of the results is advanced by extending a model already proposed by CANOBBIO and CROCI. In particular it is indicated that the transition radiation can be responsible for the emission observed between the harmonics. (authors) [fr

  20. Weak-beam electron microscopy of radiation-induced segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, H.

    1983-01-01

    The segregation of solute atoms to dislocations during irradiation by 1 MeV electrons in a HVEM was studied by measuring the dissociation width of extended dislocations in Cu-5.1 at.%Si, Cu-5.3 at.%Ge, Ag-9.4 at.% In and Ag-9.6 at.%Al alloys. 'Weak-beam' electron microscopy was used. In Cu-Si (oversized solute), Cu-Ge (oversize) and Ag-Al (undersize), solute enrichment was observed near dislocations, while in Ag-In (oversize) solute depletion was observed. The results are discussed in terms of current mechanisms for radiation-induced segregation. (author)

  1. Gelatin/piassava composites treated by Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del; Colombo, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) fiber has been investigated as reinforcement for polymer composites with potential for practical applications. The purpose of the present work was to assess the behavior of specimens of piassava fiber and gelatin irradiated with electron beam at different doses and percentage. The piassava/gelatin specimens were made with 5 and 10% (w/w) piassava fiber, gelatin 25% (w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer. The samples were irradiated up to 40 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. Preliminary results showed mechanical properties enhancement with the increase in radiation dose. (author)

  2. Electron acceleration and radiation signatures in loop coronal transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Gergely, T. E.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that in loop coronal transients an erupting loop moves away from the solar surface, with a velocity exceeding the local Alfven speed, pushing against the overlying magnetic fields and driving a shock in the front of the moving part of the loop. Lower hybrid waves are excited at the shock front and propagate radially toward the center of the loop with phase velocity along the magnetic field that exceeds the thermal velocity. The lower hybrid waves stochastically accelerate the tail of the electron distribution inside the loop. The manner in which the accelerated electrons are trapped in the moving loop are discussed, and their radiation signature is estimated. It is suggested that plasma radiation can explain the power observed in stationary and moving type IV bursts.

  3. Radiation load experiments with electronic components of the SYMPHONIE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencker, A.; Wagemann, H.G.; Braeunig, D.

    1975-09-01

    This report surveys fundamentals, realization and results of irradiation experiments which applied to 36 different electronic components of the Symphonie satellite and which were completed at the HMI Berlin and the C.N.E.T. Lannion in the years 1972/73. In a general section the evaluation of equivalent fluencies concerning 1 MeV electrons as radiation simulating the extraterrestric particle spectra with regard to the well-known semiconductor damage mechanisms is discussed. Then the realization of irradiation testing for the Symphonie satellite is described. Three selected examples demonstrate typical failure modes of semiconductor devices under radiation stress: Finally the main experimental results are shown in a standardized manner; a survey in English is given on p. 44. (orig.) [de

  4. Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Huang, Wen-Hui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR) deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs). When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.

  5. Ultrashort electron bunch length measurement with diffraction radiation deflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method to measure electron bunch length with a diffraction radiation (DR deflector which is composed of a DR radiator and three beam position monitors (BPMs. When an electron beam passes through a metallic aperture which is tilted by 45 degrees with respect to its trajectory, backward DR that propagates perpendicular to the beam’s trajectory is generated which adds a transverse deflection to the beam as a result of momentum conservation. The deflection is found to be largely dependent on the bunch length and could be easily observed with a downstream BPM. Detailed investigations show that this method has wide applicability, high temporal resolution, and great simplicity.

  6. Radiation Hardened Electronics Destined For Severe Nuclear Reactor Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbert, Keith E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Clark, Lawrence T. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Post nuclear accident conditions represent a harsh environment for electronics. The full station blackout experience at Fukushima shows the necessity for emergency sensing capabilities in a radiation-enhanced environment. This NEET (Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies) research project developed radiation hardened by design (RHBD) electronics using commercially available technology that employs commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices and present generation circuit fabrication techniques to improve the total ionizing dose (TID) hardness of electronics. Such technology not only has applicability to severe accident conditions but also to facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle in which radiation tolerance is required. For example, with TID tolerance to megarads of dose, electronics could be deployed for long-term monitoring, inspection and decontamination missions. The present work has taken a two-pronged approach, specifically, development of both board and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) level RHBD techniques. The former path has focused on TID testing of representative microcontroller ICs with embedded flash (eFlash) memory, as well as standalone flash devices that utilize the same fabrication technologies. The standalone flash devices are less complicated, allowing better understanding of the TID response of the crucial circuits. Our TID experiments utilize biased components that are in-situ tested, and in full operation during irradiation. A potential pitfall in the qualification of memory circuits is the lack of rigorous testing of the possible memory states. For this reason, we employ test patterns that include all ones, all zeros, a checkerboard of zeros and ones, an inverse checkerboard, and random data. With experimental evidence of improved radiation response for unbiased versus biased conditions, a demonstration-level board using the COTS devices was constructed. Through a combination of redundancy and power gating, the demonstration

  7. Cerenkov Radiator Driven by a Superconducting RF Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, B.R.; Harris, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Niowave, Inc., and Boeing have recently demonstrated operation of the first superconducting RF electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator structure. In preliminary tests, this gun has produced 10 ps long bunches with charge in excess of 78 pC, and with beam energy up to 396 keV. Initial testing occurred at Niowave's Lansing, MI facility, but the gun and diagnostic beam line are planned for installation in California in the near future. The design of the diagnostic beam line is conducive to the addition of a Cerenkov radiator without interfering with other beam line operations. Design and simulations of a Cerenkov radiator, consisting of a dielectric lined waveguide will be presented. The dispersion relation for the structure is determined and the beam interaction is studied using numerical simulations. The characteristics of the microwave radiation produced in both the short and long bunch regimes will be presented.

  8. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques

  9. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F., E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gabriel.alo@aceletron.com.br [Aceletron Irradiacao Industrial, Aceletrica Comercio e Representacoes Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Francisco C.A. Da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  10. Radiation doses inside industrial irradiation installation with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Alexandre R.; Pelegrineli, Samuel Q.; Alo, Gabriel F.; Silva, Francisco C.A. Da

    2015-01-01

    Aceletron Industrial Irradiation Company is the unique installation in South America to provide industrial irradiation service using two linear electron accelerators of 18 kW and 10 MeV energy. The electron beam technology allows using electrons to irradiate many goods and materials, such as hospital and medical equipment, cosmetics, herbal products, polymers, peat, gemstones and food. Aceletron Company uses a concrete bunker with 3.66 m of thickness to provide the necessary occupational and environmental radiation protection of X-rays produced. The bunker is divided in main four areas: irradiation room, maze, tower and pit. Inside the irradiation room the x-rays radiation rates are measured in two ways: direct beam and 90 deg C. The rates produced in the conveyor system using 10 MeV energy are 500 Gy/min/mA and 15 Gy/min/mA, respectively. For a 1.8 mA current, the rates produced are 900 Gy/min and 27 Gy/min, respectively. Outside the bunker the radiation rate is at background level, but in the tower door and modulation room the radiation rate is 10 μSv/h. In 2014, during a routine operation, an effective dose of 30.90 mSv was recorded in a monthly individual dosimeter. After the investigation, it was concluded that the dose was only in the dosimeter because it felt inside the irradiation room. As Aceletron Company follows the principles of safety culture, it was decided to perform the radiation isodose curves, inside the four areas of the installation, to know exactly the hotspots positions, exposure times and radiation doses. Five hotspots were chosen taking into account worker's routes and possible operational places. The first experiment was done using a package with three TLD and OSLD dosimeters to obtain better statistical results. The first results for the five hotspots near the accelerator machine showed that the radiation dose rates were between 26 Gy/h and 31 Gy/h. The final measurements were performed using a package with one TLD and one OSLD

  11. Estimates for the probability of survival of electrons in passing through a radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some calculations on the survival of electrons passing through various radiator thicknesses are tabulated. The results of these calculations should serve as a guide for expected attenuation of electrons in the beam when various Pb radiators are inserted

  12. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  13. Radiation of electrons in an electromagnetic axial trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropova, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    The version of a trap. wherein particles move in a homogeneous constant magnetic field and electrostatic field, formed by two equipotential planes and rotation axial surface, is proposed. The solution of canonic equations is found. It is shown that interaction of electrons with the radiation field leads to damping parametric resonance. The trap model, accounting for the finite conductivity of the resonator walls and losses by collisions with gas, is studied

  14. Axial ion-electron emission microscopy of IC radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, B. L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D. S.; Swenson, D.

    2002-05-01

    A new system for performing radiation effects microscopy (REM) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque. This system combines two entirely new concepts in accelerator physics and nuclear microscopy. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac is used to boost the energy of ions accelerated by a conventional Tandem Van de Graaff-Pelletron to velocities of 1.9 MeV/amu. The electronic stopping power for heavy ions is near a maximum at this velocity, and their range is ˜20 μm in Si. These ions therefore represent the most ionizing form of radiation in nature, and are nearly ideal for performing single event effects testing of integrated circuits. Unfortunately, the energy definition of the RFQ-boosted ions is rather poor (˜ a few %), which makes problematic the focussing of such ions to the submicron spots required for REM. To circumvent this problem, we have invented ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). One can perform REM with the IEEM system without focussing or scanning the ion beam. This is because the position on the sample where each ion strikes is determined by projecting ion-induced secondary electrons at high magnification onto a single electron position sensitive detector. This position signal is then correlated with each REM event. The IEEM system is now mounted along the beam line in an axial geometry so that the ions pass right through the electron detector (which is annular), and all of the electrostatic lenses used for projection. The beam then strikes the sample at normal incidence which results in maximum ion penetration and removes a parallax problem experienced in an earlier system. Details of both the RFQ-booster and the new axial IEEM system are given together with some of the initial results of performing REM on Sandia-manufactured radiation hardened integrated circuits.

  15. Radiation-induced processes in the metallic powders after electron and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Aliev, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the work the quantitative assessments for conditions both healing and growth of micropores in metal volume and surface layers have been made. Taking into account of these rules is important at a choice of radiation processing conditions for fine-disperse powders characterizing with increased porosity. Numerical evaluation shows, that under irradiation of a metals by electrons with energy 2 MeV and electron current density about 1 μA/cm 2 within 300-400 K temperature range the optimal doses for the micropores healing make up a several Mrad. Further increase of dose could lead to formation of pores in the crystal volume. Principal conclusions about radiation porosity development character of metallic particles surface layers one can make from analysis of the point defects distribution near surface and computing of radiation-induced diffusion coefficients

  16. Electron Beam Induced Radiation Damage of the Semiconductor Radiation Detector based on Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Haa, Jang Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Chung, Chong Eun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Tae Hyung

    2005-01-01

    A Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) semiconductor detector which is generally used to detect a charged particle such as an alpha particle was developed. The performance of the developed SSB semiconductor detector was measured with an I-V curve and an alpha spectrum. The response for an alpha particle was measured by Pu-238 sources. A SSB semiconductor detector was irradiated firstly at 30sec, at 30μA and secondly 40sec, 40μA with a 2MeV pulsed electron beam generator in KAERI. And the electron beam induced radiation damage of a homemade SSB detector and the commercially available PIN photodiode were investigated. An annealing effect of the damaged SSB and PIN diode detector were also investigated using a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA). This data may assist in designing the silicon based semiconductor radiation detector when it is operated in a high radiation field such as space or a nuclear power plant

  17. Radiation damage in nonmetallic solids under dense electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Tanimura, Katsumi; Nakai, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    Basic processes of radiation damage of insulators by dense electronic excitation are reviewed. First it is pointed out that electronic excitation of nonmetallic solids produces the self-trapped excitons and defect-related metastable states having relatively long lifetimes, and that the excitation of these metastable states, produces stable defects. The effects of irradiation with heavy ions, including track registration, are surveyed on the basis of the microscopic studies. It is pointed out also that the excitation of the metastable states plays a role in laser-induced damage at relatively low fluences, while the laser damage has been reported to be governed by heating of free electrons produced by multiphoton excitation. Difference in the contributions of the excitation of metastable defects to laser-induced damage of surfaces, or laser ablation, and laser-induced bulk damage is stressed. (orig.)

  18. Study and impact of fast electrons diagnosed by electron cyclotron radiation on Tore-Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P.

    1999-12-01

    This thesis aims at characterizing the dynamics of fast electrons generated by the Landau absorption of the hybrid wave and studying their effects on electron cyclotron radiation. The different processes involved in the propagation and resonant absorption of the hybrid wave in plasmas are described. A method such as ray-tracing allows the characterization of the dynamics of heating but this method relies on the hypothesis of geometrical optics. Whenever absorption rate is low as it is in Tore-Supra, the hybrid wave undergoes a series of successive reflections on the edge of the plasma before being completely absorbed. These reflections generate an electromagnetic chaos in which geometrical optics hypothesis are no longer valid. A statistical treatment of the Fokker-Planck equation allows the calculation of the mean distribution function of electrons in the plasma submitted to hybrid wave. The electron cyclotron radiation is then deduced and by assuming that plasma behaves like a black body, a theoretical radiative temperature is calculated. The confrontation of this theoretical temperature profile with experimental values allows the validation of this modeling and the estimation of the effects of fast electrons on temperature measurements. (A.C.)

  19. Radiation dosimetry in human bone using electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dose in bone are required in order to improve the dosimetry of systemic radiotherapy for osseous metastases. Bone is an integrating dosimeter which records the radiation history of the skeleton. During irradiation, electrons become trapped in the crystalline component of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite). The traps are very stable; at room temperature, emptying of the traps occurs with a half-life of many years. The population of trapped unpaired electrons is proportional to the radiation dose administered to the bone and can be measured in excised bone samples using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, irradiated with Co-60, were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the radiation-induced signal, with a g-value of 2.001 ± 0.001 increased linearly with absorbed dose above a lower threshold of 3 Gy, up to doses of 200 Gy. In contrast with pure hydroxyapatite, EPR spectra of excised human bone showed a broad 'native' signal, due to the organic component of bone, which masks the dosimetrically important signal. This native signal is highly variable from sample to sample and precludes the use of EPR as an absolute dosimetry technique. However, after subtraction of the background signal, irradiated human bone showed a linear response with a lower limit of measurement similar to that of synthetic hydroxyapatite. Bone is an in vivo linear dosimeter which can be exploited to develop accurate estimates of the radiation dose delivered during systemic radiotherapy and teletherapy. However, improved sensitivity of the EPR dosimetry technique is necessary before it can be applied reliably in clinical situations. (author)

  20. Repetitive nanosecond electron accelerators type URT-1 for radiation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokovnin, S. Yu.; Balezin, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    The electron accelerator URT-1М-300 for mobile installation was created for radiation disinfecting to correct drawbacks that were found the URT-1M electron accelerator operation (the accelerating voltage up to 1 МV, repetition rate up to 300 pps, electron beam size 400 × 100 mm, the pulse width about 100 ns). Accelerator configuration was changed that allowed to reduce significantly by 20% tank volume with oil where is placed the system of formation high-voltage pulses, thus the average power of the accelerator is increased by 6 times at the expense of increase in pulses repetition rate. Was created the system of the computerized monitoring parameters (output parameters and thermal mode) and remote control of the accelerator (charge voltage, pulse repetition rate), its elements and auxiliary systems (heat of the thyratron, vacuum system), the remote control panel is connected to the installation by the fiber-optical channel, what lightens the work for service personnel. For generating an electron beam up to 400 mm wide there are used metal- ceramic] and metal-dielectric cold cathodes of several emission elements (plates) with a non-uniform distribution of the electron beam current density on the output foil ± 15%. It was found that emission drop of both type of cathodes, during the operation at the high repetition rate (100 pps) is substantial at the beginning of the process, and then proceeds rather slowly that allows for continuous operation up to 40 h. Experiments showed that linear dependence of the voltage and a signal from the pin-diode remains within the range of the charge voltage 45-65 kV. Thus, voltage increases from 690 to 950 kV, and the signal from the pin-diode - from (2,8-4,6)*104 Gy/s. It allows to select electron energy quite precisely with consideration of the radiation technology requirements.

  1. Electron beam radiation effects on recycled polyamide-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, Maria Cecilia; Silva, Leonardo G. de Andrade e

    2001-01-01

    Applications of electron beam processing in the treatment of polymers are commonly used. The interaction of high energy radiation with polymers may cause permanent modifications in the polymer's physicochemical structure. The induced modifications may result in degradation of the polymer or in improvement of its properties (crosslinking), which are simultaneous and competing processes, depending on the radiation dose utilized. Crosslinking occurs more readily in the polymer's amorphous content and this process makes the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymers to increase. Successive recycling cycles promote changes in polymers properties, such as breaking of structure, molecular weight reduction, melt index increase and mechanical resistance reduction. The polyamide-6 resin was recycled for three successive recycling cycles and thi polyamide-6 specimens were molded by the process of injection molding. These specimens were irradiated at the Nuclear Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) radiation facility, on a JOB 188 model accelerator, with a 1.5 MeV electron beam, doses of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 kGy, and dose rate of 22.61 kGy/s. The DMA tests were performed using DMA-983 equipment from TA Instruments and two heatings were adopted in order to eliminate the moisture absorption. The X-ray diffraction analysis wa carried out at the Philips PW 1830 model equipment

  2. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  3. Electron acceleration and radiation signatures in loop coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gergely, T.E.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    A model for electron aceleration in loop coronal transients is suggested. We propose that in these transients an erupting loop moves away from the solar surface, with a velocity greater than the local Alfven speed, pushing against the overlying magnetic fields and driving a shock in the front of the moving part of the loop. We suggest that lower hybrid waves are excited at the shock front and propagate radially toward the center of the loop with phase velocity along the magnetic field which exceeds the thermal velocity. The lower hybrid waves stochastically accelerate the tail of the electron distribution inside the loop. We discuss how the accelerated electrons are trapped in the moving loop and give a rough estimate of their radiation signature. We find that plasma radiation can explain the power observed in stationary and moving type IV bursts. We discuss some of the conditions under which moving or stationary type IV bursts are expected to be associated with loop coronal transients

  4. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S.

    2016-11-01

    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2) periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ˜ 0.7 to ˜ 7 keV nT-1 at L ≈ 4.5-10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10-14μ-4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL)-4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10-9fd-4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), DLL is measured in s-1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  5. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kovtyukh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α0 ≈ 90° during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp ≤ 2 periods, I directly calculated the value DLL, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun–Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1 for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2–10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2–5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from  ∼ 0.7 to ∼ 7 keV nT−1 at L ≈ 4.5–10, the functions of DLL can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: DLL ≈ 4.9 × 10−14μ−4.1L8.2 or DLL ≈ 1.3 × 105(EL−4.1 or DLL ≈ 1.2 × 10−9fd−4.1, where fd is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz, DLL is measured in s−1, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms DLL increases, and the expressions for DLL obtained here can change completely.

  6. Deduction of the rates of radial diffusion of protons from the structure of the Earth's radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtyukh, Alexander S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2016-07-01

    From the data on the fluxes and energy spectra of protons with an equatorial pitch angle of α{sub 0} ∼ 90 during quiet and slightly disturbed (Kp≤2) periods, I directly calculated the value D{sub LL}, which is a measure of the rate of radial transport (diffusion) of trapped particles. This is done by successively solving the systems (chains) of integrodifferential equations which describe the balance of radial transport/acceleration and ionization losses of low-energy protons of the stationary belt. This was done for the first time. For these calculations, I used data of International Sun-Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE-1) for protons with an energy of 24 to 2081 keV at L = 2-10 and data of Explorer-45 for protons with an energy of 78.6 to 872 keV at L = 2-5. Ionization losses of protons (Coulomb losses and charge exchange) were calculated on the basis of modern models of the plasmasphere and the exosphere. It is shown that for protons with μ from ∝0.7 to ∝7 keV nT{sup -1} at L ∼ 4.5-10, the functions of D{sub LL} can be approximated by the following equivalent expressions: D{sub LL} ∼ 4.9 x 10{sup -14}μ{sup -4.1}L{sup 8.2} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.3 x 10{sup 5}(EL){sup -4.1} or D{sub LL} ∼ 1.2 x 10{sup -9}f{sub d}{sup -4.1}, where f{sub d} is the drift frequency of the protons (in mHz), D{sub LL} is measured in s{sup -1}, E is measured in kiloelectronvolt and μ is measured in kiloelectronvolt per nanotesla. These results are consistent with the radial diffusion of particles under the action of the electric field fluctuations (pulsations) in the range of Pc6 and contradict the mechanism of the radial diffusion of particles under the action of sudden impulses (SIs) of the magnetic field and also under the action of substorm impulses of the electric field. During magnetic storms D{sub LL} increases, and the expressions for D{sub LL} obtained here can change completely.

  7. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    or location has been irradiated to high doses. Among labels available worldwide, a few are suitable for indicating absorbed dose regions of slightly less than 104 Gy (monitoring high dose ranges (i.e., sterilization dose levels of > 104 Gy or > 1 Mrad), and in some cases......, and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...... permit somewhat more precise discrimination of dose levels, and may sometimes be useful for monitoring differences in local dose distributions or area monitoring of radiation damage probabilities around particle accelerators or large radionuclide sources....

  8. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  9. An Overview of Effects of Space Radiation on the Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun Tae; Shin, Dong Kwan; Son, Young Jong; Kim Jin Hong

    2009-01-01

    The first Korean astronaut successfully carried out the scientific experiments at International Space Station (ISS) in April 2008. Due to the government's strong will and support for the field of space, Korea has enhanced its space technology based on the accomplishments in space development. On October 12∼16, 2009 the 60 th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) was held in Daejeon. IAC 2009 must serve as a place for the extensive exchange of global space technology and information in order to speed up the development of space technology in Korea. With regard for space research and development, the radiation effects in space have been reviewed from the viewpoint of electronics

  10. New generation of compact electron accelerators for radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Balakin, V.E.; Kraynov, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Compact electron accelerators with energy range 0.25-1.0 MeV and beam power up to 32 kw are described. The feeding high voltage is formed by converter (working frequency 20 khz), coreless step-up transformer and a set of rectifying sections. The rectifying multiplier circuit used in rectifying sections permits to reach voltage gradient along accelerator's axis up to 14 kV/cm. The accelerators with vertical and horizontal position are described. The accelerators can be produced together with local radiation shielding and various underbeam transportation systems for irradiation of different products. Such version can be installed in any room facing general requirements for electric equipment

  11. Radiative capture of slow electrons by tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Belkina, G.M.; Samarin, S.N.; Yakovlev, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    Isochromatic spectra of radiation capture of slow electrons by the surface of mono- and polycrystal tungsten recorded on 322 and 405 nm wave lengths are presented. The effect of oxygen adsorption on isochromates of the (110) face of tungsten monocrystal is investigated. The obtained isochromatic spectra are compared with energy band structure of tungsten. Based on the analysis of the obtained experimental results it is assumed that optical transition to the final state at the energy of 7.3 eV relatively to Fermi level is conditioned by surface states of the tungsten face (110)

  12. First observation of Smith-Purcell radiation from relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucas, G.; Mulvey, J.H.; Omori, M.; Walsh, J.; Kimmitt, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    A beam of 3.6 MeV electrons has been used to study the generation of radiation in far infra-red (FIR) by the Smith-Purcell mechanism. The dependence of wavelength on angle of emission, over angles from 56 deg to 150 deg and wavelengths from 350 μm to 1860 μm, is in excellent agreement with the Smith-Purcell dispersion relation. Comparison of the yield with that from a 5000 K source suggests that the spontaneous Smith-Purcell effect offers an easily tunable alternative to the synchrotron as a coherent FIR source, and could form the basis of a cheap, compact Free Electron Laser (FEL). (author) 6 refs.; 5 figs

  13. Challenges in validating radiation sterilization with low energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.; Helt-Hansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Low energy electron irradiation (80-300 keV) is used increasingly for sterilization or decontamination in connection with isolators for aseptic filling lines in the pharmaceutical industry. It is not defined how validation for this process shall be carried out. A method can be derived from the medical device standard for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137, because the principles described in this standard can be applied to almost any industrial irradiation process. The validations elements are: Process definition, concerning specification of the dose required for the process and the maximum acceptable dose for the product. Installation qualification, concerning acceptance the irradiation facility. Operational qualification, concerning characterization of the facility. Performance qualification, concerning setting up the process. Process control, concerning routine monitoring. The limited penetration of the low energy electrons leads to problems with respect to executing these validation steps. This paper discusses these problems, and shows with examples how they can be solved.

  14. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Advanced Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Novel approach enables high-speed special-purpose processors Advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable communication systems will require sub-130-nanometer electronics. Legacy single event upset (SEU) radiation-tolerant circuits are ineffective at speeds greater than 125 megahertz. In Phase I of this project, ICs, LLC, demonstrated new base-level logic circuits that provide SEU immunity for sub-130-nanometer high-speed circuits. In Phase II, the company developed an innovative self-restoring logic (SRL) circuit and a system approach that provides high-speed, SEU-tolerant solutions that are effective for sub-130-nanometer electronics scalable to at least 22-nanometer processes. The SRL system can be used in the design of NASA's next-generation special-purpose processors, especially reconfigurable communication processors.

  15. Transition radiation spectra of electrons from 1 to 10 GeV/c in regular and irregular radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, A.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Bailhache, R.; Baumann, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bucher, D.; Busch, O.; Catanescu, V.; Chernenko, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Fateev, O.; Freuen, S.; Garabatos, C.; Gottschlag, H.; Gunji, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Herrmann, N.; Hoppe, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Morino, Y.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Petridis, A.; Petrovici, M.; Rusanov, I.; Sandoval, A.; Saito, S.; Schicker, R.; Soltveit, H.K.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Vassiliou, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Wessels, J.P.; Wilk, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zanevsky, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of the spectral distribution of transition radiation generated by electrons of momentum 1-10 GeV/c in different radiator types. We investigate periodic foil radiators and irregular foam and fiber materials. The transition radiation photons are detected by prototypes of the drift chambers to be used in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at CERN, which are filled with a Xe, CO 2 (15%) mixture. The measurements are compared to simulations in order to enhance the quantitative understanding of transition radiation production, in particular the momentum dependence of the transition radiation yield

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rao F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  17. The selection of radiation tolerant electrical/electronic components for gamma radiation environments in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report briefly describes the mechanisms, units and effects of 1 MeV range gamma radiation on electrical/electronic components and materials. Information is tabulated on the gamma radiation tolerance of a wide range of components and materials. A radiation testing service, based at Harwell, is described. Lists of interested manufacturers and organisations are given. (author)

  18. Correlation between auroral kilometric radiation and inverted v electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.L.; Gurnfti, D.A.; Hoffmans, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of energetic electron precipitations and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) were obtained from the polar orbiting satellites AE-D and Hawkeye. The Hawkeye observations were restricted to periods when the satellite was in the AKR emission cone in the northern hemisphere an at radial distances > or approx. =7 R/sub E/ to avoid local propagation cutoff effects. In addition, the AE-D measurements were restricted to complete passes across the auroral oval in the evening to midnight local time sector (from 20 to 01 hours magnetic local time). This is the local time region where the most intense bursts of AKR are believed to originate. A qualitative survey of AKR and electron precipitation than with plasma sheet precipitation. Quantitatively, a good correlation is found between the AKR intensity and the peak energy of inverted V events. In addition, in the tail of the most field-aligned portion (approx.O 0 pitch angle) of the distribution functions of the inverted V events,systematic changes are indicated as the associated AKR intensity increases. When the AKR power flux is weak ( -17 W/(m 2 Hz)). From a determination of the simultaneous power in the inverted V events and the AKR bursts, the efficiency of converting the charge particle energy into EM radiation increases to a maximum of about 1% for the most intense AKR bursts. However, conversion efficiencies as low as 10 -5 % are also found. There is some evidence which suggests that the tail temperature, T in F (V) of the inverted V events, may play an important role in the efficient generation or amplification of auroral kilometric radiation

  19. Cherenkov Radiation from a Pseudospark-sourced Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.D.R.; Yin, H.; Cross, A.W.; He, W.; Ronald, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam generation from a multi-gap pseudospark discharge was investigated. A pseudospark-sourced electron beam has two phases, an initial hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam followed by a conductive phase (CP) beam. The beam brightness was measured by a field-free collimator to be 109 and 1011 Am-2rad-2 for the hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam and the conductive phase (CP) beam respectively. The initial HCP beam from an eight-gap pseudospark discharge was applied in a Cherenkov interaction between the electron beam and the TM01 mode of a 60-cm long alumina-lined waveguide. It was found experimentally that significant microwave radiation was generated only when the dielectric was present in the interaction space. If there was no dielectric in the cylindrical waveguide, then a very small background microwave output was detected even when the guide B-field was absent. This demonstrated, in conjunction with the observation that the microwave output signal was independent of the guide magnetic field over the range 0.13 to 0.26 T, that the radiation from the experiment was due to the Cherenkov interaction mechanism. In addition, two components of the microwave pulse were observed corresponding to the two energy components of the electron beam during the pseudospark discharge breakdown. These results demonstrated that the microwave radiation was generated by Cherenkov amplification of the broadband emission from the pseudospark discharge itself. A background signal level of around 100 W was measured in the frequency range 20 - 50 GHz with a percentage of (2.7 ± 0.6)% in the frequency range 25.5 - 28.6 GHz, when the dielectric lining was removed from the maser. The frequency of the microwave output after the Cherenkov maser interaction was measured to be mainly around 25.5 GHz and the dominating mode was identified as being TM01. The duration of the microwave pulse was approximately 80 ns, with a peak power of around 2 ± 0.2 kW. The gain of this amplifier was measured

  20. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  1. Study on regeneration of activated carbon by means of electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guanghua; Arai, H.; Hosono, M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of regeneration of activated carbon adsorbing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) by 2 MeV electron radiation, and the dependence of the regeneration rate of activated carbon on the electron current intensity, the temperature of sample and the atmosphere were reported. It is shown that regeneration of activated carbon by electron radiation is full of promise

  2. Electron microscopy study of radiation effects in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoto, T.

    1987-03-01

    Boron carbide is a disordered non-stoechiometric material with a strongly microtwinned polycristallyne microstructure. This ceramic is among the candidate materials for the first wall coating in fusion reactor and is used as a neutron absorber in the control rods of fast breeder reactors. The present work deals with the nature of radiation damage in this solid. Because of helium internal production, neutron irradiated boron carbide is affected by swelling and by a strong microcracking which can break up a pellet in fine powder. These processes are rather intensitive to the irradiation parameters (temperature, flux and even neutron spectrum). Transmission electron microscopy of samples irradiated by the fast neutrons of a reactor, the electrons of a high voltage electron microscope and of samples implanted with helium ions was used to understand the respective roles of helium and point defects in the processes of swelling and microcracking. The design of an irradiation chamber for helium implantation at controlled temperature from 600 to 1700 0 C was an important technical part of this work [fr

  3. Radiation safety of gamma and electron irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    There are currently some 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation throughout virtually all Member States of the IAEA. The most widespread uses of these facilities are for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, and the eradication of insect infestation. The safety record of this industry has been very good. Nevertheless, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, so that a person accidentally present in the irradiation chamber can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds. Precautions against uncontrolled entry must therefore be taken. Furthermore, gamma irradiation facilities contain large amounts of radioactivity and if the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed, inhibiting direct access to carry out remedial work. Contamination can result from corroded or damaged sources, and decontamination can be very expensive. These aspects clearly indicate the need to achieve a high degree of safety and reliability in the facilities. This can be accomplished by effective quality control together with careful design, manufacture, installation, operation and decommissioning. The guidance in this Safety Series publication is intended for competent authorities responsible for regulating the use of radiation sources as well as the manufacturers, suppliers, installers and users of gamma and electron beam facilities. 20 refs, 6 figs

  4. Estimation of edge electron temperature profiles via forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeber, S K; Barrera, L; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Suttrop, W; Wolfrum, E; Nold, B; Willensdorfer, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to obtain reliable edge profiles of the electron temperature by forward modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation transport. While for the core of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas, straightforward analysis of electron cyclotron intensity measurements based on the optically thick plasma approximation is usually justified, reasonable analysis of the steep and optically thin plasma edge needs to consider broadened emission and absorption profiles and radiation transport processes. This is carried out in the framework of integrated data analysis which applies Bayesian probability theory for joint analysis of the electron density and temperature with data of different interdependent and complementary diagnostics. By this means, electron cyclotron radiation intensity delivers highly spatially resolved electron temperature data for the plasma edge. In H-mode, the edge gradient of the electron temperature can be several times higher than the one of the radiation temperature. Furthermore, we are able to reproduce the ‘shine-through’ peak—the observation of increased radiation temperatures at frequencies resonant in the optically thin scrape-off layer. This phenomenon is caused by strongly down-shifted radiation of Maxwellian tail electrons located in the H-mode edge region and, therefore, contains valuable information about the electron temperature edge gradient. (paper)

  5. Brightness and coherence of synchrotron radiation and high-gain free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1986-10-01

    The characteristics of synchrotron radiation are reviewed with particular attention to its phase-space properties and coherence. The transition of the simple undulator radiation to more intense, more coherent high-gain free electron lasers, is discussed

  6. Schemes of Superradiant Emission from Electron Beams and "Spin-Flip Emission of Radiation"

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A

    2005-01-01

    A unified analysis for Superradiant emission from bunched electron beams in various kinds of radiation scheme is presented. Radiation schemes that can be described by the formulation include Pre-bunched FEL (PB-FEL), Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR), Smith-Purcell Radiation, Cerenkov-Radiation, Transition-Radiation and more. The theory is based on mode excitation formulation - either discrete or continuous (the latter - in open structures). The discrete mode formulation permits simple evaluation of the spatially coherent power and spectral power of the source. These figures of merit of the radiation source are useful for characterizing and comparing the performance of different radiation schemes. When the bunched electron beam emits superradiantly, these parameters scale like the square of the number of electrons, orders of magnitude more than spontaneous emission. The formulation applies to emission from single electron bunches, periodically bunched beams, or emission from a finite number of bunches in a...

  7. Resonant influence of a longitudinal hypersonic field on the radiation from channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, L.Sh.; Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Mkrtchyan, A.H.; Khachatryan, H.F.; Prade, H.; Wagner, W.; Piestrup, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The wave function of a planar/axially channeled electron with energy 10 MeV≤E<<1 GeV under the influence of a longitudinal hypersonic wave excited in a single crystal is calculated. Conditions for the resonant influence of the hypersonic wave on the quantum state of the channeled electron are deduced. Expressions for the wave function that are applicable in the case of resonance are obtained. Angular and spectral distributions of the radiation intensity from the planar/axially channeled electron are also calculated. The possibility of significant amplification of channeling radiation by a hypersonic wave is substantiated. It is found that the hypersound can excite inverse radiative transitions through which the transversal energy of the channeled electron is increased. These transitions have a resonant nature and can lead to a considerable intensification of the electron channeling radiation. In the case of axial channeling, the resonance radiation is sustained also by direct radiative transitions of the electron

  8. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  9. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  10. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  11. Low-temperature radiative recombination of electrons with bare nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1993-01-01

    Aside from empirical formulas, the radiative-recombination cross section and coefficient are usually given in tabulated forms instead of analytic formulas. Here, we give analytic expressions in the form of expansions for the recombination cross section as a function of the electron energy E for low E, and for the recombination coefficient as a function of the temperature T for low T. The expansion coefficients are combinations of confluent hypergeometric functions, and are tabulated for a large number of the final principal and angular-momentum quantum numbers n and l. It is shown that the recombination cross section for arbitrary nuclear charge number Z is independent of Z, while the recombination coefficient for T/Z 2 much-lt 1.58x10 5 K increases as Z 2 . Excellent agreement is found with the published tabulated values

  12. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  13. Assembly for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a setup for the measurement of the most probable energy of directed electron radiation up to 50 MeV. The known energy-range relationship with regard to the absorption of electron radiation in matter is utilized by an absorber with two groups of interconnected radiation detectors embedded in it. The most probable electron beam energy is derived from the quotient of both groups' signals

  14. Obwervation of 10 μm Smith-Purcell radiation from 45 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.; Robertson, S.H.; Brownell, J.H.; Walsh, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Using the high-brightness, high-energy electron beam at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility we observe forward directed Smith-Purcell radiation in the mid-infrared spectral regime. This radiation can prove useful as a source of infrared radiation for other scientific studies as well as a providing a precursor investigation of the inverse process, namely the acceleration of electrons by means of the coupling of laser light with electrons via micro-structures

  15. Theoretical study of ultrarelativistic laser-electron interaction with radiation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seto K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When the laser intensity becomes higher than 1022  W/cm2, the motion of an electron becomes relativistic, and emits large amounts of radiation. This radiation energy loss transferred to the kinetic energy loss of the electron, is treated as an external force, the “radiation reaction force”. We show the new equation of motion including this radiation reaction and the simulation method, as well as results of single electron system or dual electrons system with Liénard-Wiechert field interaction.

  16. Electron accelerators for radiation processing: Criterions of selection and exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew

    2001-01-01

    The progress in accelerator technology is tightly attached to the continuously advanced development in many branches of technical activity. Although the present level of accelerators development can satisfy most of the commercial requirements, this field continues to expand and improve quality by offering efficient, cheap, reliable, high average beam power commercial units. Accelerator construction must be a compromised between size, efficiency and cost with respect to the field of its application. High power accelerators have been developed to meet specific demands of flue gas treatment and other high throughput to increase the capacity of the progress and reduced unit cost of operation. Automatic control, reliability and reduced maintenance, adequate adoption to process conditions, suitable electron energy and beam power are the basic features of modern accelerator construction. Accelerators have the potential to serve as industrial radiation sources and eventually may replace the isotope sources in future. Electron beam plants can transfer much higher amounts of energy into the irradiated objects than other types of facilities including gamma plants. This provides the opportunity to construct technological lines with high capacity that are more technically and economically suitable with high throughputs, short evidence time and grate versatility

  17. Radiation color and electron-hole centers of serpentines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutoev, V.P.; Yukhtanov, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-induced coloring of serpentine (Mg 3 [Si 2 O 5 ](OH) 4 ), gamma radiation dose being 30 Mrad, is studied by the ESR and absorption spectroscopy methods. It is ascertained that ionizing radiation gives rise to formation of radiation centers on the mineral basic structural elements. paramagnetic centers and coloring centers, relating to radiation centers, stem from the same type of defects - O - oxygen centers, formed as a result of radiation-induced break of OH-bonds [ru

  18. Radiation levels at CERN's injectors and their impact on electronic equipment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)649218; Brugger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices operating in hostile radiation environments, such as those found close to high-energy particle accelerators, can suffer from different types of radiation induced failures. At CERN, the mixed particle and energy radiation fields present at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain can give rise to both stochastic and cumulative effects causing radiation induced failures of exposed electronics and materials, thus directly impacting components and system lifetimes, as well as maintenance requirements. With its original focus on the LHC, the Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project has been successfully implementing mitigation actions in order to avoid accelerator downtime due to radiation induced failures on active electronics. In a next step, the emphasis is put on CERN's injector chain, collecting the respective available information about radiation levels, the definition of additional monitoring requirements and a critical analysis of present and future equipment installations. T...

  19. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  20. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2016-09-08

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles. Off-axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in-plane, cross-plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in-field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (± 3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out-of-field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross-plane out-of-field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in-plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X-ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding model-ing of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as much as 0.2% for some regions

  1. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  2. Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization: Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam Technology for Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Cabalar, Patrick Jay; Lopez, Girlie Eunice; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of functional hybrid materials by attaching polymer chains with advantageous tailored properties to the surface of a base polymer with desirable bulk character is an attractive application of graft copolymerization. Radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) has been a popular approach for surface modification of polymers because of its merits over conventional chemical processes. RIGP, which proceeds primarily via free radical polymerization process, has the advantages such as simplicity, low cost, control over process and adjustment of the materials composition and structure. RIGP can be performed using either electron beam or gamma radiation and it can be applied to both synthetic and natural polymers. These merits make RIGP a popular research topic worldwide. Moreover, the materials synthesized and produced via RIGP has found applications, and were proposed to produce continuous impact, in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pollution remediation, rare earth and valuable metals recovery, fuel cell membrane synthesis and catalysis to name a few. From 2012 our group has performed electron beam and gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of various monomers onto polymers of natural and synthetic origins (e.g. monomers - glycidyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylonitrile, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate; base polymers – polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric, polypropylene nonwoven fabric pineapple fibers, cellulose nonwoven fabric microcrystalline cellulose). We tested these grafted materials for heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu) and organic molecule removal from aqueous solutions and E. coli activity (using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer RAFT mediated grafting). The results clearly showed the success of materials modified via FIGP in these applications. Currently, we are studying the applications of grafted materials on treatment of waste waters from tanning industry, value addition to abaca nonwoven fabrics cell sheet

  3. Process for hardening an alkyd resin composition using ionizing radiation. [electron beams, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T; Murata, K; Maruyama, T

    1969-11-27

    In an alkyd resin composition having free hydroxide radicals and containing a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid and/or oil as a component thereof, a process for hardening an alkyd resin composition comprises the steps of dissolving into a vinyl monomer, the product obtained by the semi-esterification reaction of said hydroxide radicals with acid anhydrides having polymerizable radicals and hardening by ionizing radiation to provide a coating with a high degree of cross-linking, with favorable properties such as toughness, hardness, chemical resistance and resistance to weather and with the feasibility of being applied as the ground and finish coat on metals, wood, paper, outdoor construction or the like. Any kind of ionization radiation, particularly accelerated electron beams, ..gamma.. radiation can be used at 50/sup 0/C to -5/sup 0/C for a few seconds or minutes, permitting continuous operation. In one example, 384 parts of phthalic anhydride, 115 parts of pentaerythritol, 233 parts of trimethylol ethane, 288 parts of tung fatty acid and 49 parts of para-tertiary-butyl benzoic acid are mixed and heated with 60 parts of xylene to an acid value of 12. In addition, 271 parts of maleic anhydride and 0.6 parts of hydroquinone are admixed with the content and heated to terminate the reaction. 100 parts of a 50% stylene solution of this alkyd resin are mixed with 1 part of a 60% toluene solution of cobalt naphthenate, and then coated on a glass plate and irradiated with high energy electron beams of 300 kV with a dose of 5 Mrad for 1 sec.

  4. A comparison of the microbicidal effectiveness of gamma rays and high and low energy electron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, Alan; Miller, Arne; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The radiation response of spores of Bacillus pumilus were examined for irradiation with cobalt 60 photons, 10 MeV electrons and low energy electrons at 100 and 80 keV. The responses were found to be the same for all types of radiation within the measurement uncertainties and were also in agreement with a previously published value.

  5. A comparison of the microbicidal effectiveness of gamma rays and high and low energy electron radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallentire, A.; Miller, Arne; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The radiation response of spores of Bacillus pumilus were examined for irradiation with cobalt 60 photons, 10 MeV electrons and low energy electrons at 100 and 80 keV. The responses were found to be the same for all types of radiation within the measurement uncertainties and were also in agreement...... with a previously published value....

  6. Coherent radiation from high-current electron beams of linear accelerators and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Shuichi; Takanaka, Makoto; Nakamura, Mitsumi; Kato, Ryukou; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Taniguchi, Ryouichi; Kojima, Takao

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the far-infrared light source using the coherent radiation emitted from a high-energy short electron bunch have been investigated. The coherent radiation has a continuous spectrum in a submillimeter to millimeter wavelength range and the brightness is relatively high. The spectrum of the radiation is determined by the longitudinal form factor of the electron bunch. The operational conditions of a high-current linear accelerator have been optimized using an electron bunch shape monitor. The coherent transition radiation light source has been applied to absorption spectroscopy for liquid water and to an imaging experiment for a leaf of rose

  7. Study of cell cycle and apoptosis after radiation with electron linear accelerator injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lan; Zhou Yinghui; Shi Ning; Peng Miao; Wu Shiliang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the cell cycle and apoptosis of the injured cells after radiation with the electron linear accelerator. Methods: NIH 3T3 cells were irradiated by the radiation with the electron linear accelerator. In the experiment the condition of the cell cycle and apoptosis of the injured cells were measured. The expression of p53 was also tested. Results: After exposure to radiation, the number of apoptotic cells as well as the expression of p53 increased. Conclusion: The electron linear accelerator radiation injury can induce cell apoptosis

  8. Electron equilibrium for parallel plate ionization chambers in gamma radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.; Albuquerque, M. da P.P.

    1989-08-01

    Parallel plate ionization chambers, designed and constructed for use in low energy X-radiation fields, were tested in gamma radiation beams ( 6 Co and 137 Cs) of two different Calibration Laboratories, in order to study the electron equilibrium occurrence and to verify the possibility of their use for the detection of the kind of radiation too. (author) [pt

  9. Spectral distribution of radiation on plane and axial channeling of ultrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, V.A.; Glebov, V.I.; Zhevago, N.K.

    1980-01-01

    The spectral angular and polarization charactristics of the radiation from channeled ultrarelativistic electrons are calculated. Analytic expressions for the spectral-angular power density of the radiation are obtained for some realistic models of the continuous potential of the crystal planes and axes. A critical analysis is also presented of some existent results of the theory of radiation on channeling

  10. Coherently enhanced radiation reaction effects in laser-vacuum acceleration of electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, P.W.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Geloni, G.; Luiten, O.J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of coherently enhanced radiation reaction on the motion of subwavelength electron bunches in interaction with intense laser pulses are analyzed. The radiation reaction force behaves as a radiation pressure in the laser beam direction, combined with a viscous force in the perpendicular

  11. Reliability Analysis of the CERN Radiation Monitoring Electronic System CROME

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2126870

    For the new in-house developed CERN Radiation Monitoring Electronic System (CROME) a reliability analysis is necessary to ensure compliance with the statu-tory requirements regarding the Safety Integrity Level. The required Safety Integrity Level by IEC 60532 standard is SIL 2 (for the Safety Integrated Functions Measurement, Alarm Triggering and Interlock Triggering). The first step of the reliability analysis was a system and functional analysis which served as basis for the implementation of the CROME system in the software “Iso-graph”. In the “Prediction” module of Isograph the failure rates of all components were calculated. Failure rates for passive components were calculated by the Military Standard 217 and failure rates for active components were obtained from lifetime tests by the manufacturers. The FMEA was carried out together with the board designers and implemented in the “FMECA” module of Isograph. The FMEA served as basis for the Fault Tree Analysis and the detection of weak points...

  12. On bolus for megavoltage photon and electron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, Vedang; Palmer, Lisa; Mudge, Ray; Jiang, Runqing; Fleck, Andre; Schaly, Bryan; Osei, Ernest; Charland, Paule

    2013-01-01

    Frequently, in radiation therapy one must treat superficial lesions on cancer patients; these are at or adjacent to the skin. Megavoltage photon radiotherapy penetrates through the skin to irradiate deep-seated tumors, with skin-sparing property. Hence, to treat superficial lesions, one must use a layer of scattering material to feign as the skin surface. Although megavoltage electron beams are used for superficial treatments, one occasionally needs to enhance the dose near the surface. Such is the function of a “bolus,” a natural or synthetically developed material that acts as a layer of tissue to provide a more effective treatment to the superficial lesions. Other uses of boluses are to correct for varying surface contours and to add scattering material around the patient's surface. Materials used as bolus vary from simple water to metal and include various mixtures and compounds. Even with the modernization of the technology for external-beam therapy and the emergence of various commercial boluses, the preparation and utilization of a bolus in clinical radiotherapy remains an art. Considering the varying experiences and practices, this paper briefly summarizes available boluses that have been proposed and are employed in clinical radiotherapy. Although this review is not exhaustive, it provides some initial guidance and answers questions that may arise in clinical practice

  13. Free electron laser and coherent radiation. Working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Csonka, P.; Deacon, D.

    1984-01-01

    The planned development of a new storage ring at SSRL gives hope for the exciting possibility that an x-ray laser may become available in a users facility. Such a device would certainly be a unique and revolutionary tool for scientific research and industrial applications, which may take advantage of the spatial and temporal coherence, high power and high brightness of this device in a wavelength regime where no alternative coherent radiation sources exist. The feasibility of implementing such a device in the new ring should be examined carefully by the ring designers. If conclusions are positive, the ring design should take into account the special requirements which are set by the x-ray laser design parameters. Our working group made the first step in this examination process. Most of the emphasis was put on the consideration of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XR FEL). FEL technology has developed in the last few years and was recently demonstrated to operate successfully in the visible wavelength regime in the ACO storage ring in Orsay

  14. Basic radiation effects in nuclear power electronics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.; Srour, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of radiation in microelectronics technology. The approach taken throughout these notes is to review microscopic phenomena associated with radiation effects and to show how these lead to macroscopic effects in semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Bipolar integrated circuits technology is reviewed in Appendix A. Appendix B gives present and future applications of radiation-tolerant microelectronics in nuclear power applications as well as the radiation tolerance requirements of these applications

  15. Application of the equivalent radiator method for radiative corrections to the spectra of elastic electron scattering by nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Timchenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For calculating the radiative tails in the spectra of inelastic electron scattering by nuclei, the approximation, namely, the equivalent radiator method (ERM, is used. However, the applicability of this method for evaluating the radiative tail from the elastic scattering peak has been little investigated, and therefore, it has become the subject of the present study for the case of light nuclei. As a result, spectral regions were found, where a significant discrepancy between the ERM calculation and the exact-formula calculation was observed. A link was established between this phenomenon and the diffraction minimum of the squared form-factor of the nuclear ground state. Varieties of calculations were carried out for different kinematics of electron scattering by nuclei. The analysis of the calculation results has shown the conditions, at which the equivalent radiator method can be applied for adequately evaluating the radiative tail of the elastic scattering peak.

  16. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  17. Analysis of Proton Radiation Effects on Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different energy levels on a GaN-on-silicon high electron mobility transistor...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In this work, a physics-based simulation of non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different...Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage in

  18. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  19. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Qu, J. F.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kawata, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser–plasma interaction by using the Lienard–Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser–plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electrons is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.

  20. Red Shift and Broadening of Backward Harmonic Radiation from Electron Oscillations Driven by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Senecha, Vinod K; Han, Xu; Deng Degang; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of backward harmonic radiation due to electron oscillations driven by a linearly polarized fs laser pulse are analysed considering a single electron model. The spectral distributions of the electron's backward harmonic radiation are investigated in detail for different parameters of the driver laser pulse. Higher order harmonic radiations are possible for a sufficiently intense driving laser pulse. We have shown that for a realistic pulsed photon beam, the spectrum of the radiation is red shifted as well as broadened because of changes in the longitudinal velocity of the electrons during the laser pulse. These effects are more pronounced at higher laser intensities giving rise to higher order harmonics that eventually leads to a continuous spectrum. Numerical simulations have further shown that by increasing the laser pulse width the broadening of the high harmonic radiations can be controlled

  1. High temperature, radiation hardened electronics for application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic circuits were developed and built at Sandia for many aerospace and energy systems applications. Among recent developments were high temperature electronics for geothermal well logging and radiation hardened electronics for a variety of aerospace applications. Sandia has also been active in technology transfer to commercial industry in both of these areas

  2. Basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Many defense and nuclear reactor systems require complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits that are tolerant to high levels of radiation. This radiation can result from space, hostile environments or nuclear reactor and accelerator beam environments. In addition, many techniques used to fabricate today's complex very-large-scale integration circuits expose the circuits to ionizing radiation during the process sequence. Whatever its origin, radiation can cause significant damage to integrated-circuit materials. This damage can lead to circuit performance degradation, logic upset, and even catastrophic circuit failure. This paper provides a brief overview of the basic mechanisms for radiation damage to silicon-based integrated circuits. Primary emphasis is on the effects of total-dose ionizing radiation on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures

  3. VU-B radiation inhibits the photosynthetic electron transport chain in chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.; Li, X.; Chen, L.

    2016-01-01

    UV radiation of sunlight is one of harmful factors for earth organisms, especially for photoautotrophs because they require light for energy and biomass production. A number of works have already been done regarding the effects of UV-B radiation at biochemical and molecular level, which showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit photosynthesis activity and reduce photosynthetic electron transport. However quite limited information can accurately make out inhibition site of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic electron transport. In this study, this issue was investigated through measuring oxygen evolution activity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gene expression in a model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicated that UV-B radiation could evidently decrease photosynthesis activity and inhibit electron transport by blocking electron transfer process from the first plastoquinone electron acceptors QA to second plastoquinone electron acceptors QB, but not impair electron transfer from the water oxidizing complex to QA. The psbA gene expression was also altered by UV-B radiation, where up-regulation occurred at 2, 4 and 6h after exposure and down-regulation happened at 12 and 24 h after exposure. These results suggested that UV-B could affects D1 protein normal turnover, so there was not enough D1 for binding with QB, which may affect photosynthetic electron transport and photosynthesis activity. (author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT UNDULATORS FOR ELECTRON-BEAM-RADIATION INTERACTION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andorf, M. B. [NICADD, DeKalb; Fagerberg, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Figora, M. [Northern Illinois U.; Sturtz, A. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-10-19

    Interaction of an electron beam with external field or its own radiation has widespread applications ranging from coherent-radiation generation, phase space cooling or formation of temporally-structured beams. An efficient coupling mechanism between an electron beam and radiation field relies on the use of a magnetic undulator. In this contribution we detail our plans to build short (11-period) undulators with 7-cm period refurbishing parts of the aladdin U3 undulator [1]. Possible use of these undulators at available test facilities to support experiments relevant to cooling techniques and radiation sources are outlined.

  5. The effect of electron beam radiations on testicular damage in mice, Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.; Nair, Vijay Mala Grover

    2013-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus (8-10 weeks old) weighing 28±2.5 gm were exposed to varying doses (2-12 Gy) of electron beam radiations and maintained in animal house at 26-28 C. The animals were sacrificed following 35 and 60 days following exposure to electron beam radiations. The LD-50 value, change in the weight and histological details of the testis, sperm count, sperm shape abnormalities and sperm motility were recorded. The data suggests that electron beam radiations is a potential inducer to cause reproductive system dysfunctions which probably may be responsible leading to infertility. (author)

  6. Six-frame picosecond radiation camera based on hydrated electron photoabsorption phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Olk, L.B.; Gates, H.A.; St Leger-Barter, G.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain picosecond photographs of nanosecond radiation sources, a six-frame ultra-high speed radiation camera based on hydrated electron absorption phenomena has been developed. A time-dependent opacity pattern is formed in an acidic aqueous cell by a pulsed radiation source. Six time-resolved picosecond images of this changing opacity pattern are transferred to photographic film with the use of a mode-locked dye laser and six electronically gated microchannel plate image intensifiers. Because the lifetime of the hydrated electron absorption centers can be reduced to picoseconds, the opacity patterns represent time-space pulse profile images

  7. System for determining absorbed dose and its distribution for high-energy electron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegewald, H.; Wulff, W.

    1977-01-01

    Taking into account the polarization effect, the dose determination for high-energy electron radiation from particle accelerators depends on the knowledge of the energy dependence of the mass stopping power. Results obtained with thermoluminescent dosemeters agree with theoretical values. For absorbed dose measurements the primary energy of electron radiation has been determined by nuclear photoreactions, and the calculation of the absorbed dose from charge measurements by means of the mass stopping power is described. Thus the calibration of ionization chambers for high-energy electron radiation by absolute measurements with the Faraday cage and chemical dosemeters has become possible. (author)

  8. On radiation of electrons moving in braking electric fields with distributed potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedulov, V.I.; Suvorov, V.I.; Umirov, U.R.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of radiation of electron moving in flat structures with braking electric field created by an accelerating electrode and another electrode with distributed potential are investigated. The analytical expressions for definition of conditions for complete loss of energy by electron in structure with distributed potential and for arising the electron vibrations are received. Also expressions connecting the electron energy with the point of entry and its fluctuation frequency are received. The mathematical model of irradiation process is offered depending on energy and point of entry of the electron. The connection between a radiation wave length and position of point of entry of electrons in the braking electric field are found. A possibility of emerging the optical radiation in solid environments at passage of charge particles through substance is shown. (author)

  9. Anomaly in the Kumakhov radiation temperature dependence at axial channeling of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    The results of numerical solution of a kinetic equation for distribution function of axially channelled electrons obtained by Belostritsky and Kumakhov at different temperatures of crystals and calculated for the determined electron distributions spectral density of radiation are given. Analysis of the obtained dependence of the number of channelled 5 GeV electrons in tungsten along the <111> axis on depth Z has revealed that 2% of incidence beam electrons have anomalously large depths of dechannelling. Ratio of electrons with large by modulus cross section energies grows at decreasing crystal temperature from 293 to 40 K and, therefore, radiation intensity increases. Two-fold increase of radiation intensity can be attained at axial channelling of 1 GeV electrons in tungsten <111> at the temperatures of the crystal equal to 40 and 293 K and its thickness equal to 220 ..mu..m.

  10. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  11. Standalone, battery powered radiation monitors for accelerator electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Spiezia, G

    2009-01-01

    A technical description of the design of a new type of radiation monitors is given. The key point in the design is the low power consumption inferior to 17 mW in radiation sensing mode and inferior to 0.3 mW in standby mode. The radiation monitors can operate without any external power or signal cabling and measure and store radiation data for a maximum period of 800 days. To read the radiation data, a standard PC can be connected via a USB interface to the device at any time. Only a few seconds are required to read out a single monitor. This makes it possible to survey a large network of monitoring devices in a short period of time, for example during a stop of the accelerator.

  12. An analysis of whistler mode radiation from a 100 mA electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, R.T.; Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of whistler mode radiation generated by 2-, 4-, and 8-keV electron beams with a current of 100 mA, are analyzed. The electron accelerator was carried to ionospheric heights by a Nike Black Brant V rocket (National Research Council of Canada NVB-06). The instability causing the whistler mode radiation is investigated. Spectral measurements (0.1-13.0 MHz), from a sweeping receiver located on the ejected forward payload, are used to determine the nature of the instability. The sweeping receiver was connected alternatively to an electric or a magnetic dipole antenna. Most of the whistler mode radiation detected was consistent with Cerenkov radiation. The radiation fields observed were too large (cB ∼ 0.1 μV/m Hz 1/2 ) to be explained by incoherent processes. If electrostatic bunching in the beam at the plasma frequency is responsible for the whistler radiation, there would be a correlation between the plasma frequency radiation, and the whistler mode radiation for electron beams that are fired toward the detector. The observed correlation is minimal. Hence no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that electrostatic bunching at the plasma frequency was responsible for the enhancement of the whistler mode radiation produced by the NVB-06 electron beam

  13. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Asano, Yoshihiro; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Seike, Takamitsu; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Yonehara, Hiroto; Takagi, Tetsuya; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small

  14. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizen, Teruhiko [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)]. E-mail: bizen@spring8.or.jp; Asano, Yoshihiro [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Marechal, Xavier-Marie [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Seike, Takamitsu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Aoki, Tsuyoshi [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, Kenji [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoda, Naoyasu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yonehara, Hiroto [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takagi, Tetsuya [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kitamura, Hideo [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2007-05-11

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small.

  15. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  16. Study on radiation damage of electron and γ-rays and mechanism of nuclear hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Tao

    2001-01-01

    Radiation damage effects of electrons and γ-rays are presented. The damage defects are studied by experimental methods. On the basis of these studies the damage mechanism and nuclear hardening techniques are studied

  17. Use of high voltage electron microscope to simulate radiation damage by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The use of the high voltage electron microscope to simulate radiation damage by neutrons is briefly reviewed. This information is important in explaining how alloying affects void formation during neutron irradiation

  18. Relationship between chromatin structure and sensitivity to molecularly targeted auger electron radiation therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry, S.Y.A.; Vallis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Chromatin structure was

  19. Monte Carlo design, dosimetry and radiation protection studies for a new mobile electron accelerator for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka-Rabin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivers a large, single fraction dose of radiation to a surgically exposed tumor or tumor bed. This presentation reviews the design concept and dosimetry characteristics of an electron beam forming system for an IORT accelerator, with special emphasis on beam flatness, X-ray contamination and protecting personnel from dose delivered outside the treatment field. The Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc/EGSnrc, was used to design, verify and optimize the electron beam forming system for two different docking methods with circular metallic applicators. Calculations of therapeutic beam characteristics were performed at the patient surface. Findings were obtained for initially mono-energetic electron beams with an energy range from 4 to 12 MeV, SSD equal to 60 cm, and circular applicators with diameters from 3 to 12 cm. The aim was to build an electron beam forming system (collimators, scattering-flattening foils, applicators) that is universal for all beam energy and field diameters described above

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance study on the ionizing radiation induced defects of the tooth enamel hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Liana Macedo de

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main constituent of calcified tissues. Defects induced by ionizing radiations in this biomineral can present high stability and then, these are used as biological markers in radiological accidents, irradiated food identifying and geological and archaeological dating. In this work, paramagnetic centers induced on the enamel of the teeth by environmental ionizing radiation, are investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Decay thermal kinetic presents high complexity and shows the formation of different electron ligation energy centers and structures

  1. Radiation hardening and irradiation testing of in-cell electronics for MA23/APM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, A.

    1988-09-01

    We relate briefly the radiation hardening method used to guarantee a gamma resistance of 10 Mrad for the whole electronic equipment associated with the slave arm of MA23 M servomanipulator which will be set up in cell 404 in Marcoule (APM). We describe the radiation testing of electronic devices and of the various subsystems designed by the D. LETI groups involved in the MA23/APM project

  2. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2003-01-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  3. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA), Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-02-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  4. Research of the radiation effects distributing rule for electron element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yanyin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of testing way for statistical distribution is researched, and using the irradiation date on trial, application of Shapiro-wilk and construct way to radiation reinforce element checking and accepting is explained and authenticated. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of radiative spin polarization in an electron storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A W [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1981-02-15

    We have developed a matrix formalism that provides an accurate way of evaluating the degree of spin polarization built up through the process of synchrotron radiation under a wide variety of storage ring operation conditions.

  6. Electronic data processing in radiation protection: what could, what should it achieve today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Frasch, G.; Kragh, P.; Wirth, E.; Graffunder, H.; Heck, B.; Hill, P.; Wuest, E.; Leeb, H.

    1998-01-01

    Benefits and Risks of the use of Electronic Data Processing in Radiation Protection are evaluated. Numerous examples are given for the application of computers and programs for assessment, processing, administration and presentation of radiation protection relevant measurement data. This includes the possibilities for obtaining information and exchanging data and experiences via internet. (orig.) [de

  7. ''Atomic'' Bremsstrahlung or polarizational radiation in collision of many-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Solov'yov, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    In this work the so-called ''Atomic'' bremsstrahlung (AB) or polarizational radiation, created in collisions of atoms or ions, is discussed. This kind of radiation arises due to the polarization of the electron shell of colliding particles. It is created by the structured projectiles and targets if the constituents are electrically charged. 6 refs, 2 figs

  8. Transverse velocity modulator and generator schemes based on non-collinear radiation and electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Varfolomeev, A A

    2000-01-01

    New non-collinear schemes are suggested for transverse velocity modulation of electron beams and for the generation of coherent spontaneous radiation by these transversely modulated beams. It is shown that due to the non-collinearity some orders of magnitude enhancement can be achieved for the coherent spontaneous radiation (CSR) power at both the fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

  9. Methods of measurements on incidental X-radiation from electron tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The standard describes the method for detection of x-radiation and the method for the direct and indirect measurement of field pattern and exposure rate of random incidental radiation emanating from high voltage electron tubes. Required apparatus and calibration procedure for the exposure rate meter or film mount are described. (M.G.B.)

  10. Bursts of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Electron Storage Rings: a Dynamical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Marco

    2002-09-17

    Evidence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) has been reported recently at the electron storage rings of several light source facilities. The main features of the observations are (i) a radiation wavelength short compared to the nominal bunch length, and (ii) a coherent signal showing recurrent bursts of duration much shorter than the radiation damping time, but with spacing equal to a substantial fraction of the damping time. We present a model of beam longitudinal dynamics that reproduces these features.

  11. On the continuous spectrum electromagnetic radiation in electron-fullerene collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the electromagnetic radiation spectrum in electron-fullerene collisions is dominated by a huge maximum of multielectron nature, similar to that already predicted and observed in photoabsorption. Due to coherence, the intensity of this radiation is much stronger than the sum of the intensities of isolated atoms. Experimental detection of such radiation would be of great importance for understanding the mechanism of its formation and for investigating fullerene structures. A paper describing these results was published

  12. Brightness and coherence of radiation from undulators and high-gain free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the radiation characteristics of undulators and high-gain free electron lasers (FELs). The topics covered are: a phase-space method in wave optics and synchrotron radiation, coherence from the phase-space point of view, discussions of undulator performances in next-generation synchrotron radiation facility and the characteristics of the high-gain FELs and their performances

  13. Radiation safety aspects of new X-ray free electron laser facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the safety point of view, X-ray free electron laser facilities have some characteristics in comparison with 3 rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities. One is that the high energy electrons are always injected into the beam dump and the beamlines must be constructed in the direction of the movements of electrons, and another is that the total number of accelerated electrons of X-ray free electron laser facilities is much larger than that of synchrotron radiation facilities. In addition to the importance of safety interlock systems, therefore, it is important that high energy electrons never invade into X-ray free electron laser beamlines and the amount of accelerated electron beam losses must be reduced as much as possible. At SACLA, a safety permanent magnet was installed into the X-ray light beam axis, and a beam halo monitor and beam loss monitors were installed within and around the electron transport pipes, respectively. In comparison with the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, shielding design of SACLA, outline of the radiation safety systems including the monitors will be presented

  14. Dimension-dependent stimulated radiative interaction of a single electron quantum wavepacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Avraham; Pan, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    In the foundation of quantum mechanics, the spatial dimensions of electron wavepacket are understood only in terms of an expectation value - the probability distribution of the particle location. One can still inquire how the quantum electron wavepacket size affects a physical process. Here we address the fundamental physics problem of particle-wave duality and the measurability of a free electron quantum wavepacket. Our analysis of stimulated radiative interaction of an electron wavepacket, accompanied by numerical computations, reveals two limits. In the quantum regime of long wavepacket size relative to radiation wavelength, one obtains only quantum-recoil multiphoton sidebands in the electron energy spectrum. In the opposite regime, the wavepacket interaction approaches the limit of classical point-particle acceleration. The wavepacket features can be revealed in experiments carried out in the intermediate regime of wavepacket size commensurate with the radiation wavelength.

  15. Radiation control at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a new high power CW electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, G.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the design goals and radiation control measures, for a new 4 GeV, 1 MW electron accelerator under construction in the USA. The paper illustrates the importance of cooperation between designers and regulators. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Internal radiation due to bioaccumulated natural radionuclides ({sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra) in some wild plants sampled from Singhbhum Thrust Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V K [Co-operative College, Jamshedpur (India). Botany Dept.; Geeta, [Jamshedpur Women` s College, Jamshedpur (India). Botany Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of radioactivity (Bq/Kg dry Wt.) due to bioaccumulated {sup 238}U,{sup 226}Ra was carried out in six species of native plants growing in the non-occupational settings of Singhbhum Thrust Belt (STB). Due to medicinal and other economic values, these plants are used by the local people in their day to day life. Among the six species, Echinops echinatus excelled in the pick-up process of radionuclides. The rank decreased in the order: Echinops>Vitex>Cleistanthus>Ocimum>Holorrhoena>Lantana. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  18. Optical radiation emitted by a silver surface bombarded by low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miserey, F.; Lebon, P.; Septier, A.; Trehin, F.; Beaugrand, C.

    1975-01-01

    Thick silver targets are obtained on flat glass discs by evaporation in a UHV cell (p -10 torr) and their optical coefficients measured by ellipsometry. A field-emission electron gun bombards a limited region of the target, corresponding to the entry pupil of a light spectrometer. Radiation emitted in the domain 250-600nm is analyzed for both normal and parallel polarizations. Spectral distributions of photons are obtained by using a very sensitive counting device including a multi channel analyzer. First experimental results concerning optical radiation generated by 6keV electrons are reported and compared to Transition Radiation and Bremsstrahlung theoretical spectra [fr

  19. Can coherent Smith-Purcell radiation be used to determine the shape of an electron bunch?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, A.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Doucas, G.; Kimmitt, M.F.; Andrews, H.L.; Brownell, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent measurements at Frascati of the Smith-Purcell radiation emitted from the interaction of a 2.3 MeV (total) electron beam with a 2.5 mm grating show clear evidence of coherent enhancement of the radiation, with power levels exceeding 100 mW at emission angles around 90 deg. relative to the beam direction. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions and suggest that Smith-Purcell radiation may offer a simple way of determining the shape and duration of short (picosecond) electron bunches

  20. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building

  1. Extreme UV harmonic production by free-electron generators of coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The bunching phenomenon is the basic process occurring in a free-electron generator of coherent generation such as the Klystron in the mm-wave-length range or the free-electron laser (FEL) in the optical region. During interaction with the incident electromagnetic wave the electrons are progressively gathered into small packets separated by a length equal to its wavelength λ/sub L/. Once the electrons are bunched there is a given phase relationship between them and the field of any wave which wavelength is an harmonic of λ/sub L/. This is the source of the gain (electrons decelerated by the field) or of the absorption (electrons accelerated by the laser) mechanisms. In the FEL case the electrons are passing through an undulator (spatially varying periodic magnetic field). Since one uses high-energy electrons (E≅100-1000 MeV) they emit synchrotron radiation called in this case undulator radiation or spontaneous emission. This radiation coexists with the stimulated emission giving rise to the gain mechanism and to the FEL oscillation. When the electrons are bunched the spontaneous emission becomes coherent at the wavelength harmonic of λ/sub L/, and there is an increase in the emission intensity which ideally would be N/sub e/. (Number of electrons is typically ≅10/sup 10/.) Thus bursts of photons are emitted at frequencies harmonic of an incident wave which may be an external laser or the FEL itself. This is likely to extend the spectral range of the free-electron generation of coherent radiation toward the extreme UV λ<1000A). The advantages and limitations of the various solutions (linear or circular accelerator, FEL, or external laser) are discussed. The authors summarize the various experimental results obtained to date and the prospects for the synchrotron radiation dedicated ring super-ACO presently under construction at LURE at Orsay

  2. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  3. Radiation evaluation method of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic printed circuit boards (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gruner, T.D.; Reed, R.A.; Settles, B.; Wilmot, J.; Dougherty, L.F.; Russo, A.; Yuknis, W.; Foster, M.G.; Garrisson-Darrin, A.; Marshall, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present a radiation evaluation methodology and proton ground test results for candidate COTS PCBs (commercial off-the-shelf electronic printed circuit boards) and their associated electronics for low-altitude, low-inclination orbits. We will also discuss the implications associated with mission orbit and duration. (authors)

  4. Economical aspects of radiation sterilization with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has been introduced in Poland in the early seventies. Since then continuous progress is observed in quantity of sterilized products. The commercial irradiation facility was built in 1993 to fulfill growing demands for radiation service. The real costs of running this plant were shown. The share of the cost of investment and the cost of maintenance and spare parts in accelerator exploitation, as well as the cost of one hour accelerator exploitation against time of one year accelerator exploitation were taken into account

  5. The Pocketable Electronic Devices in Radiation Oncology (PEDRO) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bari, Berardino; Franco, P.; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    ) members of the national radiation or clinical oncology associations of the countries involved in the study. The 15 items investigated diffusion of MEDs (smartphones and/or tablets), their impact on daily clinical activity, and the differences perceived by participants along time. Results: A total of 386...... in young professionals working in radiation oncology. Looking at these data, it is important to verify the consistency of information found within apps, in order to avoid potential errors eventually detrimental for patients. “Quality assurance” criteria should be specifically developed for medical apps...

  6. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  7. Quantum-mechanical treatment of an electron undergoing synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of an electron moving perpendicular to an intense magnetic field is approached from the framework of quantum mechanics. A numerical solution to the related rate equations describing the probabilities of occupation of the electron's energy states is put forth along with the expected errors involved. The quantum-mechanical approach is found to predict a significant amount of energy broadening with time for an initially monoenergetic electron beam entering a region of an intense magnetic field as long as the product of initial energy and magnetic field is of order 50 MG BeV or larger.

  8. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance pO2 Image Tumor Oxygen-Guided Radiation Therapy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Maggio, Matt; Pelizzari, Charles; Halpern, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Modern standards for radiation treatment do not take into account tumor oxygenation for radiation treatment planning. Strong correlation between tumor oxygenation and radiation treatment success suggests that oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. We have developed an OGRT protocol for rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging is used for recording oxygen maps with high spatial resolution and excellent accuracy better than 1 torr. Radiation is delivered with an animal intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) XRAD225Cx micro-CT/ therapy system. The radiation plan is delivered in two steps. First, a uniform 15% tumor control dose (TCD 15 ) is delivered to the whole tumor. In the second step, an additional booster dose amounting to the difference between TCD 98 and TCD 15 is delivered to radio-resistant, hypoxic tumor regions. Delivery of the booster dose is performed using a multiport conformal beam protocol. For radiation beam shaping we used individual radiation blocks 3D-printed from tungsten infused ABS polymer. Calculation of beam geometry and the production of blocks is performed next to the EPR imager, immediately after oxygen imaging. Preliminary results demonstrate the sub-millimeter precision of the radiation delivery and high dose accuracy. The efficacy of the radiation treatment is currently being tested on syngeneic FSa fibrosarcoma tumors grown in the legs of C3H mice.

  10. Effect of electron beam radiations on anxiety in experimental animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, B; Suchetha Kumari; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Rao, Satheesh

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to ionizing radiation have been an inevitable part of the environment. This type of radiation can disrupt atoms, creating positive and negative charged particles, and cause biological harm. Ionizing radiation includes X-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons. They have the potential to cause both beneficial and harmful effects. There are concerns about these radiations as they are widely used in hospitals for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. The present work was designed to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on anxiety in mice using the Elevated plus maze and Light dark arena, the commonly used models for assessing anxiety in rodents. Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy) of electron beam radiations. Statistical analysis revealed that whole body irradiation of the moderate dose range (2-6 Gy) of electron beam leads to a significant (p<0.001) anxiogenic activity in irradiated mice. Electron beam induced anxiety can be due to radiation induced reactive oxygen species in brain. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo calculation of scattered radiation from applicators in low energy clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari, N.; Hashemi-Malayeri, B.; Farajollahi, A. R.; Kazemnejad, A.

    2007-01-01

    In radiotherapy with electron beams, scattered radiation from an electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. The contribution of this radiation to the patient dose is significant, even in modern accelerators. In most of radiotherapy treatment planning systems, this component is not explicitly included. In addition, the scattered radiation produced by applicators varies based on the applicator design as well as the field size and distance from the applicators. The aim of this study was to calculate the amount of scattered dose contribution from applicators. We also tried to provide an extensive set of calculated data that could be used as input or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning systems that use Monte Carlo algorithms for dose distribution calculations. Electron beams produced by a NEPTUN 10PC medical linac were modeled using the BEAMnrc system. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams were measured and calculated, with and without the applicators in place, for different field sizes and energies. The scattered radiation from the applicators was determined by subtracting the central axis depth dose curves obtained without the applicators from that with the applicator. The results of this study indicated that the scattered radiation from the electron applicators of the NEPTUN 10PC is significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning systems. Furthermore, our results showed that the scattered radiation depends on the field size and decreases almost linearly with depth. (author)

  12. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between conventional disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (author)

  13. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between 'conventional' disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  14. Pulse shape and spectrum of coherent diffraction-limited transition radiation from electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-12-20

    The electric field in the temporal and spectral domain of coherent diffraction-limited transition radiation is studied. An electron bunch, with arbitrary longitudinal momentum distribution, propagating at normal incidence to a sharp metal-vacuum boundary with finite transverse dimension is considered. A general expression for the spatiotemporal electric field of the transition radiation is derived, and closed-form solutions for several special cases are given. The influence of parameters such as radial boundary size, electron momentum distribution, and angle of observation on the waveform (e.g., radiation pulse length and amplitude) are discussed. For a Gaussian electron bunch, the coherent radiation waveform is shown to have a single-cycle profile. Application to a novel THz source based on a laser-driven accelerator is discussed.

  15. Atomic and molecular photoelectron and Auger-electron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were also measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the ejected electrons. The double-angle-TOF method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collection efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. An electron spectroscopy study of inner-shell photoexcitation and ionization of Xe, photoelectron angular distributions from H 2 and D 2 , and photoionization cross sections and photoelectron asymmetries of the valence orbitals of NO are reported

  16. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  17. Radiation defects in electron-irradiated InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailovskii, E.Yu.; Karapetyan, F.K.; Megela, I.G.; Tartachnik, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of formation and annealing of defects in InP crystals at 1 to 50 MeV electron irradiation. The recovery of electrical properties in the range of 77 to 970 K during annealing processes is studied. Five low temperature annealing states in n-InP and the reverse annealing in p-InP are observed at 77 to 300 K. Four annealing stages at temperatures higher than 300 K are present. When the electron energy is increased more complicated thermostable defects are formed, and at 50 MeV electron energy besides of the point defect clusters are formed, which anneal at temperatures of 800 to 970 K. It is shown that the peculiarities of the Hall mobility at irradiation and annealing are caused by the scattering centres E/sub c/ - 0.2 eV. The 'limiting' position of the Fermi level in electron irradiated InP crystals is discussed. (author)

  18. Transition radiation and coherent electron-photon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    Relativistic electron irradiation of thin solid targets is known to generate collimated beams of x-ray photons in the forward direction by a number of different processes. A variety of mechanisms are discussed that share common characteristics in the angular and spectral distributions of the generated photon beams. Some simple physical explanations are offered for the characteristics shared by these processes. Some examples are then given based on experimental results attained at the LLNL electron-positron accelerator

  19. Theory of electron degradation and yields of initial molecular species produced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.; Dillon, M.A.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionizing radiations generate in matter a large number of energetic electrons, which in turn collide with molecules in matter, produce ions and excited states, and thereby degrade in energy. The description of the consequences of many collision processes to the electrons and to matter is the goal of the electron degradation theory. They summarize the current understanding of this topic, which is important as a basis of radiation chemistry and biology. In addition, they present an initial report of their new work, namely, a generalization of the Spencer-Fano theory to time-dependent cases

  20. Angular distributions of relativistic electrons under channeling in half-wavelength crystal and corresponding radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Bagrov, V.G.; Bogdanov, O.V.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    New experiments on channeling of 255 MeV electrons in a half-wavelength crystals (HWC) were performed at SAGA Light Source facilities. The simulations of trajectories for (2 2 0) and (1 1 1) planar channeling in Si were performed using the computer code BCM-1.0. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results shows a good agreement. The results of calculations of spectral distribution of radiation in forward direction (θ = 0°) from 255 MeV electrons at (2 2 0) channeling in HWC silicon are presented. Qualitative comparison with radiation spectrum from an electron moving in an arc is performed

  1. Coherent polarization radiation of relativistic electrons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morokhovskii, V.L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief narration about the history of those heated arguments and discussions around the nature of so-called parametric X-radiation, which were concluded by the recognition of the discovery the phenomenon of coherent polarization bremsstrahlung of relativistic charged particles in crystals. Some important information and comments, which stay over of notice of specialists till now are reported.

  2. Radiation testing campaign results for understanding the suitability of FPGAs in detector electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citterio, M., E-mail: mauro.citterio@mi.infn.it [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Camplani, A. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Cannon, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Chen, H.; Chen, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Deng, B.; Liu, C. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Meroni, C. [INFN Milan, Milan (Italy); Kierstead, J.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Wirthlin, M. [Brigham Young University, Provo (United States); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States)

    2016-07-11

    SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rarely used in High Energy Physics (HEP) due to their sensitivity to radiation. The last generation of commercial FPGAs based on 28 nm feature size and on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technologies are more tolerant to radiation to the level that their use in front-end electronics is now feasible. FPGAs provide re-programmability, high-speed computation and fast data transmission through the embedded serial transceivers. They could replace custom application specific integrated circuits in front end electronics in locations with moderate radiation field. The use of a FPGA in HEP experiments is only limited by our ability to mitigate single event effects induced by the high energy hadrons present in the radiation field. - Highlights: • Radiation campaign on Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGAs. • Use of FPGAs in high energy physics. • Evaluation of configuration RAM and block RAM parameters after irradiation.

  3. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  4. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  5. Radiation effects on electronic equipment: a designers'/users' guide for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Garlick, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Designers'/Users' Guide to the effects of radiation on electronics is published by the Radiation Testing Service of AEA Technology. The aim of the Guide is to document the available information that we have generated and collected over some ten years whilst operating as a radiation effects and design consultancy to the nuclear power industry. We hope that this will enable workers within the industry better to understand the likely effects of radiation on the system or plant being designed and so minimise the problems that can arise. (Author)

  6. Radiative Recombination and Photoionization Data for Tungsten Ions. Electron Structure of Ions in Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina B. Trzhaskovskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of tungsten ions in plasmas are presented. New calculations of the radiative recombination and photoionization cross-sections, as well as radiative recombination and radiated power loss rate coefficients have been performed for 54 tungsten ions for the range W6+–W71+. The data are of importance for fusion investigations at the reactor ITER, as well as devices ASDEX Upgrade and EBIT. Calculations are fully relativistic. Electron wave functions are found by the Dirac–Fock method with proper consideration of the electron exchange. All significant multipoles of the radiative field are taken into account. The radiative recombination rates and the radiated power loss rates are determined provided the continuum electron velocity is described by the relativistic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution. The impact of the core electron polarization on the radiative recombination cross-section is estimated for the Ne-like iron ion and for highly-charged tungsten ions within an analytical approximation using the Dirac–Fock electron wave functions. The effect is shown to enhance the radiative recombination cross-sections by ≲20%. The enhancement depends on the photon energy, the principal quantum number of polarized shells and the ion charge. The influence of plasma temperature and density on the electron structure of ions in local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas is investigated. Results for the iron and uranium ions in dense plasmas are in good agreement with previous calculations. New calculations were performed for the tungsten ion in dense plasmas on the basis of the average-atom model, as well as for the impurity tungsten ion in fusion plasmas using the non-linear self-consistent field screening model. The temperature and density dependence of the ion charge, level energies and populations are considered.

  7. Radiative interaction of a focused relativistic electron beam in energy-loss spectroscopy of nanoscopic platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itskovsky, M. A.; Maniv, T.; Cohen, H.

    2008-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical scattering theory for relativistic, highly focused electron beams in the vacuum near nanoscopic platelets is presented, revealing an excitation mechanism due to the electron wave scattering from the platelet edges. Radiative electromagnetic excitations within the light cone are shown to arise, allowed by the breakdown of momentum conservation along the beam axis in the inelastic-scattering process. Calculated for metallic (silver and gold) and insulating (SiO 2 and MgO) nanoplatelets, radiative features are revealed above the main surface-plasmon-polariton peak, and dramatic enhancements in the electron-energy-loss probability at gaps of the 'classical' spectra are found. The corresponding radiation should be detectable in the vacuum far-field zone, with e beams exploited as sensitive 'tip detectors' of electronically excited nanostructures

  8. Radiative interaction of a focused relativistic electron beam in energy-loss spectroscopy of nanoscopic platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itskovsky, M. A.; Cohen, H.; Maniv, T.

    2008-07-01

    A quantum-mechanical scattering theory for relativistic, highly focused electron beams in the vacuum near nanoscopic platelets is presented, revealing an excitation mechanism due to the electron wave scattering from the platelet edges. Radiative electromagnetic excitations within the light cone are shown to arise, allowed by the breakdown of momentum conservation along the beam axis in the inelastic-scattering process. Calculated for metallic (silver and gold) and insulating ( SiO2 and MgO) nanoplatelets, radiative features are revealed above the main surface-plasmon-polariton peak, and dramatic enhancements in the electron-energy-loss probability at gaps of the “classical” spectra are found. The corresponding radiation should be detectable in the vacuum far-field zone, with e beams exploited as sensitive “tip detectors” of electronically excited nanostructures.

  9. The use of different type of electron beam radiation equipment for biotechnological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.; Oproiu, C.; Ferdes, M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential of using electron beam radiation and bremsstrahlung for some biotechnological materials treatment is presented based on the results of the R and D programme established in 1993 at the Institute of Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics Bucharest, Electron Accelerator Laboratory. The main parameters of different electron accelerator types used to process biotechnological materials are presented as these machines were designed, developed and improved. In order to fulfil the radiation processing requirements for biotechnology and environmental protection, betatron, linear and microtron-type electron accelerators are considered and there is an interest to develop a dedicated one as well. The results of irradiation of different biotechnological items as cell cultures, microbial strains, enzymes and biopreparates and cellulose-based wastes are presented

  10. Observations of visual sensations produced by Cerenkov radiation from high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, K.D.; Eastman, R.M.; Stabile, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten cancer patients whose eyes were therapeutically irradiated with 6-18 MeV electrons reported visual light sensations. Nine reported seeing blue light and one reported seeing white light. Controls reported seeing no light. Additionally, tests with patients ruled out the x-ray contamination of the electron beam as being important. The photon yield due to Cerenkov radiation produced by radium and its daughters for both electrons and gamma rays was calculated; it was found to account for a turn-of-the-century human observation of the radium phosphene. We conclude that the dominant mechanism of this phosphene is Cerenkov radiation, primarily from betas. From our own patient data, based on the color seen and the Cerenkov production rates, we conclude that the dominant mechanism is Cerenkov radiation and that high-energy electrons are an example of particle induced visual sensations

  11. First indication of the coherent unipolar diffraction radiation generated by relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, G.; Shevelev, M.

    2018-05-01

    As is generally known, the integral of the electric field strength over all time for usual (bipolar) radiation is zero. The first demonstration of the possibility of unipolar radiation generation has been considered theoretically by Bessonov in 1981 [E.G. Bessonov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80 (1981) 852]. According to this work, the unipolar radiation (or strange electromagnetic waves) is radiation for which the integral of the electric field strength over the entire duration of a pulse differs significantly from zero. Later, several theoretical papers devoted to this phenomenon have appeared in the literature, where authors investigated mainly synchrotron radiation. However, despite the critical interest, the experimental investigations ignored this effect. In this paper we present results of the first experimental investigation of the unipolar radiation generated by a relativistic electron beam. To detect the unipolar radiation the detector that is sensitive to the selected direction of the electric field strength has been elaborated and tested. We used a designed detector to observe the coherent backward diffraction radiation appearing when a bunched electron beam travels in the vicinity of a flat conductive target. The asymmetry of the electric field strength of the coherent backward diffraction radiation has been demonstrated.

  12. Transient pulse analysis of ionized electronics exposed to γ-radiation generated from a relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Hong, Dongpyo; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Jungmin; Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ranajoy; Cho, Ilsung; Kim, Byungsu; Park, Chawon; Jung, Wongyun; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2018-02-01

    When a semiconductor element is irradiated with radiation in the form of a transient pulse emitted from a nuclear explosion, a large amount of charge is generated in a short time in the device. A photocurrent amplified in a certain direction by these types of charges cause the device to break down and malfunction or in extreme cases causes them to burn out. In this study, a pulse-type γ-ray generator based on a relativistic electron beam accelerator (γ=2.2, β=0.89) which functions by means of tungsten impingement was constructed and tested in an effort to investigate the process and effects of the photocurrent formed by electron hole pairs (EHP) generated in a pMOSFET device when a transient radiation pulse is incident in the device. The pulse-type γ-ray irradiating device used here to generate the electron beam current in a short time was devised to allow an increase in the irradiation dose. A precise signal processing circuit was constructed to measure the photocurrent of the small signal generated by the pMOSFET due to the electron beam accelerator pulse signal from the large noise stemming from the electromagnetic field around the relativistic electron beam accelerator. The pulse-type γ-ray generator was installed to meet the requirements of relativistic electron beam accelerators, and beam irradiation was conducted after a beam commissioning step.

  13. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Crosslinking of thermoplastic composites using electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Black, S.R.; Bryce, G.R.; Olcott, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The crosslinking of thermoset materials has been clearly demonstrated to improve many desirable physical and chemical properties for composite applications. While thermoplastic resins also offer many advantages for composite applications, they are not crosslinked and, therefore, may not meet the same property criteria as crosslinked thermosets. Electron beams have been used successfully for crosslinking non-reinforced thermoplastic materials. Electron beams have also been used for curing composite thermoset materials. This research utilizes electron beams to crosslink high performance thermoplastic composite materials (PEEK and PPS with glass and carbon fibers). The tensile strength and tensile modulus are compared under various crosslinking conditions. The method is found to have some advantages in potentially improving physical properties of thermoplastic composite materials

  15. Development of an electronic radiation oncology patient information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Asthana, Anupam Kumar; Aggarwal, Lalit Mohan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of patient care is critically influenced by the availability of accurate information and its efficient management. Radiation oncology consists of many information components, for example there may be information related to the patient (e.g., profile, disease site, stage, etc.), to people (radiation oncologists, radiological physicists, technologists, etc.), and to equipment (diagnostic, planning, treatment, etc.). These different data must be integrated. A comprehensive information management system is essential for efficient storage and retrieval of the enormous amounts of information. A radiation therapy patient information system (RTPIS) has been developed using open source software. PHP and JAVA script was used as the programming languages, MySQL as the database, and HTML and CSF as the design tool. This system utilizes typical web browsing technology using a WAMP5 server. Any user having a unique user ID and password can access this RTPIS. The user ID and password is issued separately to each individual according to the person's job responsibilities and accountability, so that users will be able to only access data that is related to their job responsibilities. With this system authentic users will be able to use a simple web browsing procedure to gain instant access. All types of users in the radiation oncology department should find it user-friendly. The maintenance of the system will not require large human resources or space. The file storage and retrieval process would be be satisfactory, unique, uniform, and easily accessible with adequate data protection. There will be very little possibility of unauthorized handling with this system. There will also be minimal risk of loss or accidental destruction of information.

  16. Development of an electronic radiation oncology patient information management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of patient care is critically influenced by the availability of accurate information and its efficient management. Radiation oncology consists of many information components, for example there may be information related to the patient (e.g., profile, disease site, stage, etc., to people (radiation oncologists, radiological physicists, technologists, etc., and to equipment (diagnostic, planning, treatment, etc.. These different data must be integrated. A comprehensive information management system is essential for efficient storage and retrieval of the enormous amounts of information. A radiation therapy patient information system (RTPIS has been developed using open source software. PHP and JAVA script was used as the programming languages, MySQL as the database, and HTML and CSF as the design tool. This system utilizes typical web browsing technology using a WAMP5 server. Any user having a unique user ID and password can access this RTPIS. The user ID and password is issued separately to each individual according to the person′s job responsibilities and accountability, so that users will be able to only access data that is related to their job responsibilities. With this system authentic users will be able to use a simple web browsing procedure to gain instant access. All types of users in the radiation oncology department should find it user-friendly. The maintenance of the system will not require large human resources or space. The file storage and retrieval process would be be satisfactory, unique, uniform, and easily accessible with adequate data protection. There will be very little possibility of unauthorized handling with this system. There will also be minimal risk of loss or accidental destruction of information.

  17. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix

  18. Effect of ionizing radiations on bacterial endotoxins: comparison between gamma radiations and accelerated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, S; Goury, V; Darbord, J C

    1988-01-01

    Determinations of the effect of radiation sterilization processing on purified endotoxins, in aqueous solution or on dried support, are reported. These observations allow us to accept gamma radiations for sterilization of parenteral devices with an estimated probability of existence of non apyrogenic items, based upon a similar definition of the usual Sterility Assurance Level (SAL = 10/sup -6/).

  19. INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION TIME, GAMMA RAYS AND ELECTRON BEAM ON RADIATION RESISTANCE OF SOME SELECTED PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-HIFNAWI, H.N.; EL-TABLAWY, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different growth phases on the radiation resistance, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of certain selected pathogens (Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus) was studied in mice. The obtained results showed that Escherichia coli was slightly more resistant to gamma radiation in 18 h than 24 h or 48 h but it was relatively more resistant to electron beam in 24 h and 48 h than 18 h. Candida albicans showed radiation resistance nearly the same in all incubation times in the case of gamma radiation while for electron beam, its radiation resistance was slightly more in 24 h and 48 h than in 18 h. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus recorded much more resistance to gamma radiation in the 48 h than in 24 h or 18 h whereas in the case of electron beam, it was slightly more resistant in 18 h than in 24 h and 48 h.The antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli reported that the exposure to gamma radiation at 3 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy increase the susceptibility to the nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. When Candida albicans was exposed to 3 kGy gamma radiation and 6 kGy electron beam, the same sensitivity to nystatin was observed in comparison with the unexposed one while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to some antibiotics (amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline) was decreased after exposure to gamma radiation at 0.75 and 2 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy, but for other antibiotics (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole), the sensitivity was increased at 6 kGy electron beam.The lethality percent recorded after the oral ingestion of the mice with the unexposed Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were 25% and 100%, respectively, and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 0% . The cotaneous disease and abscesses caused by the intradermal injection of the mice with unexposed Staphylococcus aureus was 75% and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 25%.

  20. Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Bryan, Ruth A; Huang, Xianchun; Moadel, Tiffany; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Aisen, Philip; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo

    2007-05-23

    Melanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. Melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the growth of melanized microorganisms. Ionizing irradiation changed the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of melanin, consistent with changes in electronic structure. Irradiated melanin manifested a 4-fold increase in its capacity to reduce NADH relative to non-irradiated melanin. HPLC analysis of melanin from fungi grown on different substrates revealed chemical complexity, dependence of melanin composition on the growth substrate and possible influence of melanin composition on its interaction with ionizing radiation. XTT/MTT assays showed increased metabolic activity of melanized C. neoformans cells relative to non-melanized cells, and exposure to ionizing radiation enhanced the electron-transfer properties of melanin in melanized cells. Melanized Wangiella dermatitidis and Cryptococcus neoformans cells exposed to ionizing radiation approximately 500 times higher than background grew significantly faster as indicated by higher CFUs, more dry weight biomass and 3-fold greater incorporation of (14)C-acetate than non-irradiated melanized cells or irradiated albino mutants. In addition, radiation enhanced the growth of melanized Cladosporium sphaerospermum cells under limited nutrients conditions. Exposure of melanin to ionizing radiation, and possibly other forms of electromagnetic radiation, changes its electronic properties. Melanized fungal cells manifested increased growth relative to non-melanized cells after exposure to ionizing radiation, raising intriguing questions about a potential role for melanin in energy capture and utilization.

  1. A case study of electron precipitation fluxes due to plasmaspheric hiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hardman, R.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Brundell, J. B.; Duthie, R.; Holzworth, R. H.; Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Macúšová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2015), s. 6736-6748 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmasphere * plasmaspheric hiss * electron precipitation * radiation belt electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021429/abstract

  2. Coherent transition radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator as an electron bunch diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Martin, M.C.; Hao, Z.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The observation and modeling of coherent transition radiation from femtosecond laser accelerated electron bunches is discussed. The coherent transition radiation, scaling quadratically with bunch charge, is generated as the electrons transit the plasma-vacuum boundary. Due to the limited transverse radius of the plasma boundary, diffraction effects will strongly modify the angular distribution and the total energy radiated is reduced compared to an infinite transverse boundary. The multi-nC electron bunches, concentrated in a length of a few plasma periods (several tens of microns), experience partial charge neutralization while propagating inside the plasma towards the boundary. This reduces the space-charge blowout of the beam, allowing for coherent radiation at relatively high frequencies (several THz). The charge distribution of the electron bunch at the plasma-vacuum boundary can be derived from Fourier analysis of the coherent part of the transition radiation spectrum. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the coherent spectrum, and electron bunches with duration on the order of 50 fs (rms) were observed

  3. Radiation effects on active camera electronics in the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, M.; Datte, P.; Carpenter, A.; Eckart, M.; Manuel, A.; Khater, H.; Hargrove, D.; Bell, P.

    2017-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) harsh radiation environment can cause electronics to malfunction during high-yield DT shots. Until now there has been little experience fielding electronic-based cameras in the target chamber under these conditions; hence, the performance of electronic components in NIF's radiation environment was unknown. It is possible to purchase radiation tolerant devices, however, they are usually qualified for radiation environments different to NIF, such as space flight or nuclear reactors. This paper presents the results from a series of online experiments that used two different prototype camera systems built from non-radiation hardened components and one commercially available camera that permanently failed at relatively low total integrated dose. The custom design built in Livermore endured a 5 × 1015 neutron shot without upset, while the other custom design upset at 2 × 1014 neutrons. These results agreed with offline testing done with a flash x-ray source and a 14 MeV neutron source, which suggested a methodology for developing and qualifying electronic systems for NIF. Further work will likely lead to the use of embedded electronic systems in the target chamber during high-yield shots.

  4. Investigation of resonant polarization radiation of relativistic electrons in gratings at small angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinik, A.N.; Chefonov, O.V.; Kalinin, B.N.; Naumenko, G.A.; Potylitsyn, A.P.; Saruev, G.A.; Sharafutdinov, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    The resonant optical polarization radiation (ROPR) in the Smith-Purcell geometry and the one from the inclined grating at the Tomsk synchrotron and 6-MeV microtron have been investigated. The polarization radiation was observed at 4.2 deg. from the 200 MeV electron beam and at 5 deg. from the 6.2 MeV electron beam. Two methods of measurement of ROPR maxima in these two cases have been used. In the first case (the experiment on synchrotron) we have fixed the wavelength of radiation using an optical filter; the orientation dependence of this radiation was measured. In this dependence we have observed two peaks of radiation from electrons in gold foil grating of 0.1 mm period. The first large peak is a zeroth order peak in direction of specular reflection, and the second one is the first-order peak of resonant polarization radiation. In the experiment on microtron the spectra of ROPR from aluminum foil strip grating of 0.2 mm period in the Smith-Purcell geometry were measured, and the peak of the first-order Smith-Purcell radiation in these spectra was observed. The comparison of data obtained with the simulation results has been performed

  5. Exposure of space electronics and materials to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    Describes the methods and sources available for irradiation of space instruments developed at the Department of Automation. Methods for calculations and measurements of fluences and doses are also described. The sources are gamma-rays from iridium-192 and cobalt-60, 30 MeV protons, 10 MeV electrons...

  6. Radiation defects in electron-irradiated InP crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brailovskii, E.Yu.; Karapetyan, F.K.; Megela, I.G.; Tartachnik, V.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1982-06-16

    The results are presented of formation and annealing of defects in InP crystals at 1 to 50 MeV electron irradiation. The recovery of electrical properties in the range of 77 to 970 K during annealing processes is studied. Five low temperature annealing states in n-InP and the reverse annealing in p-InP are observed at 77 to 300 K. Four annealing stages at temperatures higher than 300 K are present. When the electron energy is increased more complicated thermostable defects are formed, and at 50 MeV electron energy besides of the point defect clusters are formed, which anneal at temperatures of 800 to 970 K. It is shown that the peculiarities of the Hall mobility at irradiation and annealing are caused by the scattering centres E/sub c/ - 0.2 eV. The 'limiting' position of the Fermi level in electron irradiated InP crystals is discussed.

  7. Deterministic methods for the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations and the Van Allen belts dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdiec, S.

    2007-03-01

    Artificial satellites operate in an hostile radiation environment, the Van Allen radiation belts, which partly condition their reliability and their lifespan. In order to protect them, it is necessary to characterize the dynamics of the energetic electrons trapped in these radiation belts. This dynamics is essentially determined by the interactions between the energetic electrons and the existing electromagnetic waves. This work consisted in designing a numerical scheme to solve the equations modelling these interactions: the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations. Our choice was directed towards methods of direct integration. We propose three new spectral methods for the momentum discretization: a Galerkin method and two collocation methods. All of them are based on scaled Hermite functions. The scaling factor is chosen in order to obtain the proper velocity resolution. We present in this thesis the discretization of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson system and the numerical results obtained. Then we study the possible extensions of the methods to the complete relativistic problem. In order to reduce the computing time, parallelization and optimization of the algorithms were carried out. Finally, we present 1Dx-3Dv (mono-dimensional for x and three-dimensional for velocity) computations of Weibel and whistler instabilities with one or two electrons species. (author)

  8. Electronic excitations and their effect on the interionic forces in simulations of radiation damage in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Race, C P; Mason, D R; Sutton, A P

    2009-01-01

    Using time-dependent tight-binding simulations of radiation damage cascades in a model metal we directly investigate the nature of the excitations of a system of quantum mechanical electrons in response to the motion of a set of classical ions. We furthermore investigate the effect of these excitations on the attractive electronic forces between the ions. We find that the electronic excitations are well described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution at some elevated temperature, even in the absence of the direct electron-electron interactions that would be required in order to thermalize a non-equilibrium distribution. We explain this result in terms of the spectrum of characteristic frequencies of the ionic motion. Decomposing the electronic force into four well-defined components within the basis of instantaneous electronic eigenstates, we find that the effect of accumulated excitations in weakening the interionic bonds is mostly (95%) accounted for by a thermal model for the electronic excitations. This result justifies the use of the simplifying assumption of a thermalized electron system in simulations of radiation damage with an electronic temperature dependence and in the development of temperature-dependent classical potentials.

  9. Electronic excitations and their effect on the interionic forces in simulations of radiation damage in metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, C P; Mason, D R; Sutton, A P

    2009-03-18

    Using time-dependent tight-binding simulations of radiation damage cascades in a model metal we directly investigate the nature of the excitations of a system of quantum mechanical electrons in response to the motion of a set of classical ions. We furthermore investigate the effect of these excitations on the attractive electronic forces between the ions. We find that the electronic excitations are well described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution at some elevated temperature, even in the absence of the direct electron-electron interactions that would be required in order to thermalize a non-equilibrium distribution. We explain this result in terms of the spectrum of characteristic frequencies of the ionic motion. Decomposing the electronic force into four well-defined components within the basis of instantaneous electronic eigenstates, we find that the effect of accumulated excitations in weakening the interionic bonds is mostly (95%) accounted for by a thermal model for the electronic excitations. This result justifies the use of the simplifying assumption of a thermalized electron system in simulations of radiation damage with an electronic temperature dependence and in the development of temperature-dependent classical potentials.

  10. Tuner and radiation shield for planar electron paramagnetic resonance microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkowicz, Ryszard; Suter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Planar microresonators provide a large boost of sensitivity for small samples. They can be manufactured lithographically to a wide range of target parameters. The coupler between the resonator and the microwave feedline can be integrated into this design. To optimize the coupling and to compensate manufacturing tolerances, it is sometimes desirable to have a tuning element available that can be adjusted when the resonator is connected to the spectrometer. This paper presents a simple design that allows one to bring undercoupled resonators into the condition for critical coupling. In addition, it also reduces radiation losses and thereby increases the quality factor and the sensitivity of the resonator

  11. Electron momentum spectroscopy of H2+ in the presence of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulychev, A.A.; Kouzakov, K.A.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of laser-assisted electron impact ionization of a hydrogen molecular ion H 2 + at high impact energy and large momentum transfer is carried out. The laser-field effects on the incoming and outgoing electrons are taken into account using the Volkov functions. The field-dressing of the target electron is treated with a quasistatic state approach. Calculations for laser radiation with frequency ω = 1.55 eV and intensity I = 5 * 10 11 W/cm 2 exhibit strong laser influence on the molecular bond oscillation in laser-assisted electron momentum distributions. (authors)

  12. Electron transport in nanometer GaAs structure under radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Demarina, N V

    2002-01-01

    One investigates into effect of neutron and proton irradiation on electron transport in nanometer GaAs structures. Mathematical model takes account of radiation defects via introduction of additional mechanisms od scattering of carriers at point defects and disordered regions. To investigate experimentally into volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics one used a structure based on a field-effect transistor with the Schottky gate and a built-in channel. Calculation results of electron mobility, drift rate of electrons, time of energy relaxation and electron pulse are compared with the experimental data

  13. Generation of Z mode radiation by diffuse auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of Z mode waves by diffuse auroral electron precipitation is investigated assuming that a loss cone exists in the upgoing portion of the distribution due to electron interactions with the atmosphere. The waves are generated at frequencies above, but very near, the local electron cyclotron frequency omega(e) and at wave normal angles larger than 90 deg. In agreement with Hewitt et al. (1983), the group velocity is directed downward in regions where the ratio of the upper hybrid frequency omega(pe) to Omega(e) is less than 0.5, so that Z mode waves excited above a satellite propagate toward it and away from the upper hybrid resonance. Z mode waves are excited in a frequency band between Omega(e) and about 1.02 Omega(e), and with maximum growth rates of about 0.001 Omega(e). The amplification length is about 100 km, which allows Z mode waves to grow to the intensities observed by high-altitude satellites.

  14. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2009-12-01

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  15. Relation of radiation damage of metallic solids to electronic structure. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaev, A.M.; Adamenko, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of relating a damage in metal solids to the parameters of radiation fluxes and the physical nature of a target is considered. Basing upon experimental and theoretical investigations into the processes of interaction of particle fluxes with solids, the following conclusions have been reached. Threshold energy of ion displacement in the crystal lattice of a metal solid is dependent on the energy of a bombarding particle, which is due to ionization and electroexcitation stimulated by energy transfer from a fast particle to a system of collectivized electrons. The rate of metal solid damage by radiation depends on the state of the crystal lattice, in particular on its defectness. Variations of local electron density in the vicinity of a defect are related with changing thermodynamic characteristics of radiation-induced defect formation. A type of atomic bond in a solid affects the rate of radiation damage. The greatest damage occurs in materials with a covalent bond

  16. Evaluation of the electron beam radiation effects on the mechanical properties of the polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Clecia M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Chinellato, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper studied the electron beam radiation effects on the mechanical properties of the polypropylene (PP) resin. The PP resin was submitted to 150-250 kGy radiation dose, at the dose rate of 14 kGy/s, room temperature and presence of air, using a 1.5 MeV electron accelerator. After the irradiation, the irradiated and non irradiated resin samples were submitted to the mechanical testes of traction resistance and impact Izod resistance. The results shown that the traction resistance at drainage of PP samples have not experienced significant modifications (p < 0.05) after the irradiation. However, the original PP rupture resistance (non irradiated samples) presented a gain up to 100 % as function of the applied radiation dose; the percentage of deformation in the rupture presented a reduction up to 65 % and the Izod impact resistance presented a reduction up to 70 % with the increase of the radiation dose (p < 0.05)

  17. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E L; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2009-12-15

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  18. Signatures of quantum radiation reaction in laser-electron-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. Y.; Yan, X. Q.; Zepf, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electron dynamics in the collision of an electron beam with a high-intensity focused ultrashort laser pulse are investigated using three-dimensional QED particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, and the results are compared with those calculated by classical Landau and Lifshitz PIC simulations. Significant differences are observed from the angular dependence of the electron energy distribution patterns for the two different approaches, because photon emission is no longer well approximated by a continuous process in the quantum radiation-dominated regime. The stochastic nature of photon emission results in strong signatures of quantum radiation-reaction effects under certain conditions. We show that the laser spot size and duration greatly influence these signatures due to the competition of QED effects and the ponderomotive force, which is well described in the classical approximation. The clearest signatures of quantum radiation reaction are found in the limit of large laser spots and few cycle pulse durations

  19. CAS CERN Accelerator School. Synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the tenth specialised course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers'. A similar course was already given at Chester, UK in 1989 and whose proceedings were published as CERN 90-03. However, recent progress in this field has been so rapid that it became urgent to present a revised version of the course. Starting with a review of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation there follows introductory lectures on electron dynamics in storage rings, beam insertion devices, and beam current and radiation brightness limits. These themes are then developed with more detailed lectures on lattices and emittance, wigglers and undulators, current limitations, beam lifetime and quality, diagnostics and beam stability. Finally lectures are presented on linac and storage ring free-electron lasers. (orig.)

  20. Peculiarities of the coherent spontaneous synchrotron radiation of dense electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balal, N.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    In a short section of homogeneous magnetic field, quasi-plane electron bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo-injectors at moderate particle energies can generate strongly directed, very short and powerful terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a broad frequency spectrum. The formulas for radiation fields, their spectra and efficiency of radiation are presented in a very simple analytical form using expressions for the fields of an arbitrary moving charged plane. The self-action and mutual interaction of thin electron layers are estimated. It is shown that the radiation with frequencies of up to (1–3) THz can be effectively generated by electrons with energies (4–6) MeV in a short and relatively weak magnetic field of (4–10) kOe

  1. Peculiarities of the coherent spontaneous synchrotron radiation of dense electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balal, N. [Ariel University, Ariel (Israel); Bratman, V. L. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Savilov, A. V., E-mail: savilov@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    In a short section of homogeneous magnetic field, quasi-plane electron bunches from linear accelerators with laser-driven photo-injectors at moderate particle energies can generate strongly directed, very short and powerful terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a broad frequency spectrum. The formulas for radiation fields, their spectra and efficiency of radiation are presented in a very simple analytical form using expressions for the fields of an arbitrary moving charged plane. The self-action and mutual interaction of thin electron layers are estimated. It is shown that the radiation with frequencies of up to (1–3) THz can be effectively generated by electrons with energies (4–6) MeV in a short and relatively weak magnetic field of (4–10) kOe.

  2. Simulating of spectrum and polarization characteristics of ultrarelativistic - electron coherent radiation in a diamond crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truten', V.I.

    2000-01-01

    On the base of the computer simulation method it is shown that new maxima of ultrarelativistic electron radiation spectrum in aligned crystals may appear in a low-frequency region together with the ordinary coherent maxima. The appearance of these maxima is the result of the high-index-crystal-plane effect. These maxima manifest themselves in spectral as well as in polarization features of radiation [ru

  3. Use of complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants: feability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, P.; Carquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    EDF has undertaken a study in order to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of using complex electronic equipment within radiative areas of PWR power plants. This study lies on tests of VLSI components (Random Access Memories) under gamma rays irradiations, which aims are to evaluate the radiation dose that they can withstand and to develop a selection method. 125 rad/h and 16 rad/h tests results are given [fr

  4. Radiation spectra of high-energy electrons in monocrystals of various thickness and orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Agan'yants, A.O.; Akopov, N.Z.; Vartanov, Yu.A.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Lebedev, A.N.; Mirzoyan, R.M.; Taroyan, S.P.; Danagulyan, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Yield of photons with energies 20-200 MeV at motion of the 4.7 GeV electron beam in parallel to the axis of a diamond crystal exceeds substantially the corresponding yield from a disoriented target. A similarity is observed in the radiation spectra within the crystal thickness range of 100- 610 mkm. The radiation yield is suppressed at certain energies of the γ quanta [ru

  5. Low-temperature annealing of radiation defects in electron-irradiated gallium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, A.A.; Megela, I.G.; Buturlakin, A.P.; Goyer, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The isochronal annealing of radiation defects in high-energy electron irradiated n-GaP monocrystals within the 77 to 300 K range has been investigated by optical and electrical techniques. The changes in conductance and charge carrier mobility as functions of annealing temperature as well as the variation of optical absorption spectra of GaP under irradiation and annealing provide evidence that most of radiation defects are likely secondary complexes of defects

  6. Radiation hardness of GaAs sensors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šagátová, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sagatova@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia); Zaťko, Bohumír; Dubecký, František [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ly Anh, Tu [Faculty of Applied Science, University of Technology VNU HCM, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nečas, Vladimír; Sedlačková, Katarína; Pavlovič, Márius [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fülöp, Marko [University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation hardness of SI GaAs detectors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons was compared. • Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and displacement damage factor of different types of radiation. • CCE and FWHM first slightly improved (by 1–8%) and just then degraded with the cumulative dose. • An increase of detection efficiency with cumulative dose was observed. - Abstract: Radiation hardness of semi-insulating GaAs detectors against {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutrons and 5 MeV electrons was compared. Slight improvements in charge collection efficiency (CCE) and energy resolution in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) were observed at low doses with all kinds of radiation followed by their degradation. The effect occurred at a dose of about 10 Gy of neutrons (CCE improved by 1%, FWHM by 5% on average), at 1 kGy of electrons (FWHM decreased by 3% on average) and at 10 kGy of gamma-rays (CCE raised by 5% and FWHM dropped by 8% on average), which is in agreement with the relative displacement damage of the used types of radiation. Gamma-rays of MeV energies are 1000-times less damaging than similar neutrons and electrons about 10-times more damaging than photons. On irradiating the detectors with neutrons and electrons, we observed a global increase in their detection efficiency, which was caused probably by enlargement of the active detector area as a consequence of created radiation defects in the base material. Detectors were still functional after a dose of 1140 kGy of ∼1 MeV photons, 104 kGy of 5 MeV electrons but only up to 0.576 kGy of fast (∼2 to 30 MeV) neutrons.

  7. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqi, A.R.; Henderson, R.; Holmes, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 μm pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5x10 7 electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/μm 2 ). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance

  8. Radiation effects in electronics for the CMS tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a study into the CMS tracker analogue front-end amplifier readout chip (APV), which during the period of the study was fabricated in three different VLSI technologies. The early versions were fabricated in a total dose radiation hardened Harris 1.2μm process. Later it was transferred to a DMILL 0.8μm process and the latest version is in a 0.25μm technology. Part of this thesis describes a test system which was designed to thoroughly test APV chips on the silicon wafer and produce a comprehensive data set for each chip to enable confident selection of good chips. The main study is on the effects that large dose radiation environments can cause in the individual parts of the chip. With the chips fabricated in different technologies it was possible to make some comparisons of the magnitude of the effects between the Harris and the 0.25μm technologies, but most of the work was aimed towards understanding the effects within the 0.25μm technology. Single Event Upset (SEU) was the main consideration behind the experimental and simulation work. The study had two main goals: the first was to investigate how SEU would affect the operation of the CMS detector in the expected high radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The second goal was to look at SEU from a more academic viewpoint, enabling a full understanding of how it is caused and what factors affect its magnitude. Simulations were performed in order to reconstruct the conditions brought about by highly ionising particles striking certain parts of the sensitive circuits, along with careful consideration of the mechanisms behind the effect such as: ionised charge collection within the semiconductor parts of the chip, how this charge deposition affects the circuit and how the effects manifest themselves within larger devices. A good set of results was collected from specially designed experiments, from which a confirmation of the theoretical effect was produced. (author)

  9. Generation and characterization of ultra-short electron beams for single spike infrared FEL radiation at SPARC_LAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Artioli, M.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F. G.; Biagioni, A.; Carpanese, M.; Cardelli, F.; Castorina, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Dattoli, G.; Gallo, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Palma, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Giannessi, L.; Giribono, A.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Mostacci, A.; Petralia, A.; Petrarca, M.; Petrillo, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pioli, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Rossi, A. R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2017-09-01

    The technique for producing and measuring few tens of femtosecond electron beams, and the consequent generation of few tens femtoseconds single spike FEL radiation pulses at SPARC_LAB is presented. The undulator has been used in the double role of radiation source and diagnostic tool for the characterization of the electron beam. The connection between the electron bunch length and the radiation bandwidth is analyzed.

  10. An analysis of radiation effects on electronics and soi-mos devices as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikraiam, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on semiconductors and electronic components are analyzed. The performance of such circuitry depends upon the reliability of electronic devices where electronic components will be unavoidably exposed to radiation. This exposure can be detrimental or even fatal to the expected function of the devices. Single event effects (SEE), in particular, which lead to sudden device or system failure and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of electronic devices in such systems are discussed. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is introduced as an alternative for radiation-hardened devices. I-V Characteristics Curves for SOI-MOS devices subjected to a different total radiation doses are illustrated. In addition, properties of some semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, and AlGaN/GaN are compared with those of SOI devices. The recognition of the potential usefulness of SOI-MOS semiconductor materials for harsh environments is discussed. A summary of radiation effects, impacts and mitigation techniques is also presented. (authors)

  11. Intraoperative radiation therapy using mobile electron linear accelerators: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam Beddar, A.; Biggs, Peter J.; Chang Sha; Ezzell, Gary A.; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Hensley, Frank W.; Mills, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been customarily performed either in a shielded operating suite located in the operating room (OR) or in a shielded treatment room located within the Department of Radiation Oncology. In both cases, this cancer treatment modality uses stationary linear accelerators. With the development of new technology, mobile linear accelerators have recently become available for IORT. Mobility offers flexibility in treatment location and is leading to a renewed interest in IORT. These mobile accelerator units, which can be transported any day of use to almost any location within a hospital setting, are assembled in a nondedicated environment and used to deliver IORT. Numerous aspects of the design of these new units differ from that of conventional linear accelerators. The scope of this Task Group (TG-72) will focus on items that particularly apply to mobile IORT electron systems. More specifically, the charges to this Task Group are to (i) identify the key differences between stationary and mobile electron linear accelerators used for IORT (ii) describe and recommend the implementation of an IORT program within the OR environment, (iii) present and discuss radiation protection issues and consequences of working within a nondedicated radiotherapy environment, (iv) describe and recommend the acceptance and machine commissioning of items that are specific to mobile electron linear accelerators, and (v) design and recommend an efficient quality assurance program for mobile systems

  12. Main error sources in sorbtion technique and plasma electron component parameter definition by continuous X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.V.; Torokhova, N.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recombination radiation effect on the relation of signals behind the filters depending on the plasma temperature(sorption method for T determination) is demonstrated. This factor produces the main effect on the method accuracy (100-400%), the other factors analysed in combination make an error in temperature at the level of 50%. Method of plasma electron distribution function reconstruction by continuous x-radiation spectrum, based on the correctness (under certain limitations for the required function) of the equation, linking the electron distribution function with bremmsstrahlung spectral density is presented

  13. Development and qualification of materials and processes for radiation shielding of Galileo spacecraft electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hribar, F.; Bauer, J.L.; O'Donnell, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    Several materials and processing methods were evaluated for use on the JPL Galileo spacecraft in the area of radiation shielding for electronics. Development and qualification activities involving an aluminum structural laminate are described. These activities included requirements assessment, design tradeoffs, materials selection, adhesive bonding development, mechanical properties measurements, thermal stability assessment, and nondestructive evaluation. This paper presents evaluation of three adhesives for bonding tantalum to aluminum. The concept of combining a thin sheet of tantalum with two outer aluminum face sheets using adhesive bonding was developed successfully. This radiation shield laminate also provides a structural shear plate for mounting electronic assemblies

  14. Effects of correlation in transition radiation of super-short electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, D. K.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of correlations between electrons in transition radiation is investigated. The correlation function is obtained with help of the approach similar to the Debye-Hückel theory. The corrections due to correlations are estimated to be near 2-3% for the parameters of future projects SINBAD and FLUTE for bunches with extremely small lengths (∼1-10 fs). For the bunches with number of electrons about ∼ 2.5 ∗1010 and more, and short enough that the radiation would be coherent, the corrections due to correlations are predicted to reach 20%.

  15. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  16. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  17. Comparative effects of exposure to high-energy electrons and gamma radiation on active avoidance behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of two types of ionizing radiation was examined on active avoidance behaviour. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to avoid footshock by jumping onto a retractable ledge. When irradiated with high-energy electrons or gamma photons, their performance was degraded in a dose-dependent manner. However, electrons were 1.6 times as effective as gamma photons with ED50s of 62 and 102 Gy, respectively. All animals recovered within 24 min for all doses used. The data suggest that different types of ionizing radiation may not be equivalent when assessing their effect on behaviour. (author)

  18. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  19. Total yield of channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in thin Si and W crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdrashitov, S.V.; Bogdanov, O.V.; Dabagov, S.B.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependences of channeling radiation total yield from relativistic 155–855 MeV electrons at both 〈1 0 0〉 axial and (1 0 0) planar channeling in thin silicon and tungsten crystals are studied by means of computer simulations. The model as well as computer code developed allows getting the quantitative results for orientation dependence of channeling radiation that can be used for crystal alignment in channeling experiments and/or for diagnostics of initial angular divergence of electron beam

  20. Potential application of UV radiation processing in electronic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng Chee Mang; Lim Yoke Keem; Kumar, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    UV-curable epoxies have been formulated for use in place of the established heat cure epoxy systems for coating, adhesion and encapsulation of electronic devices. The UV-cured epoxy systems can be formulated to give comparable or even better physical and chemical properties than the more common heat cured systems. The UV systems offer significant advantage in very fast cure and hence very short production cycle time. UV systems can also be formulated to give desired properties of increased strength, high Tg, increased humidity resistance and improved temperature cycling performance