#### Sample records for radial flow reactor

1. Modelling of pressurized water reactor fuel, rod time dependent radial heat flow with boundary element method; Modeliranje spremenljivega radijalnega toplotnega toka tlacnovodne gorivne palice z metodo robnih elementov

Sarler, B [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

1987-07-01

The basic principles of the boundary element method numerical treatment of the radial flow heat diffusion equation are presented. The algorithm copes the time dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, temperature dependent material properties and regions from different materials in thermal contact. It is verified on the several analytically obtained test cases. The developed method is used for the modelling of unsteady radial heat flow in pressurized water reactor fuel rod. (author)

2. Stability of radial swirl flows

Dou, H S; Khoo, B C

2012-01-01

The energy gradient theory is used to examine the stability of radial swirl flows. It is found that the flow of free vortex is always stable, while the introduction of a radial flow will induce the flow to be unstable. It is also shown that the pure radial flow is stable. Thus, there is a flow angle between the pure circumferential flow and the pure radial flow at which the flow is most unstable. It is demonstrated that the magnitude of this flow angle is related to the Re number based on the radial flow rate, and it is near the pure circumferential flow. The result obtained in this study is useful for the design of vaneless diffusers of centrifugal compressors and pumps as well as other industrial devices.

Valenzuela, Javier

2001-01-01

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

4. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

2013-01-01

The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain.

5. Waves on radial film flows

Cholemari, Murali R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

2005-08-01

We study the stability of surface waves on the radial film flow created by a vertical cylindrical water jet striking a horizontal plate. In such flows, surface waves have been found to be unstable and can cause transition to turbulence. This surface-wave-induced transition is different from the well-known Tollmien-Schlichting wave-induced transition. The present study aims at understanding the instability and the transition process. We do a temporal stability analysis by assuming the flow to be locally two-dimensional but including spatial variations to first order in the basic flow. The waves are found to be dispersive, mostly unstable, and faster than the mean flow. Spatial variation is the major destabilizing factor. Experiments are done to test the results of the linear stability analysis and to document the wave breakup and transition. Comparison between theory and experiments is fairly good and indicates the adequacy of the model.

6. Radial flow gas dynamic laser

Damm, F.C.

1975-01-01

The unique gas dynamic laser provides outward radial supersonic flow from a toroidal shaped stacked array of a plurality of nozzles, through a diffuser having ring shaped and/or linear shaped vanes, and through a cavity which is cylindrical and concentric with the stacked array, with the resultant laser beam passing through the housing parallel to the central axis of the diffuser which is coincident with the axis of the gas dynamic laser. Therefore, greater beam extraction flexibility is attainable, because of fewer flow shock disturbances, as compared to the conventional unidirectional flow gas dynamic laser in which unidirectional supersonic flow sweeps through a rectangular cavity and is exhausted through a two-dimensional diffuser. (auth)

7. Neutronics of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor

Soran, P.D.; Hansen, G.E.

1977-11-01

The study was made to investigate the neutronic feasibility of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor. Three reactor concepts were studied: four- and seven-cell radial reactors and a seven-cell scallop reactor. The reactors were fueled with UF 6 (either U-233 or U-235) and various parameters were varied. A four-cell reactor is not practical nor is the U-235 fueled seven-cell radial reactor; however, the 7-cell U-233 radial and scallop reactors can satisfy all design criteria. The mixed flow gas core reactor is a very attractive reactor concept and warrants further investigation

8. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

1993-01-01

Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

9. Self-adaptive treatment of time dependent nonlinear nonhomogeneous radial heat flow in reactor components with boundary element method; Samoadaptivno obravnanje spemenljivega nelinearnega nehomogenoga radialnega topltnega toka v reaktorskih komponentah z metodo robnih elementov

Sarler, B; Alujevic, A [Univerza B. Kardelja, Institut ' Jozef Stefan' , Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

1988-07-01

The basic principles of self-adaptive algorithm for treatment of transient nonlinear nonhomogeneous radial heat flow, based on direct Boundary Element method formulation, are presented. The indicators of discretization error are developed, together with binary-tree strategy for manipulation with time domain mesh, assuring automatic optimisation of calculation procedure with respect to predetermined error. The developed method is particularly suitable for use in a spectrum of extremely nonlinear cases, occurring in thermal analyses of reactor components.(author)

10. On radial flow between parallel disks

Wee, A Y L; Gorin, A

2015-01-01

Approximate analytical solutions are presented for converging flow in between two parallel non rotating disks. The static pressure distribution and radial component of the velocity are developed by averaging the inertial term across the gap in between parallel disks. The predicted results from the first approximation are favourable to experimental results as well as results presented by other authors. The second approximation shows that as the fluid approaches the center, the velocity at the mid channel slows down which is due to the struggle between the inertial term and the flowrate. (paper)

11. A fast spectrum dual path flow cermet reactor

Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J.; Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C.

1993-01-01

A cermet fueled, dual path fast reactor for space nuclear propulsion applications is conceptually designed. The reactor utilizes an outer annulus core and an inner cylindrical core with radial and axial reflector. The dual path flow minimizes the impact of power peaking near the radial reflector. Basic neutronics and core design aspects of the reactor are discussed. The dual path reactor is integrated into a 25000 lbf thrust nuclear rocket

12. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

2016-11-15

Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

13. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

Slavnić Danijela S.

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

14. Axial and Radial Gas Holdup in Bubble Column Reactor

Wagh, Sameer M.; Ansari, Mohashin E Alan; Kene, Pragati T.

2014-01-01

Bubble column reactors are considered the reactor of choice for numerous applications including oxidation, hydrogenation, waste water treatment, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. They are widely used in a variety of industrial applications for carrying out gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reactions. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used for predicting the gas holdup and its distribution along radial and axial direction are presented. Gas holdup increases linearly with increase in gas velocity. Gas bubbles tends to concentrate more towards the center of the column and follows a wavy path

15. Oxygen distribution in packed-bed membrane reactors for partial oxidations: effect of the radial porosity profiles on the product selectivity

Kurten, U.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

2004-01-01

A two-dimensional, pseudohomogeneous reactor model was presented to describe the radial and axial concentration profiles in a packed-bed membrane reactor and the local velocity field while accounting for the influences due to the distributive membrane flow and the radial porosity profile. The effect

16. Some aspects of radial flow between parallel disks

Tabatabai, M.; Pollard, A.

1985-01-01

Radial flow of air between two closely spaced parallel disks is examined experimentally. A comprehensive review of the previous work performed on similar flow situations is given by Tabatabai and Pollard. The present paper is a discussion of some of the results obtained so far and offers some observations on the decay of turbulence in this flow. (author)

17. Optimization of a radially cooled pebble bed reactor - HTR2008-58117

Boer, B.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van Der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; Van Dam, H.

2008-01-01

By altering the coolant flow direction in a pebble bed reactor from axial to radial, the pressure drop can be reduced tremendously. In this case the coolant flows from the outer reflector through the pebble bed and finally to flow paths in the inner reflector. As a consequence, the fuel temperatures are elevated due to the reduced heat transfer of the coolant. However, the power profile and pebble size in a radially cooled pebble bed reactor can be optimized to achieve lower fuel temperatures than current axially cooled designs, while the low pressure drop can be maintained. The radial power profile in the core can be altered by adopting multi-pass fuel management using several radial fuel zones in the core. The optimal power profile yielding a flat temperature profile is derived analytically and is approximated by radial fuel zoning. In this case, the pebbles pass through the outer region of the core first and each consecutive pass is located in a fuel zone closer to the inner reflector. Thereby, the resulting radial distribution of the fissile material in the core is influenced and the temperature profile is close to optimal. The fuel temperature in the pebbles can be further reduced by reducing the standard pebble diameter from 6 cm to a value as low as I cm. An analytical investigation is used to demonstrate the effects on the fuel temperature and pressure drop for both radial and axial cooling. Finally, two-dimensional numerical calculations were performed, using codes for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and fuel depletion analysis, in order to validate the results for the optimized design that were obtained from the analytical investigations. It was found that for a radially cooled design with an optimized power profile and reduced pebble diameter (below 3.5 cm) both a reduction in the pressure drop (Δp = -2.6 bar), which increases the reactor efficiency with several percent, and a reduction in the maximum fuel temperature (ΔT = -50 deg. C) can be achieved

18. Radial heat conduction in a power reactor fuel element

Ventura, M.A.

1998-01-01

Two radial conduction models, one for steady state and another for unsteady state, in a nuclear power reactor fuel element are developed. The objective is to obtain the temperatures in the fuel pellet and the cladding. The lumped-parameter hypothesis are adopted to represent the system. Both models are verified and their results are compared with similar ones. A method to calculate the conductance in the gap between the UO 2 pellet and the clad and its associated uncertainty is included in the steady state model. (author) [es

19. A user's evaluation of radial flow HEPA filters

Purcell, J.A.

1992-07-01

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters of rectangular cross section have been used to remove particulates and the associated radioactivity from air ventilation streams since the advent of nuclear materials processing. Use of round axial flow HEPA filters is also longstanding. The advantages of radial flow filters in a circular configuration have been well demonstrated in UKAEA during the last 5--7 years. An evaluation of radial flow filters for fissile process gloveboxes reveals several substantial benefits in addition to the advantages claimed in UKAEA Facilities. The radial flow filter may be provided in a favorable geometry resulting in improved criticality safety. The filter configuration lends to in-place testing at the glovebox to exhaust duct interface. This will achieve compliance with DOE Order 6430.1A, Section 99.0.2. Preliminary testing at SRS for radial flow filters manufactured by Flanders Filters, Inc. revealed compliance in all the usual specifications for filtration efficiency, pressure differential and materials of construction. An evaluation, further detailed in this report, indicates that the radial flow HEPA filter should be considered for inclusion in new ventilation system designs

20. Pressurized water reactor flow arrangement

Gibbons, J.F.; Knapp, R.W.

1980-01-01

A flow path is provided for cooling the control rods of a pressurized water reactor. According to this scheme, a small amount of cooling water enters the control rod guide tubes from the top and passes downwards through the tubes before rejoining the main coolant flow and passing through the reactor core. (LL)

Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

2017-12-01

2. Radial, sideward and elliptic flow at AGS energies

the sideward flow, the elliptic flow and the radial transverse mass distribution of protons data at. AGS energies. In order to ... data on both sideward and elliptic flow, NL3 model is better at 2 A¡GeV, while NL23 model is at 4–8. A¡GeV. ... port approach RBUU which is based on a coupled set of covariant transport equations for.

Molokov, S.; Buehler, L.

1993-09-01

Magnetohydrodynamic flows in a U-bend and right-angle bend are considered with reference to the radial-toroidal-radial concept of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The ducts composing bends have rectangular cross-section. The applied magnetic field is aligned with the toroidal duct and perpendicular to the radial ones. At high Hartmann number the flow region is divided into cores and boundary layers of different types. The magnetohydrodynamic equations are reduced to a system of partial differential equations governing wall electric potentials and the core pressure. The system is solved numerically by two different methods. The first method is iterative with iteration between wall potential and the core pressure. The second method is a general one for the solution of the core flow equations in curvilinear coordinates generated by channel geometry and magnetic field orientation. Results obtained are in good agreement. They show, that the 3D-pressure drop of MHD flows in a U-bend is not a critical issue for blanket applications. (orig./HP) [de

4. 78 FR 56174 - In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

2013-09-12

... 52 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking; denial...-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core to enable...

5. Model for radial gas fraction profiles in vertical pipe flow

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.M.

2001-01-01

A one-dimensional model is presented, which predicts the radial volume fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. It bases on the assumption of an equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow path (non drag forces). For the prediction of the flow pattern this model could be used within an procedure together with appropriate models for local bubble coalescence and break-up. (orig.)

6. Secondary Flow Phenomena in Rotating Radial Straight Pipes

Cheng, K. C.; Wang, Liqiu

1995-01-01

Flow visualization results for secondary flow phenomena near the exit of a rotating radial-axis straight pipe (length ࡁ = 82 cm, inside diameter d = 3.81 cm, ࡁ/d 21.52) are presented to study the stabilizing (relaminarization) and destabilizing (early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) effects of Coriolis forces for Reynolds numbers Re = 500 ∼ 4,500 and rotating speeds n = 0 ∼ 200 rpm. The flow visualization was realised by smoke injection method. The main features of the trans...

7. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

Petzoldt, R.W.

1990-01-01

Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to clear the entire heavy-ion beam path of splashed molten salt. The structural components, including the structure between beam ports, are shielded. 3 refs., 12 figs

8. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

Berringer, R.T.

1979-01-01

A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

Murata, Jun; Matsukawa, K; Komine, H; Tsuchimochi, H

2012-03-01

Human hands are excellent in performing sensory and motor function. We have hypothesized that blood flow of the hand is dynamically regulated by sympathetic outflow during concentrated finger perception. To identify this hypothesis, we measured radial blood flow (RBF), radial vascular conductance (RVC), heart rate (HR), and arterial blood pressure (AP) during Braille reading performed under the blind condition in nine healthy subjects. The subjects were instructed to read a flat plate with raised letters (Braille reading) for 30 s by the forefinger, and to touch a blank plate as control for the Braille discrimination procedure. HR and AP slightly increased during Braille reading but remained unchanged during the touching of the blank plate. RBF and RVC were reduced during the Braille character discrimination task (decreased by -46% and -49%, respectively). Furthermore, the changes in RBF and RVC were much greater during the Braille character discrimination task than during the touching of the blank plate (decreased by -20% and -20%, respectively). These results have suggested that the distribution of blood flow to the hand is modulated via sympathetic nerve activity during concentrated finger perception.

10. Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device

Tynan, G R; Burin, M J; Holland, C; Antar, G; Diamond, P H

2004-01-01

A radially sheared azimuthal flow is observed in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. The shear flow is roughly azimuthally symmetric and contains both time-stationary and slowly varying components. The turbulent radial particle flux is found to peak near the density gradient maximum and vanishes at the shear layer location. The shape of the radial plasma potential profile associated with the azimuthal E x B flow is predicted accurately by theory. The existence of the mean shear flow in a plasma with finite flow damping from ion-neutral collisions and no external momentum input implies the existence of radial angular momentum transport from the turbulent Reynolds-stress

11. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

2017-04-15

This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

12. Radial collective flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

Borderie, B.

1996-11-01

The production of radial collective flow is associated with collisions leading to sources which undergo multifragmentation/explosion processes. After a theoretical survey of possible causes of production of radial flow, methods used to derive experimental values are discussed. Finally, a large set of data is presented which can be used to study and disentangle the different effects leading to radial collective flow. The dominant role of compression in the lower energy domain is emphasized. (author)

13. Effect of a flow-corrective insert on the flow pattern in a pebble bed reactor

Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3083, VIC (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: shengyaojiang@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2016-04-15

Highlights: • Effect of an insert on improving flow uniformity and eliminating stagnant zone is studied. • Three values concerned with the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence are used. • Outlet diameter is a critical parameter that determines balancing mechanism of the insert. • Height/location is varied to let the insert work in unbalanced region and avoid adverse effect. - Abstract: A flow-corrective insert is adopted in the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to improve flow performance of the pebble flow for the first time. 3D discrete element method (DEM) modeling is employed to study this slow and dense granular flow. It is verified that locating a properly designed insert in the bed can help transform unsatisfactory flow field to the preferred flow pattern for pebble bed reactors. Three characteristic values on the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence of pebble flow are defined to evaluate uniformity of the overall flow field quantitatively. The results demonstrate that the pebble bed equipped with an insert performs better than normal beds from all these three aspects. Moreover, based on numerical experiments, several universal tips for insert design on height, location and outlet diameter are suggested.

JOHN WILLIAM BRANCH

2007-01-01

15. Flow model study of 'Monju' reactor vessel

Miyaguchi, Kimihide

1980-01-01

In the case of designing the structures in nuclear reactors, various problems to be considered regarding thermo-hydrodynamics exist, such as the distribution of flow quantity and the pressure loss in reactors and the thermal shock to inlet and outlet nozzles. In order to grasp the flow characteristics of coolant in reactors, the 1/2 scale model of the reactor structure of ''Monju'' was attached to the water flow testing facility in the Oarai Engineering Center, and the simulation experiment has been carried out. The flow characteristics in reactors clarified by experiment and analysis so far are the distribution of flow quantity between high and low pressure regions in reactors, the distribution of flow quantity among flow zones in respective regions of high and low pressure, the pressure loss in respective parts in reactors, the flow pattern and the mixing effect of coolant in upper and lower plenums, the effect of the twisting angle of inlet nozzles on the flow characteristics in lower plenums, the effect of internal cylinders on the flow characteristics in upper plenums and so on. On the basis of these test results, the improvement of the design of structures in reactors was made, and the confirmation test on the improved structures was carried out. The testing method, the calculation method, the test results and the reflection to the design of actual machines are described. (Kako, I.)

16. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

2012-05-23

... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples...

17. Independent modification on water lubrication loop of radial-axial bearing of Russian reactor coolant pump

Gu Yingbin

2012-01-01

Water lubrication was used for radial-axial bearings of 1391M reactor coolant pumps at both units of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I Project, which was the first trial on large commercial pressurized water reactors in the world. As a prototype, there were inherent deficiencies leading to a series of operational events. Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation conducted the independent innovative technical modification to cope with the defects, and succeeded in reducing heat removal rate of the radial-axial bearings of the reactor coolant pumps, mitigating or preventing the cavitation abrasion of the bearings and improving the cooling effects. This paper illustrates the reasons of the innovative modification, the design and implementation preparation of modification program, the implementation process and evaluation of modification effect, including detailed follow-up work program. (author)

18. A visual study of radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen.

Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Hsu, Y. Y.

1973-01-01

Data and high speed movies were acquired on pressurized subcooled liquid nitrogen flowing radially inward through a 0.0076 cm gap. The stagnation pressure ranged from 0.7 to 4 MN/sq m. Steady radial inward choked flow appears equivalent to steady choked flow through axisymmetric nozzles. Transient choked flows through the radial gap are not uniform and the discharge pattern appears as nonuniform impinging jets. The critical mass flow rate data for the transient case appear different from those for the steady case. On the mass flow rate vs pressure map, the slope and separation of the isotherms appear to be less for transient than for steady radial choked flow.

19. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor

Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C.

2003-01-01

This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

20. The effects of stainless steel radial reflector on core reactivity for small modular reactor

Kang, Jung Kil, E-mail: jkkang@email.kings.ac.kr; Hah, Chang Joo, E-mail: changhah@kings.ac.kr [KINGS, 658-91, Haemaji-ro, Seosaeng-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-882 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Ju, E-mail: sungju@knfc.co.kr; Seong, Ki Bong, E-mail: kbseong@knfc.co.kr [KNFC, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2016-01-22

Commercial PWR core is surrounded by a radial reflector, which consists of a baffle and water. Radial reflector is designed to reflect neutron back into the core region to improve the neutron efficiency of the reactor and to protect the reactor vessels from the embrittling effects caused by irradiation during power operation. Reflector also helps to flatten the neutron flux and power distributions in the reactor core. The conceptual nuclear design for boron-free small modular reactor (SMR) under development in Korea requires to have the cycle length of 4∼5 years, rated power of 180 MWth and enrichment less than 5 w/o. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of stainless steel radial reflector on the performance of the SMR using UO{sub 2} fuels. Three types of reflectors such as water, water/stainless steel 304 mixture and stainless steel 304 are selected to investigate the effect on core reactivity. Additionally, the thickness of stainless steel and double layer reflector type are also investigated. CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 code system is used for this analysis. The results of analysis show that single layer stainless steel reflector is the most efficient reflector.

1. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

2009-01-01

In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

2. Flow control by combining radial pulsation and rotation of a cylinder in uniform flow

Oualli, H.; Hanchi, S.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

2008-11-01

Flow visualizations and hot-wire measurements are carried out to study a circular cylinder undergoing simultaneous radial pulsation and rotation and placed in a uniform flow. The Reynolds number is in the range of 1,000--22,000, for which transition in the shear layers and near wake is expected. Our previous experimental and numerical investigations in this subcritical flow regime have established the existence of an important energy transfer mechanism from the mean flow to the fluctuations. Radial pulsations cause and enhance that energy transfer. Certain values of the amplitude and frequency of the pulsations lead to negative drag (i.e. thrust). The nonlinear interaction between the Magnus effect induced by the steady rotation of the cylinder and the near-wake modulated by the bluff body's pulsation leads to alteration of the omnipresent Kármán vortices and the possibility of optimizing the lift-to-drag ratio as well as the rates of heat and mass transfer. Other useful applications include the ability to enhance or suppress the turbulence intensity, and to avoid the potentially destructive lock-in phenomenon in the wake of bridges, electric cables and other structures.

3. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

1994-01-01

This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

4. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

Ida, Katsumi

2001-01-01

The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

5. One-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation

Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

1989-01-01

The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plate which emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined by integrating the equations of motion across the thin liquid layer and discretizing the integrated equations using finite difference techniques. The effects of 0-g and solid-body rotation will be discussed. The two cases of interest are plane flow and radial flow. In plane flow, the liquid is considered to be flowing along a channel with no change in the width of the channel, whereas in radial flow the liquid spreads out radially over a disk, so that the area changes along the radius. It is desired to determine the height of the liquid film at any location along the plate of disk, so that the heat transfer from the plate or disk can be found. The possibility that the flow could encounter a hydraulic jump is accounted for.

6. Radial Flow in a Multiphase Transport Model at FAIR Energies

Soumya Sarkar

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Azimuthal distributions of radial velocities of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus (AB collisions are compared with the corresponding azimuthal distribution of charged hadron multiplicity in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT model at two different collision energies. The mean radial velocity seems to be a good probe for studying radial expansion. While the anisotropic parts of the distributions indicate a kind of collective nature in the radial expansion of the intermediate “fireball,” their isotropic parts characterize a thermal motion. The present investigation is carried out keeping the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in mind. As far as high-energy heavy-ion interactions are concerned, CBM will supplement the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC experiments. In this context our simulation results at high baryochemical potential would be interesting, when scrutinized from the perspective of an almost baryon-free environment achieved at RHIC and LHC.

Han XU

2017-10-01

8. Economic performance of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor and gas-cooled fast reactor radial blankets

Tsoulfanidis, N.; Jankhah, M.H.

1979-01-01

The economic performance of the radial blanket of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) has been studied based on the calculation of the net financial gain as well as the value of the levelized fuel cost. The necessary reactor physics calculations have been performed using the code CITATION, and the economic analysis has been carried out with the code ECOBLAN, which has been written for that purpose. The residence time of fuel in the blanket is the main variable of the economic analysis. Other parameters that affect the results and that have been considered are the value of plutonium, the price of heat, the effective cost of money, and the holdup time of the spent fuel before reprocessing. The results show that the radial blanket of both reactors is a producer of net positive income for a broad range of values of the parameters mentioned above. The position of the fuel in the blanket and the fuel management scheme applied affect the monetary gain. There is no significant difference between the economic performance of the blanket of an LMFBR and a GCFR

9. Computer program for the analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

1977-01-01

A computer program was used to solve the governing of the potential flow in the cross sectional planes of a radial inflow turbine scroll. A list of the main program, the subroutines, and typical output example are included.

10. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Mas Milian, Felix; Deppman, Airton; Pinto Coelho, Paulo Rogerio

2010-01-01

For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

11. Numerical study of radial stepwise fuel load reshuffling traveling wave reactor

Zhang Dalin; Zheng Meiyin; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui

2015-01-01

Traveling wave reactor is a new conceptual fast breeder reactor, which can adopt natural uranium, depleted uranium and thorium directly to realize the self sustainable breeding and burning to achieve very high fuel utilization fraction. Based on the mechanism of traveling wave reactor, a concept of radial stepwise fuel load reshuffling traveling wave reactor was proposed for realistic application. It was combined with the typical design of sodium-cooled fast reactors, with which the asymptotic characteristics of the inwards stepwise fuel load reshuffling were studied numerically in two-dimension. The calculated results show that the asymptotic k_e_f_f parabolically varies with the reshuffling cycle length, while the burnup increases linearly. The highest burnup satisfying the reactor critical condition is 38%. The power peak shifts from the fuel discharging zone (core centre) to the fuel uploading zone (core periphery) and correspondingly the power peaking factor decreases along with the reshuffling cycle length. In addition, at the high burnup case the axial power distribution close to the core centre displays the M-shaped deformation. (authors)

12. Law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays and radial consolidation

2007-01-01

It was derived that micro-scale amount level of average pore radius of clay changed from 0.01 to 0.1 micron by an equivalent concept of flow in porous media. There is good agreement between the derived results and test ones. Results of experiments show that flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays follows law of nonlinear flow. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that an interaction of solid-liquid interfaces varies inversely with permeability or porous radius. The interaction is an important reason why nonlinear flow in saturated clays occurs. An exact mathematical model was presented for nonlinear flow in micro-scale pore of saturated clays. Dimension and physical meanings of parameters of it are definite. A new law of nonlinear flow in saturated clays was established. It can describe characteristics of flow curve of the whole process of the nonlinear flow from low hydraulic gradient to high one. Darcy law is a special case of the new law. A mathematical model was presented for consolidation of nonlinear flow in radius direction in saturated clays with constant rate based on the new law of nonlinear flow. Equations of average mass conservation and moving boundary, and formula of excess pore pressure distribution and average degree of consolidation for nonlinear flow in saturated clay were derived by using an idea of viscous boundary layer, a method of steady state in stead of transient state and a method of integral of an equation. Laws of excess pore pressure distribution and changes of average degree of consolidation with time were obtained. Results show that velocity of moving boundary decreases because of the nonlinear flow in saturated clay. The results can provide geology engineering and geotechnical engineering of saturated clay with new scientific bases. Calculations of average degree of consolidation of the Darcy flow are a special case of that of the nonlinear flow.

13. Reactor coolant flow measurements at Point Lepreau

Brenciaglia, G.; Gurevich, Y.; Liu, G.

1996-01-01

The CROSSFLOW ultrasonic flow measurement system manufactured by AMAG is fully proven as reliable and accurate when applied to large piping in defined geometries for such applications as feedwater flows measurement. Its application to direct reactor coolant flow (RCF) measurements - both individual channel flows and bulk flows such as pump suction flow - has been well established through recent work by AMAG at Point Lepreau, with application to other reactor types (eg. PWR) imminent. At Point Lepreau, Measurements have been demonstrated at full power; improvements to consistently meet ±1% accuracy are in progress. The development and recent customization of CROSSFLOW to RCF measurement at Point Lepreau are described in this paper; typical measurement results are included. (author)

14. Predictions of the Bypass Flows in the HTR-PM Reactor Core

Sun Jun; Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Li Fu

2014-01-01

In the HTR-PM reactor core, the basic structure materials are large amount of graphite reflectors and carbon bricks. Small gaps among those graphite and carbon bricks are widespread in the reactor core so that the cold helium flow may be bypassed and not completely heated. The bypass flows in relative lower temperature would change the flow and temperature distributions in the reactor core, therefore, the accurate prediction of bypass flows need to be carried out carefully to evaluate the influence to the reactor safety. Based on the characteristics of the bypass flow problem, hybrid method of the flow network and the CFD tools was employed to represent the connections and calculate flow distributions of all the main flow and bypass flow paths. In this paper, the hybrid method was described and applied to specific bypass flow problem in the HTR-PM. Various bypass flow paths in the HTR-PM were reviewed, figured out, and modeled by the flow network and the CFD methods, including the axial vertical gaps in the side reflectors, control rod channels, absorber sphere channels and radial gap flow through keys around the hot helium plenum. The bypass flow distributions and its flow rate ratio to the total flow rate in the primary loop were also calculated, discussed and evaluated. (author)

15. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

Vestfall, D. Gary

1997-01-01

We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

16. Gas flows in radial micro-nozzles with pseudo-shocks

Kiselev, S. P.; Kiselev, V. P.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

2017-12-01

In the present paper, results of an experimental and numerical study of supersonic gas flows in radial micro-nozzles are reported. A distinguishing feature of such flows is the fact that two factors, the nozzle divergence and the wall friction force, exert a substantial influence on the flow structure. Under the action of the wall friction force, in the micro-nozzle there forms a pseudo-shock that separates the supersonic from subsonic flow region. The position of the pseudo-shock can be evaluated from the condition of flow blockage in the nozzle exit section. A detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of gas flows in radial micro-nozzles is given. It is shown that the gas flow in a micro-nozzle is defined by the complicated structure of the boundary layer in the micro-nozzle, this structure being dependent on the width-to-radius ratio of the nozzle and its inlet-to-outlet pressure ratio.

2014-05-01

birds , marine life and even insect wings. In some cases such as helicopters, wind turbines and compres- sors, dynamic stall becomes the primary...on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine operating at a yaw angle. While great...occurring on a retreating blade with a focus on dynamic stall and reverse flow as applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight and a wind turbine

18. The radial distribution of the neutron field in the core of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

Huy, Ngo Quang [Centre for Nuclear Technique Application, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Thong, Ha Van; Long, Vu Hai; Khang, Ngo Phu; Binh, Nguyen Duc; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Le Vinh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

1994-10-01

Determination of the radial distribution of the thermal neutron field in the core of the Dalat reactor is done by the Cu foil activation method. The measured data are fitted by the least square method to determine several physical parameters of the reactor, as follows: 1. Buckling B{sub r}{sup 2}=(84.6{+-}5.5)10{sup -4}/cm{sup 2}. 2. The effective radius R{sub eff}=(27.6{+-}1.0)cm. 3. The extrapolation distance {lambda}=(8.7{+-}1.0)cm. 4. The unequal coefficient of the effective multiplication K{sub r}=1.77{+-}0.11. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

19. Calorimetric and reactor coolant system flow uncertainty

Bates, L.; McLean, T.

1991-01-01

This paper describes a methodology for the quantification of errors associated with the determination of a feedwater flow, secondary power, and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) flow used at the Trojan Nuclear Plant to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. The sources of error in Plant indications and process measurement are identified and tracked, using examples, through the mathematical processes necessary to calculate the uncertainty in the RCS flow measurement. An error of approximately 1.4 percent is calculated for secondary power. This error results, along with the consideration of other errors, in an uncertainty of approximately 3 percent in the RCS flow determination

20. Analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

1977-01-01

Equations of motion were derived, and a computational procedure is presented, for determining the nonviscous flow characteristics in the cross-sectional planes of a curved channel due to continuous mass discharge or mass addition. An analysis was applied to the radial inflow turbine scroll to study the effects of scroll geometry and the through flow velocity profile on the flow behavior. The computed flow velocity component in the scroll cross-sectional plane, together with the through flow velocity profile which can be determined in a separate analysis, provide a complete description of the three dimensional flow in the scroll.

1. Radial flow towards well in leaky unconfined aquifer

Mishra, P. K.; Kuhlman, K. L.

2012-12-01

An analytical solution is developed for three-dimensional flow towards a partially penetrating large- diameter well in an unconfined aquifer bounded below by a leaky aquitard of finite or semi-infinite extent. The analytical solution is derived using Laplace and Hankel transforms, then inverted numerically. Existing solutions for flow in leaky unconfined aquifers neglect the unsaturated zone following an assumption of instantaneous drainage due to Neuman. We extend the theory of leakage in unconfined aquifers by (1) including water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone above the water table, and (2) allowing the finite-diameter pumping well to partially penetrate the aquifer. The investigation of model-predicted results shows that aquitard leakage leads to significant departure from the unconfined solution without leakage. The investigation of dimensionless time-drawdown relationships shows that the aquitard drawdown also depends on unsaturated zone properties and the pumping-well wellbore storage effects.

2. Three-dimensional flow field measurements in a radial inflow turbine scroll using LDV

Malak, M. F.; Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.

1986-01-01

The results of an experimental study of the three-dimensional flow field in a radial inflow turbine scroll are presented. A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle. The cold flow experimental results are presented for through-flow velocity contours and the cross velocity vectors.

3. Reactor core flow rate control system

Sakuma, Hitoshi; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Miyakawa, Tetsuya.

1996-01-01

When an internal pump is started by a variable frequency power source device, if magnetic fields of an AC generator are introduced after the rated speed is reached, neutron flux high scram occurs by abrupt increase of a reactor core flow rate. Then, in the present invention, magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced at a speed previously set at which the fluctuation range of the reactor core flow rate (neutron flux) by the start up of the internal pump is within an allowable value. Since increase of the speed of the internal pump upon its start up is suppressed to determine the change of the reactor core flow rate within an allowable range, increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed to enable stable start up. Then, since transition boiling of fuels caused by abrupt decrease of the reactor core flow rate upon occurrence of abnormality in an external electric power system is prevented, and the magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced in such a manner to put the speed increase fluctuation range of the internal pump upon start up within an allowable value, neutron flux high scram is not caused to enable stable start-up. (N.H.)

4. CFD simulation on reactor flow mixing phenomena

Kwon, T.S.; Kim, K.H.

2016-01-01

A pre-test calculation for multi-dimensional flow mixing in a reactor core and downcomer has been studied using a CFD code. To study the effects of Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) and core zone on the boron mixing behaviors in a lower downcomer and core inlet, a 1/5-scale CFD model of flow mixing test facility for the APR+ reference plant was simulated. The flow paths of the 1/5-scale model were scaled down by the linear scaling method. The aspect ratio (L/D) of all flow paths was preserved to 1. To preserve a dynamic similarity, the ratio of Euler number was also preserved to 1. A single phase water flow at low pressure and temperature conditions was considered in this calculation. The calculation shows that the asymmetric effect driven by RCPs shifted the high velocity field to the failed pump's flow zone. The borated water flow zone at the core inlet was also shifted to the failed RCP side. (author)

5. A simple reactivity feedback model accounting for radial core expansion effects in the liquid metal fast reactor

Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Haha, Do Hee

2002-01-01

The radial core expansion due to the structure temperature rise is one of major negative reactivity insertion mechanisms in metallic fueled reactor. Thermal expansion is a result of both the laws of nature and the particular core design and it causes negative reactivity feedback by the combination of increased core volume captures and increased core surface leakage. The simple radial core expansion reactivity feedback model developed for the SSC-K code was evaluated by the code-to-code comparison analysis. From the comparison results, it can be stated that the radial core expansion reactivity feedback model employed into the SSC-K code may be reasonably accurate in the UTOP analysis

6. A simple reactivity feedback model accounting for radial core expansion effects in the liquid metal fast reactor

Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Haha, Do Hee [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2002-10-01

The radial core expansion due to the structure temperature rise is one of major negative reactivity insertion mechanisms in metallic fueled reactor. Thermal expansion is a result of both the laws of nature and the particular core design and it causes negative reactivity feedback by the combination of increased core volume captures and increased core surface leakage. The simple radial core expansion reactivity feedback model developed for the SSC-K code was evaluated by the code-to-code comparison analysis. From the comparison results, it can be stated that the radial core expansion reactivity feedback model employed into the SSC-K code may be reasonably accurate in the UTOP analysis.

7. Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors

Grevskott, Sverre

1997-12-31

Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.

8. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun; Tan, Ji Jian

2016-01-01

Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets

9. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Tan, Ji Jian [Dept. of Research and Development, Shenyang Blower Works Group Co., Ltd., Shenyang (China)

2016-11-15

Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets.

10. Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe

Zuykov Andrey L'vovich

2014-05-01

Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

11. Three-dimensional inviscid analysis of radial turbine flow and a limited comparison with experimental data

Choo, Y. K.; Civinskas, K. C.

1985-01-01

12. Evaluation of the radial design of fuel cells in an operation cycle of a BWR reactor; Evaluacion del diseno radial de celdas de combustible en un ciclo de operacion de un reactor BWR

Gonzalez C, J.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: jgco@ver.megared.net.mx

2003-07-01

This work is continuation of one previous in the one that the application of the optimization technique called Tabu search to the radial design of fuel cells of boiling water reactors (BWR, Boiling Water Reactor) is presented. The objective function used in the optimization process only include neutron parameters (k-infinite and peak of radial power) considering the cell at infinite media. It was obtained to reduce the cell average enrichment completing the characteristics of reactivity of an original cell. The objective of the present work is to validate the objective function that was used for the radial design of the fuel cell (test cell), analyzing the operation of a one cycle of the reactor in which fuels have been fresh recharged that contain an axial area with the nuclear database of the cell designed instead of the original cell. For it is simulated it with Cm-Presto the cycle 10 of the reactor operation of the Unit 1 of the Nuclear Power station of Laguna Verde (U1-CNLV). For the cycle evaluation its were applied so much the simulation with the Haling strategy, as the simulation of the one cycle with control rod patterns and they were evaluated the energy generation and several power limits and reactivity that are used as design parameters in fuel reloads of BWR reactors. The results at level of an operation cycle of the reactor, show that the objective function used in the optimization and radial design of the cell is adequate and that it can induce to one good use of the fuel. (Author)

13. Flow measurements in the core of the FRJ-2 research reactor after the installation of flow regulators in the locating bushes in the grid and investigation of the consequences for the safety of reactor operation

Wolters, J.P.

1975-04-01

Early in June, 1974, radial flow regulators were installed in the locating bushes in the grid of the FRJ-2 reactor in order to reduce the flow irregularities in certain positions and thus to mobilize additional safety reserves. The success of these measures was tested by flow measurements in all 25 fuel element positions. The results are presented in this paper, their consequences for safety engineering are analyzed, and a flexible inlet temperature is proposed. (orig./AK) [de

14. Subchannel flow analysis in Candu and ACR pressure tubes with radial and axial diameter variation

Catana, A.; Prodea, L. [RAAN, Institute for Nuclear Research, Arges (Romania); Danila, N.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D. [Bucharest Univ. Politehnica(Romania)

2007-07-01

The Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) and ACR (Advanced Candu Reactor) are pressure tubes (PT) heavy water moderated reactors. Candu are heavy water and ACR are light water cooled reactors. The pressure tube is filled with 12 bundles, each consisting of 37 respectively 43 fuel rods. One Candu reactor is in operation at Cernavoda, Romania since 1996. ACR is a proposed advanced Candu. PT diameter variation has a significant impact on the thermal-hydraulic parameters. Almost all thermal-hydraulic parameters change, but some of them have a greater significance. In this work we have considered a set of radial and axial PT diameter variations both for Candu-600 and ACR-700 reactors using various types of fuel bundles. We can conclude the following: 1) some thermal-hydraulic parameters are significantly influenced: critical heat flux (CHF), pressure drop, or void fraction; 2) the most significant parameter CHF is worsening which reduces the safety margin; 3) some fuel types present a better thermal-hydraulic behavior; and 4) fuel bundles with fresh fuel or low burnup have a worse thermal-hydraulic behaviour than those at average burn-up.

15. Subchannel flow analysis in Candu and ACR pressure tubes with radial and axial diameter variation

Catana, A.; Prodea, L.; Danila, N.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D.

2007-01-01

The Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) and ACR (Advanced Candu Reactor) are pressure tubes (PT) heavy water moderated reactors. Candu are heavy water and ACR are light water cooled reactors. The pressure tube is filled with 12 bundles, each consisting of 37 respectively 43 fuel rods. One Candu reactor is in operation at Cernavoda, Romania since 1996. ACR is a proposed advanced Candu. PT diameter variation has a significant impact on the thermal-hydraulic parameters. Almost all thermal-hydraulic parameters change, but some of them have a greater significance. In this work we have considered a set of radial and axial PT diameter variations both for Candu-600 and ACR-700 reactors using various types of fuel bundles. We can conclude the following: 1) some thermal-hydraulic parameters are significantly influenced: critical heat flux (CHF), pressure drop, or void fraction; 2) the most significant parameter CHF is worsening which reduces the safety margin; 3) some fuel types present a better thermal-hydraulic behavior; and 4) fuel bundles with fresh fuel or low burnup have a worse thermal-hydraulic behaviour than those at average burn-up

16. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique

Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.

2016-01-01

A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. - Highlights: • Residence time distributions of liquid phase were measured in a trickle bed reactor. • Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. • Mean residence times, holdups and radial distribution of liquid phase were quantified. • Axial dispersion with exchange model was used to simulate the measured data. • The trickle bed reactor behaved as a plug flow reactor.

17. Radial heat transfer from fuel to moderator during LOCAs for CANDU PHW reactors

Hildebrandt, J.G.; So, C.B.; Gillespie, G.E.; MacLean, G.

1983-01-01

In a postulated CANDU-PHW loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with coincident impaired emergency cooling, the axial transport of heat from the fuel by convection is reduced. This reduction in heat removal causes the fuel to heat up and the radial heat transfer to the moderator to become significant. This paper deals with two codes that predict the thermal response of fuel channels under LOCA conditions. New channel thermal radiation models in both RAMA, a thermalhydraulic code, and CHAN II, a fuel channel thermo-chemical code, are presented and their predictions are compared with the experimental results of an electrically heated bundle of 37 fuel pins. A second experiment, involving a single heated pin in a channel with flowing steam, is presented. The predictions of RAMA and CHAN II are compared with this experiment to verify the codes' thermo-chemical models. There is good agreement between the predictions of both codes and the experimental results

18. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

2017-12-01

The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

19. On Analysis of Stationary Viscous Incompressible Flow Through a Radial Blade Machine

Neustupa, Tomáš

2010-09-01

The paper is concerned with the analysis of the two dimensional model of incompressible, viscous, stationary flow through a radial blade machine. This type of turbine is sometimes called Kaplan's turbine. In the technical area the use is either to force some regular characteristic to the flow of the medium going through the turbine (flow of melted iron, air conditioning) or to gain some energy from the flowing medium (water). The inflow and outflow part of boundary are in general a concentric circles. The larger one represents an inflow part of boundary the smaller one the outflow part of boundary. Between them are regularly spaced the blades of the machine. We study the existence of the weak solution in the case of nonlinear boundary condition of the "do-nothing" type. The model is interesting for study the behavior of the flow when the boundary is formed by mutually disjoint and separated parts.

20. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

1988-01-01

An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

1. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM

Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C.

2016-09-01

This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

2. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...

3. Influence of the Constitutive Flow Law in FEM Simulation of the Radial Forging Process

Olivier Pantalé

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Radial forging is a widely used forming process for manufacturing hollow products in transport industry. As the deformation of the workpiece, during the process, is a consequence of a large number of high-speed strokes, the Johnson-Cook constitutive law (taking into account the strain rate seems to be well adapted for representing the material behavior even if the process is performed under cold conditions. But numerous contributions concerning radial forging analysis, in the literature, are based on a simple elastic-plastic formulation. As far as we know, this assumption has yet not been validated for the radial forging process. Because of the importance of the flow law in the effectiveness of the model, our purpose in this paper is to analyze the influence of the use of an elastic-viscoplastic formulation instead of an elastic-plastic one for modeling the cold radial forging process. In this paper we have selected two different laws for the simulations: the Johnson-Cook and the Ludwik ones, and we have compared the results in terms of forging force, product's thickness, strains, stresses, and CPU time. For the presented study we use an AISI 4140 steel, and we denote a fairly good agreement between the results obtained using both laws.

4. Transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in recessive cavitation transition process

Wang Xiuli; Yuan Shouqi; Zhu Rongsheng; Yu Zhijun

2013-01-01

The numerical simulation calculation of the transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in the recessive cavitation transition process in the nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller passage is conducted by CFX, and the transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in the transition process from reducing the inlet pressure at cavitation-born conditions to NPSHc condition is studied and analyzed. The flow field analysis shows that, in the recessive cavitation transition process, the speed diversification at the inlet is relative to the bubble increasing, and makes the speed near the blade entrance increase when the bubble phase region becomes larger. The bubble generation and collapse will affect the the speed fluctuation near the entrance. The vorticity close to the blade entrance gradually increasing is influenced by the bubble phase, and the collapse of bubble generated by cavitation will reduce the vorticity from the collapse to impeller outlet. Pump asymmetric structure causes the asymmetry of the flow, velocity and outlet pressure distribution within every impeller flow passage, which cause the asymmetry of the transient radial force. From the dimensionless t/T = 0.6, the bubble phase starts to have impact on the impeller transient radial force, and results in the irregular fluctuations. (authors)

5. A system for the discharge of gas bubbles from the coolant flow of a nuclear reactor cooled by forced circulation

Markfort, D.; Kaiser, A.; Dohmen, A.

1975-01-01

In a reactor cooled by forced circulation the gas bubbles carried along with the coolant flow are separated before entering the reactor core or forced away into the external zones. For this purpose the coolant is radially guided into a plenum below the core and deflected to a tangential direction by means of flow guide elements. The flow runs spirally downwards. On the bubbles, during their dwell time in this channel, the buoyant force and a force towards the axis of symmetry of the tank are exerted. The major part of the coolant is directed into a radial direction by means of a guiding apparatus in the lower section of the channel and guided through a chimney in the plenum to the center of the reactor core. This inner chimney is enclosed by an outer chimney for the core edge zones through which coolant with a small share of bubbles is taken away. (RW) [de

6. Three dimensional LDV flow measurements and theoretical investigation in a radial inflow turbine scroll

Malak, Malak Fouad; Hamed, Awatef; Tabakoff, Widen

1990-01-01

A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle of a radial inflow turbine scroll. The cold flow experimental results are presented for the velocity field at the scroll tongue. In addition, a total pressure loss of 3.5 percent for the scroll is revealed from the velocity measurements combined with the static pressure readings. Moreover, the measurement of the three normal stresses of the turbulence has showed that the flow is anisotropic. Furthermore, the mean velocity components are compared with a numerical solution of the potential flow field using the finite element technique. The theoretical prediction of the exit flow angle variation agrees well with the experimental results. This variation leads to a higher scroll pattern factor which can be avoided by controlling the scroll cross sectional area distribution.

7. Relationship between preoperative radial artery and postoperative arteriovenous fistula blood flow in hemodialysis patients.

Sato, Michiko; Io, Hiroaki; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Yoshio; Fukui, Mitsumine; Hamada, Chieko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

It is recommended that arteriovenous fistula (AVF) blood flow should be more than 425 ml/min before cannulation. However, the relationship between preoperative radial artery flow (RAF) and postoperative AVF blood flow has still not been examined. Sixty-one patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) were examined. They had an AVF prepared at Juntendo University Hospital from July 2006 through August 2007. Preoperative RAF and postoperative AVF blood flows were measured by ultrasonography. AVF blood flow gradually increased after the operation. AVF blood flow was significantly correlated with preoperative RAF. When preoperative RAF exceeded 21.4 ml/min, AVF blood flow rose to more than 425 ml/min. The postoperative AVF blood flow in the group with RAF of more than 20 ml/min was significantly higher than that in those with less than 20 ml/min. Preoperative RAF of less than 20 ml/min had a significantly high risk of primary AVF failure within 8 months compared with that of more than 20 ml/min. It appears that measurement of RAF by ultrasonography is useful for estimating AVF blood flow postoperatively and can predict the risk of complications in ESKD patients.

8. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

2001-07-01

The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

9. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

2001-01-01

The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

10. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

2017-12-01

Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

11. Characterization of a Twin-Entry Radial Turbine under Pulsatile Flow Condition

Mahfoudh Cerdoun

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In automotive applications radial gas turbines are commonly fitted with a twin-entry volute connected to a divided exhaust manifold, ensuring a better scavenge process owing to less interference between engines’ cylinders. This paper is concerned with the study of the unsteady performances related to the pulsating flows of a twin-entry radial turbine in engine-like conditions and the hysteresis-like behaviour during the pulses period. The results show that the aerodynamic performances deviate noticeably from the steady state and depend mainly on the time shifting between the actual output power and the isentropic power, which is distantly related to the apparent length. The maximum of efficiency and output shaft power are accompanied by low entropy generation through the shroud entry side, and their instantaneous behaviours tend to follow mainly the inlet total pressure curve. As revealed a billow is created by the interaction between the main flow and the infiltrated flow, affecting the flow incidence at rotor entry and producing high losses.

12. Energy Performance and Radial Force of a Mixed-Flow Pump with Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Tip Clearances

Yue Hao

2017-01-01

13. Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor under Closed-Loop Control via Independent Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Abdelkarim M. Ertiame; D. W. Yu; D. L. Yu; J. B. Gomm

2015-01-01

In this paper, a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to model the process dynamics, and using the weighted sum-squared prediction error as the residual. The Recursive Orthogonal Least Squares algorithm (ROLS) is emplo...

2008-01-01

This paper presents a method for solving the load-flow problem of the electric power systems using radial basis function (RBF) neural network with a fast hybrid training method. The main idea is that some operating conditions (values) are needed to solve the set of non-linear algebraic equations of load-flow by employing an iterative numerical technique. Therefore, we may view the outputs of a load-flow program as functions of the operating conditions. Indeed, we are faced with a function approximation problem and this can be done by an RBF neural network. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to the 10-machine and 39-bus New England test system. In addition, this method has been compared with that of a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network model. The simulation results show that the RBF neural network is a simpler method to implement and requires less training time to converge than the MLP neural network. (author)

15. A Novel Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

2015-01-01

The dual-stage reactor is a novel continuous flow reactor with two reactors connected in series. It is designed for hydrothermal flow synthesis of nanocomposites, in which a single particle consists of multiple materials. The secondary material may protect the core nanoparticle from oxidation....... The dual-stage reactor combines the ability to produce advanced materials with an upscaled capacity in excess of 10 g/hour (dry mass). TiO2 was synthesized in the primary reactor and reproduced previous results. The dual-stage capability was succesfully demonstrated with a series of nanocomposites incl. Ti...

16. Dispositivo de posicionamiento de muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear // Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

Maritza Rodríguez - Gual

2010-05-01

17. Why is the radial flow in central pA collisions stronger than in AA?

Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

2014-01-01

Both the transverse size and entropy density per area in central pA collisions is smaller than in central AA, and yet the radial flow is stronger. We propose an explanation to this puzzle. Using a weak attraction between strings through the σ-meson exchange, fitted to the lattice data, we find collective implosion of the “spaghetti” multi-string state. Collectivization of the sigma field of the strings is the QCD analog of the black hole formation occurring in holographic models

18. Design, construction and mechanical optimisation process of electrode with radial current flow in the scala tympani.

Deman, P R; Kaiser, T M; Dirckx, J J; Offeciers, F E; Peeters, S A

2003-09-30

A 48 contact cochlear implant electrode has been constructed for electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The stimulating contacts of this electrode are organised in two layers: 31 contacts on the upper surface directed towards the habenula perforata and 17 contacts connected together as one longitudinal contact on the underside. The design of the electrode carrier aims to make radial current flow possible in the cochlea. The mechanical structure of the newly designed electrode was optimised to obtain maximal insertion depth. Electrode insertion tests were performed in a transparent acrylic model of the human cochlea.

19. Inertia effects in the laminar radial flow of a power law fluid with an electromagnetic field

Chen, C.-K.; Chen, K.-H.; Wu, C.-Y.

1984-01-01

An approximate study of the pressure distribution for the radial flow of a non-newtonian (power law) fluid between two parallel disks in the presence of an axial electrical field is obtained by using the momentum and energy integral methods. For a non-newtonian fluid it is shown that the inertia effect must be considered to be significant for the pressure distribution, especially for the power law fluids with n >= 1. Furthermore, it is seen that the inertia effect will also lower the load capacity of the disks. (Auth.)

20. Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for ...

Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... 000 mg∙ℓ-1 Na2SO4 solution) and the Liner Flow Channel Reactors (surface area ...

1. Investigation of flow stabilization in a compact reactor vessel of a FBR. Flow visualization in a reactor vessel

Sato, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Kamide, Hideki

2002-01-01

In the feasibility studies of Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System, a compact reactor vessel is considered from economical improvement point of a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor. The flow field was visualized by water experiment for a reactor vessel with 'a column type UIS (Upper Internal Structure)', which has a slit for fuel handling mechanism and is useful for a compact fast reactor. In this research, the 1/20 scale test equipment using water was made to understand coolant flow through a slit of a column type UIS' and fundamental behavior of reactor upper plenum flow. In the flow visualization tests, tracer particles were added in the water, and illuminated by the slit-shaped pulse laser. The flow visualization image was taken with a CCD camera. We obtained fluid velocity vectors from the visualization image using the Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The results are as follows. 1. Most of coolant flow through a slit of 'column type UIS' arrived the dip plate directly. In the opposite side of a slit, most of coolant flowed toward reactor vessel wall before it arrived the dip plate. 2. The PIV was useful to measure the flow field in the reactor vessel. The obtained velocity field was consistent with the flow visualization result. 3. The jet through the UIS slit was dependent on the UIS geometry. There is a possibility to control the jet by the UIS geometry. (author)

2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

Gilmore, Mark Allen

2017-01-01

Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB's)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB's] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

3. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2017-02-05

Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

4. Development and evaluation of a radial anaerobic/aerobic reactor treating organic matter and nitrogen in sewage

L. H. P. Garbossa

2005-12-01

Full Text Available The design and performance of a radial anaerobic/aerobic immobilized biomass (RAAIB reactor operating to remove organic matter, solids and nitrogen from sewage are discussed. The bench-scale RAAIB was divided into five concentric chambers. The second and fourth chambers were packed with polyurethane foam matrices. The performance of the reactor in removing organic matter and producing nitrified effluent was good, and its configuration favored the transfer of oxygen to the liquid mass due to its characteristics and the fixed polyurethane foam bed arrangement in concentric chambers. Partial denitrification of the liquid also took place in the RAAIB. The reactor achieved an organic matter removal efficiency of 84%, expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD, and a total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN removal efficiency of 96%. Average COD, nitrite and nitrate values for the final effluent were 54 mg.L-1, 0.3 mg.L-1 and 22.1 mg.L-1, respectively.

5. Extracting kinetic freeze-out temperature and radial flow velocity from an improved Tsallis distribution

Lao, Hai-Ling; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2017-03-15

We analyze the transverse-momentum (p{sub T}) spectra of identified particles (π{sup ±}, K{sup ±}, p, and anti p) produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions over a √(s{sub NN}) (center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair) range from 14.5 GeV (one of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies) to 2.76 TeV (one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies). For the spectra with a narrow p{sub T} range, an improved Tsallis distribution which is in fact the Tsallis distribution with radial flow is used. For the spectra with a wide p{sub T} range, a superposition of the improved Tsallis distribution and an inverse power law is used. Both the extracted kinetic freeze-out temperature (T{sub 0}) and radial flow velocity (β{sub T}) increase with the increase of √(s{sub NN}), which indicates a higher excitation and larger expansion of the interesting system at the LHC. Both the values of T{sub 0} and β{sub T} in central collisions are slightly larger than those in peripheral collisions, and they are independent of isospin and slightly dependent on mass. (orig.)

6. Radial basis functions in mathematical modelling of flow boiling in minichannels

Hożejowska Sylwia

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper addresses heat transfer processes in flow boiling in a vertical minichannel of 1.7 mm depth with a smooth heated surface contacting fluid. The heated element for FC-72 flowing in a minichannel was a 0.45 mm thick plate made of Haynes-230 alloy. An infrared camera positioned opposite the central, axially symmetric part of the channel measured the plate temperature. K-type thermocouples and pressure converters were installed at the inlet and outlet of the minichannel. In the study radial basis functions were used to solve a problem concerning heat transfer in a heated plate supplied with the controlled direct current. According to the model assumptions, the problem is treated as twodimensional and governed by the Poisson equation. The aim of the study lies in determining the temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient. The results were verified by comparing them with those obtained by the Trefftz method.

7. Evidence for radial flow of thermal dileptons in high-energy nuclear collisions

Arnaldi, R; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cicalò, C; Colla, A; Cortese, P; Damjanovic, S; David, A; De Falco, A; Devaux, A; Ducroux, L; Enyo, H; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Floris, M; Förster, A; Force, P; Guettet, N; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Heuser, J M; Keil, M; Kluberg, L; Lourenço, C; Lozano, J; Manso, F; Martins, P; Masoni, A; Neves, A; Ohnishi, H; Oppedisano, C; Parracho, P; Pillot, P; Poghosyan, T; Puddu, G; Radermacher, E; Ramalhete, P; Rosinsky, P; Scomparin, E; Seixas, J; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sonderegger, P; Specht, H J; Tieulent, R; Usai, G; Veenhof, R; Wöhri, H K

2008-01-01

The NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS has studied low-mass dimuon production in 158 AGeV In-In collisions. An excess of pairs above the known meson decays has been reported before. We now present precision results on the associated transverse momentum spectra. The slope parameter Teff extracted from the spectra rises with dimuon mass up to the rho, followed by a sudden decline above. While the initial rise is consistent with the expectations for radial flow of a hadronic decay source, the decline signals a transition to an emission source with much smaller flow. This may well represent the first direct evidence for thermal radiation of partonic origin in nuclear collisions.

8. Active Flow Control in a Radial Vaned Diffuser for Surge Margin Improvement: A Multislot Suction Strategy

Aurélien Marsan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This work is the final step of a research project that aims at evaluating the possibility of delaying the surge of a centrifugal compressor stage using a boundary-layer suction technique. It is based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations. Boundary-layer suction is applied within the radial vaned diffuser. Previous work has shown the necessity to take into account the unsteady behavior of the flow when designing the active flow control technique. In this paper, a multislot strategy is designed according to the characteristics of the unsteady pressure field. Its implementation results in a significant increase of the stable operating range predicted by the unsteady RANS numerical model. A hub-corner separation still exists further downstream in the diffuser passage but does not compromise the stability of the compressor stage.

9. Optimal Power Flow in Multiphase Radial Networks with Delta Connections: Preprint

Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Low, Steven H. [California Institute of Technology

2017-11-27

This paper focuses on multiphase radial distribution networks with mixed wye and delta connections, and proposes a semidefinite relaxation of the AC optimal power flow (OPF) problem. Two multiphase power-flow models are developed to facilitate the integration of delta-connected generation units/loads in the OPF problem. The first model extends traditional branch flow models - and it is referred to as extended branch flow model (EBFM). The second model leverages a linear relationship between per-phase power injections and delta connections, which holds under a balanced voltage approximation (BVA). Based on these models, pertinent OPF problems are formulated and relaxed to semidefinite programs (SDPs). Numerical studies on IEEE test feeders show that SDP relaxations can be solved efficiently by a generic optimization solver. Numerical evidences indicate that solving the resultant SDP under BVA is faster than under EBFM. Moreover, both SDP solutions are numerically exact with respect to voltages and branch flows. It is also shown that the SDP solution under BVA has a small optimality gap, while the BVA model is accurate in the sense that it reflects actual system voltages.

10. Effect of friction on pebble flow pattern in pebble bed reactor

Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao

2016-01-01

Highlights: • A 3D DEM study on particle–wall/particle friction in pebble bed reactor is carried out. • Characteristic values are defined to evaluate features of pebble flow pattern quantitatively. • Particle–wall friction is dominant to determine flow pattern in a specific pebble bed. • Friction effect of hopper part on flow field is more critical than that of cylinder part. • Three cases of 1:1 full scale practical pebble beds are simulated for demonstration. - Abstract: Friction affects pebble flow pattern in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) significantly. Through a series of three dimensional DEM (discrete element method) simulations it is shown that reducing friction can be beneficial and create a uniform and consistent flow field required by nuclear engineering. Particle–wall friction poses a decisive impact on flow pattern, and particle–particle friction usually plays a secondary role; relation between particle–wall friction and flow pattern transition is also concluded. Moreover, new criteria are created to describe flow patterns quantitatively according to crucial issues in HTGR like stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence. Last but not least, it is proved that friction control of hopper part is more important than that of cylinder part in practical pebble beds, so reducing friction between pebbles and hopper surface is the engineering priority.

11. Analyses of Decrease in Reactor Coolant Flow Rate in SMART

Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, Suhn

2011-01-01

SMART is a small integral reactor, which is under development at KAERI to get the standard design approval by the end of 2011. SMART works like a pressurized light-water reactor in principle though it is more compact than large commercial reactors. SMART houses major components such as steam generators, a pressurizer, and reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. Due to its compact design, SMART adopts a canned-motor type reactor coolant pump which has much smaller rotational inertia than the ones used in commercial reactors. As a consequence, the reactor coolant pump has very short coastdown time and reactor coolant flow rate decreases more severely compared to commercial reactors. The transients initiated by reduction of reactor coolant flow rate have been analyzed to ensure that SMART can be safely shutdown on such transients. The design basis events in this category are complete loss of flow, single pump locked rotor with loss of offsite power, and single pump shaft break with loss of offsite power

12. Flow rate control systems for coolants for BWR type reactors

Igarashi, Yoko; Kato, Naoyoshi.

1981-01-01

Purpose: To increase spontaneous recycling flow rate of coolants in BWR type reactors when the water level in the reactor decreases, by communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum. Constitution: An opening is provided to the back plate disposed at the lower end of a reactor core shroud for communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum, and an ON-OFF valve actuated by an operation rod is provided to the opening. When abnormal water level or pressure in the reactor is detected by a level metal or pressure meter, the operation rod is driven to open the ON-OFF valve, whereby coolants fed from a jet pump partially flows through the opening to increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants. This can increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants upon spontaneous recycling operation, thereby maintaining the reactor safety and the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

13. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

Hunsbedt, A.N.

1988-01-01

This patent describes a sodium cooled reactor of the type having a reactor hot pool, a slightly lower pressure reactor cold pool and a reactor vessel liner defining a reactor vessel liner flow gap separating the hot pool and the cold pool along the reactor vessel sidewalls and wherein the normal sodium circuit in the reactor includes main sodium reactor coolant pumps having a suction on the lower pressure sodium cold pool and an outlet to a reactor core; the reactor core for heating the sodium and discharging the sodium to the reactor hot pool; a heat exchanger for receiving sodium from the hot pool, and removing heat from the sodium and discharging the sodium to the lower pressure cold pool; the improvement across the reactor vessel liner comprising: a jet pump having a venturi installed across the reactor vessel liner, the jet pump having a lower inlet from the reactor vessel cold pool across the reactor vessel liner and an upper outlet to the reactor vessel hot pool

14. Study of Flow Patterns in Radial and Back Swept Turbine Rotor under Design and Off-Design Conditions

Samip Shah; Salim Channiwala; Digvijay Kulshreshtha; Gaurang Chaudhari

2016-01-01

Paper details the numerical investigation of flow patterns in a conventional radial turbine compared with a back swept design for same application. The blade geometry of a designed turbine from a 25kW micro gas turbine was used as a baseline. A back swept blade was subsequently designed for the rotor, which departed from the conventional radial inlet blade angle to incorporate up to 25° inlet blade angle. A comparative numerical analysis between the two geometries is presented. While opera...

15. A perturbation effect in the reflector of a reactor. The case of a radial channel; Effet d'une perturbation dans le reflecteur d'une pile. Cas d'un canal radial

Lerouge, B; Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1957-07-01

The absorption and the transport effect in a channel within the reflector of a reactor has been already studied with the first group theory, this study will discuss its resolution with the second group theory which describes the neutron distribution within a reactor by the value of two functions representing respectively the flux of fast neutrons and thermal neutrons, S{sub f} and S{sub s}. The study of the reactivity variation caused by a disturbance in the critical conditions and its application to the effect of a radial channel located within the reflector of a reactor leads to the evaluation of the reactivity drop caused by the presence of radial channels in the fully charged EL3 reactor. Numerical results are given for the contribution of the fast neutron and thermal neutron flux to the reactivity drop as well as the expression of the reactivity drop caused by the neutrons transport effect. (M.P.)

16. User-friendly Tool for Power Flow Analysis and Distributed Generation Optimisation in Radial Distribution Networks

M. F. Akorede

2017-06-01

Full Text Available The intent of power distribution companies (DISCOs is to deliver electric power to their customers in an efficient and reliable manner – with minimal energy loss cost. One major way to minimise power loss on a given power system is to install distributed generation (DG units on the distribution networks. However, to maximise benefits, it is highly crucial for a DISCO to ensure that these DG units are of optimal size and sited in the best locations on the network. This paper gives an overview of a software package developed in this study, called Power System Analysis and DG Optimisation Tool (PFADOT. The main purpose of the graphical user interface-based package is to guide a DISCO in finding the optimal size and location for DG placement in radial distribution networks. The package, which is also suitable for load flow analysis, employs the GUI feature of MATLAB. Three objective functions are formulated into a single optimisation problem and solved with fuzzy genetic algorithm to simultaneously obtain DG optimal size and location. The accuracy and reliability of the developed tool was validated using several radial test systems, and the results obtained are evaluated against the existing similar package cited in the literature, which are impressive and computationally efficient.

17. Numerical simulation of flow field in the China advanced research reactor flow-guide tank

Xu Changjiang

2002-01-01

The flow-guide tank in China advanced research reactor (CARR) acts as a reactor inlet coolant distributor and play an important role in reducing the flow-induced vibration of the internal components of the reactor core. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the flow-guide tank under different conceptual designing configurations are carried out using the PHOENICS3.2. It is seen that the inlet coolant is well distributed circumferentially into the flow-guide tank with the inlet buffer plate and the flow distributor barrel. The maximum cross-flow velocity within the flow-guide tank is reduced significantly, and the reduction of flow-induced vibration of reactor internals is expected

18. Disk mini-adsorbers with radial flow for determination of 234Th concentration in seawater

Gulin, S.B.; Gorelov, Yu.S.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.

2013-01-01

A modified method has been developed for measuring the 234 Th concentration in seawater, which is based upon the use of MnO 2 -impregnated disk mini adsorbers with radial flow connected in-line and the direct beta counting of 234 Th and/or its daughter 234m Pa. This allows determining the 234 Th concentration in a relatively small volume of seawater (20-50 L) with the possibility to check the extraction efficiency in every individual sample. The field testing, which was carried out at different areas of Sevastopol Bay during different seasons, has shown applicability of the proposed method to evaluate particle fluxes in marine environments within a wide range of concentrations of suspended matter. (author)

19. Accurate evaluation of viscoelasticity of radial artery wall during flow-mediated dilation in ultrasound measurement

Sakai, Yasumasa; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

2016-07-01

In our previous study, the viscoelasticity of the radial artery wall was estimated to diagnose endothelial dysfunction using a high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound device. In the present study, we employed a commercial ultrasound device (7.5 MHz) and estimated the viscoelasticity using arterial pressure and diameter, both of which were measured at the same position. In a phantom experiment, the proposed method successfully estimated the elasticity and viscosity of the phantom with errors of 1.8 and 30.3%, respectively. In an in vivo measurement, the transient change in the viscoelasticity was measured for three healthy subjects during flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The proposed method revealed the softening of the arterial wall originating from the FMD reaction within 100 s after avascularization. These results indicate the high performance of the proposed method in evaluating vascular endothelial function just after avascularization, where the function is difficult to be estimated by a conventional FMD measurement.

20. Dynamic Behavior of Reverse Flow Reactor for Lean Methane Combustion

Yogi W. Budhi; M. Effendy; Yazid Bindar; Subagjo

2014-01-01

The stability of reactor operation for catalytic oxidation of lean CH4 has been investigated through modeling and simulation, particularly the influence of switching time and heat extraction on reverse flow reactor (RFR) performance. A mathematical model of the RFR was developed, based on one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model for mass and heat balances, incorporating heat loss through the reactor wall. The configuration of the RFR consisted of inert-catalyst-inert, with or without heat ext...

1. A tracer liquid image velocimetry for multi-layer radial flow in bioreactors.

Gao, Yu-Bao; Liang, Jiu-Xing; Luo, Yu-Xi; Yan, Jia

2015-02-13

This paper presents a Tracer Liquid Image Velocimetry (TLIV) for multi-layer radial flow in bioreactors used for cells cultivation of tissue engineering. The goal of this approach is to use simple devices to get good measuring precision, specialized for the case in which the uniform level of fluid shear stress was required while fluid velocity varied smoothly. Compared to the widely used Particles Image Velocimetry (PIV), this method adopted a bit of liquid as tracer, without the need of laser source. Sub-pixel positioning algorithm was used to overcome the adverse effects of the tracer liquid deformation. In addition, a neighborhood smoothing algorithm was used to restrict the measurement perturbation caused by diffusion. Experiments were carried out in a parallel plates flow chamber. And mathematical models of the flow chamber and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation were separately employed to validate the measurement precision of TLIV. The mean relative error between the simulated and measured data can be less than 2%, while in similar validations using PIV, the error was around 8.8%. TLIV avoided the contradiction between the particles' visibility and following performance with tested fluid, which is difficult to overcome in PIV. And TLIV is easier to popularize for its simple experimental condition and low cost.

2. PIV investigation of the flow induced by a passive surge control method in a radial compressor

Guillou, Erwann; Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim [University of Cincinnati, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mohamed, Ashraf [Honeywell Turbo Technologies, Greater Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-09-15

Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratios. Unfortunately, increasing the impeller rotational speed of turbocharger radial compressors tends to reduce their range of operation, which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extend the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device such as a ''ported shroud.'' This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance the surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the system remain not well understood. Hence, in order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. From the full dynamic survey of the compressor performance characteristics obtained with and without ported shroud, specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow visualization. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to evaluate instantaneous and mean velocity flow fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. As a result, satisfying characterization of the compressor instabilities was provided at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanism was achieved. (orig.)

3. PIV investigation of the flow induced by a passive surge control method in a radial compressor

Guillou, Erwann; Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Mohamed, Ashraf

2012-09-01

Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratios. Unfortunately, increasing the impeller rotational speed of turbocharger radial compressors tends to reduce their range of operation, which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extend the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device such as a "ported shroud." This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance the surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the system remain not well understood. Hence, in order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. From the full dynamic survey of the compressor performance characteristics obtained with and without ported shroud, specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow visualization. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to evaluate instantaneous and mean velocity flow fields at the inlet of the compressor. At incipient and full surge, phase-locked PIV measurements were added. As a result, satisfying characterization of the compressor instabilities was provided at different operational speeds. Combining transient pressure data and PIV measurements, the time evolution of the complex flow patterns occurring at surge was reconstructed and a better insight into the bypass mechanism was achieved.

4. A Study on the Flow Characterization in the Reactor Cavity

Lee, Ho Jung; Ko, Kwang Jeok; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Gyu; Cho, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyun Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

2016-10-15

In this study, the flow characterization of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed by using a 3 dimensional model and the ANSYS CFX software in order to predict the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC) of the RCPSA. The Reactor Cavity is the annular space by the concrete structure, the Reactor Cavity Pool Seal Assembly (RCPSA), which consists of the welded steel and is designed to be installed between the RV and the refueling pool floor, and the Reactor Vessel (RV). For such reason, the RCPSA should be designed to provide the cooling air passage for ventilation to circulate high temperature air passing by the RV during the reactor operation. It means that the RCPSA is influenced by the convection of cooling air and the thermal expansion of the RV. Therefore, the flow characterization at the reactor cavity is one of the factors of the RCPSA design during the reactor operation. The flow distribution of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed using ANSYS CFX software to obtain the CHTC at surface of the RCPSA. 1) The temperature from the RV and the insulation is one of the critical factors for the thermal gradient of the cooling air and the CHTC in the reactor cavity. 2) The rapid change of the CHTC in inner region nearby inner and outer flexure is related to the geometry shape of the RCPSA and velocity of cooling air.

5. Preliminary Design of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Radial Turbine for Micro Modular Reactor

Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jekyoung; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2016-05-15

The KAIST research team suggested an innovative concept of SMR called KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). It is aimed for achieving complete modularization of a nuclear power plant including the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) for simple transportation and installation. In consideration of the maintenance, S-CO{sub 2} has superior characteristic to the light water because it is less corrosive. Table I represents summary of the main design results of KAIST MMR. As such efforts the study on S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery has been actively conducted because the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle operates under extreme conditions such as high rotational speed, high pressure, and dramatic change of thermodynamic properties near the critical point (30.98 .deg. C, 7377kPa). To achieve higher thermal efficiency, the operation near the critical point is prerequisite in the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. For these reasons, research works on the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery naturally have been focused on the compressor which operates near the critical point. Due to the absence of loss models in S-CO{sub 2} field, loss models with air turbine were first utilized to design and predict the off design performance of a S-CO{sub 2} turbine. To check propriety of the code logic the code results compared with experimental data measured in air condition. The predicted values showed good agreement with the experiment data. Lastly, performance maps for S-CO{sub 2} turbine for the MMR were generated with change of mass flow rate and rotational speed.

6. Radial flow in 40Ar+45Sc reactions at E=35-115 MeV/nucleon

Pak, R.; Craig, D.; Gualtieri, E. E.; Hannuschke, S. A.; Lacey, R. A.; Lauret, J.; Llope, W. J.; Stone, N. T. B.; Vander Molen, A. M.; Westfall, G. D.; Yee, J.

1996-10-01

Collective radial flow of light fragments from 40Ar+45Sc reactions at beam energies between 35 and 115 MeV/nucleon has been investigated using the Michigan State University 4π Array. The mean transverse kinetic energy of the different fragment types increases with event centrality and increases as a function of the incident beam energy. Comparison of our measured values of shows agreement with predictions of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model and WIX multifragmentation model calculations. The radial flow extracted from accounts for approximately half of the emitted particle's energy for the heavier fragments (Z>=4) at the highest beam energy studied.

7. Determination and analysis of neutron flux distribution on radial Piercing beam port for utilization of Kartini research reactor

Widarto

2002-01-01

Determination and analysis of neutron flux measurements on radial piercing beam port have been done as completion experimental data document and progressing on utilization of the Kartini research reactor purposes. The analysis and determination of the neutron flux have been carried out by using Au foils detector neutron activation analysis method which put on the radius of cross section (19 cm) and a long of radial piercing beam port (310 cm) Based on the calculation, distribution of the thermal neutron flux is around (8.3 ± 0.9) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (6.8 ± 0.5) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 and fast neutron is (5.0 ± 0.2) x 10 5 ncm -2 s -1 to (1.43 ± 0.6) x 10 7 ncm -2 s -1 . Analyzing by means of curve fitting method could be concluded that the neutron flux distribution on radial piercing beam port has profiled as a polynomial curve. (author)

8. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Simulacion de la obstruccion de flujo de una bomba jet en un reactor BWR con el codigo RELAP/SCDAPSIM

Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

2016-09-15

This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

9. Axisymmetric flow and heat transfer to modified second grade fluid over a radially stretching sheet

Masood Khan

Full Text Available In the present work, an analysis is made to the two-dimensional axisymmetric flow and heat transfer of a modified second grade fluid over an isothermal non-linear radially stretching sheet. The momentum and energy equations are modelled and the boundary layer equations are derived. The governing equations for velocity and temperature are turned down into a system of ordinary differential equations by invoking appropriate transformations which are then solved numerically via fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. Moreover, the influence of the pertinent parameters namely the generalized second grade parameter, stretching parameter, the power-law index and the generalized Prandtl number is graphically portrayed. It is inferred that the generalized second grade parameter uplifted the momentum boundary layer while lessened the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, the impact of stretching parameter is more pronounced for the second grade fluid (m = 0 in contrast with the power-law fluid (k = 0. For some special cases, comparisons are made with previously reported results and an excellent agreement is established. Keywords: Modified second grade fluid, Axisymmetric flow, Heat transfer, Non-linear stretching sheet

10. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

Jakobsen, Hugo A

2014-01-01

Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

11. Device for preventing cooling water from flowing out of reactor

Chinen, Masanori; Kotani, Koichi; Murase, Michio.

1976-01-01

Object: To provide emergency cooling system, which can prevent cooling water bearing radioactivity from flowing to the outside of the reactor at the time of breakage of feedwater pipe, thus eliminating the possibility of exposure of the fuel rod to provide high reliability and also reducing the possibility of causing radioactive pollution. Structure: The device for preventing cooling water from flowing out from the reactor features a jet nozzle inserted in a feedwater pipe adjacent to the inlet or outlet thereof immediately before the reactor container. The nozzle outlet is provided in the vicinity of the reactor wall and in a direction opposite to the direction of out-flow, and water supplied from a high pressure pump is jetted from it. (Nakamura, S.)

12. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

Hutter, Ernest

1986-01-01

A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

13. CFD Analysis on the Effect of Radial Gap on Impeller-Diffuser Flow Interaction as well as on the Flow Characteristics of a Centrifugal Fan

K. Vasudeva Karanth

2009-01-01

Full Text Available The flow between the impeller exit and the diffuser entry (i.e., in the radial gap is generally considered to be complex. With the development of PIV and CFD tools such as moving mesh techniques, it is now possible to arrive at a prudent solution compatible with the physical nature of flow. In this work, numerical methodology involving moving mesh technique is used in predicting the real flow behavior, as exhibited when a target blade of the impeller is made to move past corresponding vane on the diffuser. Many research works have been undertaken using experimental and numerical methods on the impeller-diffuser interactive phenomenon. It is found from the literature that the effect of radial gap between impeller and diffuser on the interaction and on the performance of the fan has not been the focus of attention. Hence numerical analysis is undertaken in this work to explore and predict the flow behavior due to the radial gap. This has revealed the presence of an optimum radial gap which could provide better design characteristics or lower loss coefficient. It is found that there is a better energy conversion by the impeller and enhanced energy transformation by the diffuser, corresponding to optimum radial gap. The overall efficiency also found to increase for relatively larger gap.

14. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

Setyawan, Daddy, E-mail: d.setyawan@bapeten.go.id [Center for Assessment of Regulatory System and Technology for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia); Rohman, Budi [Licensing Directorate for Nuclear Installations and Materials, Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada No. 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

2014-09-30

Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

15. Flow Characterization and Dynamic Analysis of a Radial Compressor with Passive Method of Surge Control

Guillou, Erwann

Due to recent emission regulations, the use of turbochargers for force induction of internal combustion engines has increased. Actually, the trend in diesel engines is to downsize the engine by use of turbochargers that operate at higher pressure ratio. Unfortunately, increasing the rotational speed tends to reduce the turbocharger radial compressor range of operation which is limited at low mass flow rate by the occurrence of surge. In order to extent the operability of turbochargers, compressor housings can be equipped with a passive surge control device also known as ported shroud. This specific casing treatment has been demonstrated to enhance surge margin with minor negative impact on the compressor efficiency. However, the actual working mechanisms of the bypass system remain not well understood. In order to optimize the design of the ported shroud, it is then crucial to identify the dynamic flow changes induced by the implementation of the device to control instabilities. Experimental methods were used to assess the development of instabilities from stable, stall and eventually surge regimes of a ported shroud centrifugal compressor. Systematic comparison was conducted with the same compressor design without ported shroud. Hence, the full pressure dynamic survey of both compressors' performance characteristics converged toward two different and probably interrelated driving mechanisms to the development and/or propagation of unsteadiness within each compressor. One related the pressure disturbances at the compressor inlet, and notably the more apparent development of perturbations in the non-ported compressor impeller, whereas the other was attributed to the pressure distortions induced by the presence of the tongue in the asymmetric design of the compressor volute. Specific points of operation were selected to carry out planar flow measurements. At normal working, both standard and stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed

16. Analysis of clad motion during a loss of flow (LOF) accident in a fast sodium cooled reactor

Henkel, P.

1985-10-01

A new model describing clad motion during a Loss of Flow (LOF) accident in a Liquid Metal Cooled Fast (Breeder) Reactor (LMFBR) is presented. Its special features are Clad motion is treated within a fuel pin bundle. The bundle geometry is represented by an equivalent annular geometry which serves as the descriptional basis for the clad motion analysis; Several flow regimes are considered. These include a wave or film flow along the fuel pin surfaces as well as a drop flow within the coolant channels. A new entrainment criterion is successfully applied to describe the entrainment of molten cladding and the coolant flow is modelled as a two-dimensional, monstationary flow. Therefore, radial cross flows in a pin bundle can be calculated. Especially, thermal incoherency effects can be treated consistently. The analysis of clad motion in the two experiments STAR1 and STAR2 using the subsequently presented SANDCMOT model gives good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.) [de

17. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor

Mitroo, Dhruv; Sun, Yujian; Combest, Daniel P.; Kumar, Purushottam; Williams, Brent J.

2018-03-01

Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate). While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs) inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM) reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS) model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study).

18. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs: a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM reactor

D. Mitroo

2018-03-01

Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate. While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study.

19. On axisymmetric flow and heat transfer of Cross fluid over a radially stretching sheet

Khan, Masood; Manzur, Mehwish; ur Rahman, Masood

In this article, an analysis is made on the axisymmetric flow and heat transfer of the Cross fluid over a radially stretching sheet. The present study provides with the boundary layer equations of the Cross fluid in cylindrical polar co-ordinates. The modelled momentum and energy equations are further simplified into non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The system of equation is then numerically solved by the help of well-known shooting technique. The velocity and temperature profiles are plotted for some values of the governing parameters such as power-law index, local Weissenberg number and the Prandtl number. It is found that growing values of the power-law index elevated the momentum boundary layer structures while the thermal boundary layer thickness lessened correspondingly. Further, the numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are tabulated for several set of physical parameters. An outstanding agreement is observed by comparing the present results with the previously reported results in the literature as a special case.

20. (CSTR) and 1-plug flow reactor (PFR)

2010-12-27

Dec 27, 2010 ... 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. ... modeled as PFR and described by Michaelis. Menten equation. Designed equations derived from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of ... Herbivores make a living on cellulose by possessing.

1. An Analysis of Flow in Rotating Passage of Large Radial-Inlet Centrifugal Compressor at Tip Speed of 700 Feet Per Second

Prian, Vasily

1951-01-01

An analysis was made of the flow in the rotating passages of a 48-inch diameter radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at a tip speed of 700 feet per second in order to provide more knowledge on the flow...

2. Development of an environment-insensitive PWR radial reflector model applicable to modern nodal reactor analysis method

Mueller, E.M.

1989-05-01

This research is concerned with the development and analysis of methods for generating equivalent nodal diffusion parameters for the radial reflector of a PWR. The requirement that the equivalent reflector data be insensitive to changing core conditions is set as a principle objective. Hence, the environment dependence of the currently most reputable nodal reflector models, almost all of which are based on the nodal equivalence theory homgenization methods of Koebke and Smith, is investigated in detail. For this purpose, a special 1-D nodal equivalence theory reflector model, called the NGET model, is developed and used in 1-D and 2-D numerical experiments. The results demonstrate that these modern radial reflector models exhibit sufficient sensitivity to core conditions to warrant the development of alternative models. A new 1-D nodal reflector model, which is based on a novel combination of the nodal equivalence theory and the response matrix homogenization methods, is developed. Numerical results varify that this homogenized baffle/reflector model, which is called the NGET-RM model, is highly insensitive to changing core conditions. It is also shown that the NGET-RM model is not inferior to any of the existing 1-D nodal reflector models and that it has features which makes it an attractive alternative model for multi-dimensional reactor analysis. 61 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

3. Radial electric field and ion parallel flow in the quasi-symmetric and Mirror configurations of HSX

Kumar, S. T. A.; Dobbins, T. J.; Talmadge, J. N.; Wilcox, R. S.; Anderson, D. T.

2018-05-01

The radial electric field and the ion mean parallel flow are obtained in the helically symmetric experiment stellarator from toroidal flow measurements of C+6 ion at two locations on a flux surface, using the Pfirsch–Schlüter effect. Results from the standard quasi-helically symmetric magnetic configuration are compared with those from the Mirror configuration where the quasi-symmetry is deliberately degraded using auxiliary coils. For similar injected power, the quasi-symmetric configuration is observed to have significantly lower flows while the experimental observations from the Mirror geometry are in better agreement with neoclassical calculations. Indications are that the radial electric field near the core of the quasi-symmetric configuration may be governed by non-neoclassical processes.

4. TREATMENT OF METHANOLIC WASTEWATER BY ANAEROBIC DOWN-FLOW HANGING SPONGE (ANDHS) REACTOR AND UASB REACTOR

Sumino, Haruhiko; Wada, Keiji; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

Anaerobic down-flow hanging sponge (AnDHS) reactor and UASB reactor were operated at 30℃ for over 400 days in order to investigate the process performance and the sludge characteristics of treating methanolic wastewater (2 gCOD/L). The settings OLR of AnDHS reactor and of UASB reactor were 5.0 -10.0 kgCOD/m3/d and 5.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The average of the COD removal demonstrated by both reactors were over 90% throughout the experiment. From the results of methane producing activities and the PCR-DGGE method, most methanol was directly converted to methane in both reactors. The conversion was carried out by different methanogens: one closely related to Methanomethylovorans hollandica in the AnDHS retainted sludge and the other closely related to Methanosarcinaceae and Metanosarciales in the UASB retainted sludge.

5. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

2010-01-01

A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

6. Three-dimensional inviscid analysis of radial-turbine flow and a limited comparison with experimental data

Choo, Y. K.; Civinskas, K. C.

1985-01-01

7. Acoustical holographic Siamese image technique for imaging radial cracks in reactor piping

Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.

1985-04-01

This paper describes a unique technique (i.e., ''Siamese imaging'') for imaging quasi-vertical defects in reactor pipe weldments. The Siamese image is a bi-symmetrical view of the inner surface defect. Image construction geometry consists of two probes (i.e., source/receiver) operating either from opposite sides or the same side of the defect to be imaged. As the probes are scanned across a lower surface connected defect, they encounter two images - first the normal upright image and then the inverted image. The final integrated image consists of two images connected along their baselines, thus we call it a ''Siamese image.'' The experimental imaging results on simulated and natural cracks in reactor piping weldments graphically illustrate this unique technique. Excellent images of mechanical fatique and thermal cracks were obtained on ferritic and austenitic piping

8. An axially and radially two-zoned large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core concept

Kamei, T.; Arie, K.; Moriki, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamaoka, M.

1985-01-01

A new core concept that has advantages over conventional homogeneous cores in neutronics characteristics such as power peaking factor, burnup reactivity loss, and reactivity response to the movement of control rods in earthquakes has been evolved. Two options of the new core concept are feasible. One is the so-called axially heterogeneous core, with the internal blanket placed at the lower part of the core. The other concept is similar to the conventional homogeneous core, but has two different plutonium-enriched zones in the axial as well as in the radial direction, so it is a hybrid type of the conventional homogeneous core and the axially heterogeneous core. The new design concept is described and the way that the core characteristics are improved by the chosen key parameters is shown

9. Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study

Angelo, Gabriel; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Fainer, Gerson; Angelo, Edvaldo

2009-01-01

As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFX R code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

10. Flow Reactor for studying Physicochemical and aging properties of SOA

Babar, Z. B.

2016-12-01

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have importance in environmental processes such as affecting earth's radiative balance and cloud formation processes. For studying SOA formation large scale environmental batch reactors and laboratory scale flow reactors have been used. In this study application of flow reactor to study physicochemical properties of SOA is also investigated after its characterization. The flow reactor is of cylindrical design (ID 15 cm x L 70 cm) equipped with UV lamps. It is coupled with various instruments such as scanning mobility particle sizer, NOx analyzer, ozone analyzer, VOC analyzer, hygrometer, and temperature sensors for gas and particle phase measurements. OH radicals were generated by custom build ozone generator and relative humidity. The following characterizations were performed: (1) residence time distribution (RTD) measurements, (2) RH and temperature control, (3) OH radical exposure range (atmospheric aging time), (4) gas phase oxidation of SOA precursors such as α-pinene by OH radical. The flow reactor yielded narrow RTDs. In particular, RH and temperature can be controlled effectively between 0-60% and 22-43oC, respectively. OH radical exposure ranges from 6.49x1010 to 3.68x1011 molecules/cm3s (0.49 to 4.91 days). Our initial efforts on OH radical generation using hydrogen peroxide and its quantification by using flourescenet technique will be also be presented.

11. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of light water reactor flows

Tzanos, C.P.; Weber, D.P.

1999-01-01

Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), turbulence simulation, and parallel computing have made feasible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) single-phase and two-phase flow CFD codes that can simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in realistic reactor geometries with significantly reduced reliance, especially in single phase, on empirical correlations. The objective of this work was to assess the predictive power and computational efficiency of a CFD code in the analysis of a challenging single-phase light water reactor problem, as well as to identify areas where further improvements are needed

12. Electrochemical degradation of the chloramphenicol at flow reactor

Rezende, Luis Gustavo P.; Prado, Vania M. do; Rocha, Robson S.; Beati, Andre A.G.F.; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar T.; Lanza, Marcos R.V.

2010-01-01

This paper reports a study of electrochemical degradation of the chloramphenicol antibiotic in aqueous medium using a flow-by reactor with DSA anode. The process efficiency was monitored by chloramphenicol concentration analysis with liquid chromatography (HPLC) during the experiments. Analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was performed to estimate the degradation degree and Ion Chromatography (IC) was performed to determinate inorganic ions formed during the electrochemical degradation process. In electrochemical flow-by reactor, 52% of chloramphenicol was degraded, with 12% TOC reduction. IC analysis showed the production of chloride ions (25 mg L -1 ), nitrate ions (6 mg L -1 ) and nitrite ions (4.5 mg L -1 ). (author)

13. Experimental study of bypass flow in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor using hot wire anemometry technique

Amini, Noushin; Hassan, Yassin A.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Coolant flow behavior in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor is studied. • Hot wire anemometry is applied for high frequency velocity measurements. • Bypass flow is identified within the velocity profiles of near wall gaps. • Effect of gap geometry and Reynolds number on bypass flow is investigated. • Variation of velocity power spectra with radial location and Reynolds number is studied. - Abstract: Coolant flow behavior through the core of an annular pebble bed reactor is investigated in this experimental study. A high frequency hot wire anemometry system coupled with an X-probe is used for measurement of axial and radial velocity components at different points within two near wall gaps at five different modified Reynolds numbers (Re m = 2043–6857). The velocity profiles within the gaps verify the presence of an area of increased velocity close to the pebble bed outer reflector wall, which is known as the bypass flow. Moreover, the characteristics of the coolant flow profile are seen to be highly dependent on the gap geometry. The effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profiles varies as the geometry of the gap changes. The time histories of the local velocities measured with considerably high frequency are further analyzed using power spectral density technique. Power spectral plots illustrate substantial spatial variation of the energy content, spectral shape, and the slope of the energy cascade region. A significant correlation between Reynolds number and characteristics of the velocity power spectra is observed

14. Axial and radial distribution of neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 using foil activation analysis and Monte Carlo

Abrefah, G.R.

2009-02-01

The Monte-Carlo method and experimental methods were used to determine the neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor -1. The MCNP5 code was used for this purpose to simulate the radial and axial distribution of the neutron fluxes within all the ten irradiation channels. The results obtained were compared with the experimental results. After the MCNP simulation and experimental procedure, it was observed that axially, the fluxes rise to a peak before falling and then finally leveling out. Axially and radially, it was also observed that the fluxes in the centre of the channels were lower than on the sides. Radially, the fluxes dip in the centre while it increases steadily towards the sides of the channels. The results have shown that there are flux variations within the irradiation channels both axially and radially. (au)

15. Review of leakage-flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

Mulcahy, T.M.

1983-05-01

The primary-coolant flow paths of a reactor system are usually subject to close scrutiny in a design review to identify potential flow-induced vibration sources. However, secondary-flow paths through narrow gaps in component supports, which parallel the primary-flow path, occasionally are the excitation source for significant vibrations even though the secondary-flow rates are orders of magnitude smaller than the primary-flow rate. These so-called leakage flow problems are reviewed here to identify design features and excitation sources that should be avoided. Also, design rules of thumb are formulated that can be employed to guide a design, but quantitative prediction of component response is found to require scale-model testing

16. Radial flow in 40Ar+45Sc reactions at E=35 endash 115 MeV/nucleon

Pak, R.; Craig, D.; Gualtieri, E.; Hannuschke, S.A.; Lacey, R.A.; Lauret, J.; Llope, W.J.; Stone, N.T.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Westfall, G.; Yee, J.

1996-01-01

Collective radial flow of light fragments from 40 Ar+ 45 Sc reactions at beam energies between 35 and 115 MeV/nucleon has been investigated using the Michigan State University 4π Array. The mean transverse kinetic energy left-angle E t right-angle of the different fragment types increases with event centrality and increases as a function of the incident beam energy. Comparison of our measured values of left-angle E t right-angle shows agreement with predictions of Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model and WIX multifragmentation model calculations. The radial flow extracted from left-angle E t right-angle accounts for approximately half of the emitted particle close-quote s energy for the heavier fragments (Z≥4) at the highest beam energy studied. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

17. Investigation of slightly forced buoyant flow in a training reactor

Legradi, G.; Aszodi, A.; Por, G.

2001-01-01

A measurement based on the temperature noise analysis method was carried out in the Training Reactor of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The main goals were the estimation of the flow velocity immediately above the reactor core and investigation of the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the reactor, mainly in the core. Subsequently 2D and 3D computations were carried out with the aid of the code CFX- 4.3. The main objective of the 2D calculation was to clarify the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the whole reactor tank with a reasonable computing demand. It was also necessary to accomplish 3D numerical investigations of the reactor core and the space above since three dimensional effects of the flow could only be studied in this way. In addition, obtaining certain boundary conditions of the 3D computations was another significant aim of the 2D investigations. It is important that the results of the noise analysis and the operational measuring system of the reactor gave us a basis for verifying our computations.(author)

18. Flow analysis in a supercritical water oxidation reactor

Oh, C.H.; Kochan, R.J.; Beller, J.M.

1996-01-01

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), also known as hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), involves the oxidation of hazardous waste at conditions of elevated temperature and pressure (e.g., 500 C--600 C and 234.4 bar) in the presence of approximately 90% of water and a 10% to 20% excess amount of oxidant over the stoichiometric requirement. Under these conditions, organic compounds are completely miscible with supercritical water, oxygen and nitrogen, and are rapidly oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. The essential part of the process is the reactor. Many reactor designs such as tubular, vertical vessel, and transpiring wall type have been proposed, patented, and tested at both bench and pilot scales. These designs and performances need to be scaled up to a waste throughput 10--100 times that currently being tested. Scaling of this magnitude will be done by creating a numerical thermal-hydraulic model of the smaller reactor for which test data is available, validating the model against the available data, and then using the validated model to investigate the larger reactor performance. This paper presents a flow analysis of the MODAR bench scale reactor (vertical vessel type). These results will help in the design of the reactor in an efficient manner because the flow mixing coupled with chemical kinetics eventually affects the process destruction efficiency

19. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested

20. Entrained Flow Reactor Test of Potassium Capture by Kaolin

Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

2015-01-01

In the present study a method to simulate the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin at suspension fired condition was developed using a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR). Kaolin was injected into the EFR for primary test of this method. By adding kaolin, KCl can effectively be captured...

1. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

2017-01-01

Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K

2. Experimental investigation of the vibration response of a flexible tube due to simulated reactor core, cross and annular exit flows

Haslinger, K.H.; Martin, M.L.; Higgins, W.H.; Rossano, F.V.

1989-01-01

Instrumentation tubes in pressurized nuclear reactors have experienced wear due to excessive flow-induced vibrations. Experiments to identify the predominant flow excitation mechanism at a particular plant, and to develop a sleeve design to remedy the wear problem are reported. An instrumented flow visualization model enabled simulation of a wide range of individual or combined reactor core flow, cross flow and thimble flow conditions. The instrumentation scheme adopted for these experiments used proximity displacement transducers and a force transducer to measure respectively tube motion and contact/impact forces at the wear region. Extensive testing of the original, in-plant configuration identified the normal core flow as the primary source of excitation. Shielding the In-Core-Instrumentation thimble tube from the normal core flow curtailed vibration amplitudes; however, thimble flow excitation then became more pronounced. Various outlet nozzle configurations were investigated. An internal cavity combined with radial outlet slots became the optimum solution for the problem. The paper presents typical test data in the form of orbital tube motion, spectrum analysis and time history collages. The effectiveness of shielding the instrumentation tube from the flow is demonstrated. (author)

3. Turbine flow diagram of Paks-1 reactor

Vancso, Tamas

1983-01-01

Computer calculations and programs are presented which inform the operators on the effect projected on the turbine and thermal efficiency of the modification in the flow diagram and in the starting parameters of the power cycle. In the program the expansion line of steam turbine type K-220-44 and the thermo-technical parameters of the elements of the feed-water heater system are determined. Detailed degree calculations for turbine unit of high pressure can be made. (author)

4. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique.

Pant, H J; Sharma, V K

2016-10-01

A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Complete Flow Blockage of a Fuel Channel for Research Reactor

Lee, Byeonghee; Park, Suki

2015-01-01

The CHF correlation suitable for narrow rectangular channels are implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for the analyses, and the behavior of fuel temperatures and MCHFR(minimum critical heat flux ratio) are compared between the original and modified codes. The complete flow blockage of fuel channel for research reactor is analyzed using original and modified RELAP5/MOD3.3 and the results are compared each other. The Sudo-Kaminaga CHF correlation is implemented into RELAP5/MOD3.3 for analyzing the behavior of fuel adjacent to the blocked channel. A flow blockage of fuel channels can be postulated by a foreign object blocking cooling channels of fuels. Since a research reactor with plate type fuel has isolated fuel channels, a complete flow blockage of one fuel channel can cause a failure of adjacent fuel plates by the loss of cooling capability. Although research reactor systems are designed to prevent foreign materials from entering into the core, partial flow blockage accidents and following fuel failures are reported in some old research reactors. In this report, an analysis of complete flow blockage accident is presented for a 15MW pool-type research reactor with plate type fuels. The fuel surface experience different heat transfer regime in the results from original and modified RELAP5/MOD3.3. By the discrepancy in heat transfer mode of two cases, a fuel melting is expected by the modified RELAP5/MOD3.3, whereas the fuel integrity is ensured by the original code

6. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

1988-01-01

A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

7. Core Flow Distribution from Coupled Supercritical Water Reactor Analysis

Po Hu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper introduces an extended code package PARCS/RELAP5 to analyze steady state of SCWR US reference design. An 8 × 8 quarter core model in PARCS and a reactor core model in RELAP5 are used to study the core flow distribution under various steady state conditions. The possibility of moderator flow reversal is found in some hot moderator channels. Different moderator flow orifice strategies, both uniform across the core and nonuniform based on the power distribution, are explored with the goal of preventing the reversal.

8. Thermalhydraulics of flowing particle-bed-type fusion reactor blankets

Nietert, R.E.; Abdelk-Khalik, S.I.

1982-01-01

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of gravity-flowing particle beds using a special heat transfer loop. Glass microspheres were allowed to flow by gravity at controlled rates through an electrically heated stainless steel tubular test section. Values of the local and average convective heat transfer coefficient as a function of the average bed velocity, particle size and heat flux were determined. Such information is necessary for the design of gravity-flowing particle-bed type fusion reactor-blankets and associated tritium recovery systems. (orig.)

9. A flow reactor for the flow supercritical water oxidation of wastes to mitigate the reactor corrosion problem

Chitanvis, S.M.

1994-01-01

We have designed a flow tube reactor for supercritical water oxidation of wastes that confines the oxidation reaction to the vicinity of the axis of the tube. This prevents high temperatures and reactants as well as reaction products from coming in intimate contact with reactor walls. This implies a lessening of corrosion of the walls of the reactor. We display numerical simulations for a vertical reactor with conservative design parameters that illustrate our concept. We performed our calculations for the destruction of sodium nitrate by ammonium hydroxide In the presence of supercritical water, where the production of sodium hydroxide causes corrosion. We have compared these results with that for a horizontal set-up where the sodium hydroxide created during the reaction ends up on the floor of the tube, implying a higher probability of corrosion

10. Scale modeling flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

Mulcahy, T.M.

1982-06-01

Similitude relationships currently employed in the design of flow-induced vibration scale-model tests of nuclear reactor components are reviewed. Emphasis is given to understanding the origins of the similitude parameters as a basis for discussion of the inevitable distortions which occur in design verification testing of entire reactor systems and in feature testing of individual component designs for the existence of detrimental flow-induced vibration mechanisms. Distortions of similitude parameters made in current test practice are enumerated and selected example tests are described. Also, limitations in the use of specific distortions in model designs are evaluated based on the current understanding of flow-induced vibration mechanisms and structural response

11. Beyond organometallic flow chemistry : the principles behind the use of continuous-flow reactors for synthesis

Noel, T.; Su, Y.; Hessel, V.; Noël, T.

2015-01-01

Flow chemistry is typically used to enable challenging reactions which are difficult to carry out in conventional batch equipment. Consequently, the use of continuous-flow reactors for applications in organometallic and organic chemistry has witnessed a spectacular increase in interest from the

12. Reactor core flow measurements during plant start-up using non-intrusive flow meter CROSSFLOW

Kanda, V.; Sharp, B.; Gurevich, A., E-mail: vkanda@amag-inc.com, E-mail: bsharp@amag-inc.com, E-mail: agurevich@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada); Gurevich, Y., E-mail: yuri.gurevich@daystartech.ca [Daystar Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Selvaratnarajah, S.; Lopez, A., E-mail: sselvaratnarajah@amag-inc.com, E-mail: alopez@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01

For the first time, direct measurements of the total reactor coolant flow and the flow distribution between the inner reactor zone and the outer zone were conducted using the non-intrusive clamp on ultrasonic cross-correlation flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc. (AMAG). The measurements were performed at Bruce Power A Unit 1 on the Pump Discharge piping of the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system during start-up. This paper describes installation processes, hydraulic testing, uncertainty analysis and traceability of the measurements to certified standards. (author)

13. Investigation of Reactivity Feedback Mechanism of Axial and Radial Expansion Effect of Metal-Fueled Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

Seong, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Chi-Woong; Jeong, Tae-Kyung; Ha, Gi-Seok

2015-01-01

The major inherent reactivity feedback models for a ceramic fuel used in a conventional light water reactor are Doppler feedback and moderator feedback. The metal fuel has these two reactivity feedback mechanisms previously mentioned. In addition, the metal fuel has two more reactivity feedback models related to the thermal expansion phenomena of the metal fuel. Since the metal fuel has a good capability to expand according to the temperature changes of the core, two more feedback mechanisms exist. These additional two feedback mechanism are important to the inherent safety of metal fuel and can make metal-fueled SFR safer than oxide-fueled SFR. These phenomena have already been applied to safety analysis on design extended condition. In this study, the effect of these characteristics on power control capability was examined through a simple load change operation. The axial expansion mechanism is induced from the change of the fuel temperature according to the change of the power level of PGSFR. When the power increases, the fuel temperatures in the metal fuel will increase and then the reactivity will decrease due to the axial elongation of the metal fuel. To evaluate the expansion effect, 2 cases were simulated with the same scenario by using MMS-LMR code developed at KAERI. The first simulation was to analyze the change of the reactor power according to the change of BOP power without the reactivity feedback model of the axial and radial expansion of the core during the power transient event. That is to say, the core had only two reactivity feedback mechanism of Doppler and coolant temperature

14. Limiting photocurrent analysis of a wide channel photoelectrochemical flow reactor

Davis, Jonathan T; Esposito, Daniel V

2017-01-01

The development of efficient and scalable photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactors is of great importance for the eventual commercialization of solar fuels technology. In this study, we systematically explore the influence of convective mass transport and light intensity on the performance of a 3D-printed PEC flow cell reactor based on a wide channel, parallel plate geometry. Using this design, the limiting current density generated from the hydrogen evolution reaction at a p-Si metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) photocathode was investigated under varied reactant concentration, fluid velocity, and light intensity. Additionally, a simple model is introduced to predict the range of operating conditions (reactant concentration, light intensity, fluid velocity) for which the photocurrent generated in a parallel plate PEC flow cell is limited by light absorption or mass transport. This model can serve as a useful guide for the design and operation of wide-channel PEC flow reactors. The results of this study have important implications for PEC reactors operating in electrolytes with dilute reactant concentrations and/or under high light intensities where high fluid velocities are required in order to avoid operation in the mass transport-limited regime. (paper)

15. A Comparative study of solidification of Al-Cu alloy under flow of cylindrical radial heat and the unidirectional vertically

Jean Robert P. Rodrigues

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In spite of technological importance of solidification of metallic alloys under radial heat flow, relatively few studies have been carried out in this area. In this work the solidification of Al 4.5 wt% Cu cylinders against a steel massive mold is analyzed and compared with unidirectional solidification against a cooled mold. Initially temperature variations at different positions in the casting and in the mold were measured during solidification using a data acquisition system. These temperature variations were introduced in a numerical method in order to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient at metal/mold interface by inverse method. The primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing variations were measured through optical microscopy. Comparisons carried out between experimental and numerical data showed that the numerical method describes well the solidification processes under radial heat flux.

16. Analysis on flow characteristic of nuclear heating reactor

Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin

1997-06-01

The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam mass, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equation, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure, secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. For the designed two-phase regime operation of the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor, the temperature at the core exit has not reaches its saturation value. Thirdly, the mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation, namely, 'zero-pressure-drop', is described. In the wide range of inlet subcooling (0 K<ΔT<28 K) there exists three regions for system flow condition, namely, (1) stable two-phase flow, (2) bulk and subcooled boiling unstable flow, (3) subcooled boiling and single phase stable flow. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux, is showed in the above inlet subcooling range, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. (3 refs., 9 figs.)

17. Critical heat flux and flow instability in an advanced light water reactor

Dae-Hyun Hwang; Kyong-Won Seo; Chung-Chan Lee; Sung-Kyun Zee

2005-01-01

Full text of publication follows: An advanced light water reactor concept has been continuously studied in KAERI with an output in the range of about 60 to 300 MW th . The reactor is purposed to be utilized as an energy source for seawater desalination as well as small scale power generation. In order to achieve the intrinsic safety and enhanced operational flexibility, some specific design considerations such as low power density and soluble boron free operation have been incorporated in the multiple-parallel-channel type reactor core. The low power density can be achieved by adopting fuel assemblies with tightly spaced non-square lattice rod array. The allowable core operating region should be primarily limited by the two design parameters; the critical heat flux(CHF) and the flow instabilities in the multiple parallel fuel assembly channels. The characteristics of CHF and flow instability have been investigated through experimental and analytical works. The CHF prediction model was established on the basis of experimental data obtained from 19-rod test bundles. The CHF experiments have been conducted for various test bundles with different heated lengths, uniform and non-uniform radial and axial power distributions, water and Freon as the working fluids, and different number of unheated rods. The parametric ranges of CHF experiments covers the pressure from 6 to 18 MPa, the mass flux from 150 to 2000 kg/m 2 /s, and the inlet subcooling from 10 to 120 deg. C. The flow instabilities due to density wave oscillations were investigated by conducting experiments with two parallel channels under the pressure ranges from 6 to 16 MPa. The parametric behavior of flow instability was examined for the test sections with different lengths of adiabatic risers, different axial power shapes, different inlet restrictions, and different channel cross sections. The stability boundary was experimentally determined by increasing channel inlet temperature or reducing the flow rate

18. Neural network modeling of chaotic dynamics in nuclear reactor flows

1992-01-01

Neural networks have many scientific applications in areas such as pattern classification and time series prediction. The universal approximation property of these networks, however, can also be exploited to provide researchers with tool for modeling observed nonlinear phenomena. It has been shown that multilayer feed forward networks can capture important global nonlinear properties, such as chaotic dynamics, merely by training the network on a finite set of observed data. The network itself then provides a model of the process that generated the data. Characterizations such as the existence and general shape of a strange attractor and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent can then be extracted from the neural network model. In this paper, the author applies this idea to data generated from a nonlinear process that is representative of convective flows that can arise in nuclear reactor applications. Such flows play a role in forced convection heat removal from pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, and decay heat removal from liquid-metal-cooled reactors, either by natural convection or by thermosyphons

19. Reactor vessel and core two-phase flow ultrasonic densitometer

Arave, A.E.

1979-01-01

A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia. Separate effects tests and two-phase flow tests have been conducted to characterize the detector. Tests show the detector can perform in a 343 0 C pressurized water reactor environment and measure the average density of the media surrounding the sensor

20. Device for controlling a recirculation flow in a reactor

Shida, Toichi; Tohei, Kazushige; Hirose, Masao; Nakamura, Hideo.

1976-01-01

Object: To provide an emergency cut-off valve in a recirculation system in a reactor to control the recirculation at the time of turbine trip or load cut-off, thereby relieving excessive increase in heat output of fuel. Structure: A recirculation pump is driven through a recirculation pump motor by an AC generator, which is driven by a driving motor through a fluid coupling, so that reactor water passes the emergency cut-off valve and recirculation flow stop valve and then passes a jet pump into the core. At the time of turbine trip or load cut-off, the emergency cut-off valve is closed by a hydraulic circuit, whereby core flow is merely decreased by 20 to 30% in a short period of time to restrain excessive increase in heat output. (Yoshino, Y.)

1. Computer modeling of flow induced in-reactor vibrations

Turula, P.; Mulcahy, T.M.

1977-01-01

An assessment of the reliability of finite element method computer models, as applied to the computation of flow induced vibration response of components used in nuclear reactors, is presented. The prototype under consideration was the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor being constructed for US-ERDA. Data were available from an extensive test program which used a scale model simulating the hydraulic and structural characteristics of the prototype components, subjected to scaled prototypic flow conditions as well as to laboratory shaker excitations. Corresponding analytical solutions of the component vibration problems were obtained using the NASTRAN computer code. Modal analyses and response analyses were performed. The effect of the surrounding fluid was accounted for. Several possible forcing function definitions were considered. Results indicate that modal computations agree well with experimental data. Response amplitude comparisons are good only under conditions favorable to a clear definition of the structural and hydraulic properties affecting the component motion. 20 refs

2. Recycling flow rate control device in BWR type reactor

1988-01-01

Purpose: To reduce the recycling pump speed if the pressure variation width and the variation ratio in the nuclear reactor exceed predetermined values, to thereby avoid the shutdown of the plant. Constitution: There has been proposed a method of monitoring the neutron flux increase thereby avoiding unnecessary plant shutdown, but it involves a problems of reactor scram depending on the state of the plant and the set values. In view of the above, in the plant using internal pumps put under the thyristor control and having high response to recycling flow rate, the reactor pressure is monitored and the speed of the internal pump is rapidly reduced when the pressure variation width and variation ratio exceed predetermined values to reduce the reactor power and avoid the plant shutdown. This can reduce the possibility of unnecessary power reduction due to neutron flux noises or the possibility of plant shutdown under low power conditions. Further, since the reactor operation can be continued without stopping the recycling pump, the operation upon recovery can be made rapid. (Horiuchi, T.)

3. Transient performance of flow in circuits of PWR type reactors

Hirdes, V.R.; Carajilescov, P.

1988-09-01

Generally, PWR's are designed with several primary loops, each one provided with a pump to circulate the coolant through the core. If one or more of these pumps fail, there would be a decrease in reactor flow rate which could cause coolant phase change in the core and components overheating. The present work establishes a simulation model for pump failure in PWR's and the SARDAN-FLOW computes code was developed, considering any combination of such failures. Based on the data of Angra I, several accident and operational transient conditions were simulated. (author) [pt

4. Transient performance of flow in PWR reactor circuits

Hirdes, V.R.T.R.; Carajilescov, P.

1988-12-01

Generally, PWR's are designed with several primary loops, each one provided with a pump to circulate the coolant through the core. If one or more of these pumps fail, there would be a decrease in reactor flow rate which cause coolant phase change in the core and components overheating. The present work establishes a simulation model for pump failure in PWR's and the SARDAN-FLOW computes code was developed, considering any combination of such failures. Based on the data of Angra I, several accident and operational transient conditions were simulated. (author) [pt

5. Flow characteristics of Korea multi-purpose research reactor

Heonil Kim; Hee Taek Chae; Byung Jin Jun; Ji Bok Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-09-01

The construction of Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor (KMRR), a 30 MW{sub th} open-tank-in-pool type, is completed. Various thermal-hydraulic experiments have been conducted to verify the design characteristics of the KMRR. This paper describes the commissioning experiments to determine the flow distribution of KMRR core and the flow characteristics inside the chimney which stands on top of the core. The core flow is distributed to within {+-}6% of the average values, which is sufficiently flat in the sense that the design velocity in the fueled region is satisfied. The role of core bypass flow to confine the activated core coolant in the chimney structure is confirmed.

6. Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment

Ramsey, C.T.

1995-08-01

The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool

7. The radial flow method: constraints from laboratory experiments on the evolution of hydraulic properties of fractures during frictional sliding experiments

Kewel, M.; Renner, J.

2017-12-01

The variation of hydraulic properties during sliding events is of importance for source mechanics and analyses of the evolution in effective stresses. We conducted laboratory experiments on samples of Padang granite to elucidate the interrelation between shear displacement on faults and their hydraulic properties. The cylindrical samples of 30 mm diameter and 75 mm length were prepared with a ground sawcut, inclined 35° to the cylindrical axis and accessed by a central bore of 3 mm diameter. The conventional triaxial compression experiments were conducted at effective pressures of 30, 50, and 70 MPa at slip rates of 2×10-4 and 8×10-4 mm s-1. The nominally constant fluid pressure of 30 MPa was modulated by oscillations with an amplitude of up to 0.5 MPa. Permeability and specific storage capacity of the fault were determined using the oscillatory radial-flow method that rests on an analysis of amplitude ratio and phase shift between the oscillatory fluid pressure and the oscillatory fluid flow from and into the fault plane. This method allowed us to continuously monitor the hydraulic evolution during elastic loading and frictional sliding. The chosen oscillation period of 60 s guaranteed a resolution of hydraulic properties for slip increments as small as 20 μm. The determined hydraulic properties show a fairly uniform dependence on normal stress at hydrostatic conditions and initial elastic loading. The samples exhibited stable frictional sliding with modest strengthening with increasing strain. Since not all phase-shift values fell inside the theoretical range for purely radial pressure diffusion during frictional sliding, the records of equivalent hydraulic properties exhibit some gaps. In the phases with evaluable phase-shift values, permeability fluctuates by almost one order of magnitude over slip intervals of as little as 100 μm. We suppose that the observed fluctuations are related to comminution and reconfiguration of asperities on the fault planes

8. Tube Radial Distribution Flow Separation in a Microchannel Using an Ionic Liquid Aqueous Two-Phase System Based on Phase Separation Multi-Phase Flow.

Nagatani, Kosuke; Shihata, Yoshinori; Matsushita, Takahiro; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

2016-01-01

Ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems were delivered into a capillary tube to achieve tube radial distribution flow (TRDF) or annular flow in a microspace. The phase diagram, viscosity of the phases, and TRDF image of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and NaOH system were examined. The TRDF was formed with inner ionic liquid-rich and outer ionic liquid-poor phases in the capillary tube. The phase configuration was explained using the viscous dissipation principle. We also examined the distribution of rhodamine B in a three-branched microchannel on a microchip with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase systems for the first time.

9. CFD flow pattern analysis on primaryside of IHX for fast reactors

Takano, Masahito; Mochizuki, Hiroyasu

2011-01-01

The present paper describes the CFD analysis on the primary-side of an intermediate heat exchange (IHX) which has the similar configurations as the IHX for the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The IHX is precisely modeled based on the discussion about meshing system. The present model is used for the heat transfer analysis under low-flowrate and natural circulation conditions. The IHX is a shell-and-tube type and counter-flow heat exchanger which has more than 3000 heat transfer tubes on the secondary side. Therefore, the flow pattern on the primary side gets complex. Measurement of flow pattern and temperature distribution on the primary-side of the real IHX are almost impossible. Since the heat transfer tubes of approximately 5 m in length are fixed at 7 plates with many flow holes and placed on the 23 circles with an appropriate lattice pitch, the number of meshes becomes enormous size. In order to overcome these problems, a separate model is discussed. In the present study, two models are discussed. The first one is a precise full-sector model with one flow entrance, 6 windows on the primary-side. The flow distributions are calculated changing inlet flow rate from 100% to 0.1% which is equivalent to 10 6 to 10 3 in the Reynolds numbers. The other model is a sector model with 8 chamber separated by 7 flow-rectifying plats. Pressure losses at each plate and chamber are calculated using this model. As a result of the analysis, since there is only a small flow deviation between the flow from the 6 windows under turbulent flow and laminar flow conditions, the sector model with one window is possible model in the calculation. The small radial velocity gradient is calculated from 23rd layer (outer heat transfer tube) to 10th layer. The distribution is not dependent on the flow rate. Axial flow distributions through the rectifying plates are unified from the entrance to the down-stream. The sector model is applicable to calculate the primary-side flow distributions

10. Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors

Lackner, A.

1996-10-01

Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of

11. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

M. M. Potsane

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

12. A novel method for flow pattern identification in unstable operational conditions using gamma ray and radial basis function

Roshani, G.H.; Nazemi, E.; Roshani, M.M.

2017-01-01

Changes of fluid properties (especially density) strongly affect the performance of radiation-based multiphase flow meter and could cause error in recognizing the flow pattern and determining void fraction. In this work, we proposed a methodology based on combination of multi-beam gamma ray attenuation and dual modality densitometry techniques using RBF neural network in order to recognize the flow regime and determine the void fraction in gas-liquid two phase flows independent of the liquid phase changes. The proposed system is consisted of one 137 Cs source, two transmission detectors and one scattering detector. The registered counts in two transmission detectors were used as the inputs of one primary Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network for recognizing the flow regime independent of liquid phase density. Then, after flow regime identification, three RBF neural networks were utilized for determining the void fraction independent of liquid phase density. Registered count in scattering detector and first transmission detector were used as the inputs of these three RBF neural networks. Using this simple methodology, all the flow patterns were correctly recognized and the void fraction was predicted independent of liquid phase density with mean relative error (MRE) of less than 3.28%. - Highlights: • Flow regime and void fraction were determined in two phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes. • An experimental structure was set up and the required data was obtained. • 3 detectors and one gamma source were used in detection geometry. • RBF networks were utilized for flow regime and void fraction determination.

13. Computer simulation of fuel behavior during loss-of-flow accidents in a gas-cooled fast reactor

Wehner, T.R.

1980-01-01

The sequence of events in a loss-of-flow accident without reactor shutdown in a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor is strongly influenced by the manner in which the fuel deforms. In order to predict the mode of initial gross fuel deformation, welling, melting or cracking, a thermomechanical computer simulation program was developed. Methods and techniques used make the simulation an economical, efficient, and flexible engineering tool. An innovative application of the enthalpy model within a finite difference scheme is used to caculate temperatures in the fuel rod. The method of successive elastic solutions is used to calculate the thermoelastic-creep response. Calculated stresses are compared with a brittle-fracture stress criterion. An independent computer code is used to calculate fission-gas-induced fuel swelling. Results obtained with the computer simulation indicate that swelling is not a mode of initial fuel deformation. Faster transients result in fuel melting, while slower transients result in fuel cracking. For investigated faster coolant flow coastdowns with time constants of 1 second and 10 seconds, compressive stresses in the outer radial portion of the fuel limit fuel swelling and inhibit fuel cracking. For a slower coolant flow coastdown with a 300 second time constant, tensile stresses in the outer radial portion of the fuel induce early fuel cracking before any melting or significant fuel swelling has occurred. Suggestions for further research are discussed. A derived noniterative solution for mechanics calculations may offer an order of magnitude decrease in computational effort

14. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

Schuster, Eugenio

2014-05-02

The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

15. Comparative study for axial and radial shuffling scheme effect on the performance of Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors with natural uranium as fuel cycle input

Zaki Suud; Indah Rosidah; Maryam Afifah; Ferhat Aziz; Sekimoto, H.

2013-01-01

Full text:Comparative study for the Design of Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors with natural uranium as fuel cycle input using special radial shuffling strategy and axial direction modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. The reactors utilizes UN-PuN as fuel, Eutectic Pb-Bi as coolant, and can be operated without refueling for 10 years in each batch. Reactor design optimization is performed to utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This reactor subdivided into 6-10 regions with equal volume in radial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, and after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region 2 and the region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions. The calculation has been done by using SRAC-Citation system code and JENDL-3.2 library. The effective multiplication factor change increases monotonously during 10 years reactor operation time. There is significant power distribution change in the central part of the core during the BOC and the EOC in the radial shuffling system. It is larger than that in the case of modified CANDLE case which use axial direction burning region move. The burn-up level of fuel is slowly grows during the first 15 years but then grow faster in the rest of burn-up history. This pattern is a little bit different from the case of modified CANDLE burn-up scheme in Axial direction in which the slow growing burn-up period is relatively longer almost half of the burn-up history. (author)

16. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

2017-05-01

Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K to 1313 K, under atmospheric pressure. Sole distinctive weak flame was observed for each mixture, with inlet fuel/air mixture velocity set low at 2 cm/s. One-dimensional computation with comprehensive chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, one-stage oxidation was confirmed from heat release rate profiles, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. The weak flame positions were congruent with literature describing reactivity of the butanol isomers. These weak flame responses were also found to mirror the trend in Anti-Knock Indexes of the butanol isomers. Flux and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the fuel oxidation pathways at low and high temperatures. Further computational investigations on oxidation of butanol isomers at higher pressure of 5 atm indicated two-stage oxidation through the heat release rate profiles. Low temperature chemistry is accentuated in the region near the first weak cool flame for oxidation under higher pressure, and its impact on key species – such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and carbon monoxide – were considered. Both experimental and computational findings demonstrate the advantage of employing the micro flow reactor in investigating oxidation processes in the temperature region of interest along the reactor channel. By varying physical conditions such as pressure, the micro flow reactor system is proven to be highly beneficial in elucidating oxidation behavior of butanol isomers in conditions in engines such as those that mirror HCCI operations.

17. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

Follin, Sven; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob

2011-09-01

According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

18. The Cross-Flow Mixing Analysis of Quasi-Static Pebble Flow in Pebble Bed Reactor

Fang Xiang; Liu Zhiyong; Sun Yanfei; Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao

2014-01-01

In the pebble bed reactor, large number of fuel pebbles’ movement law and moving state can affect the reactor’s design, operation and safety directly. Therefore the pebble flow, which is based on the theory of particle streaming, is one of the most important research subjects of the pebble bed reactor engineering. The in-core pebble flow is a very slow particle flow (or called quasi-static particle flow), which is very different from the usual particle motion. How to accurately describe the characteristics of in-core pebble flow is a central issue for this subject. Due to the presence of random flow, the cross-mixing phenomenon will occur inevitably. In the present paper, the mixing phenomenon of pebble flow is generalized on the basis of experiment results. The pebble flow cross-mixing probability serves as the parameter which describes both the regularity and the randomness of pebble flow. The results are provided in the form of diagrammatic presentation. (author)

19. Multi objective Flower Pollination Algorithm for solving capacitor placement in radial distribution system using data structure load flow analysis

Tamilselvan V.

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The radial distribution system is a rugged system, it is also the most commonly used system, which suffers by loss and low voltage at the end bus. This loss can be reduced by the use of a capacitor in the system, which injects reactive current and also improves the voltage magnitude in the buses. The real power loss in the distribution line is the I2R loss which depends on the current and resistance. The connection of the capacitor in the bus reduces the reactive current and losses. The loss reduction is equal to the increase in generation, necessary for the electric power provided by firms. For consumers, the quality of power supply depends on the voltage magnitude level, which is also considered and hence the objective of the problem becomes the multi objective of loss minimization and the minimization of voltage deviation. In this paper, the optimal location and size of the capacitor is found using a new computational intelligent algorithm called Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA. To calculate the power flow and losses in the system, novel data structure load flow is introduced. In this, each bus is considered as a node with bus associated data. Links between the nodes are distribution lines and their own resistance and reactance. To validate the developed FPA solutions standard test cases, IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 radial distribution systems are considered.

20. Model-Based Optimization of Scaffold Geometry and Operating Conditions of Radial Flow Packed-Bed Bioreactors for Therapeutic Applications

Danilo Donato

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Radial flow perfusion of cell-seeded hollow cylindrical porous scaffolds may overcome the transport limitations of pure diffusion and direct axial perfusion in the realization of bioengineered substitutes of failing or missing tissues. Little has been reported on the optimization criteria of such bioreactors. A steady-state model was developed, combining convective and dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen with Michaelis-Menten cellular consumption kinetics. Dimensional analysis was used to combine more effectively geometric and operational variables in the dimensionless groups determining bioreactor performance. The effectiveness of cell oxygenation was expressed in terms of non-hypoxic fractional construct volume. The model permits the optimization of the geometry of hollow cylindrical constructs, and direction and magnitude of perfusion flow, to ensure cell oxygenation and culture at controlled oxygen concentration profiles. This may help engineer tissues suitable for therapeutic and drug screening purposes.

1. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

2014-02-03

Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

2. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

2006-01-01

Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

3. Flow induced vibrational excitation of nuclear reactor structures

Gibert, R.J.

1979-01-01

The pressure fluctuations generated by disturbed flows, encountered in nuclear reactors induce vibrations in the structures. In order to make forecastings for these vibrational levels, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the random pressure fluctuations induced in the walls by the main flow peculiarities of the circuits. This knowledge is essentially provided by experimentation which shows that most of the energy from these fluctuations is in the low frequency area. It is also necessary to determine the transfer functions of the fluid-structure coupled system. Given the frequency range of the excitations, a calculation of the characteristics of the first eigenmodes is generally sufficient. This calculation is carried out by finite element codes, the modal dampings being assessed separately. In this paper, emphasis is placed mainly on the analysis of the sources of excitation due to flow peculiarities. Some examples will also be given of assessments of vibrations in real structures (pipes, reactor internals, etc.) and of comparisons with the experimental results obtained on models or on a site [fr

4. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

1989-01-01

Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

5. PDBD with continuous liquids flows in a discharge reactor

Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Gutiérrez-León, D G; López-Callejas, R; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Belman-Flores, J M; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A

2015-01-01

This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a cylindrical pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) reactor aimed to microbiological elimination of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 bacteria. In the reactor, water flowed continuously and to countercurrent an oxygen gas was injected. The water pumping was carried out with a peristaltic pump type, stainless steel and aluminum constructed, and water was recirculated through norprene tubing. The considered parameters in order to promote energetic efficiency were: the residence time of the water contaminated with bacteria, flow rate of the liquid, shape and material used to build electrodes and dielectric, pressure, and gas injection flow rate. The pulsed power supply parameters are featured by 25-30 kV high voltage, 500 Hz frequency and 30 μs width. The outcome elimination of E. coli bacteria at 10 3 , 10 4 and 10 6 CFU/mL concentrations reached an efficiency over 0.5 log-order in absence of oxygen; while >2 log-orders when oxygen gas was injected during the process. (paper)

6. Modelling of non-catalytic reactors in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor: Dry, regenerative flue gas desulphurization using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent

Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

1992-01-01

A one-dimensional, two-phase dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe the steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In this reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with as downward-flowing dilute solids phase

7. Universality Results for Multi-layer Radial Hele-Shaw Flows

Daripa, Prabir; Gin, Craig; Daripa Research Team

2014-03-01

Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface separating two immiscible fluids. We study linear stability of this displacement process in multi-layer radial Hele-Shaw geometry involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases. Universal stability results have been obtained and applied to design displacement processes that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we derive universal formula which gives specific values of the viscosities of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Other similar universal results will also be presented. The talk is based on ongoing work. Supported by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

8. Hydrodynamic study of the adiabatic two-phase flow in the draught region of the VK-50 reactor

Solodkij, V.A.; Bartolomej, G.G.; Fedulin, V.N.; Kharitonov, Yu.V.; Shmelev, V.E.; Abasov, A.V.

1981-01-01

Aimed at obtaining the spatial distribution of steam content PHI in the draught region (2.7 m high, equivalent diameter of 2 m) of the VK-50 experimental power boiling water reactor the local PHI values have been measured by electroprobing. The experiments were performed in a wide range of operating parameters (1.2-6.5 MPa and 10-180 MW (th)). Characteristic probe signal oscillograms and the axial and radial PHI distributions are presented. The local PHI values have occurred to oscillate in time, that proves structural inhomogeneity of the steemwater flow related to large scale turbulent pulsations. The effect is most prominent at low reactor pressures and powers. The effect of migration of the steam phase generated by peripheral fuel assemblies to the central part of the draught region has been observed up to the height of 0.8 m from the core outlet [ru

9. 3 D flow computations under a reactor vessel closure head

Daubert, O.; Bonnin, O.; Hofmann, F.; Hecker, M.

1995-12-01

The flow under a vessel cover of a pressurised water reactor is investigated by using several computations and a physical model. The case presented here is turbulent, isothermal and incompressible. Computations are made with N3S code using a k-epsilon model. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are on the whole satisfying. Some local improvements are expected either with more sophisticated turbulence models or with mesh refinements automatically computed by using the adaptive meshing technique which has been just implemented in N3S for 3D cases. (authors). 6 refs., 7 figs

10. Transverse flow reactor studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

Macdonald, R.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01

Radical reactions are in important in combustion chemistry; however, little state-specific information is available for these reactions. A new apparatus has been constructed to measure the dynamics of radical reactions. The unique feature of this apparatus is a transverse flow reactor in which an atom or radical of known concentration will be produced by pulsed laser photolysis of an appropriate precursor molecule. The time dependence of individual quantum states or products and/or reactants will be followed by rapid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The reaction H + O{sub 2} {yields} OH + O will be studied.

11. Development and validation of a radial turbine efficiency and mass flow model at design and off-design conditions

Serrano, José Ramón; Arnau, Francisco José; García-Cuevas, Luis Miguel; Dombrovsky, Artem; Tartoussi, Hadi

2016-01-01

Highlights: • A procedure for performance maps extrapolation of any radial turbine is presented. • Non measured VGT positions, speeds and blade to jet speed ratios can be extrapolated. • Calibration coefficients that can be fitted with a limited set of map data are used. • Experimental points at high blade to jet speed ratios have been used for validation. • The extrapolation accuracy is good in different map ranges and variables. - Abstract: Turbine performance at extreme off-design conditions is growing in importance for properly computing turbocharged reciprocating internal combustion engines behaviour during urban driving conditions at current and future homologation cycles. In these cases, the turbine operates at very low flow rates and power outputs and at very high blade to jet speed ratios during transitory periods due to turbocharger wheel inertia and the high pulsation level of engine exhaust flow. This paper presents a physically based method that is able to extrapolate radial turbines reduced mass flow and adiabatic efficiency in blade speed ratio, turbine rotational speed and stator vanes position. The model uses a very narrow range of experimental data from turbine maps to fit the necessary coefficients. By using a special experimental turbocharger gas stand, experimental data have been obtained for extremely low turbine power outputs for the sake of model validation. Even if the data used for fitting only covers the turbine normal operation zone, the extrapolation model provides very good agreement with the experiments at very high blade speed ratio points; producing also good results when extrapolating in rotational speed and stator vanes position.

12. Prediction of Heat Transfer For Turbulent Flow in Rotating Radial Duct

P. Tekriwal

1995-01-01

in the case of low-Re model, the computation time is relatively high and the convergence is rather slow, thus rendering the low-Re model as an unattractive choice for rotating flows at high Reynolds number.

13. Measurement of two phase flow properties using the nuclear reactor instruments

Albrecht, R.W.; Washington Univ., Seattle; Crowe, R.D.; Dailey, D.J.; Kosaly, G.; Damborg, M.J.

1982-01-01

A procedure is introduced for characterizing one dimensional, two phase flow in terms of three properties; propagation, structure, and dynamics. It is shown that all of these properties can be measured by analyzing the response of the reactor neutron field to a two phase flow perturbation. Therefore, a nuclear reactor can be regarded as a two phase flow instrument. (author)

14. Circumbinary, not transitional: on the spiral arms, cavity, shadows, fast radial flows, streamers, and horseshoe in the HD 142527 disc

Price, Daniel J.; Cuello, Nicolás; Pinte, Christophe; Mentiplay, Daniel; Casassus, Simon; Christiaens, Valentin; Kennedy, Grant M.; Cuadra, Jorge; Sebastian Perez, M.; Marino, Sebastian; Armitage, Philip J.; Zurlo, Alice; Juhasz, Attila; Ragusa, Enrico; Laibe, Guillaume; Lodato, Giuseppe

2018-06-01

We present 3D hydrodynamical models of the HD 142527 protoplanetary disc, a bright and well-studied disc that shows spirals and shadows in scattered light around a 100 au gas cavity, a large horseshoe dust structure in mm continuum emission, together with mysterious fast radial flows and streamers seen in gas kinematics. By considering several possible orbits consistent with the observed arc, we show that all of the main observational features can be explained by one mechanism - the interaction between the disc and the observed binary companion. We find that the spirals, shadows, and horseshoe are only produced in the correct position angles by a companion on an inclined and eccentric orbit approaching periastron - the red' family from Lacour et al. Dust-gas simulations show radial and azimuthal concentration of dust around the cavity, consistent with the observed horseshoe. The success of this model in the HD 142527 disc suggests other mm-bright transition discs showing cavities, spirals, and dust asymmetries may also be explained by the interaction with central companions.

15. Wave structure in the radial film flow with a circular hydraulic jump

Rao, A.; Arakeri, J. H.

A circular hydraulic jump is commonly seen when a circular liquid jet impinges on a horizontal plate. Measurements of the film thickness, jump radius and the wave structure for various jet Reynolds numbers are reported. Film thickness measurements are made using an electrical contact method for regions both upstream and downstream of the jump over circular plates without a barrier at the edge. The jump radius and the separation bubble length are measured for various flow rates, plate edge conditions, and radii. Flow visualization using high-speed photography is used to study wave structure and transition. Waves on the jet amplify in the film region upstream of the jump. At high flow rates, the waves amplify enough to cause three-dimensional breakdown and what seems like transition to turbulence. This surface wave induced transition is different from the traditional route and can be exploited to enhance heat and mass transfer rates.

16. Wave structure in the radial film flow with a circular hydraulic jump

Rao, A.; Arakeri, J.H. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2001-11-01

A circular hydraulic jump is commonly seen when a circular liquid jet impinges on a horizontal plate. Measurements of the film thickness, jump radius and the wave structure for various jet Reynolds numbers are reported. Film thickness measurements are made using an electrical contact method for regions both upstream and downstream of the jump over circular plates without a barrier at the edge. The jump radius and the separation bubble length are measured for various flow rates, plate edge conditions, and radii. Flow visualization using high-speed photography is used to study wave structure and transition. Waves on the jet amplify in the film region upstream of the jump. At high flow rates, the waves amplify enough to cause three-dimensional breakdown and what seems like transition to turbulence. This surface wave induced transition is different from the traditional route and can be exploited to enhance heat and mass transfer rates. (orig.)

17. Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors

Wulff, W.

1993-01-01

Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)

18. Device for measuring flow rate in a nuclear reactor core

Hamano, Jiro.

1980-01-01

Purpose: To always calculate core flow rate automatically and accurately in BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Jet pumps are provided to the recycling pump and to the inside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. The jet pumps comprise a plurality of calibrated jet pumps for forcively convecting the coolants and a plurality of not calibrated jet pumps in order to cool the heat generated in the reactor core. The difference in the pressures between the upper and the lower portions in both of the jet pumps is measured by difference pressure transducers. Further, a thermo-sensitive element is provided to measure the temperature of recycling water at the inlet of the recycling pump. The output signal from the difference pressure transducer is inputted to a process computer, calculated periodically based on predetermined calculation equations, compensated for the temperature by a recycling water temperature signal and outputted as a core flow rate signal to a recoder. The signal is also used for the power distribution calculation in the process computer and the minimum limit power ratio as the thermal limit value for the fuels is outputted. (Furukawa, Y.)

19. The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.

1984-01-01

This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.

20. Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes

Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.

2002-01-01

A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)

1. Application of radial basis function in densitometry of stratified regime of liquid-gas two phase flows

Roshani, G.H.; Nazemi, E.; Roshani, M.M.

2017-01-01

In this paper, a novel method is proposed for predicting the density of liquid phase in stratified regime of liquid-gas two phase flows by utilizing dual modality densitometry technique and artificial neural network (ANN) model of radial basis function (RBF). The detection system includes a 137 Cs radioactive source and two NaI(Tl) detectors for registering transmitted and scattered photons. At the first step, a Monte Carlo simulation model was utilized to obtain the optimum position for the scattering detector in dual modality densitometry configuration. At the next step, an experimental setup was designed based on obtained optimum position for detectors from simulation in order to generate the required data for training and testing the ANN. The results show that the proposed approach could be successfully applied for predicting the density of liquid phase in stratified regime of gas-liquid two phase flows with mean relative error (MRE) of less than 0.701. - Highlights: • Density of liquid phase in stratified regime of two phase flows was predicted. • Combination of dual modality densitometry technique and ANN was utilized. • Detection system includes a 137 Cs radioactive source and two NaI(Tl) detectors. • MCNP simulation was done to obtain the optimum position for the scattering detector. • An experimental setup was designed to generate the required data for training the ANN.

2. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

2008-10-01

In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

3. Impact of VOC Composition and Reactor Conditions on the Aging of Biomass Cookstove Emissions in an Oxidation Flow Reactor

Oxidation flow reactor (OFR) experiments in our lab have explored secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production during photochemical aging of emissions from cookstoves used by billions in developing countries. Previous experiments, conducted with red oak fuel under conditions of hig...

4. Multiphase flow problems on thermofluid safety for fusion reactors

Takase, Kazuyuki

2003-01-01

As the thermofluid safety study for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), thermal-hydraulic characteristics of Tokamak fusion reactors under transient events were investigated experimentally and analyzed numerically. As severe transient events an ingress-of-coolant event (ICE) and a loss-of-vacuum event (LOVA) were considered. An integrated ICE test facility was constructed to demonstrate that the ITER safety design approach and parameters are adequate. Water-vapor two-phase flow behavior and performance of the ITER pressure suppression system during the ICE were clarified by the integrated ICE experiments. The TRAC was modified to specify the two-phase flow behavior under the ICE. The ICE experimental results were verified using the modified TRAC code. On the other hand, activated dust mobilization and air ingress characteristics in the ITER vacuum vessel during the LOVA were analyzed using a newly developed analysis code. Some physical models on the motion of dust were considered. The rate of dust released from the vacuum vessel through breaches to the outside was characterized quantitatively. The predicted average pressures in the vacuum vessel during the LOVA were in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, direct-contact condensation characteristics between water and vapor inside the ITER suppression tank were observed visually and simulated by the direct two-phase flow analysis. Furthermore, chemical reaction characteristics between vapor and ITER plasma-facing component materials were predicted numerically in order to obtain qualitative estimation on generation of inflammable gases such as hydrogen and methane. The experimental and numerical results of the present studies were reflected in the ITER thermofluid safety design. (author)

5. A plug flow reactor model of a vanadium redox flow battery considering the conductive current collectors

König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

2017-08-01

A lumped-parameter model for vanadium redox flow batteries, which use metallic current collectors, is extended into a one-dimensional model using the plug flow reactor principle. Thus, the commonly used simplification of a perfectly mixed cell is no longer required. The resistances of the cell components are derived in the in-plane and through-plane directions. The copper current collector is the only component with a significant in-plane conductance, which allows for a simplified electrical network. The division of a full-scale flow cell into 10 layers in the direction of fluid flow represents a reasonable compromise between computational effort and accuracy. Due to the variations in the state of charge and thus the open circuit voltage of the electrolyte, the currents in the individual layers vary considerably. Hence, there are situations, in which the first layer, directly at the electrolyte input, carries a multiple of the last layer's current. The conventional model overestimates the cell performance. In the worst-case scenario, the more accurate 20-layer model yields a discharge capacity 9.4% smaller than that computed with the conventional model. The conductive current collector effectively eliminates the high over-potentials in the last layers of the plug flow reactor models that have been reported previously.

6. Calculation of the radial and axial flux and power distribution for a CANDU 6 reactor with both the MCNP6 and Serpent codes

Hussein, M.S.; Bonin, H.W.; Lewis, B.J.

2014-01-01

The most recent versions of the Monte Carlo-based probabilistic transport code MCNP6 and the continuous energy reactor physics burnup calculation code Serpent allow for a 3-D geometry calculation accounting for the detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. These two codes are used to calculate the axial and radial flux and power distributions for a CANDU6 GENTILLY-2 nuclear reactor core with 37-element fuel bundles. The multiplication factor, actual flux distribution and power density distribution were calculated by using a tally combination for MCNP6 and detector analysis for Serpent. Excellent agreement was found in the calculated flux and power distribution. The Serpent code is most efficient in terms of the computational time. (author)

7. Calculation of the radial and axial flux and power distribution for a CANDU 6 reactor with both the MCNP6 and Serpent codes

Hussein, M.S.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: mohamed.hussein@rmc.ca, E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada); Lewis, B.J., E-mail: Brent.Lewis@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

2014-07-01

The most recent versions of the Monte Carlo-based probabilistic transport code MCNP6 and the continuous energy reactor physics burnup calculation code Serpent allow for a 3-D geometry calculation accounting for the detailed geometry without unit-cell homogenization. These two codes are used to calculate the axial and radial flux and power distributions for a CANDU6 GENTILLY-2 nuclear reactor core with 37-element fuel bundles. The multiplication factor, actual flux distribution and power density distribution were calculated by using a tally combination for MCNP6 and detector analysis for Serpent. Excellent agreement was found in the calculated flux and power distribution. The Serpent code is most efficient in terms of the computational time. (author)

8. Thermal and flow design of helium-cooled reactors

Melese, G.; Katz, R.

1984-01-01

This book continues the American Nuclear Society's series of monographs on nuclear science and technology. Chapters of the book include information on the first-generation gas-cooled reactors; HTGR reactor developments; reactor core heat transfer; mechanical problems related to the primary coolant circuit; HTGR design bases; core thermal design; gas turbines; process heat HTGR reactors; GCFR reactor thermal hydraulics; and gas cooling of fusion reactors

9. Measurement of flow by-passing and turbulent mixing in a model of a fast-reactor steam generator

Little, A.J.; Fallows, T.; Central Electricity Generating Board, Leatherhead

1989-01-01

A description is given of measurements of edge by-pass velocities and turbulent mixing in a model of a fast reactor steam generator. The velocity measurements were carried out using a DANTEC triple-split fibre probe which allowed both the speed and flow angle of a velocity vector to be measured in a plane normal to the axis of the probe. The measurements revealed the presence of reverse flows in the by-pass and adjacent in-bank channels downstream of a grid plate. The magnitude of the by-pass flow was reduced considerably by the insertion of a kicker grid at the mid point between grid plates. Turbulent mixing measurements revealed that circumferential mixing in channels near the by-pass channel was up to 5 times greater than the radial mixing. The level of radial mixing at the edge of the bank was similar to that measured near the centre of the bank. A method of transposing mass diffusion measurements in air to thermal diffusivities of sodium is discussed. (orig.)

10. Unsteady axisymmetric flow and heat transfer over time-dependent radially stretching sheet

2017-03-01

Full Text Available This article address the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of unsteady and incompressible viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching permeable surface. First of all modeled nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. Analytic solution of the reduced problem is constructed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM. To validate the constructed series solution a numerical counterpart is developed using shooting algorithm based on Runge-Kutta method. Both schemes are in an excellent agreement. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity and energy profile are shown graphically and examined in detail.

11. Micro reactor and flow chemistry for industrial applications in drug discovery and development

Tambarussi Baraldi, P.; Hessel, V.

2012-01-01

In this review, case studies focused on syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing micro reactors and continuous flow technology in areas such as medicinal chemistry, chemical development and manufacturing. The advantages of flow

12. Methanol synthesis in a countercurrent gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. An experimental study

Kuczynski, M.; Oyevaar, M.H.; Pieters, R.T.; Westerterp, K.R.

1987-01-01

The synthesis of methanol from CO and H2 was executed in a gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. The reactor consisted of three tubular reactor sections with cooling sections in between. The catalyst was Cu on alumina, the adsorbent was a silica-alumina powder and the experimental range 498–523 K,

13. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

Vierow, Karen

2008-01-01

This project is investigating countercurrent flow and 'flooding' phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the 'surge line' and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008

14. Absolute and convective instabilities of a film flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field

Liu, Rong; Chen, Xue; Ding, Zijing

2018-01-01

We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the spatiotemporal stability analysis. The blowup behavior of nonlinear simulation predicts the formation of touchdown singularity of the interface due to the effect of electric field. We try to connect the blowup behavior with the AI-CI characteristics. It is found that the singularities mainly occur in the AI regime. The results indicate that the film may have a tendency to form very sharp tips due to the enhancement of the absolute instability induced by the electric field. We perform a theoretical analysis to study the behaviors of the singularities. The results show that there exists a self-similarity between the temporal and spatial distances from the singularities.

15. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

2013-01-01

This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption. (paper)

16. Optimal design of high damping force engine mount featuring MR valve structure with both annular and radial flow paths

Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

2013-11-01

This paper focuses on the optimal design of a compact and high damping force engine mount featuring magnetorheological fluid (MRF). In the mount, a MR valve structure with both annular and radial flows is employed to generate a high damping force. First, the configuration and working principle of the proposed MR mount is introduced. The MRF flows in the mount are then analyzed and the governing equations of the MR mount are derived based on the Bingham plastic behavior of the MRF. An optimal design of the MR mount is then performed to find the optimal structure of the MR valve to generate a maximum damping force with certain design constraints. In addition, the gap size of MRF ducts is empirically chosen considering the ‘lockup’ problem of the mount at high frequency. Performance of the optimized MR mount is then evaluated based on finite element analysis and discussions on performance results of the optimized MR mount are given. The effectiveness of the proposed MR engine mount is demonstrated via computer simulation by presenting damping force and power consumption.

17. Radioactive tracer applications in the study of flow reactors. 4

Thyn, J.; Hovorka, J.

1975-01-01

Response curves of gas streaming through the jet fluidized bed of a granular material in a rotary-jet pilot reactor were measured for a number of gas flow rates. A mathematical model of the gas residence time distribution was designed. Good agreement of the mathematical model with the experiments permits determining the ratio of streaming through the fluidized bed in form of bubbles of a different size. The measured values were evaluated as the distribution density of the gas residence time (age) at the outlet, the distribution function of the internal gas age in the device, and the so-called intensity function. The gas was labelled by a rapid injection of the radioactive 85 Kr and the response was studied by specially connected Geiger-Mueller counters placed inside the device, immediately above the granular material bed. (author)

18. A CFD Study on Inlet Plenum Flow Field of Pebble Bed Reactor

Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa

2005-01-01

High temperature gas cooled reactor, largely divided into two types of PBR (Pebble Bed Reactor) and PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor), has becomes great interest of researchers in connection with the hydrogen production. KAERI has started a project to develop the gas cooled reactor for the hydrogen production and has been doing in-depth study for selecting the reactor type between PBR and PMR. As a part of the study, PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) was selected as a reference PBR reactor for the CFD analysis and the flow field of its inlet plenum was simulated with computational fluid dynamics program CFX5. Due to asymmetrical arrangement of pipes to the inlet plenum, non-uniform flow distribution has been expected to occur, giving rise to non-uniform power distribution at the core. Flow fields of different arrangement of inlet pipes were also investigated, as one of measures to reduce the non-uniformity

19. The flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors

Lee, J.; Seo, J. K.; Lee, D. J.

2001-01-01

It is the common features of the integral reactors that the main components of the primary system are installed within the reactor vessel, and so there are no any flow pipes connecting the reactor coolant pumps or steam generators. Due to no any flow pipes, it is impossible to measure the differential pressure at the primary system of the integral reactors, and it also makes impossible measure the primary coolant flow rate. The objective of the study is to draw up the flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors. As a result of the review, we have made a selection of the flow measurement method by pump speed, bt HBM, and by pump motor power as the flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors. Peculiarly, we did not found out a precedent which the direct pump motor power-flow rate curve is used as the flow measurement method in the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. Therefore, to use this method for integral reactors, it is needed to bear the follow-up measures in mind. The follow-up measures is included in this report

20. Reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding : analysis, modeling and simulation

Budhi, Y.W.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Schouten, J.C.

2004-01-01

The novel concept of reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding is studied for selective oxidation of NH3 to produce either N2, N2O, or NO. During normal reverse flow operation, where the feeds are alternately introduced from either end of the reactor, the conversion is always lower when

1. Similarity Analysis for Reactor Flow Distribution Test and Its Validation

Hong, Soon Joon; Ha, Jung Hui [Heungdeok IT Valley, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoo; Han, Ji Woong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2015-05-15

facility. It was clearly found in Hong et al. In this study the feasibility of the similarity analysis of Hong et al. was examined. The similarity analysis was applied to SFR which has been designed in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in order to design the reactor flow distribution test. The length scale was assumed to be 1/5, and the velocity scale 1/2, which bounds the square root of the length scale (1/√5). The CFX calculations for both prototype and model were carried out and the flow field was compared.

2. Transition between trickle flow and pulse flow in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle-bed reactor at elevated pressures

Wammes, W.J.A.; Mechielsen, S.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

1992-01-01

The effect of reactor pressure in the range of 0.2–2.0 MPa on the transition between the trickle-flow and the pulse-flow regime has been investigated for the non-foaming water—nitrogen and aqueous 40% ethyleneglycol—nitrogen systems. Most models and flow charts which are all based on atmospheric

3. Modelling of flow stabilization by the swirl of a peripheral flow as applied to plasma reactors

Volchkov, E.P.; Lebedev, V.P.; Terekhov, V.I.; Shishkin, N.E.

2000-01-01

The gas-swirl stabilization of plasma jets is one of effective methods of its retention in the near-axial area of channels in generators of low-temperature plasma. Except the effect of gas-dynamic compression, the peripheral swirl allows to solve another urgent problem - to protect the reactor walls from the heat influence of the plasma jet. Swirl flows are also used for the flow structure formation and control of the heat and gas-dynamic characteristics of different power devices and apparatuses, using high-temperature working media: in swirl furnaces and burners, in aviation engines, etc. Investigations show that during swirl stabilization the gas-dynamic structure of the flow influences significantly the spatial stability of the plasma column and its characteristics

4. Redundant Vasodilator Pathways Underlying Radial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation Are Preserved in Healthy Aging

Kevin D. Ballard

2014-01-01

5. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

2018-05-01

Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

6. Corrosion Induced Leakage Problem of the Radial Beam Port 1 of BAEC Triga Mark-II Research Reactor

Kalam, A.; Salam, M. A.; Sarder, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Rahman, M.; Rahman, A.; Chowdhury, A. Z.; Uddin, M. S.; Haque, M. M.; Zulquarnain, M.A., E-mail: kalambaec@yahoo.com [Reactor Operation and Maintenance Unit, Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Dhaka (Bangladesh)

2014-08-15

The BAEC reactor has so far been operated as per the technical specifications and procedures laid down in the SAR of the research reactor. The BP leakage problem of the BAEC research reactor was an issue that could lead to a situation close to a LOCA. Therefore, the matter was handled carefully, taking all measures so that such an incident could be prevented. Assistance of agencies outside BAEC was taken for solving the problem. It is understood that the silicone rubber lining of the encirclement clamp may become damaged by neutron irradiation. Therefore, while designing the clamp, provisions were kept such that it can be dismantled and reinstalled again following lining replacement. As a moderately aged facility, the ageing management BAEC TRIGA research reactor deserves significant attention. BAEC, together with its strategic partners, are doing what is needed in this regard.

7. Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems

Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.

2013-01-01

Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena

8. Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors

Bennett, R.G.

1990-01-01

The development of a computer code for the analysis of the detailed flow of helium in prismatic fuel reactors is reported. The code, called BYPASS, solves, a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The discretization of the flow in a core region typically considers the main coolant flow paths, the bypass gap flow paths, and the crossflow connections between them. 16 refs., 5 figs

9. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra measurement on the model of the KS-150 reactor radial shielding

Holman, M.; Hogel, J.; Marik, J.; Kovarik, K.; Franc, L.; Vespalec, R.

1977-01-01

A shortened model of the peripheral region of the KS-150 reactor core consisting of two rows of fuel elements and a reflector was constructed from the peripheral fuel elements of the KS-150 reactor core in an experiment on the TR-0 reactor. The mockup of the thermal shield (10 cm of steel), the pressure vessel (15 cm of steel) and the inner wall of the water biological shielding (2 cm of steel) of the KS-150 reactor were erected outside the TR-0 vessel. Fast neutron and gamma spectra were measured with a stilbene crystal scintillation spectrometer. The resonance neutron spectra were measured with 197 Au, 63 Cu and 23 Na resonance activation detectors. Fast neutron spectra inside the reactor were measured with a 10 mm diameter by 10 mm thick stilbene crystal spectrometer, outside the reactor with a 10 mm diameter by 10 mm thick and a 20 mm diameter by 20 mm thick stilbene crystal spectrometer. Neutron spectra in the energy regions of 1 eV to 3 keV and 0.6 MeV to 0.8 MeV were obtained on the core periphery, on the reflector half-thickness and in front of and behind the reactor thermal shield. Gamma spectra were obtained in front of and behind the thermal shield. It was found that the attenuation of neutron fluxes by the reflector and the thermal shield increased with increasing energy while gamma radiation attenuation decreased with increasing energy. It was not possible to obtain the neutron spectrum in the 10 to 600 keV energy range because suitable detection instrumentation was not available. (J.P.)

10. Continuous-flow solar UVB disinfection reactor for drinking water.

Mbonimpa, Eric Gentil; Vadheim, Bryan; Blatchley, Ernest R

2012-05-01

Access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water is a long-standing problem among people in developing countries. Sustainable solutions to these problems often involve point-of-use or community-scale water treatment systems that rely on locally-available resources and expertise. This philosophy was used in the development of a continuous-flow, solar UVB disinfection system. Numerical modeling of solar UVB spectral irradiance was used to define temporal variations in spectral irradiance at several geographically-distinct locations. The results of these simulations indicated that a solar UVB system would benefit from incorporation of a device to amplify ambient UVB fluence rate. A compound parabolic collector (CPC) was selected for this purpose. Design of the CPC was based on numerical simulations that accounted for the shape of the collector and reflectance. Based on these simulations, a prototype CPC was constructed using materials that would be available and inexpensive in many developing countries. A UVB-transparent pipe was positioned in the focal area of the CPC; water was pumped through the pipe to allow exposure of waterborne microbes to germicidal solar UVB radiation. The system was demonstrated to be effective for inactivation of Escherichia coli, and DNA-weighted UV dose was shown to govern reactor performance. The design of the reactor is expected to scale linearly, and improvements in process performance (relative to results from the prototype) can be expected by use of larger CPC geometry, inclusion of better reflective materials, and application in areas with greater ambient solar UV spectral irradiance than the location of the prototype tests. The system is expected to have application for water treatment among communities in (developing) countries in near-equatorial and tropical locations. It may also have application for disaster relief or military field operations, as well as in water treatment in areas of developed countries that receive

11. Modeling of Tsunami Equations and Atmospheric Swirling Flows with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF)

Schmidt, J.; Piret, C.; Zhang, N.; Kadlec, B. J.; Liu, Y.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Sevre, E. O.

2008-12-01

The faster growth curves in the speed of GPUs relative to CPUs in recent years and its rapidly gained popularity has spawned a new area of development in computational technology. There is much potential in utilizing GPUs for solving evolutionary partial differential equations and producing the attendant visualization. We are concerned with modeling tsunami waves, where computational time is of extreme essence, for broadcasting warnings. In order to test the efficacy of the GPU on the set of shallow-water equations, we employed the NVIDIA board 8600M GT on a MacBook Pro. We have compared the relative speeds between the CPU and the GPU on a single processor for two types of spatial discretization based on second-order finite-differences and radial basis functions. RBFs are a more novel method based on a gridless and a multi- scale, adaptive framework. Using the NVIDIA 8600M GT, we received a speed up factor of 8 in favor of GPU for the finite-difference method and a factor of 7 for the RBF scheme. We have also studied the atmospheric dynamics problem of swirling flows over a spherical surface and found a speed-up of 5.3 using the GPU. The time steps employed for the RBF method are larger than those used in finite-differences, because of the much fewer number of nodal points needed by RBF. Thus, in modeling the same physical time, RBF acting in concert with GPU would be the fastest way to go.

12. A method and programme (BREACH) for predicting the flow distribution in water cooled reactor cores

Randles, J.; Roberts, H.A.

1961-03-01

The method presented here of evaluating the flow rate in individual reactor channels may be applied to any type of water cooled reactor in which boiling occurs The flow distribution is calculated with the aid of a MERCURY autocode programme, BREACH, which is described in detail. This programme computes the steady state longitudinal void distribution and pressure drop in a single channel on the basis of the homogeneous model of two phase flow. (author)

13. A method and programme (BREACH) for predicting the flow distribution in water cooled reactor cores

Randles, J; Roberts, H A [Technical Assessments and Services Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

1961-03-15

The method presented here of evaluating the flow rate in individual reactor channels may be applied to any type of water cooled reactor in which boiling occurs The flow distribution is calculated with the aid of a MERCURY autocode programme, BREACH, which is described in detail. This programme computes the steady state longitudinal void distribution and pressure drop in a single channel on the basis of the homogeneous model of two phase flow. (author)

14. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

2016-01-01

A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

15. Research of the fluid flow in a radially orientated coolant channel of a turbine blade; Untersuchung der Stroemung in einem radial gerichteten Kuehlkanal eines Turbinenlaufrades

Hein, O.

1999-07-01

Due to rotation (Coriolis forces) in a coolant channel a secondary flow is superimposed to the basic flow. This leads to a change in the local heat transfer over the surface of the coolant channel as well as a change in the overall value of the heat transfer. Also the pressure loss over the channel length will change by rotation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (Finite Element Method) it was achieved to figure out the interaction between changing fluid flow and heat transfer. To validate the results obtained by a numerical flow simulation, a new measurement technique was developed. A laser-two-focus velocimeter has been combined with a rotation prism which allows continued measurements in a rotating scaled up channel. (orig.) [German] Bedingt durch die Rotationsbewegung eines Kuehlkanals wird die Grundstroemung von einem Sekundaerwirbel ueberlagert (Corioliskraefte). Durch diese Einfluesse aendert sich sowohl der lokale Waermeuebergang ueber der Kanaloberflaeche als auch die globalen Waermeuebertragungsraten ueber dem gesamten Kanal. Ebenfalls aendert sich durch die Rotation der Druckverlust ueber der Kanallaenge. Durch eine numerische Stroemungssimulation (Finite-Element-Methode) war es moeglich, einen detaillierten Zusammenhang zwischen dem veraenderten Stroemungsverhalten und dem Waermeuebertragungsverhalten darzustellen. Um die numerisch gewonnenen Ergebnisse experimentell abzusichern, wurde eine neuartige Messtechnik entwickelt. Ein Laser-2-Fokus-Velozimeter wurde mit einem Bilddrehprisma kombiniert, und dies erlaubte eine kontinuierliche Messung in einem rotierenden vergroesserten Modellkanal. (orig.)

16. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis.

Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

2017-06-22

Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

17. The effects of temperatures on the pebble flow in a pebble bed high temperature reactor

Sen, R. S.; Cogliati, J. J.; Gougar, H. D.

2012-01-01

The core of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (PBHTR) moves during operation, a feature which leads to better fuel economy (online refueling with no burnable poisons) and lower fuel stress. The pebbles are loaded at the top and trickle to the bottom of the core after which the burnup of each is measured. The pebbles that are not fully burned are recirculated through the core until the target burnup is achieved. The flow pattern of the pebbles through the core is of importance for core simulations because it couples the burnup distribution to the core temperature and power profiles, especially in cores with two or more radial burnup 'zones '. The pebble velocity profile is a strong function of the core geometry and the friction between the pebbles and the surrounding structures (other pebbles or graphite reflector blocks). The friction coefficient for graphite in a helium environment is inversely related to the temperature. The Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) operated in Germany between 1983 and 1989. It featured a two-zone core, an inner core (IC) and outer core (OC), with different fuel mixtures loaded in each zone. The rate at which the IC was refueled relative to the OC in THTR was designed to be 0.56. During its operation, however, this ratio was measured to be 0.76, suggesting the pebbles in the inner core traveled faster than expected. It has been postulated that the positive feedback effect between inner core temperature, burnup, and pebble flow was underestimated in THTR. Because of the power shape, the center of the core in a typical cylindrical PBHTR operates at a higher temperature than the region next to the side reflector. The friction between pebbles in the IC is lower than that in the OC, perhaps causing a higher relative flow rate and lower average burnup, which in turn yield a higher local power density. Furthermore, the pebbles in the center region have higher velocities than the pebbles next to the side reflector due to the

18. The effects of temperatures on the pebble flow in a pebble bed high temperature reactor

Sen, R. S.; Cogliati, J. J.; Gougar, H. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2012-07-01

The core of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (PBHTR) moves during operation, a feature which leads to better fuel economy (online refueling with no burnable poisons) and lower fuel stress. The pebbles are loaded at the top and trickle to the bottom of the core after which the burnup of each is measured. The pebbles that are not fully burned are recirculated through the core until the target burnup is achieved. The flow pattern of the pebbles through the core is of importance for core simulations because it couples the burnup distribution to the core temperature and power profiles, especially in cores with two or more radial burnup 'zones '. The pebble velocity profile is a strong function of the core geometry and the friction between the pebbles and the surrounding structures (other pebbles or graphite reflector blocks). The friction coefficient for graphite in a helium environment is inversely related to the temperature. The Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) operated in Germany between 1983 and 1989. It featured a two-zone core, an inner core (IC) and outer core (OC), with different fuel mixtures loaded in each zone. The rate at which the IC was refueled relative to the OC in THTR was designed to be 0.56. During its operation, however, this ratio was measured to be 0.76, suggesting the pebbles in the inner core traveled faster than expected. It has been postulated that the positive feedback effect between inner core temperature, burnup, and pebble flow was underestimated in THTR. Because of the power shape, the center of the core in a typical cylindrical PBHTR operates at a higher temperature than the region next to the side reflector. The friction between pebbles in the IC is lower than that in the OC, perhaps causing a higher relative flow rate and lower average burnup, which in turn yield a higher local power density. Furthermore, the pebbles in the center region have higher velocities than the pebbles next to the side reflector due to the

19. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

2017-03-01

The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

20. Utilization of Stop-flow Micro-tubing Reactors for the Development of Organic Transformations.

Toh, Ren Wei; Li, Jie Sheng; Wu, Jie

2018-01-04

A new reaction screening technology for organic synthesis was recently demonstrated by combining elements from both continuous micro-flow and conventional batch reactors, coined stop-flow micro-tubing (SFMT) reactors. In SFMT, chemical reactions that require high pressure can be screened in parallel through a safer and convenient way. Cross-contamination, which is a common problem in reaction screening for continuous flow reactors, is avoided in SFMT. Moreover, the commercially available light-permeable micro-tubing can be incorporated into SFMT, serving as an excellent choice for light-mediated reactions due to a more effective uniform light exposure, compared to batch reactors. Overall, the SFMT reactor system is similar to continuous flow reactors and more superior than batch reactors for reactions that incorporate gas reagents and/or require light-illumination, which enables a simple but highly efficient reaction screening system. Furthermore, any successfully developed reaction in the SFMT reactor system can be conveniently translated to continuous-flow synthesis for large scale production.

1. Anatomical explanations for acute depressions in radial pattern of axial sap flow in two diffuse-porous mangrove species: implications for water use.

Zhao, Hewei; Yang, Shengchang; Guo, Xudong; Peng, Congjiao; Gu, Xiaoxuan; Deng, Chuanyuan; Chen, Luzhen

2018-02-01

2. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

2014-05-01

Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

3. Nature and characteristics of pulsing flow in trickle-bed reactors

Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

2002-01-01

Pulsing flow is well known for its advantages in terms of an increase in mass and heat transfer rates, complete catalyst wetting and a decrease in axial dispersion compared to trickle flow. The operation of a trickle-bed reactor in the pulsing flow regime is favorable in terms of a capacity increase

4. Enlargement of the pulsing flow regime by periodic operation of a trickle-bed reactor.

Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

1999-01-01

Potential advantages of pulsing flow in trickle-bed reactors include capacity increase and elimination of hot spots through the enhanced mass and heat transfer rates. A disadvantage of naturally occurring pulsing flow is the necessity of relatively high gas and liquid flow rates, especially at

5. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves cerebral blood flow and neurological function in a rat model of cerebral ischemia.

Kang, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaotong; Ma, Yuewen

2017-01-01

We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats to investigate the effect and some of the underlying mechanisms of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) in cerebral ischemia rats. We measured neurological function and cerebral blood flow (CBF) using a full-field laser perfusion imager and brain infarct volume on days 3, 12, and 30. Immunofluorescence, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), nestin, Wnt3a, and β-catenin in the ischemic hemisphere. The dose of rESWT used on the head revealed remarkable advantages over sham rESWT, as demonstrated by improved neurological function scores, increased CBF, and reduced brain infarct volume. Furthermore, applying rESWT to the head and limbs enhanced short-term neurological function. Our results confirmed that rESWT can induce VEGF expression over an extended period with a profound effect, which may be the primary reason for CBF recovery. High NSE and nestin expression levels suggest that rESWT enhanced the number of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs). Wnt3a and β-catenin expression were up-regulated in the ischemic hemisphere, indicating that rESWT promoted NSC proliferation and differentiation via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that an appropriate rESWT dose delivered to the head of rats helps restore neurological function and CBF, and additional application of rESWT to the limbs is more effective than treating the head alone.

6. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

1989-01-01

Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

7. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y

1999-03-01

At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

8. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y.

1999-03-01

At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

9. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Flach, G.P.

1999-01-01

A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi 2 surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department

10. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Flach, G.P.

1999-02-24

A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

11. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

2006-01-01

A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

12. A reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the production of syngas: an experimental study

Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

2005-01-01

In this paper experimental results are presented for a demonstration unit of a recently proposed novel integrated reactor concept (Smit et. al., 2005) for the partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas (POM), namely a Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactor (RFCMR). Natural gas has great potential

13. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

2016-01-01

A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

14. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

1977-01-01

As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

15. Safety analysis of switching between reductive and oxidative conditions in a reaction coupling reverse flow reactor.

van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

2001-01-01

A new reverse flow reactor is developed where endothermic reactants (propane dehydrogenation) and exothermic reactants (fuel combustion) are fed sequentially to a monolithic catalyst, while periodically alternating the inlet and outlet positions. Upon switching from reductive to oxidative conditions

16. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

1977-12-01

As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

17. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

1977-01-01

As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

18. Efficient algorithms for flow simulation related to nuclear reactor safety

Gornak, Tatiana

2013-01-01

Safety analysis is of ultimate importance for operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The overall modeling and simulation of physical and chemical processes occuring in the course of an accident is an interdisciplinary problem and has origins in fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, reactor technology and computer programming. The aim of the study is therefore to create the foundations of a multi-dimensional non-isothermal fluid model for a NPP containment and software tool based on it. The numerical simulations allow to analyze and predict the behavior of NPP systems under different working and accident conditions, and to develop proper action plans for minimizing the risks of accidents, and/or minimizing the consequences of possible accidents. A very large number of scenarios have to be simulated, and at the same time acceptable accuracy for the critical parameters, such as radioactive pollution, temperature, etc., have to be achieved. The existing software tools are either too slow, or not accurate enough. This thesis deals with developing customized algorithm and software tools for simulation of isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a containment pool of NPP. Requirements to such a software are formulated, and proper algorithms are presented. The goal of the work is to achieve a balance between accuracy and speed of calculation, and to develop customized algorithm for this special case. Different discretization and solution approaches are studied and those which correspond best to the formulated goal are selected, adjusted, and when possible, analysed. Fast directional splitting algorithm for Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries, in presence of solid and porous obstacles, is in the core of the algorithm. Developing suitable pre-processor and customized domain decomposition algorithms are essential part of the overall algorithm amd software. Results from numerical simulations in test geometries and in real geometries are presented and discussed.

19. The influence of thermodynamic state of mineral hydraulic oil on flow rate through radial clearance at zero overlap inside the hydraulic components

Knežević Darko M.

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In control hydraulic components (servo valves, LS regulators, etc. there is a need for precise mathematical description of fluid flow through radial clearances between the control piston and body of component at zero overlap, small valve opening and small lengths of overlap. Such a mathematical description would allow for a better dynamic analysis and stability analysis of hydraulic systems. The existing formulas in the literature do not take into account the change of the physical properties of the fluid with a change of thermodynamic state of the fluid to determine the flow rate through radial clearances in hydraulic components at zero overlap, a small opening, and a small overlap lengths, which leads to the formation of insufficiently precise mathematical models. In this paper model description of fluid flow through radial clearances at zero overlap is developed, taking into account the changes of physical properties of hydraulic fluid as a function of pressure and temperature. In addition, the experimental verification of the mathematical model is performed.

20. Reactor mass flow data base prepared for the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program

Primm III, R.T.C.

1981-02-01

This report presents charge and discharge mass flow data for reactors judged to have received sufficient technical development to enable them to be demonstrated or commercially available by the year 2000. Brief descriptions of the reactors and fuel cycles evaluated are presented. A discussion of the neutronics methods used to produce the mass flow data is provided. Detailed charge and discharge fuel isotopics are presented. U 3 O 8 , separative work, and fissile material requirements are computed and provided for each fuel cycle

1. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the core of LMFBR type reactors

1985-01-01

It is studied the flow redistribution through of fuel elements to the pressure drop calculation in the core of sodium cooled reactors. Using the quasi-static formulation of equations of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum, it was developed a computer program to flow redistribution calculations and pressure drop for different power levels and total flow simulating an arbitrary number of channels for sodium flowing . An optimization of the number of sufficient channels for calculations of this nature is done. The method is applied in studies of transients in the same reactor. (M.C.K.) [pt

2. Validation of Reactor Physics-Thermal hydraulics Calculations for Research Reactors Cooled by the Laminar Flow of Water

Jordan, K. A.; Schubring, D. [Univ. of Florida, Florida (United States); Girardin, G.; Pautz, A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2013-07-01

A collaboration between the University of Florida and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) has been formed to develop and validate detailed coupled multiphysics models of the zero-power (100 W) CROCUS reactor at EPFL and the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor, for the comprehensive analysis of the reactor behavior under transient (neutronic or thermal-hydraulic induced) conditions. These two reactors differ significantly in the core design and thermal power output, but share unique heat transfer and flow characteristics. They are characterized by single-phase laminar water flow at near-atmospheric pressures in complex geometries with the possibility of mechanically entrained air bubbles. Validation experiments will be designed to expand the validation domain of these existing models, computational codes and techniques. In this process, emphasis will be placed on validation of the coupled models developed to gain confidence in their applicability for safety analysis. EPFL is responsible for the design and implementation of transient experiments to generate a database of reactor parameters (flow distribution, power profile, and power evolution) to be used to validate against code predictions. The transient experiments performed at EPFL will be simulated on the basis of developed models for these tasks. Comparative analysis will be performed with SERPENT and MCNPX reference core models. UF focuses on the generation of the coupled neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic models, including implementation of a TRACE/PARCS reactor simulator model, a PARET model, and development of full-field computational fluid dynamics models (using OpenFOAM) for refined thermal-hydraulics physics treatments. In this subtask of the project, the aim is to verify by means of CFD the validity of TRACE predictions for near-atmospheric pressure water flow in the presence of mechanically entrained air bubbles. The scientific understanding of these multiphysics

3. Validation of Reactor Physics-Thermal hydraulics Calculations for Research Reactors Cooled by the Laminar Flow of Water

Jordan, K. A.; Schubring, D.; Girardin, G.; Pautz, A.

2013-01-01

A collaboration between the University of Florida and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) has been formed to develop and validate detailed coupled multiphysics models of the zero-power (100 W) CROCUS reactor at EPFL and the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor, for the comprehensive analysis of the reactor behavior under transient (neutronic or thermal-hydraulic induced) conditions. These two reactors differ significantly in the core design and thermal power output, but share unique heat transfer and flow characteristics. They are characterized by single-phase laminar water flow at near-atmospheric pressures in complex geometries with the possibility of mechanically entrained air bubbles. Validation experiments will be designed to expand the validation domain of these existing models, computational codes and techniques. In this process, emphasis will be placed on validation of the coupled models developed to gain confidence in their applicability for safety analysis. EPFL is responsible for the design and implementation of transient experiments to generate a database of reactor parameters (flow distribution, power profile, and power evolution) to be used to validate against code predictions. The transient experiments performed at EPFL will be simulated on the basis of developed models for these tasks. Comparative analysis will be performed with SERPENT and MCNPX reference core models. UF focuses on the generation of the coupled neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic models, including implementation of a TRACE/PARCS reactor simulator model, a PARET model, and development of full-field computational fluid dynamics models (using OpenFOAM) for refined thermal-hydraulics physics treatments. In this subtask of the project, the aim is to verify by means of CFD the validity of TRACE predictions for near-atmospheric pressure water flow in the presence of mechanically entrained air bubbles. The scientific understanding of these multiphysics

4. Numerical simulation of flow characteristics of lean jet to cross-flow in safety injection of reactor cooling system

Wang Haijun; He Huining; Luo Yushan; Wang Weishu

2011-01-01

In the present work, a numerical simulation was performed to study the flow characteristics of lean jet to cross flow in a main tube in the safety injection of reactor cooling system. The influence scope and mixing characteristics of the confined lean jet in cross-flow were studied. It can be concluded that three basic flow regimes are marked, namely the attached lean jet, lift-off lean jet and impinging lean jet. The velocity ratio V R is the key factor in the flow state. The depth and region of jet to main flow are enhanced with the increase of the velocity ratio. The jet flow penetrates through the main flow with the increase of the velocity ratio. At higher velocity ratio, the jet flow strikes the main flow bottom and circumfluence happens in upriver of main flow. The vortex flow characteristics dominate the flow near region of jet to cross-flow and the mixture of jet to cross-flow. At different velocity ratio V R , the vortex grows from the same displacement, but the vortex type and the vortex is different. At higher velocity ratio, the vortex develops fleetly, wears off sharp and dies out sharp. The study is very important to the heat transfer experiments of cross-flow jet and thermal stress analysis in the designs of nuclear engineering. (authors)

5. 1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

Kim, Jae Cheol

2007-02-01

During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift

6. Sodium flow measurement in large pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors with bypass type flow meters

Rajan, K.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Vinod, V.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Bypass type permanent magnet flow meters are more suitable for sodium flow measurement. • A higher sodium velocity through the PMFM sensor will increase its sensitivity and resolution. • By modifying the geometry of bypass line, higher sodium velocity through sensor is achieved. • With optimized geometry the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system was increased by 70%. - Abstract: Liquid sodium flow through the pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor circuits are measured using electromagnetic flow meters. Bypass type flow meter with a permanent magnet flow meter as sensor in the bypass line is selected for the flow measurement in the 800 NB main secondary pipe line of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), which is at the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam. For increasing the sensitivity of bypass flow meters in future SFRs, alternative bypass geometry was considered. The performance enhancement of the proposed geometry was evaluated by experimental and numerical methods using scaled down models. From the studies it is observed that the new configuration increases the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system by around 70%. Using experimentally validated numerical tools the volumetric flow ratio for the bypass configurations is established for the operating range of Reynolds numbers.

7. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

1980-10-01

Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

8. CFD analysis of flow distribution of reactor core and temperature rise of coolant in fuel assembly for VVER reactor

Du Daiquan; Zeng Xiaokang; Xiong Wanyu; Yang Xiaoqiang

2015-01-01

Flow field of VVER-1000 reactor core was investigated by using computational fluid dynamics code CFX, and the temperature rise of coolant in hot assembly was calculated. The results show that the maximum value of flow distribution factor is 1.12 and the minimum value is 0.92. The average value of flow distribution factor in hot assembly is 0.97. The temperature rise in hot assembly is higher than current warning limit value ΔT t under the deviated operation condition. The results can provide reference for setting ΔT t during the operation of nuclear power plant. (authors)

9. Effects of gas-flow structures on radical and etch-product density distributions on wafers in magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactors

Ikegawa, Masato; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Fukuyama, Ryoji

2001-01-01

To achieve high etch rate, uniformity, good selectivity, and etch profile control across large diameter wafers, the distributions of ions, radicals, and etch products in magnetomicrowave high-etch-rate plasma etching reactors must be accurately controlled. In this work the effects of chamber heights, a focus ring around the wafer, and gas supply structures (or gas flow structures) on the radicals and etch products flux distribution onto the wafer were examined using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and used to determine the optimal reactor geometry. The pressure uniformity on the wafer was less than ±1% when the chamber height was taller than 60 mm. The focus ring around the wafer produced uniform radical and etch-product fluxes but increased the etch-product flux on the wafer. A downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) produced a more uniform radical distribution than that produced by a radial gas-supply structure (type I). The impact flow of the type II structure removed etch products from the wafer effectively and produced a uniform etch-product distribution even without the focus ring. Thus the downward-flow gas-supply structure (type II) was adopted in the design for the second-generation of a magnetomicrowave plasma etching reactor with a higher etching rate

10. Effect of ship motions and flow stability in a small marine reactor driven by natural circulation

Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa

2001-12-01

By using a small reactor as a power source for investigations and developments under sea, widely expanded activity is expectable. In this case, as for a nuclear reactor, small-size and lightweightness, and simplification of a system are needed with the safety. In JAERI, very small reactors for submersible research vessel (Deep-sea Reactor DRX and submersible Compact Reactor SCR) have been designed on the basis of needs investigation of sea research. Although the reactor is a PWR type, self-pressurization and natural circulation system are adopted in a primary system for small size and lightweightness. The fluid flow condition of the reactor core outlet is designed to be the two-phase with a low quality. Although the flow of a primary system is the two-phase flow with a low quality, the density wave oscillation may occur according to operating conditions. Moreover, since there are ship motions of heaving (the vertical direction acceleration) etc., when a submersible research vessel navigates on the sea surface, the circulation flow of the primary system is directly influenced by this external force. In order to maintain stable operations of the reactor, it is necessary to clarify effects of the flow stability characteristic of the primary coolant system and the external force. Until now, as for the flow stability of a nuclear reactor itself, many research reports have been published including the nuclear-coupled thermal oscillation of BWRs such as LaSalle-2, WNP-2 etc. As for the effect of external force, it is reported that the acceleration change based on a seismic wave affects the reactor core flow and the reactor power in a BWR. On the other hand, also in a PWR, since adoption of natural circulation cooling is considered for a generation 4 reactor, it is thought that the margin of the reactor core flow stability becomes an important parameter in the design. The reactor coolant flow mentioned in this report is the two-phase natural circulation flow coupled with

11. Design of collimator in the radial piercing beam port of Kartini reactor for boron neutron capture therapy

M Ilma Muslih A; Andang Widiharto; Yohannes Sardjono

2014-01-01

Studies were carried out to design a collimator which results in epithermal neutron beam for in vivo experiment of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Kartini Research Reactor by means of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes. Reactor within 100 kW of thermal power was used as the neutron source. All materials used were varied in size, according to the value of mean free path for each material. MCNP simulations indicated that by using 5 cm thick of Ni (95%) as collimator wall, 15 cm thick of Al as moderator, 1 cm thick of Pb as γ-ray shielding, 1.5 cm thick of Boral as additional material, with 2 cm aperture diameter, epithermal neutron beam with maximum flux of 5.03 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 could be produced. The beam has minimum fast neutron and γ-ray components of, respectively, 2.17 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 and 1.16 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -l , minimum thermal neutron per epithermal neutron ratio of 0.12, and maximum directionality of 0.835 . It did not fully pass the IAEA's criteria, since the epithermal neutron flux was below the recommended value, 1.0 x 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -l . Nonetheless, it was still usable with epithermal neutron flux exceeding 5.0 x 10 8 n.cm -2 .s -1 and fast neutron flux close to 2 x 10 -13 Gy.cm 2 .n -1 it is still feasible for BNCT in vivo experiment. (author)

12. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

2013-01-01

A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

2008-08-01

Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

14. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae in a continuous plug-flow reactor.

Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Savithri, Sivaraman

2018-06-01

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used in this work to simulate the hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae in a lab-scale continuous plug-flow reactor to understand the fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a HTL reactor under hydrothermal condition. The temperature profile in the reactor and the yield of HTL products from the present simulation are obtained and they are validated with the experimental data available in the literature. Furthermore, the parametric study is carried out to study the effect of slurry flow rate, reactor temperature, and external heat transfer coefficient on the yield of products. Though the model predictions are satisfactory in comparison with the experimental results, it still needs to be improved for better prediction of the product yields. This improved model will be considered as a baseline for design and scale-up of large-scale HTL reactor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Influence of radial magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in a curved complaint walls channel

Tasawar Hayat

Full Text Available Peristaltic transport of Williamson fluid in a curved geometry is modeled. Problem formulation is completed by complaint walls of channel. Radial magnetic field in the analysis is taken into account. Resulting problem formulation is simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Series solution is obtained for small Weissenberg number. Influences of different embedded parameters on the axial velocity and stream function are examined. As expected the velocity in curved channel is not symmetric. Axial velocity is noticed decreasing for Hartman number. Trapped bolus increases for Hartman and curvature parameters. Keywords: Williamson fluid, Curved channel, Radial magnetic field, Complaint walls

16. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-09-01

Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactors upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

17. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

Abou Elmaaty, T.

2014-01-01

The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

18. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

Abou Elmaaty, T.

2015-01-01

The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

19. Biological hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an unsaturated flow reactor.

Zhang, Husen; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

2006-02-01

A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped reactor, producing a hydraulic retention time of 2.1 min. Gas-phase H2 concentrations were constant, averaging 74 +/- 3% for all conditions tested. H2 production rates increased from 89 to 220 mL/hL of reactor when influent glucose concentrations were varied from 1.0 to 10.5 g/L. Specific H2 production rate ranged from 680 to 1270 mL/g glucose per liter of reactor (total volume). The H2 yield was 15-27%, based on a theoretical limit by fermentation of 4 moles of H2 from 1 mole of glucose. The major fermentation by-products in the liquid effluent were acetate and butyrate. The reactor rapidly (within 60-72 h) became clogged with biomass, requiring manual cleaning of the system. In order to make long-term operation of the reactor feasible, biofilm accumulation in the reactor will need to be controlled through some process such as backwashing. These tests using an unsaturated flow reactor demonstrate the feasibility of the process to produce high H2 gas concentrations in a trickle-bed type of reactor. A likely application of this reactor technology could be H2 gas recovery from pre-treatment of high carbohydrate-containing wastewaters.

20. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

2017-04-01

Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

1. Design and Implementation of a Novel Quench Flow Reactor for the Study of Nascent Olefin Polymerisation

Di Martino, Audrey; Broyer, Jean Pierre; Schweich, Daniel; de Bellefon, Claude; Weickert, G.; McKenna, Timothy F.L.

2007-01-01

A novel stopped flow reactor system is described in the current work, along with the underlying design philosophy. While the concept of stopped flow technology is not recent, this system is the first to be designed with the objective of studying particle morphology, and to work at extremely short

2. CFD analysis and flow model reduction for surfactant production in helix reactor

Nikačević, N.M.; Thielen, L.; Twerda, A.; Hof, P.M.J. van den

2014-01-01

Flow pattern analysis in a spiral Helix reactor is conducted, for the application in the commercial surfactant production. Step change response curves (SCR) were obtained from numerical tracer experiments by three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Non-reactive flow is

3. Student-Fabricated Microfluidic Devices as Flow Reactors for Organic and Inorganic Synthesis

Feng, Z. Vivian; Edelman, Kate R.; Swanson, Benjamin P.

2015-01-01

Flow synthesis in microfluidic devices has been rapidly adapted in the pharmaceutical industry and in many research laboratories. Yet, the cost of commercial flow reactors is a major factor limiting the dissemination of this technology in the undergraduate curriculum. Here, we present a laboratory activity where students design and fabricate…

4. Controlled synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles in capillary micro-flow reactor

He Shengtai; Liu Yulan; Maeda, Hideaki

2008-01-01

In this study, using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary tube as a micro-flow reactor, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles were controllably synthesized with different flow rates of precursory solution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images and UV-visible absorbance spectra showed that silver nanoparticles with large size can be prepared with slow flow rate in the PTFE capillary reactor. The effects of tube diameters on the growth of colloidal silver nanoparticles were investigated. Experiment results demonstrated that using tube with small diameter was more propitious for the controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles with different sizes.

5. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

Marcelo Muñoz

2016-06-01

Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

6. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh-adaptive LES

Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Lathouwers, Danny

2013-01-01

The very high temperature reactor is one of the designs currently being considered for nuclear power generation. One its variants is the pebble bed reactor in which the coolant passes through complex geometries (pores) at high Reynolds numbers. A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in such reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated

7. Conceptual Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle Radial Turbomachinery for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

Cho, Seongkuk; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15

KAIST proposed a new SMR design, which utilizes S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid. It was named as KAIST MMR. Compared with existing SMR concepts, KAIST MMR has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization. Authors noticed that the compressor and turbine assumed performances of KAIST MMR were conservatively selected previously. Thus, this paper tries to address the best estimate values of each turbomachinery in 10MWe class KAIST MMR. The turbomachinery size of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is smaller than helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. The suggested SMR concept adopts passive cooling system by using air. This method can cool reactor without external electricity supply. Small size and more flexible installation in the inland area will be necessary characteristics for the future nuclear application in the water limited region. KAIST MMR meets all these requirements by utilizing S-CO{sub 2} as a working fluid. This paper presents the work for further increasing the system performance by estimating the component efficiency more realistically. The cycle layout adopted for the application is S-CO{sub 2} recuperated Brayton cycle. The best efficiency of compressor and turbine was evaluated to be 84.94% and 90.94%, respectively. By using KAIST in-house code, thermal efficiency and net output were increased to 35.81% and 12.45MWe, respectively, for the same core thermal power. More refined cycle layout and suitable turbomachinery design will be performed in the near future.

8. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

2010-01-01

Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

9. The role of heater thermal response in reactor thermal limits during oscillartory two-phase flows

Ruggles, A.E.; Brown, N.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vasilev, A.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Wendel, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-09-01

Analytical and numerical investigations of critical heat flux (CHF) and reactor thermal limits are conducted for oscillatory two-phase flows often associated with natural circulation conditions. It is shown that the CHF and associated thermal limits depend on the amplitude of the flow oscillations, the period of the flow oscillations, and the thermal properties and dimensions of the heater. The value of the thermal limit can be much lower in unsteady flow situations than would be expected using time average flow conditions. It is also shown that the properties of the heater strongly influence the thermal limit value in unsteady flow situations, which is very important to the design of experiments to evaluate thermal limits for reactor fuel systems.

10. Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors

Curtis, Franklin G.; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D.

2011-01-01

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.

11. Non-isomorphic radial wavenumber dependencies of residual zonal flows in ion and electron Larmor radius scales, and effects of initial parallel flow and electromagnetic potentials in a circular tokamak

Yamagishi, Osamu

2018-04-01

Radial wavenumber dependencies of the residual zonal potential for E × B flow in a circular, large aspect ratio tokamak is investigated by means of the collisionless gyrokinetic simulations of Rosenbluth-Hinton (RH) test and the semi-analytic approach using an analytic solution of the gyrokinetic equation Rosenbluth and Hinton (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 724). By increasing the radial wavenumber from an ion Larmor radius scale {k}r{ρ }i≲ 1 to an electron Larmor radius scale {k}r{ρ }e≲ 1, the well-known level ˜ O[1/(1+1.6{q}2/\\sqrt{r/{R}0})] is retained, while the level remains O(1) when the wavenumber is decreased from the electron to the ion Larmor radius scale, if physically same adiabatic assumption is presumed for species other than the main species that is treated kinetically. The conclusion is not modified by treating both species kinetically, so that in the intermediate scale between the ion and electron Larmor radius scale it seems difficult to determine the level uniquely. The toroidal momentum conservation property in the RH test is also investigated by including an initial parallel flow in addition to the perpendicular flow. It is shown that by taking a balance between the initial parallel flow and perpendicular flows which include both E × B flow and diamagnetic flow in the initial condition, the mechanical toroidal angular momentum is approximately conserved despite the toroidal symmetry breaking due to the finite radial wavenumber zonal modes. Effect of electromagnetic potentials is also investigated. When the electromagnetic potentials are applied initially, fast oscillations which are faster than the geodesic acoustic modes are introduced in the decay phase of the zonal modes. Although the residual level in the long time limit is not modified, this can make the time required to reach the stationary zonal flows longer and may weaken the effectiveness of the turbulent transport suppression by the zonal flows.

12. Development of manufacturing technology of radial plate in superconducting coil for fusion reactor by diffusion bonding by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)

Takano, Katsutoshi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Masuo, Hiroshi; Natsume, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

The radial plates (RPs), which is used in Toroidal field (TF) coil in ITER, are quite large, such as 13 m tall and 9 m wide, but thin, such as 10 cm thick, and are made of stainless steel. Even though they are very large structures, they require very high manufacturing tolerances and high mechanical strength at 4 K. The similar requirements will be required in the next generation fusion reactor. Therefore, the authors intend to develop efficient manufacturing methods in parallel with ITER TF coil RP manufacture. The authors therefore performed trial manufacture of the RP segments using a diffusion bonding method, namely Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). As a result of trials, it was clarified that even when HIPping is applied, the mechanical characteristic of base metal is not deteriorated. The machining period can be reduced by about 1/3 compared with the traditional manufacturing method. On the other hand, mechanical strength at 4 K is degraded due to weak bonding, that is no grain growth through joint, by HIPping. However, additional test indicates promising possibility of much better joint by higher temperature and joint surface treated HIPpings. These results justified that RP segment manufacturing is not only possible, but it is a technically valid manufacturing method that satisfies all requirements. (author)

13. Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling

Park, Jong Woon

2009-01-01

This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.

14. Precision Polymer Design in Microstructured Flow Reactors: Improved Control and First Upscale at Once

Junkers, Thomas

2017-01-01

Continuous flow synthesis techniques have in recent years conquered laboratory scale synthesis, yet within the field of precision polymer synthesis its use is still not fully established despite the large advantages that can be gained from switching from classical batch-wise chemistry to flow chemistry, often already by using relatively simple chip-based or cheap tubular micro- and mesoscaled reactors. Translating a polymerization from batch to continuous flow marks not only a mere change in ...

15. FBR type reactors

Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

1985-01-01

Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

16. Optimum cadmium reactor designs for colorimetric determination of nitrate with flow injection and gas-segmented continuous flow analyzers

Patton, C.J.

1989-01-01

Cadmium reactor types can be grouped into four categories: packed bed; filamentous; open tubular; and planar. Packed bed cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium filings, granules, powder, or electrolytically precipitated needles packed into glass or polymeric tubes, are by far the most widely used for both FIA and CFA methods. Surprisingly, filamentous cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium wire slipped into flexible polymeric tubing, have been reported for CFA applications only. Open tubular cadmium reactors, in the form of small diameter cadmium tubing coiled into a helix, have been fully characterized and described for CFA applications. A preliminary description of planar cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium foil sandwiched between continuous flow dialyzer blocks has also been reported. In this presentation, each reactor type is evaluated in terms of cost, ease of use, reduction efficiency, and long-term stability. Factors that make some reactors more applicable to FIA than to CFA (or the reverse) are also discussed, and experimental data are presented

17. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

been proved to be very promising additives and havereceived extensive studies during the past decades. However, mostprevious studies were carried out in fixed-bed reactors where the reaction conditions are obviously different from that in suspension fired boilers.Detailed knowledge on the reaction...

18. Calculation of the flow distribution for the new core of the RA-6 reactor

Garcia, J.C.; Delmastro, Dario F.

2007-01-01

In this work the pressure drop, the flow distribution, effective cooling flow rate and the velocity in the subchannels that cool fuel plates for the new core of RA-6 research reactor were calculated. These calculations were performed for a flow of 340 m 3 /hr and water temperatures of 12 C degrees, of 35 C degrees and 42 C degrees. The flow distribution was calculated without considering either safety factors or geometric changes. All the calculations were performed considering the flow as isothermal. (author) [es

19. Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing

Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.

2018-04-01

Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.

20. Growing Season Stem Water Status Assessment of Qinghai Spruce through the Sap Flow and Stem Radial Variations in the Qilian Mountains of China

Quanyan Tian

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Global climate change is likely to change precipitation patterns with consequences for tree water use and growth in semi-arid areas. However, little is known about the effects of variability in precipitation on growth- and water-related physiological processes of native trees in dry areas of northwestern China. In this study, sap flow and stem radial variability in four Qinghai spruce trees (Picea crassifolia were monitored in the Qilian Mountains, China. Tree water deficit (ΔW and basal area increment (BAI were calculated using stem radial variation; water-use efficiency (WUE was then estimated as the ratio of BAI and sap flow (Jt. The results showed that sap flow density (Js increased logarithmically with increasing ΔW when ΔW < 50 μm, and then gradually stabilized. Multiple factor generalized additive models (GAM showed that Js was closely related to all measured environmental variables except for daily mean temperature and relative air humidity. ΔW was related to the minimum daily temperature and soil water content. WUE exhibited higher values in early July. Low WUE was observed under conditions of prolonged dry weather, but it quickly increased during rainy days. WUE decreased after precipitation events due to high transpiration. We concluded that, in these semi-arid areas, precipitation is the most important controlling factor in tree growth and transpiration.

1. Modelling of sludge blanket height and flow pattern in UASB reactors treating municipal wastewater

Singh, K.S.; Viraraghavan, T.

2002-01-01

Two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were started-up and operated for approximately 900 days to examine the feasibility of treating municipal wastewater under low temperature conditions. A modified solid distribution model was formulated by incorporating the variation of biogas production rate with a change in temperature. This model was used to optimize the sludge blanket height of UASB reactors for an effective operation of gas-liquid-solid (GLS) separation device. This model was found to simulate well the solid distribution as confirmed experimental observation of solid profile along the height of the reactor. Mathematical analysis of tracer curves indicated the presence of a mixed type of flow pattern in the sludge-bed zone of the reactor. It was found that the dead-zone and by-pass flow fraction were impacted by the change in operating temperatures. (author)

2. Effect of 3-D moderator flow configurations on the reactivity of CANDU nuclear reactors

2017-01-01

Highlights: • 3-D CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • The interaction between moderator temperatures with reactivity is determined. - Abstract: The reactivity of nuclear reactors can be affected by thermal conditions prevailing within the moderator. In CANDU reactors, the moderator and the coolant are mechanically separated but not necessarily thermally isolated. Hence, any variation of moderator flow properties may change the reactivity. Until now, nuclear reactor calculations have been performed by assuming uniform moderator flow temperature distribution. However, CFD simulations have predicted large time dependent flow fluctuations taking place inside the calandria, which can bring about local temperature variations that can exceed 50 °C. This paper presents robust CANDU 3-D CFD moderator simulations coupled to neutronic calculations. The proposed methodology makes it possible to study not only different moderator flow configurations but also their effects on the reactor reactivity coefficient.

3. Mass-transfer characterization in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor with convergent flow

Colli, A.N.; Bisang, J.M.

2013-01-01

Highlights: • A convergent laminar flow enhances and becomes more uniform the mass-transfer rate. • The mass-transfer rate is increased under convergent turbulent flow conditions. • The mass-transfer rate under convergent laminar flow can be theoretically predicted. • A convergent duct improves the reactor behaviour and the concept is easily applicable. -- Abstract: A continuous reduction in the cross-section area is analysed as a means of improving mass-transfer in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor. Experimental local mass-transfer coefficients along the electrode length are reported for different values of the convergent ratio and Reynolds numbers, using the reduction of ferricyanide as a test reaction. The Reynolds numbers evaluated at the reactor inlet range from 85 to 4600 with interelectrode gaps of 2 and 4 mm. The convergent flow improves the mean mass-transfer coefficient by 10–60% and mass-transfer distribution under laminar flow conditions becomes more uniform. The experimental data under laminar flow conditions are compared with theoretical calculations obtained by a computational fluid dynamics software and also with an analytical simplified model. A suitable agreement is observed between both theoretical treatments and with the experimental results. The pressure drop across the reactor is reported and compared with theoretical predictions

4. Experimental and computational investigation of flow of pebbles in a pebble bed nuclear reactor

Khane, Vaibhav B.

The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a 4th generation nuclear reactor which is conceptually similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBR core, nuclear fuel in the form of pebbles moves slowly under the influence of gravity. Due to the dynamic nature of the core, a thorough understanding about slow and dense granular flow of pebbles is required from both a reactor safety and performance evaluation point of view. In this dissertation, a new integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a PBR has been performed. Continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking flow of pebbles in a PBR, is designed and developed. Experimental investigation of the flow of pebbles in a mimicked test reactor was carried out for the first time using non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) and residence time distribution (RTD) techniques to measure the pebble trajectory, velocity, overall/zonal residence times, flow patterns etc. The tracer trajectory length and overall/zonal residence time is found to increase with change in pebble's initial seeding position from the center towards the wall of the test reactor. Overall and zonal average velocities of pebbles are found to decrease from the center towards the wall. Discrete element method (DEM) based simulations of test reactor geometry were also carried out using commercial code EDEM(TM) and simulation results were validated using the obtained benchmark experimental data. In addition, EDEM(TM) based parametric sensitivity study of interaction properties was carried out which suggests that static friction characteristics play an important role from a packed/pebble beds structural characterization point of view. To make the RPT technique viable for practical applications and to enhance its accuracy, a novel and dynamic technique for RPT calibration was designed and developed. Preliminary feasibility results suggest that it can be implemented as a non

5. Investigation of fluid flow in various geometries related to nuclear reactor using PIV system

Kansal, A.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Singh, R.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Singh, R.K.; Joshi, V.M.

2011-01-01

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive technique for simultaneously measuring the velocities at many points in a fluid flow. The PIV system used is comprised of Nd:YAG laser source, CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera, timing controller (to control the laser and camera) and software used for analyzing the flow velocities. Several case studies related to nuclear reactor were performed with the PIV system. Some of the cases like flow in circular tube, submerged jet, natural convection in a water pool, flow field of moderator inlet diffuser of 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and fluidic flow control device (FFCD) used in advanced accumulator of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) have been studied using PIV system. Theoretical studies have been performed and comparisons with PIV results are also given in the present studies. (author)

6. K-capture by Al-Si based Additives in an Entrained Flow Reactor

Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

2016-01-01

A water slurry, consisting of KCl and Al-Si based additives (kaolin and coal fly ash) was fed into an entrained flow reactor (EFR) to study the K-capturing reaction of the additives at suspension-fired conditions. Solid products collected from the reactor were analysed with respect to total...... of KCl to K-aluminosilicate decreased. When reaction temperature increased from 1100 °C to 1450 °C, the conversion of KCl does not change significantly, which differs from the trend observed in fixed-bed reactor....

7. A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures

Belyi, A S; Fomichev, Yu V; Duplyakin, V K; Alfeev, V S

1977-07-01

A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures (i.e., up to 40 atm) and nearly isothermal conditions up to 600/sup 0/C was designed for the conversion of small quantities of petrochemical feeds or feed mixtures at uniform, controllable flow rates of 0.5-5.0 cc/hr, for direct gas-chromatographic analysis of product samples at the reactor outlet, and for continuous monitoring of the degree of conversion in processes that evolve or absorb hydrogen. The device includes a feed injection system with a unique sealing feature that ensures a constant flow of liquid from a feed buret under positive displacement by a counterweight piston at very low rates into a tubular reactor of the perfect mixing type, a highly efficient vaporizer-mixer, and a two-channel sampler leading to the chromatograph. The apparatus has proved reliable, accurate, and convenient in two years of regular use. Diagrams.

8. Study of coolant flow distribution within the PWR type reactor vessel

Eberle, L.M.M.

1983-01-01

The thermohydraulic design of a pressurized water reactor requires the determination of the coolant flow distributions within the reactor vessel, particulary at the core inlet. In this work it is proposed the study of this flow, using potencial flow theory governed by Laplace's equation, nabla 2 φ = O. The solution of the potential field is obtained by the finite element method, which simplifies considerably the treatment of complex geometrical configurations. The equation is solved by the finite element computer code ANSYS, developed and licensed for structural and thermal analysis by using the analogy between steady state heat transfer equation without heat generation, nabla 2 T=O, and Laplace's equation of the velocity potential. The proposed method has been applied to a commercial reactor, and the results are consistent with the available experimental data. (author) [pt

9. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time....

10. Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors

Bennett, R.G.

1990-01-01

The detailed analysis of the core flow distribution in prismatic fuel reactors is of interest for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design and safety analyses. Such analyses involve the steady-state flow of helium through highly cross-connected flow paths in and around the prismatic fuel elements. Several computer codes have been developed for this purpose. However, since they are proprietary codes, they are not generally available for independent MHTGR design confirmation. The previously developed codes do not consider the exchange or diversion of flow between individual bypass gaps with much detail. Such a capability could be important in the analysis of potential fuel block motion, such as occurred in the Fort St. Vrain reactor, or for the analysis of the conditions around a flow blockage or misloaded fuel block. This work develops a computer code with fairly general-purpose capabilities for modeling the flow in regions of prismatic fuel cores. The code, called BYPASS solves a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady-state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the MHTGR

11. Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors

Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.

2014-12-01

Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.

12. Kinetic parameters of hydroprocessing reactions in a flow reactor

Raychaudhuri, U.; Banerjee, T.S.; Ghar, R.N. (Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India))

1994-01-01

The change in distillation properties of a blend of light and heavy distillates over a commercial hydrotreating catalyst was studied using a small packed bed reactor. The results were interpreted assuming a pseudo-component model that took into account the physical and chemical complexity of the system. A first order series-parallel reaction mechanism was found to be valid for the operating conditions involved. Pore diffusion effects were also taken into consideration. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

13. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. II: a simplified analysis for flow reactors

Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC (Univ. Nacional del Litoral and CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

2003-07-01

Very frequently outgoing streams of real wastewaters do not have a definite and constant composition. Additionally, when the degradation process makes use of solar irradiation, the photon flux is hardly constant. These two factors strongly militate against the use of very elaborate, exact models for analyzing the performance of the employed reactors. In these cases, approximate methods may be the most practical approach. One possible way is presented in this paper. The observed photonic efficiency concept developed in a previous contribution (sagawe et al., 2002a) is applied to continuous reactors for both steady state and transient operations of photocatalytic reactions applied to wastewaters decontamination processes. For this reactor the local observed photonic efficiency, defined at each reactor longitudinal position, is the convenient property to express the concentration spatial evolution. It is also shown that the description of the reactor performance employing a mass balance can be done in a rather simple way introducing a mass-moving coordinate transformation that remodel the mass inventory and permits working with simpler ordinary differential equations. (orig.)

14. Development of a Test Facility to Simulate the Reactor Flow Distribution of APR+

Euh, D. J.; Cho, S.; Youn, Y. J.; Kim, J. T.; Kang, H. S.; Kwon, T. S.

2011-01-01

Recently a design of new reactor, APR+, is being developed, as an advanced type of APR1400. In order to analyze the thermal margin and hydraulic characteristics of APR+, quantification tests for flow and pressure distribution with a conservation of flow geometry are necessary. Hetsroni (1967) proposed four principal parameters for a hydraulic model representing a nuclear reactor prototype: geometry, relative roughness, Reynolds number, and Euler number. He concluded that the Euler number should be similar in the prototype and model under the preservation of the aspect ratio on the flow path. The effect of the Reynolds number at its higher values on the Euler number is rather small, since the dependency of the form and frictional loss coefficients on the Reynolds number is seen to be small. ABB-CE has carried out several reactor flow model test programs, mostly for its prototype reactors. A series of tests were conducted using a 3/16 scale reactor model. (see Lee et al., 2001). Lee et al (1991) performed experimental studies using a 1/5.03 scale reactor flow model of Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4. They showed that the measured data met the acceptance criteria and were suitable for their intended use in terms of performance and safety analyses. The design of current test facility was based on the conservation of Euler number which is a ratio of pressure drop to dynamic pressure with a sufficiently turbulent region having a high Reynolds number. By referring to the previous study, the APR+ design is linearly reduced to 1/5 ratio with a 1/2 of the velocity scale, which yields a 1/39.7 of Reynolds number scaling ratio. In the present study, the design feature of the facilities, named 'ACOP', in order to investigate flow and pressure distribution are described

15. Modeling of hydrodynamic cavitation reactors: a unified approach

Moholkar, V.S.; Pandit, A.B.

2001-01-01

An attempt has been made to present a unified theoretical model for the cavitating flow in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using the nonlinear continuum mixture model for two-phase flow as the basis. This model has been used to describe the radial motion of bubble in the cavitating flow in two

16. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden)); Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

2011-09-15

According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

17. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yongqi; Liu, Ruixiang; Meng, Jian; Mao, Mingming

2015-01-01

This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h) and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C) within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and res...

18. Effect of the design change of the LSSBP on core flow distribution of APR+ Reactor

Kim, Kihwan; Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Hae-Seob; Kwon, Tae-Soon

2014-01-01

The uniform core inlet flow distribution of an Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) is required to prevent the failure rate of the HIPER fuel assembly and improve the core thermal margin. KEPCO-E and C and KAERI proposed a design change of the Lower Support Structure Bottom Plate (LSSBP), since the core flow rates were intense near the outer region of the intact LSSBP in a previous study. In this study, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the design change of the LSSBP on the core flow distribution using the APR+ Core Flow and Pressure (ACOP) test facility. The results showed great improvement on the core flow distribution under a 4-pump balanced flow condition. Under the 4-pump balanced flow condition, fifteen tests were repeated using the ACOP test facility to verify the effect of the 50% blocked flow area at the outer region of the LSSBP on the core inlet flow distribution. The profiles of the core inlet mass flow rates were analyzed using ensemble averaged values, and compared with that of the intact LSSBP. The results showed great improvement for the overall core region. The change in design of the LSSBP is expected to improve the hydraulic performance of an APR+ reactor

19. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P.

2011-01-01

The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

20. CFD analysis and flow model reduction for surfactant production in helix reactor

Nikačević N.M.

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Flow pattern analysis in a spiral Helix reactor is conducted, for the application in the commercial surfactant production. Step change response curves (SCR were obtained from numerical tracer experiments by three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Non-reactive flow is simulated, though viscosity is treated as variable in the direction of flow, as it increases during the reaction. The design and operating parameters (reactor diameter, number of coils and inlet velocity are varied in CFD simulations, in order to examine the effects on the flow pattern. Given that 3D simulations are not practical for fast computations needed for optimization, scale-up and control, CFD flow model is reduced to one-dimensional axial dispersion (AD model with spatially variable dispersion coefficient. Dimensionless dispersion coefficient (Pe is estimated under different conditions and results are analyzed. Finally, correlation which relates Pe number with Reynolds number and number of coils from the reactor entrance is proposed for the particular reactor application and conditions.

1. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: laubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores, CNPq (Brazil); Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P., E-mail: aroneid@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

2011-07-01

The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

2. Biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluents from anaerobic reactors using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor.

Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

2010-03-01

Anaerobic wastewater treatment plants discharge dissolved methane, which is usually not recovered. To prevent emission of methane, which is a greenhouse gas, we utilized an encapsulated down-flow hanging sponge reactor as a post-treatment to biologically oxidize dissolved methane. Within 3 weeks after reactor start-up, methane removal efficiency of up to 95% was achieved with a methane removal rate of 0.8 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at an HRT of 2 h. After increasing the methane-loading rate, the maximum methane removal rate reached 2.2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at an HRT of 0.5 h. On the other hand, only about 10% of influent ammonium was oxidized to nitrate during the first period, but as airflow was increased to 2.5 L day(-1), nitrification efficiency increased to approximately 70%. However, the ammonia oxidation rate then decreased with an increase in the methane-loading rate. These results indicate that methane oxidation occurred preferentially over ammonium oxidation in the reactor. Cloning of the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes as well as phylogenetic and T-RFLP analyses revealed that type I methanotrophs were the dominant methane oxidizers, whereas type II methanotrophs were detected only in minor portion of the reactor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. A model for a countercurrent gas—solid—solid trickle flow reactor for equilibrium reactions. The methanol synthesis

Westerterp, K.R.; Kuczynski, M.

1987-01-01

The theoretical background for a novel, countercurrent gas—solid—solid trickle flow reactor for equilibrium gas reactions is presented. A one-dimensional, steady-state reactor model is developed. The influence of the various process parameters on the reactor performance is discussed. The physical

4. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

Jaminet, J.F.; Kendall, J.S.

1976-01-01

Accomplishment of the UF 6 critical cavity experiments, currently in progress, and planned confined flowing UF 6 initial experiments requires development of reliable techniques for handling heated UF 6 throughout extended ranges of temperature, pressure, and flow rate. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressures up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50 g/s is presented. A UF 6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is described. The system was designed to supply UF 6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressures up to 4 atm. A second UF 6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50 g/s of gaseous UF 6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described

5. Detailed flow analysis for the Three Mile Island unit 2 reactor accident

Lillington, J.N.; Lyons, A.J.

1990-01-01

Some particular characteristics of the steam flow in the accident at the Three Mile Island unit 2 pressurized water reactor are investigated using the AEA Technology Flow3D code. Natural circulation flows with heat removal from the core and deposition in the upper plenum are predicted during the primary heating phase. The structure of the upper plenum cylinder and core blockage, owing to material relocation, are shown to force the flow into a complex three-dimensional pattern. The flows and temperature distributions from the calculations are shown to be consistent with the observed damage pattern above the core. Despite high core temperatures, damage was limited by the operation of one of the pumps at the end of the initial heating phase. Flow3D calculations are also carried out to demonstrate that the three-dimensional buoyancy driven flows are completely destroyed by the high steam generation rates arising from the pump operation. (author)

6. Analysis of impact of mixing flow on the pebble bed high temperature reactor

Hao Chen; Li Fu; Guo Jiong

2014-01-01

The impact of the mixing flow in the pebble flow on pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) was analyzed in the paper. New code package MFVSOP which can simulate the mixing flow was developed. The equilibrium core of HTR-PM was selected as reference case, the impact of the mixing flow on the core parameters such as core power peak factor, power distribution was analyzed with different degree of mixing flow, and uncertainty analysis was carried out. Numerical results showed that the mixing flow had little impact on key parameters of pebble bed HTR, and the multiple-pass-operation-mode in pebble bed HTR can reduce the uncertainty arouse from the mixing flow. (authors)

7. CFD Modeling of Flow and Ion Exchange Kinetics in a Rotating Bed Reactor System

Larsson, Hilde Kristina; Schjøtt Andersen, Patrick Alexander; Byström, Emil

2017-01-01

A rotating bed reactor (RBR) has been modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow pattern in the RBR was investigated and the flow through the porous material in it was quantified. A simplified geometry representing the more complex RBR geometry was introduced and the simplified...... model was able to reproduce the main characteristics of the flow. Alternating reactor shapes were investigated, and it was concluded that the use of baffles has a very large impact on the flows through the porous material. The simulations suggested, therefore, that even faster reaction rates could...... be achieved by making the baffles deeper. Two-phase simulations were performed, which managed to reproduce the deflection of the gas–liquid interface in an unbaffled system. A chemical reaction was implemented in the model, describing the ion-exchange phenomena in the porous material using four different...

8. Deleterious Thermal Effects due to Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

Moran, Robert P.

2013-01-01

Reactor fuel rod surface area that is perpendicular to coolant flow direction (+S) i.e. perpendicular to the P creates areas of coolant stagnation leading to increased coolant temperatures resulting in localized changes in fluid properties. Changes in coolant fluid properties caused by minor increases in temperature lead to localized reductions in coolant mass flow rates leading to localized thermal instabilities. Reductions in coolant mass flow rates result in further increases in local temperatures exacerbating changes to coolant fluid properties leading to localized thermal runaway. Unchecked localized thermal runaway leads to localized fuel melting. Reactor designs with randomized flow paths are vulnerable to localized thermal instabilities, localized thermal runaway, and localized fuel melting.

9. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

2017-01-01

10. Flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration experience in operating gas-cooled reactors

Halvers, L.J.

1977-03-01

An overview has been presented of flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration failures that occurred in the past in gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors, and the importance of this experience for the Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) project has been assessed. Until now only failures in CO 2 -cooled reactors have been found. No problems with helium-cooled reactors have been encountered so far. It is shown that most of the failures occurred because flow-induced and acoustically induced dynamic loads were underestimated, while at the same time not enough was known about the influence of environmental parameters on material behavior. All problems encountered were solved. The comparison of the influence of the gas properties on acoustically induced and flow-induced vibration phenomena shows that the interaction between reactor design and the thermodynamic properties of the primary coolant precludes a general preference for either carbon dioxide or helium. The acoustic characteristics of CO 2 and He systems are different, but the difference in dynamic loadings due to the use of one rather than the other remains difficult to predict. A slight preference for helium seems, however, to be justified

11. Evaluating the consequences of loss of flow accident for a typical VVER-1000 nuclear reactor

Mirvakili, S.M.; Safaei, S. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering; Faghihi, F. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Safety Research Center

2010-07-01

The loss of coolant flow in a nuclear reactor can result from a mechanical or electrical failure of the coolant pump. If the reactor is not tripped promptly, the immediate effect is a rapid increase in coolant temperature, decrease in minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) and fuel damage. This study evaluated the shaft seizure of a reactor coolant pump in a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor. The locked rotor results in rapid reduction of flow through the affected reactor coolant loop and in turn leads to an increase in the primary coolant temperature and pressure. The analysis was conducted with regard for superimposing loss of power to the power plant at the initial accident moment. The required transient functions of flow, pressure and power were obtained using system transient calculations applied in COBRA-EN computer code in order to calculate the overall core thermal-hydraulic parameters such as temperature, critical heat flux and DNBR. The study showed that the critical period for the locked rotor accident is the first few seconds during which the maximum values of pressure and temperature are reached. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

12. Comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI with perivascular ultrasound to quantify blood flow in the abdomen and introduction of a porcine model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension.

Frydrychowicz, A; Roldan-Alzate, A; Winslow, E; Consigny, D; Campo, C A; Motosugi, U; Johnson, K M; Wieben, O; Reeder, S B

2017-12-01

Objectives of this study were to compare radial time-resolved phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) with perivascular ultrasound (pvUS) and to explore a porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension (PHTN). Abdominal 4D Flow-MRI and pvUS in portal and splenic vein, hepatic and both renal arteries were performed in 13 pigs of approximately 60 kg. In six pigs, measurements were repeated after partial portal vein (PV) ligature. Inter- and intra-reader comparisons and statistical analysis including Bland-Altman (BA) comparison, paired Student's t tests and linear regression were performed. PvUS and 4D Flow-MRI measurements agreed well; flow before partial PV ligature was 322 ± 30 ml/min in pvUS and 297 ± 27 ml/min in MRI (p = 0.294), and average BA difference was 25 ml/min [-322; 372]. Inter- and intra-reader results differed very little, revealed excellent correlation (R 2  = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and resulted in BA differences of -5 ml/min [-161; 150] and -2 ml/min [-28; 25], respectively. After PV ligature, PV flow decreased from 356 ± 50 to 298 ± 61 ml/min (p = 0.02), and hepatic arterial flow increased from 277 ± 36 to 331 ± 65 ml/min (p = n.s.). The successful in vivo comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI to perivascular ultrasound revealed good agreement of abdominal blood flow although with considerable spread of results. A model of pre-hepatic PHTN was successfully introduced and acute responses monitored. • Radial 4D Flow-MRI in the abdomen was successfully compared to perivascular ultrasound. • Inter- and intra-reader testing demonstrated excellent reproducibility of upper abdominal 4D Flow-MRI. • A porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension was successfully introduced. • 4D Flow-MRI successfully monitored acute changes in a model of portal hypertension.

13. PEBBLES: A COMPUTER CODE FOR MODELING PACKING, FLOW AND RECIRCULATIONOF PEBBLES IN A PEBBLE BED REACTOR

Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2006-10-01

A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.

14. ZrH reactor lattice spacing (heat transfer considerations)

Felten, L.D.

1970-01-01

Temperature calculations for a 295 element ZrH reactor at fuel element spacings from 0.010'' to 0.065'' showed a very small dependence of reactor temperature on element spacing. It was found that one variation in coolant channel area (2 zones) was sufficient to satisfactorily shape the radial flow profile for the core. (U.S.)

15. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

Flach, G.P.

2000-02-11

A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

16. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

Flach, G.P.

2000-01-01

A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area

17. Non-gated vessel wall imaging of the internal carotid artery using radial scanning and fast spin echo sequence. Evaluation of vessel signal intensity by flow rate at 3.0 tesla

Nakamura, Manami; Makabe, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Masaki; Hatakeyama, Ryohei; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Motomichi

2013-01-01

Vessel wall imaging using radial scanning does not use a blood flow suppression pulse with gated acquisition. It has been proposed that there may not be a flow void effect if the flow rate is slow; however, this has yet to be empirically tested. To clarify the relationship between the signal intensity of the vessel lumen and the blood flow rate in a flow phantom, we investigated the usefulness of vessel wall imaging at 3.0 tesla (T). We measured the signal intensity while changing the flow rate in the flow phantom. Radial scanning at 1.5 T showed sufficient flow voids at above medium flow rates. There was no significant difference in lumen signal intensity at the carotid artery flow rate. The signal intensity of the vessel lumen decreased sufficiently using the radial scan method at 3.0 T. We thus obtained sufficient flow void effects at the carotid artery flow rate. We conclude this technique to be useful for evaluating plaque if high contrast can be maintained for fixed tissue (such as plaque) and the vessel lumen. (author)

18. The gas-solid trickle-flow reactor for the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide: a trickle-phase model

Verver, A.B.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

1987-01-01

The oxidation of H2S by O2 producing elemental sulphur has been studied at temperatures of 100–300°C and at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory-scale gas-solid trickle-flow reactor. In this reactor one of the reaction products, i.e. sulphur, is removed continuously by flowing solids. A porous,

19. Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets

Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.

1977-01-01

The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed

20. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

1998-01-01

Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

1. Detonation in supersonic radial outflow

Kasimov, Aslan R.; Korneev, Svyatoslav

2014-01-01

We report on the structure and dynamics of gaseous detonation stabilized in a supersonic flow emanating radially from a central source. The steady-state solutions are computed and their range of existence is investigated. Two-dimensional simulations

2. Integrated flow reactor that combines high-shear mixing and microwave irradiation for biodiesel production

Choedkiatsakul, I.; Ngaosuwan, K.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Tabasso, S.; Cravotto, G.

2015-01-01

A new simple flow system which is made up of a multi-rotor high-shear mixer connected to a multimode microwave reactor has been assembled. This simple loop reactor has been successfully used in the NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of refined palm oil in methanol. Thanks to optimal mass/heat transfer, full conversion was achieved within 5 min (biodiesel yield of 99.80%). High-quality biodiesel was obtained that is in accordance with international specifications and analytical ASTM standards. The procedure's high efficiency and low energy consumption should pave the way for process scale up. - Highlights: • The combination of HSM-MW flow system for biodiesel production has been proposed. • Highly efficient mass and heat transfer in transesterification reaction. • The hybrid reactor enables a complete conversion in 5 min reaction time. • The new system halved the energy consumption of conventional processes

3. Sterilization of E. coli bacterium in a flowing N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

Villeger, S; Cousty, S; Ricard, A; Sixou, M

2003-01-01

Effective destruction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria has been obtained in a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave post-discharge reactor. The sterilizing agents are the O atoms and the UV emissions of NOβ which are produced by N and O atoms recombination in the reactor. In the following plasma conditions: pressure 5 Torr, flow rate 1 L n min -1 , microwave power of 100 W in a quartz tube of 5 mm, an O atom density of 2.5x10 15 cm -3 is measured by NO titration in the post-discharge reactor with UV emission in a N 2 -(5%)O 2 gas mixture. Full destruction of 10 13 cfu ml -1 E. coli is observed after a treatment time of 25 min. (rapid communication)

4. A high-pressure plug flow reactor for combustion chemistry investigations

Lu, Zhewen; Cochet, Julien; Leplat, Nicolas; Yang, Yi; Brear, Michael J

2017-01-01

A plug flow reactor (PFR) is built for investigating the oxidation chemistry of fuels at up to 50 bar and 1000 K. These conditions include those corresponding to the low temperature combustion (i.e. the autoignition) that commonly occurs in internal combustion engines. Turbulent flow that approximates ideal, plug flow conditions is established in a quartz tube reactor. The reacting mixture is highly diluted by excess air to reduce the reaction rates for kinetic investigations. A novel mixer design is used to achieve fast mixing of the preheated air and fuel vapour at the reactor entrance, reducing the issue of reaction initialization in kinetic modelling. A water-cooled probe moves along the reactor extracting gases for further analysis. Measurement of the sampled gas temperature uses an extended form of a three-thermocouple method that corrects for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples to the enclosed PFR environment. Investigation of the PFR’s operation is first conducted using non-reacting flows, and then with isooctane oxidation at 900 K and 10 bar. Mixing of the non-reacting temperature and species fields is shown to be rapid. The measured fuel consumption and CO formation are then closely reproduced by kinetic modelling using an extensively validated iso-octane mechanism from the literature and the corrected gas temperature. Together, these results demonstrate the PFR’s utility for chemical kinetic investigations. (paper)

5. Novel swirl-flow reactor for kinetic studies of semiconductor photocatalysis

Ray, A.K; Beenackers, A.A C M

1997-01-01

A new two-phase swirl-flow monolithic-type reactor was designed to study the kinetics of heterogeneous photocatalytic processes on immobilized semiconductor catalysts. True kinetic rate constants for destruction of a textile dye were measured as a function of wavelength of light intensity and angle

6. A high-pressure plug flow reactor for combustion chemistry investigations

Lu, Zhewen; Cochet, Julien; Leplat, Nicolas; Yang, Yi; Brear, Michael J.

2017-10-01

A plug flow reactor (PFR) is built for investigating the oxidation chemistry of fuels at up to 50 bar and 1000 K. These conditions include those corresponding to the low temperature combustion (i.e. the autoignition) that commonly occurs in internal combustion engines. Turbulent flow that approximates ideal, plug flow conditions is established in a quartz tube reactor. The reacting mixture is highly diluted by excess air to reduce the reaction rates for kinetic investigations. A novel mixer design is used to achieve fast mixing of the preheated air and fuel vapour at the reactor entrance, reducing the issue of reaction initialization in kinetic modelling. A water-cooled probe moves along the reactor extracting gases for further analysis. Measurement of the sampled gas temperature uses an extended form of a three-thermocouple method that corrects for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples to the enclosed PFR environment. Investigation of the PFR’s operation is first conducted using non-reacting flows, and then with isooctane oxidation at 900 K and 10 bar. Mixing of the non-reacting temperature and species fields is shown to be rapid. The measured fuel consumption and CO formation are then closely reproduced by kinetic modelling using an extensively validated iso-octane mechanism from the literature and the corrected gas temperature. Together, these results demonstrate the PFR’s utility for chemical kinetic investigations.

7. Air purification by catalytic oxidation in a reactor with periodic flow reversal

van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, Bert; Westerterp, K.R.

1994-01-01

The behaviour of an adiabatic packed bed reactor with periodic flow reversal has been studied by means of model calculations. A heterogeneous model as well as a pseudo-homogeneous model have been developed. It is shown that a high degree of conversion can be obtained in an autothermal process even

8. Gas–liquid flow in stirred reactors: Trailing vortices and gas accumulation behind impeller blades

1999-01-01

In a gas–liquid stirred reactor, gas tends to accumulate in low-pressure regions behind the impeller blades. Such gas accumulation significantly alters impeller performance characteristics. We have computationally investigated gas–liquid flow generated by a Rushton (disc) turbine. Rotating Rushton

9. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor.

Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

2012-10-15

The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate=4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance=2.8 cm, current density=5.78 mA/cm(2), A/V ratio=0.248 cm(-1). The NOM removal according to UV(254) absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m(3). According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

10. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion

Chen, Xiang M. [GE Nuclear, Wilmington, NC (United States); Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to accelleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed.

11. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. ► Highest NOM removal according to UV 254 was 77% relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 μg/l), relative to raw groundwater. ► Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m 3 and 66 g Al/m 3 . - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm 2 , A/V ratio = 0.248 cm −1 . The NOM removal according to UV 254 absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m 3 . According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

12. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: emohora@ifc.org [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

2012-10-15

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

13. Prediction, analysis and solution of flow inversion phenomenon in a typical MTR reactor with upward core cooling

El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din

2010-01-01

Research reactors of power greater than 20 MW are usually designed to be cooled with upward coolant flow direction inside the reactor core. This is mainly to prevent flow inversion problems following a pump coast down. However, in some designs and under certain operating conditions, flow inversion phenomenon is predicted. In the present work, the best-estimate Material Testing Reactors Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis program (MTRTHA) is used to simulate a typical MTR reactor behavior with upward cooling under a hypothetical case of loss of off-site power. The flow inversion phenomenon is predicted under certain decay heat and/or pool temperature values below the design values. The reactor simulation under loss of off-site power is performed for two cases namely; two-flap valves open and one flap-valve fails to open. The model results for the flow inversion phenomenon prediction is analyzed and a solution of the problem is suggested. (orig.)

14. Comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI with perivascular ultrasound to quantify blood flow in the abdomen and introduction of a porcine model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension

2017-12-15

Objectives of this study were to compare radial time-resolved phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) with perivascular ultrasound (pvUS) and to explore a porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension (PHTN). Abdominal 4D Flow-MRI and pvUS in portal and splenic vein, hepatic and both renal arteries were performed in 13 pigs of approximately 60 kg. In six pigs, measurements were repeated after partial portal vein (PV) ligature. Inter- and intra-reader comparisons and statistical analysis including Bland-Altman (BA) comparison, paired Student's t tests and linear regression were performed. PvUS and 4D Flow-MRI measurements agreed well; flow before partial PV ligature was 322 ± 30 ml/min in pvUS and 297 ± 27 ml/min in MRI (p = 0.294), and average BA difference was 25 ml/min [-322; 372]. Inter- and intra-reader results differed very little, revealed excellent correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and resulted in BA differences of -5 ml/min [-161; 150] and -2 ml/min [-28; 25], respectively. After PV ligature, PV flow decreased from 356 ± 50 to 298 ± 61 ml/min (p = 0.02), and hepatic arterial flow increased from 277 ± 36 to 331 ± 65 ml/min (p = n.s.). The successful in vivo comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI to perivascular ultrasound revealed good agreement of abdominal blood flow although with considerable spread of results. A model of pre-hepatic PHTN was successfully introduced and acute responses monitored. (orig.)

15. Microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor combined with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the treatment of municipal sewage.

Kubota, Kengo; Hayashi, Mikio; Matsunaga, Kengo; Iguchi, Akinori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Li, Yu-You; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

2014-01-01

The microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-DHS system used for the treatment of municipal sewage was investigated. The clone libraries showed marked differences in microbial community composition at different reactor heights and in different seasons. The dominant phylotypes residing in the upper part of the reactor were likely responsible for removing organic matters because a significant reduction in organic matter in the upper part was observed. Quantification of the amoA genes revealed that the proportions of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) varied along the vertical length of the reactor, with more AOB colonizing the middle and lower parts of the reactor than the top of the reactor. The findings indicated that sewage treatment was achieved by a separation of microbial habitats responsible for organic matter removal and nitrification in the DHS reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. One-step synthesis of pyridines and dihydropyridines in a continuous flow microwave reactor

Mark C. Bagley

2013-09-01

Full Text Available The Bohlmann–Rahtz pyridine synthesis and the Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis can be carried out in a microwave flow reactor or using a conductive heating flow platform for the continuous processing of material. In the Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction, the use of a Brønsted acid catalyst allows Michael addition and cyclodehydration to be carried out in a single step without isolation of intermediates to give the corresponding trisubstituted pyridine as a single regioisomer in good yield. Furthermore, 3-substituted propargyl aldehydes undergo Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis in preference to Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction in a very high yielding process that is readily transferred to continuous flow processing.

17. Secondary flows in the cooling channels of the high-performance light-water reactor

Laurien, E.; Wintterle, Th. [Stuttgart Univ., Institute for Nuclear Technolgy and Energy Systems (IKE) (Germany)

2007-07-01

The new design of a High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR) involves a three-pass core with an evaporator region, where the compressed water is heated above the pseudo-critical temperature, and two superheater regions. Due to the strong dependency of the supercritical water density on the temperature significant mass transfer between neighboring cooling channels is expected if the temperature is unevenly distributed across the fuel element. An inter-channel flow is then superimposed to the secondary flow vortices induced by the non-isotropy of turbulence. In order to gain insight into the resulting flow patterns as well as into temperature and density distributions within the various subchannels of the fuel element CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations for the 1/8 fuel element are performed. For simplicity adiabatic boundary conditions at the moderator box and the fuel element box are assumed. Our investigation confirms earlier results obtained by subchannel analysis that the axial mass flux is significantly reduced in the corner subchannel of this fuel element resulting in a net mass flux towards the neighboring subchannels. Our results provide a first estimation of the magnitude of the secondary flows in the pseudo-critical region of a supercritical light-water reactor. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that CFD is an efficient tool for investigations of flow patterns within nuclear reactor fuel elements. (authors)

18. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of flow inversion in a research reactor

2008-01-01

The course of loss of flow accident and flow inversion in a pool type research reactor, with scram enabled under natural circulation condition is numerically investigated. The analyses were performed by a lumped parameters approach for the coupled kinetic-thermal-hydraulics, with continuous feedback due to coolant and fuel temperature effects. A modified Runge-Kutta method was adopted for a better solution to the set of stiff differential equations. Transient thermal-hydraulics during the process of flow inversion and establishment of natural circulation were considered for a 10-MW IAEA research reactor. Some important parameters such as the peak temperatures for the hot channel were obtained for both high-enriched and low enriched fuel. The model prediction is also verified through comparison with other computer code results reported in the literature for detailed simulations of loss of flow accidents (LOFA) and the agreement between the results for the peak clad temperatures and key parameters has been satisfactory. It was found that the flow inversion and subsequent establishment of natural circulation keep the peak cladding surface temperature below the saturation temperature to avoid the escalation of clad temperature to the level of onset of nucleate boiling and sub-cooled void formation to ensure the safe operation of the reactor

19. Study on natural circulation flow under reactor cavity flooding condition in advanced PWRs

Tao Jun; Yang Jiang; Cao Jianhua; Lu Xianghui; Guo Dingqing

2015-01-01

Cavity flooding is an important severe accident management measure for the in-vessel retention of a degraded core by external reactor vessel cooling in advanced PWRs. A code simulation study on the natural circulation flow in the gap between the reactor vessel wall and insulation material under cavity flooding condition is performed by using a detailed mechanistic thermal-hydraulic code package RELAP 5. By simulating of an experiment carried out for studying the natural circulation flow for APR1400 shows that the code is applicable for analyzing the circulation flow under this condition. The analysis results show that heat removal capacity of the natural circulation flow in AP1000 is sufficient to prevent thermal failure of the reactor vessel under bounding heat load. Several conclusions can be drawn from the sensitivity analysis. Larger coolant inlet area induced larger natural circulation flow rate. The outlet should be large enough and should not be submerged by the cavity water to vent the steam-water mixture. In the implementation of cavity flooding, the flooding water level should be high enough to provide sufficient natural circulation driven force. (authors)

20. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

Bin Zheng

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and resistance proportion of catalytic oxidation bed, the heat exchanger preheating section, and the heat exchanger flue gas section were measured. In addition, based on a large number of experimental data, the empirical equations of flow resistance are obtained by the least square method. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for preheated catalytic oxidation designs when employed in industry.

1. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

2011-01-01

Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

2. Flow distribution of pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactors using large eddy simulation

Gokhan Yesilyurt; Hassan, Y.A.

2003-01-01

A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the renewed reactor designs to play a role in nuclear power generation. This reactor design concepts is currently under consideration and development worldwide. Since the HTGR concept offers inherent safety, has a very flexible fuel cycle with capability to achieve high burnup levels, and provides good thermal efficiency of power plant, it can be considered for further development and improvement as a reactor concept of generation IV. The combination of coated particle fuel, inert helium gas as coolant and graphite moderated reactor makes it possible to operate at high temperature yielding a high efficiency. In this study the simulation of turbulent transport for the gas through the gaps of the spherical fuel elements (fuel pebbles) will be performed. This will help in understanding the highly three-dimensional, complex flow phenomena in pebble bed caused by flow curvature. Under these conditions, heat transfer in both laminar and turbulent flows varies noticeably around curved surfaces. Curved flows would be present in the presence of contiguous curved surfaces. In the case of a laminar flow and of an appreciable effect of thermogravitional forces, the Nusselt (Nu) number depends significantly on the curvature shape of the surface. It changes with order of 10 times. The flow passages through the gap between the fuel balls have concave and convex configurations. Here the action of the centrifugal forces manifests itself differently on convex and concave parts of the flow path (suppression or stimulation of turbulence). The flow of this type has distinctive features. In such flow there is a pressure gradient, which strongly affects the boundary layer behavior. The transition from a laminar to turbulent flow around this curved flow occurs at deferent Reynolds (Re) numbers. Consequently, noncircular curved flows as in the pebble-bed situation, in detailed local sense, is interesting to be investigated. To the

3. Radial lean direct injection burner

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

4. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

Aji, Indarta Kuncoro, E-mail: indartaaji@s.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Waris, Abdul, E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics & Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2015-09-30

Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

5. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

2015-01-01

Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 - 233 UF 4 respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155

6. Synthesis of Struvite using a Vertical Canted Reactor with Continuous Laminar Flow Process

Sutiyono, S.; Edahwati, L.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.

2018-01-01

Struvite is a white crystalline that is chemically known as magnesium ammonium phosphorus hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). It can easily dissolve in acidic conditions and slightly soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions. In industry, struvite forms as a scale deposit on a pipe with hot flow fluid. However, struvite can be used as fertilizer because of its phosphate content. A vertical canted reactor is a promising technology for recovering phosphate levels in wastewater through struvite crystallization. The study was carried out with the vertical canted reactor by mixing an equimolar stock solution of MgCl2, NH4OH, and H3PO4 in 1: 1: 1 ratio. The crystallization process worked with the flow rate of three stock solution entering the reactor in the range of 16-38 ml/min, the temperature in the reactor is worked on 20°, 30°, and 40°C, while the incoming air rate is kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. Moreover, pH was maintained at a constant value of 9. The struvite crystallization process run until the steady state was reached. Then, the result of crystal precipitates was filtered and dried at standard temperature room for 48 hours. After that, struvite crystals were stored for the subsequent analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) method. The use of canted reactor provided the high pure struvite with a prismatic crystal morphology.

7. A Development of Technical Specification of a Research Reactor with Plate Fuels Cooled by Upward Flow

Park, Sujin; Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Hyeonil

2016-01-01

The contents of the TS(Technical Specifications) are definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. TS for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been developed since many years until now. On the other hands, there are no applicable modernized references of TS for research reactors with many differences from NPPs in purpose and characteristics. Fuel temperature and Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) are being used as references from the thermal-hydraulic analysis point of view for determining whether the design of research reactors satisfies acceptance criteria for the nuclear safety or not. Especially for research reactors using plate-type fuels, fuel temperature and critical heat flux, however, are very difficult to measure during the reactor operation. This paper described the outline of main contents of a TS for open-pool research reactor with plate-type fuels using core cooling through passive systems, where acceptance criteria for nuclear safety such as CHF and fuel temperature cannot be directly measured, different from circumstances in NPPs. Thus, three independent variables instead of non-measurable acceptance criteria: fuel temperature and CHF are considered as safety limits, i.e., power, flow, and flow temperature

8. Thermal fluid flow analysis in downcomer of JAERI passive safety light water reactor (JPSR)

Kunii, K.; Iwamura, T.; Murao, Y.

1995-01-01

The residual heat for the JPSR (JAERI Passive Safety Light Water Reactor) is removed by a natural-circulation of coolant flowing through downcomer. The numerical analysis has been performed taking account of the downcomer being a three-dimensional annulus flow pass with the purposes to confirm the abilities of (1) approximation of three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer to simple one-dimensional one assumed on the preliminary design of the passive residual heat removal system and (2) achievement of an enough driving-force of the natural circulation to remove the residual heat. The following results were obtained : (1) Flow pattern in downcomer shows remarkable three-dimensionality (multi-dimensionality) at lower inlet flow rate not to be able to approximate to one-dimensional flow field. However, the temperature distribution does not deviate from uniform one so much even if the multi-dimensional flow such as large vortex arises. (2) It can be expected to obtain the required enough driving-force at a steady state in any case of inlet flow rate where multi-dimensional flow pattern appears. (3) The increase ratio of the driving-force with the time-integrated coolant amount can be estimated as two functional curves in case of higher and other lower inlet flow rates not dependent only on the respective inlet flow rate. (Author)

9. Numerical Simulation of a Coolant Flow and Heat Transfer in a Pebble Bed Reactor

In, Wang-Kee; Kim, Min-Hwan; Lee, Won-Jae

2008-01-01

Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) is one of the very high temperature gas cooled reactors(VHTR) which have been reviewed in the Generation IV International Forum as potential sources for future energy needs, particularly for a hydrogen production. The pebble bed modular reactor(PBMR) exhibits inherent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core. PBR uses coated fuel particles(TRISO) embedded in spherical graphite fuel pebbles. The fuel pebbles flow down through the PBR core during a reactor operation and the coolant flows around randomly distributed spheres. For the reliable operation and the safety of the PBR, it is important to understand the coolant flow structure and the fuel pebble temperature in the PBR core. There have been few experimental and numerical studies to investigate the fluid and heat transfer phenomena in the PBR core. The objective of this paper is to predict the fluid and heat transfer in the PBR core. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, STAR-CCM+(V2.08) is used to perform the CFD analysis using the design data for the PBMR400

10. Experimental study of flow field characteristics on bed configurations in the pebble bed reactor

Jia, Xinlong; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jia, Haijun; Jiang, Shengyao

2017-01-01

Highlights: • PTV study of flow fields of pebble bed reactor with different configurations are carried out. • Some criteria are proposed to quantify vertical velocity field and flow uniformity. • The effect of different pebble bed configurations is also compared by the proposed criteria. • The displacement thickness is used analogically to analyze flow field characteristics. • The effect of mass flow variation in the stagnated region of the funnel flow is measured. - Abstract: The flow field characteristics are of fundamental importance in the design work of the pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The different effects of bed configurations on the flow characteristics of pebble bed are studied through the PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) experiment. Some criteria, e.g. flow uniformity (σ) and mass flow level (α), are proposed to estimate vertical velocity field and compare the bed configurations. The distribution of the Δθ (angle difference between the individual particle velocity and the velocity vector sum of all particles) is also used to estimate the resultant motion consistency level. Moreover, for each bed configuration, the thickness of displacement is analyzed to measure the effect of the funnel flow zone based on the boundary layer theory. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity and other characteristics; and the sequence of levels of each estimation criterion is obtained for all bed configurations. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested and these estimation criteria can be also applied and adopted in testing other geometry designs of pebble bed.

11. Production and release of infectious hepatitis C virus from human liver cell cultures in the three-dimensional radial-flow bioreactor

Aizaki, Hideki; Nagamori, Seishi; Matsuda, Mami; Kawakami, Hayato; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Kawada, Masaaki; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Hasumura, Satoshi; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Tatsuo

2003-01-01

Lack of efficient culture systems for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been a major obstacle in HCV research. Human liver cells grown in a three-dimensional radial-flow bioreactor were successfully infected following inoculation with plasma from an HCV carrier. Subsequent detection of increased HCV RNA suggested viral replication. Furthermore, transfection of HCV RNA transcribed from full-length cDNA also resulted in the production and release of HCV virions into supernatant. Infectivity was shown by successful secondary passage to a new culture. Introduction of mutations in RNA helicase and polymerase regions of HCV cDNA abolished virus replication, indicating that reverse genetics of this system is possible. The ability to replicate and detect the extracellular release of HCV might provide clues with regard to the persistent nature of HCV infection. It will also accelerate research into the pathogenicity of HCV, as well as the development of prophylactic agents and new therapy

12. Activity of corrosion products in pool type reactors with ascending flow in the core

1995-01-01

A model for the activity of corrosion products in the water of a pool type reactor with ascending flow is presented. The problem is described by a set of coupled differential equations relating the radioisotope concentrations in the core and pool circuits and taking into account two types of radioactive sources: i) those from radioactive species formed in the fuel cladding, control elements, reflector, etc, and afterwards released to the primary stream by corrosion (named reactor sources) and ii) those formed from non radioactive isotopes entering the primary stream by corrosion of the circuit components and being activated when passing through the core (named circuit sources). (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

13. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration prediction techniques for in-reactor components

Mulcahy, T.M.; Turula, P.

1975-05-01

Selected in-reactor components of a hydraulic and structural dynamic scale model of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration experimental Fast Test Reactor have been studied in an effort to develop and evaluate techniques for predicting vibration behavior of elastic structures exposed to a moving fluid. Existing analysis methods are used to compute the natural frequencies and modal shapes of submerged beam and shell type components. Component response is calculated, assuming as fluid forcing mechanisms both vortex shedding and random excitations characterized by the available hydraulic data. The free and force vibration response predictions are compared with extensive model flow and shaker test data. (U.S.)

14. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

1997-12-31

A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

15. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

1996-12-31

A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

16. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979

Schardt, J.F.

1980-03-01

Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979

17. Change of neutron flow sensors effectiveness in the course of reactor experiments

Kurpesheva, A.M.; Kotov, V.M.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

2007-01-01

Full text: IGR reactor is a reactor of thermal capacity type. During the operation, uranium-graphite core can be heated up to 1500 deg. C and reactivity can be changed considerably. Core dimensions are comparatively small. Amount of control rods, providing required reactivity, is not big as well. Increasing of core temperature leads to the rise of neutrons path length in its basic material - graphite. Change of temperature is not even. All this causes the non-conservation of neutron flows ratio in irradiated sample and in the place of reactor power sensors installation. Deviations in this ratio were registered during the number of reactor experiments. Empiric corrections can be introduced in order to decrease influence of change of neutron flow effectiveness upon provision of required parameters of investigated matters load. However, dependence of these corrections upon many factors can lead to the increasing of instability of process control. Previous experiment-calculated experiments showed inequality of neutron field in the place of sensors location (up to tens of percent), low effectiveness of experimental works, carried out without access to the individual reactor laying elements. Imperfection during the experiment was an idea of possibility to connect distribution of out of reactor neutron flow and control rods position. Subsequent analysis showed that for the development of representative phenomenon model it is necessary to take into account reactor operation dynamic subject to unevenness of heating of individual laying parts. Elemental calculations showed that temperature laying effects in the change of neutron outer field are great. Algorithm of calculations for the change of outer filed and field of investigated fabrication includes calculation of neutron-physic reactor characteristics interlacing with calculations of thermal-physic reactor characteristics, providing correlation of temperature fields for neutron-physic calculations. In the course of such

18. Investigation on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

Hassan, Yassin

2013-10-22

Uncertainties associated with the core bypass flow are some of the key issues that directly influence the coolant mass flow distribution and magnitude, and thus the operational core temperature profiles, in the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR). Designers will attempt to configure the core geometry so the core cooling flow rate magnitude and distribution conform to the design values. The objective of this project is to study the bypass flow both experimentally and computationally. Researchers will develop experimental data using state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry in a small test facility. The team will attempt to obtain full field temperature distribution using racks of thermocouples. The experimental data are intended to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes by providing detailed information. These experimental data are urgently needed for validation of the CFD codes. The following are the project tasks: • Construct a small-scale bench-top experiment to resemble the bypass flow between the graphite blocks, varying parameters to address their impact on bypass flow. Wall roughness of the graphite block walls, spacing between the blocks, and temperature of the blocks are some of the parameters to be tested. • Perform CFD to evaluate pre- and post-test calculations and turbulence models, including sensitivity studies to achieve high accuracy. • Develop the state-of-the art large eddy simulation (LES) using appropriate subgrid modeling. • Develop models to be used in systems thermal hydraulics codes to account and estimate the bypass flows. These computer programs include, among others, RELAP3D, MELCOR, GAMMA, and GAS-NET. Actual core bypass flow rate may vary considerably from the design value. Although the uncertainty of the bypass flow rate is not known, some sources have stated that the bypass flow rates in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were between 8 and 25 percent of the total reactor mass flow rate. If bypass flow rates are on the

19. Falling liquid film flow along cascade-typed first wall of laser-fusion reactor

Kunugi, T.; Nakai, T.; Kawara, Z.

2007-01-01

To protect from high energy/particle fluxes caused by nuclear fusion reaction such as extremely high heat flux, X rays, Alpha particles and fuel debris to a first wall of an inertia fusion reactor, a 'cascade-typed' first wall with a falling liquid film flow is proposed as the 'liquid wall' concept which is one of the reactor chamber cooling and wall protection schemes: the reactor chamber can protect by using a liquid metal film flow (such as Li 17 Pb 83 ) over the wall. In order to investigate the feasibility of this concept, we conducted the numerical analyses by using the STREAM code and also conducted the flow visualization experiments. The numerical results suggested that the cascade structure design should be improved, so that we redesigned the cascade-typed first wall and performed the flow visualization as a POP (proof-of-principle) experiment. In the numerical analyses, the water is used as the working liquid and an acrylic plate as the wall. These selections are based on two reasons: (1) from the non-dimensional analysis approach, the Weber number (We=ρu 2 δ/σ: ρ is density, u is velocity, δ is film thickness, σ is surface tension coefficient) should be the same between the design (Li 17 Pb 83 flow) and the model experiment (water flow) because of the free-surface instability, (2) the SiC/SiC composite would be used as the wall material, so that the wall may have the less wettability: the acrylic plate has the similar feature. The redesigned cascade-typed first wall for one step (30 cm height corresponding to 4 Hz laser duration) consists of a liquid tank having a free-surface for keeping the constant water-head located at the backside of the first wall, and connects to a slit which is composed of two plates: one plate is the first wall, and the other is maintaining the liquid level. This design solved the trouble of the previous design. The test section for the flow visualization has the same structure and the same height as the reactor design

20. CFD investigation of flow inversion in typical MTR research reactor undergoing thermal-hydraulic transients

2011-01-01

Highlights: → The 3D, CFD simulation of FLOFA accident in the generic IAEA 10 MW research reactor is carried out. → The different flow and heat transfer mechanisms involved in this process were elucidated. → The transition between these mechanisms during the course of FLOFA is discussed and investigated. → The interesting inversion process upon the transition from downward flow to upward flow is shown. → The temperature field and the friction coefficient during the whole transient process were shown. - Abstract: Three dimensional CFD full simulations of the fast loss of flow accident (FLOFA) of the IAEA 10 MW generic MTR research reactor are conducted. In this system the flow is initially downward. The transient scenario starts when the pump coasts down exponentially with a time constant of 1 s. As a result the temperatures of the heating element, the clad, and the coolant rise. When the flow reaches 85% of its nominal value the control rod system scrams and the power drops sharply resulting in the temperatures of the different components to drop. As the coolant flow continues to drop, the decay heat causes the temperatures to increase at a slower rate in the beginning. When the flow becomes laminar, the rate of temperature increase becomes larger and when the pumps completely stop a flow inversion occurs because of natural convection. The temperature will continue to rise at even higher rates until natural convection is established, that is when the temperatures settle off. The interesting 3D patterns of the flow during the inversion process are shown and investigated. The temperature history is also reported and is compared with those estimated by one-dimensional codes. Generally, very good agreement is achieved which provides confidence in the modeling approach.

1. A numerical study of boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system

Nayak, A.K.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Schrauwen, Frans; Molenaar, Peter; Rogers, Andrew

2006-01-01

A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system. The numerical model solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy applicable to a two-fluid and three-field steam-water system using a finite difference technique. The computer code MONA was used for this purpose. The code was applied to the thermosyphon system of an EO (ethylene oxide) chemical reactor in which the heat released by a catalytic reaction is carried by boiling water under natural circulation conditions. The steady-state characteristics of the reactor thermosyphon system were predicted using the MONA code and conventional two-phase flow models in order to understand the model applicability for this type of thermosyphon system. The two-fluid model was found to predict the flow closest to the measured value of the plant. The stability behaviour of the thermosyphon system was investigated for a wide range of operating conditions. The effects of power, subcooling, riser length and riser diameter on the boiling flow instability were determined. The system was found to be unstable at higher power conditions which is typical for a Type II instability. However, with an increase in riser diameter, oscillations at low power were observed as well. These are classified as Type I instabilities. Stability maps were predicted for both Type I and Type II instabilities. Methods of improving the stability of the system are discussed

2. A numerical study of boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system

Nayak, A.K.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Schrauwen, Frans; Molenaar, Peter; Rogers, Andrew [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Badhuisweg 3, 1031 CM Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2006-04-01

A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system. The numerical model solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy applicable to a two-fluid and three-field steam-water system using a finite difference technique. The computer code MONA was used for this purpose. The code was applied to the thermosyphon system of an EO (ethylene oxide) chemical reactor in which the heat released by a catalytic reaction is carried by boiling water under natural circulation conditions. The steady-state characteristics of the reactor thermosyphon system were predicted using the MONA code and conventional two-phase flow models in order to understand the model applicability for this type of thermosyphon system. The two-fluid model was found to predict the flow closest to the measured value of the plant. The stability behaviour of the thermosyphon system was investigated for a wide range of operating conditions. The effects of power, subcooling, riser length and riser diameter on the boiling flow instability were determined. The system was found to be unstable at higher power conditions which is typical for a Type II instability. However, with an increase in riser diameter, oscillations at low power were observed as well. These are classified as Type I instabilities. Stability maps were predicted for both Type I and Type II instabilities. Methods of improving the stability of the system are discussed. [Author].

3. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

Hatzell, Marta C.

2014-12-09

Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m–2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m–2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m–2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L–1, the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m–2.

4. Accidents of loss of flow for the ETTR-2 reactor; deterministic analysis

El-Messiry, A.M.

2000-01-01

The main objective for reactor safety is to keep the fuel in a thermally safe condition with adequate safety margins during all operational modes (normal-abnormal and accidental states). To achieve this purpose an accident analysis of different design base accident (DBA) as loss of flow accident (LOFA), is required assessing reactor safety. The present work concerns this transients applied to Egypt Test and Research Reactor ETRR-3 (new reactor). An accident analysis code FLOWTR is developed to investigate the thermal behaviour of the core during such flow transients. The active core is simulated by two channels: 1 - hot channel (HC), and 2 - average channel (AC) representing the remainder of the core. Each channel is divided into four axial sections. The external loop, core plenums, and core chimney are simulated by different dynamic loops. The code includes modules for pump cast down, flow regimes, decay heat, temperature distributions, and feedback coefficients. FLOWTR is verified against results from RETRAN code, THERMIC code and commissioning tests for null transient case. The comparison shows a good agreement. The study indicates that for LOFA transients, provided the scram system is available, the core is shutdown safely by low flow signal (496.6 kg/s) at 1.4 s were the HC temperature reaches the maximum value, 45.64 o C after shutdown. On the other hand, if the scram system is unavailable, and at t = 47.33 s, the core flow decreases to 67.41 kg/s, the HC temperature increases to 164.02 o C, and the HC clad surface heat flux exceeds its critical value of 400.00 W/cm 2 resulting of fuel burnout. (author)

5. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: Anas@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

2015-04-29

The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

6. CFD simulation of flow pattern in a bubble column reactor for forming aerobic granules and its development.

Fan, Wenwen; Yuan, LinJiang; Li, Yonglin

2018-06-04

The flow pattern is considered to play an important role in the formation of aerobic granular sludge in a bubble column reactor; therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of the flow in the reactor. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for bubble column reactor was established to visualize the flow patterns of two-phase air-liquid flow and three-phase air-liquid-sludge flow under different ratios of height to diameter (H/D ratio) and superficial gas upflow velocities (SGVs). Moreover, a simulation of the three-phase flow pattern at the same SGV and different characteristics of the sludge was performed in this study. The results show that not only SGV but also properties of sludge involve the transformation of flow behaviors and relative velocity between liquid and sludge. For the original activated sludge floc to cultivate aerobic granules, the flow pattern has nothing to do with sludge, but is influenced by SGV, and the vortices is occurred and the relative velocity is increased with an increase in SGV; the two-phase flow can simplify the three-phase flow that predicts the flow pattern development in bubble column reactor (BCR) for aerobic granulation. For the aerobic granules, the liquid flow behavior developed from the symmetrical circular flow to numbers and small-size vortices with an increase in the sludge diameter, the relative velocity is amount up to u r =5.0, it is 29.4 times of original floc sludge.

7. Safety aspects of forced flow cooldown transients in modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

Kroeger, P.G.

1992-01-01

During some of the design basis accidents in Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (MHTGRs) the main Heat Transport System (HTS) and the Shutdown Cooling System (SCS), are assumed to have failed. Decay heat is then removed by the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) only. If either forced flow cooling system becomes available during such a transient, its restart could significantly reduce the down-time. This paper uses the THATCH code to examine whether such restart, during a period of elevated core temperatures, can be accomplished within safe limits for fuel and metal component temperatures. If the reactor is scrammed, either system can apparently be restarted at any time, without exceeding any safe limits. However, under unscrammed conditions a restart of forced cooling can lead to recriticality, with fuel and metal temperatures significantly exceeding the safety limits

8. Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study

Okkels, Fridolin; Dufva, Martin; Bruus, Henrik

2011-01-01

In recent years, the interest in small-scale bio-reactors has increased dramatically. To ensure homogeneous conditions within the complete area of perfused microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continually feed bio-reactor with uniform perfusion flow. This is achieved...... by introducing a specific type of perfusion inlet to the reaction area. The geometry of these inlets are found using the methods of topology optimization and shape optimization. The results are compared with two different analytic models, from which a general parametric description of the design is obtained...... and tested numerically. Such a parametric description will generally be beneficial for the design of a broad range of microfluidic bioreactors used for, e. g., cell culturing and analysis and in feeding bio-arrays....

9. Cold flow study of liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) through radioisotope techniques

Verma, Rupesh; Upadhyay, Rajesh K.; Pant, H.J.

2017-01-01

As the world's demand for energy continues to increase burning of coal, oil and natural gases continue to increase which will eventually cause build-up in emission of greenhouse gasses. To overcome this challenge worldwide effort is in progress to develop an economical, more efficient and safer nuclear power. Higher thermal efficiency and enhances safety feature of Generation IV liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) makes it viable option to replace existing nuclear reactor. However, this reactor is still in research stage and need detailed study before commercialization. In current work, hydrodynamics of LC-PBR is studied by using radioisotope based techniques, radioactive particle tracking and gamma-ray densitometry. Pebble flow profile and distribution are measured for different operating conditions. Optimal operating parameters are identified for operating LC-PBR based on hydrodynamics. (author)

10. Study of core flow distribution for small modular natural circulation lead or lead-alloy cooled fast reactors

Chen, Zhao; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhou, Guangming; Chen, Hongli

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A core flow distribution calculation code for natural circulation LFRs was developed. • The comparison study between the channel method and the CFD method was conducted. • The core flow distribution analysis and optimization design for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was conducted. - Abstract: Small modular natural circulation lead or lead-alloy cooled fast reactor (LFR) is a potential candidate for LFR development. It has many attractive advantages such as reduced capital costs and inherent safety. The core flow distribution calculation is an important issue for nuclear reactor design, which will provide important input parameters to thermal-hydraulic analysis and safety analysis. The core flow distribution calculation of a natural circulation LFR is different from that of a forced circulation reactor. In a forced circulation reactor, the core flow distribution can be controlled and adjusted by the pump power and the flow distributor, while in a natural circulation reactor, the core flow distribution is automatically adjusted according to the relationship between the local power and the local resistance feature. In this paper, a non-uniform heated parallel channel flow distribution calculation code was developed and the comparison study between the channel method and the CFD method was carried out to assess the exactness of the developed code. The core flow distribution analysis and optimization design for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was conducted using the developed code. A core flow distribution optimization design scheme for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was proposed according to the optimization analysis results

11. Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) flow coefficient of reactivity: (LWBR Development Program)

Sarber, W.K.; Stout, J.W.; Atherton, R.

1987-06-01

This report discusses the results of an experimental program to measure and categorize the causes for increases in the magnitude of the LWBR flow coefficient of reactivity at 10,932 EFPH from previously measured near zero values to a value of about 6 x 10 -4 Δ rho for a flow decrease from 100 to 80% of full flow. Reactor protection analyses confirmed that existing protection systems were adequate for continued operation. Subsequently, the flow coefficient decreased in magnitude to approximately 2.25 x 10 -4 Δ rho at 20,000 EFPH and remained about constant through the remainder of core life, 29,047 EFPH. The increase in flow coefficient of reactivity is attributed to a flow-force dependent change in the effective core diameter such that an increase in core flow decreased the core diameter, resulting in an increase in fuel-to-water ratio and a consequent decrease in the reactivity of this relatively undermoderated core. This report discusses why the increased flow coefficient did not occur until after 10,932 EFPH and why the magnitude of flow coefficient reduced with continued core operation

12. Numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: ssfmorghi@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Puente, Jesus, E-mail: jpuente720@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educaçao Tecnologica Celso Suckowda Fonseca (CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Baliza, Ana R., E-mail: baliza@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

2017-07-01

After a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the temperature of the fuel elements cladding increases dramatically due to the heat produced by the fission products decay, which is not adequately removed by the vapor contained in the core. In order to avoid this sharp rise in temperature and consequent melting of the core, the Emergency Core Cooling System is activated. This system initially injects borated water from accumulator tanks of the reactor through the inlet pipe (cold leg) and the outlet pipe (hot leg), or through the cold leg only, depending on the plant manufacturer. Some manufacturers add to this, direct injection into the upper plenum of the reactor. The penetration of water into the reactor core is a complex thermo fluid dynamic process because it involves the mixing of water with the vapor contained in the reactor, added to that generated in the contact of the water with the still hot surfaces in various geometries. In some critical locations, the vapor flowing in the opposite direction of the water can control the penetration of this into the core. This phenomenon is known as Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) or Flooding, and it is characterized by the control that a gas exerts in the liquid flow in the opposite direction. This work presents a proposal to use a CFD to simulate the CCFL phenomenon. Numerical computing can provide important information and data that is difficult or expensive to measure or test experimentally. Given the importance of computational science today, it can be considered a third and independent branch of science on an equal footing with the theoretical and experimental sciences. (author)

13. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

2015-08-01

The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

14. Experimental validation of TASS/SMR-S critical flow model for the integral reactor SMART

Seo, Si Won; Ra, In Sik; Kim, Kun Yeup [ACT Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

An advanced integral PWR, SMART (System- Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is being developed in KAERI. It has a compact size and a relatively small power rating (330MWt) compared to a conventional reactor. Because new concepts are applied to SMART, an experimental and analytical validation is necessary for the safety evaluation of SMART. The analytical safety validation is being accomplished by a safety analysis code for an integral reactor, TASS/SMR-S developed by KAERI. TASS/SMR-S uses a lumped parameter one dimensional node and path modeling for the thermal hydraulic calculation and it uses point kinetics for the reactor power calculation. It has models for a general usage such as a core heat transfer model, a wall heat structure model, a critical flow model, component models, and it also has many SMART specific models such as an once through helical coiled steam generator model, and a condensate heat transfer model. To ensure that the TASS/SMR-S code has the calculation capability for the safety evaluation of SMART, the code should be validated for the specific models with the separate effect test experimental results. In this study, TASS/SMR-S critical flow model is evaluated as compared with SMD (Super Moby Dick) experiment

15. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Through Packed Bed Reactors in Microgravity

Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

2001-01-01

The simultaneous flow of gas and liquid through a fixed bed of particles occurs in many unit operations of interest to the designers of space-based as well as terrestrial equipment. Examples include separation columns, gas-liquid reactors, humidification, drying, extraction, and leaching. These operations are critical to a wide variety of industries such as petroleum, pharmaceutical, mining, biological, and chemical. NASA recognizes that similar operations will need to be performed in space and on planetary bodies such as Mars if we are to achieve our goals of human exploration and the development of space. The goal of this research is to understand how to apply our current understanding of two-phase fluid flow through fixed-bed reactors to zero- or partial-gravity environments. Previous experiments by NASA have shown that reactors designed to work on Earth do not necessarily function in a similar manner in space. Two experiments, the Water Processor Assembly and the Volatile Removal Assembly have encountered difficulties in predicting and controlling the distribution of the phases (a crucial element in the operation of this type of reactor) as well as the overall pressure drop.

16. System and method for determining coolant level and flow velocity in a nuclear reactor

Brisson, Bruce William; Morris, William Guy; Zheng, Danian; Monk, David James; Fang, Biao; Surman, Cheryl Margaret; Anderson, David Deloyd

2013-09-10

A boiling water reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel having a feedwater inlet for the introduction of recycled steam condensate and/or makeup coolant into the vessel, and a steam outlet for the discharge of produced steam for appropriate work. A fuel core is located within a lower area of the pressure vessel. The fuel core is surrounded by a core shroud spaced inward from the wall of the pressure vessel to provide an annular downcomer forming a coolant flow path between the vessel wall and the core shroud. A probe system that includes a combination of conductivity/resistivity probes and/or one or more time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes is at least partially located within the downcomer. The probe system measures the coolant level and flow velocity within the downcomer.

17. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

2000-01-01

One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required

18. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures.

Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Weisz, David G; Zaug, Joseph M; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L; Cappelli, Mark A; Rose, Timothy P

2017-09-01

We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

19. Measurement of flow field in the pebble bed type high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Lee, Sa Ya; Lee, Jae Young

2008-01-01

In this study, flow field measurement of the Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) for the High Temperature Gascooled Reactor(HTGR) was performed. Large number of pebbles in the core of PBR provides complicated flow channel. Due to the complicated geometries, numerical analysis has been intensively made rather than experimental observation. However, the justification of computational simulation by the experimental study is crucial to develop solid analysis of design method. In the present study, a wind tunnel installed with pebbles stacked was constructed and equipped with the Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). We designed the system scaled up to realize the room temperature condition according to the similarity. The PIV observation gave us stagnation points, low speed region so that the suspected high temperature region can be identified. With the further supplementary experimental works, the present system may produce valuable data to justify the Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulation method

20. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

1978-12-01

The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

1. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

2000-02-01

One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

2. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-09-01

This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

3. A dynamic model of the reactor coolant system flow for KMRR plant simulation

Rhee, B.W.; Noh, T.W.; Park, C.; Sim, B.S.; Oh, S.K.

1990-01-01

To support computer simulation studies for reactor control system design and performance evaluation, a dynamic model of the reactor coolant system (RCS) and reflector cooling system has been developed. This model is composed of the reactor coolant loop momentum equation, RCS pump dynamic equation, RCS pump characteristic equation, and the energy equation for the coolant inside the various components and piping. The model is versatile enough to simulate the normal steady-state conditions as well as most of the anticipated flow transients without pipe rupture. This model has been successfully implemented as the plant simulation code KMRRSIM for the Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor and is now under extensive validation testing. The initial stage of validation has been comparison of its result with that of already validated, more detailed reactor system transient codes such as RELAP5. The results, as compared to the predictions by RELAP5 simulation, have been generally found to be very encouraging and the model is judged to be accurate enough to fulfill its intended purpose. However, this model will continue to be validated against other plant's data and eventually will be assessed by test data from KMRR

4. Identification of significant process variables for a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor

Rossi, R.E.

1992-05-01

The effects of four process variables on the destruction efficiency of a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor were investigated. These process variables included: (1) reactor throughput (GPH), (2) concentration of the surrogate waste (% acetone), (3) maximum reactor tube-wall temperature (OC), and (4) applied stoichiometric oxygen. The analysis was conducted utilizing two-level factorial experiments, steepest ascent methods, and central composite designs. This experimental protocol assures efficient experimentation and allows for an empirical response surface model of the system to be developed. This experimentation identified a significant positive effect for stoichiometric oxygen applied and temperature variations between 400 to 500 degrees C. The increase in destruction efficiency due to stoichiometric 0 2 provides strong evidence that supercritical water oxidations are catalyzed by excess oxygen, and the strong temperature effect is a result of large increases in the kinetic rates for this temperature range. However, increasing temperature between 550 to 650 degrees C does not provide substantial increases in destruction efficiency. In addition, destruction efficiency is significantly unproved by increasing the Reynolds number and residence time. The destruction efficiency of the reactor is also dependent upon the initial concentration of surrogate waste. This concentration dependence may indicate first-order supercritical CO kinetics is inadequate for describing all waste types and reactor configurations. Alternatively, it may indicate reactant mixing, caused by local turbulence at the oxidation fronts of these higher concentration waste streams, results in higher destruction efficiencies

5. The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor

Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

1994-01-01

Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

6. Expansion connection of socket in flow distributed cabin of heavy water research reactor inner shell

Jiang Zhiliang; Li Yanshui

1995-01-01

Expansion connection of aluminium alloy LT21 socket in flow distributed cabin of Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) inner shell is described systematically. The expansion connection technology parameters of products are determined through tests. They are as following: bounce value of inner diameter after expansion, expansion degree, space between socket and plate hole, device for expanding pipes, selection of tools for enlarging or reaming holes, manufacture for socket inner hole and cleaning after expansion

7. Problems of two-phase flows in water cooled and moderated reactors

Syu, Yu.

1984-01-01

Heat exchange in two-phase flows of coolant in loss of coolant accidents in PWR and BWR reactors has been investigated. Three main stages of accident history are considered: blowdown, reflooding using emergency core cooling system and rewetting. Factors, determining the rate of coolant leakage and the rate of temperature increase in fuel cladding during blowdown, processes of vapour during reflooding and liquid priming by vapour during rewetting, are discussed

8. Numerical simulation of moderator flow and temperature distributions in a CANDU reactor vessel

Carlucci, L.N.

1982-10-01

This paper describes numerical predictions of the two-dimensional flow and temperature fields of an internally-heated liquid in a typical CANDU reactor vessel. Turbulence momentum and energy transport are simulated using the k-epsilon model. Both steady-state and transient results are discussed. The finite control volume analogues of the conservation equations are solved using a modified version of the TEACH code

9. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors

Christian H. Hornung

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

10. SCEPTIC, Pressure Drop, Flow Rate, Heat Transfer, Temperature in Reactor Heat Exchanger

Kattchee, N.; Reynolds, W.C.

1975-01-01

1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SCEPTIC is a program for calculating pressure drop, flow rates, heat transfer rates, and temperature in heat exchangers such as fuel elements of typical gas or liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The effects of turbulent and heat interchange between flow passages are considered. 2 - Method of solution: The computation procedure amounts to a nodal of lumped parameter type of calculation. The axial mesh size is automatically selected to assure that a prescribed accuracy of results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of subchannels is 25, maximum number of heated surfaces is 46

11. The effect of retarding torque during a flow transient for Tehran Research Reactor

Farhadi, Kazem, E-mail: kfarhadi@aeoi.org.ir [Engineering Science Research Group, Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15

The primary cooling system of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analysed for a possible flow transient phenomenon caused by power cut-off. All the components of the TRR primary cooling loop that offer resistance to the coolant flow are physically modelled. Differential equations of motion for the coolant in the primary piping of the TRR and for the rotating parts of the centrifugal pump are then derived. The equation of flow motion is solved simultaneously with momentum conservation equation of the rotating parts of the pump which predicts the TRR pump speed during the flow transient. Electrical and mechanical losses are measured for the TRR three-phase induction motor in order to calculate the motor retarding torque during the event. The results of the present study are compared with the other similar primary loop results. The present model shows good agreement with the existing experimental and theoretical studies.

12. Experimental studies of flow induced vibrations of the fuel assembly for the PEC reactor

Pitimada, D.; Presaghi, M.; Tampone, O.; Cesari, F.

1977-01-01

The vibration behaviour of an assembly of seven mock-up fuel bundles of PEC reactor has been investigated. The assembly was excited by a parallel flow of water simulating sodium. The motion of the group (or of a single bundle in the group) has been measured in transverse sections detecting two orthogonal components of displacement. During the experiences the following parameters were varied: bundle foot and pads restraints, flow rate condition, coolant flow outlet conditions at the head of fuel bundles. Experimental data were processed in order to obtain: trajectories of three points of fuel bundle axis, power density spectra of measured vibration amplitudes, correlations between coolant flow rate and vibration amplitude R.M.S. (author)

13. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

2017-01-01

Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

14. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr.

1995-01-01

The reactor design features 4 independent cooling loops (3 active, 1 standby), each containing a main circulation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and also that the check valve in that loop remains stuck open. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-dia instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against 4 thermal limits: T wall = T sat , incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, results show that these limits are not exceeded (at 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (present design value). For the second transient, the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39 C, so the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusion may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems

15. Hydrodynamic flow regimes, gas holdup, and liquid circulation in airlift reactors

Abashar, M.E.; Narsingh, U.; Rouillard, A.E.; Judd, R. [Univ. of Durban (South Africa)

1998-04-01

This study reports an experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic behavior of an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR) for the air-water system. Three distinct flow regimes are identified--namely homogeneous, transition, and heterogeneous regimes. The transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous flow is observed to occur over a wide range rather than being merely a single point as has been previously reported in the literature. A gas holdup correlation is developed for each flow regime. The correlations fit the experimental gas holdup data with very good accuracy (within {+-}5%). It would appear, therefore, that a deterministic equation to describe each flow regime is likely to exist in ALRs. This equation is a function of the reactor geometry and the systems physical properties. New data concerning the axial variation of gas holdup is reported in which a minimum value is observed. This phenomenon is discussed and an explanation offered. Discrimination between two sound theoretical models--namely model 1 (Chisti et al., 1988) and model 2 (Garcia Calvo, 1989)--shows that model 1 predicts satisfactorily the liquid circulation velocity with an error of less than {+-} 10%. The good predictive features of model 1 may be due to the fact that it allows for a significant energy dissipation by wakes behind bubbles. Model 1 is now further improved by the new gas holdup correlations which are derived for the three different flow regimes.

16. Reactive flow analysis with fluorine thermal dissociation in a FLUOREX flame reactor

Ohtsuka, Masaya; Tagawa, Hisato; Sasahira, Akira; Hoshino, Kuniyoshi; Kawamura, Fumio; Homma, Shunji; Amano, Osamu

2004-01-01

A reactive flow analysis method for flame reactors of the FLUOREX (Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction) method was been developed. Transport equations for UO 2 /PuO 2 mixed particles were formulated in the Lagrangian framework and several fluid/particles interactions were modeled using mass, momentum and energy exchanges through surface chemical reactions, forces and heat transfers. The coal combustion model was modified without devolatilization and the char burnout model was replaced by the UO 2 /PuO 2 fluorination model. Overall reaction rates were calculated using the combined model of the surface reaction rate and the diffusion rate of F2 and F. Fluid flows were modeled through incompressible flows using the k-ε turbulent model in the Euler framework. A cylindrical flame reactor (φ 80 mm x 500mm was analyzed where 99%UO 2 +1%PuO 2 mixed particles were injected with Ar and 5% excess F 2 flow. The average particle diameter was 4 μm and the flow rate was 300 g/h. The fluorination reaction of PuO 2 was limited through fluorine molecular reaction but was accelerated due to fluorine thermal dissociation. The simulated corresponded to the experimental result in that both UO 2 and PuO 2 were almost completely fluorinated. (author)

17. Mercury adsorption characteristics of HBr-modified fly ash in an entrained-flow reactor.

Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Lilin; Guo, Ruitao; Song, Na; Wang, Jiawei; Cao, Yan; Orndorff, William; Pan, Wei-ping

2015-07-01

In this study, the mercury adsorption characteristics of HBr-modified fly ash in an entrained-flow reactor were investigated through thermal decomposition methods. The results show that the mercury adsorption performance of the HBr-modified fly ash was enhanced significantly. The mercury species adsorbed by unmodified fly ash were HgCl2, HgS and HgO. The mercury adsorbed by HBr-modified fly ash, in the entrained-flow reactor, existed in two forms, HgBr2 and HgO, and the HBr was the dominant factor promoting oxidation of elemental mercury in the entrained-flow reactor. In the current study, the concentration of HgBr2 and HgO in ash from the fine ash vessel was 4.6 times greater than for ash from the coarse ash vessel. The fine ash had better mercury adsorption performance than coarse ash, which is most likely due to the higher specific surface area and longer residence time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

18. Features and validation of discrete element method for simulating pebble flow in reactor core

Xu Yong; Li Yanjie

2005-01-01

The core of a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is composed of big number of fuel pebbles, their kinetic behaviors are of great importance in estimating the path and residence time of individual pebble, the evolution of the mixing zone for the assessment of the efficiency of a reactor. Numerical method is highlighted in modern reactor design. In view of granular flow, the Discrete Element Model based on contact mechanics of spheres was briefly described. Two typical examples were presented to show the capability of the DEM method. The former is piling with glass/steel spheres, which provides validated evidences that the simulated angles of repose are in good coincidence with the experimental results. The later is particle discharge in a flat- bottomed silo, which shows the effects of material modulus and demonstrates several features. The two examples show the DEM method enables to predict the behaviors, such as the evolution of pebble profiles, streamlines etc., and provides sufficient information for pebble flow analysis and core design. In order to predict the cyclic pebble flow in a HTGR core precisely and efficiently, both model and code improvement are needed, together with rational specification of physical properties with proper measuring techniques. Strategic and methodological considerations were also discussed. (authors)

19. Comparison of reactivity in a flow reactor and a single cylinder engine

Natelson, Robert H.; Johnson, Rodney O.; Kurman, Matthew S.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Miller, David L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875 (United States)

2010-10-15

The relative reactivity of 2:1:1 and 1:1:1 mixtures of n-decane:n-butylcyclohexane:n-butylbenzene and an average sample of JP-8 were evaluated in a single cylinder engine and compared to results obtained in a pressurized flow reactor. At compression ratios of 14:1, 15:1, and 16:1, inlet temperature of 500 K, inlet pressure of 0.1 MPa, equivalence ratio of 0.23, and engine speed of 800 RPM, the autoignition delay times were, from shortest to longest, the 2:1:1, followed by the 1:1:1, and then the JP-8. This order corresponded with recent results in a pressurized flow reactor, where the preignition oxidation chemistry was monitored at temperatures of 600-800 K, 0.8 MPa pressure, and an equivalence ratio of 0.30, and where the preignition reactivity from highest to lowest was the 2:1:1, followed by the 1:1:1, and the JP-8. This shows that the relative reactivity at low temperatures in the flow reactor tracks the autoignition tendencies in the engine for these particular fuels. (author) the computed experimental error. (author)

20. CFD analysis of multiphase coolant flow through fuel rod bundles in advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors

Catana, A.; Turcu, I.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D.; Danila, N.

2010-01-01

The key component of a pressure tube nuclear reactor core is pressure tube filled with a stream of fuel bundles. This feature makes them suitable for CFD thermal-hydraulic analysis. A methodology for CFD analysis applied to pressure tube nuclear reactors is presented in this paper, which is focused on advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors. The complex flow conditions inside pressure tube are analysed by using the Eulerian multiphase model implemented in FLUENT CFD computer code. Fuel rods in these channels are superheated but the liquid is under high pressure, so it is sub-cooled in normal operating conditions on most of pressure tube length. In the second half of pressure tube length, the onset of boiling occurs, so the flow consists of a gas liquid mixture, with the volume of gas increasing along the length of the channel in the direction of the flow. Limited computer resources enforced us to use CFD analysis for segments of pressure tube. Significant local geometries (junctions, spacers) were simulated. Main results of this work are: prediction of main thermal-hydraulic parameters along pressure tube including CHF evaluation through fuel assemblies. (authors)

1. Detonation in supersonic radial outflow

Kasimov, Aslan R.

2014-11-07

We report on the structure and dynamics of gaseous detonation stabilized in a supersonic flow emanating radially from a central source. The steady-state solutions are computed and their range of existence is investigated. Two-dimensional simulations are carried out in order to explore the stability of the steady-state solutions. It is found that both collapsing and expanding two-dimensional cellular detonations exist. The latter can be stabilized by putting several rigid obstacles in the flow downstream of the steady-state sonic locus. The problem of initiation of standing detonation stabilized in the radial flow is also investigated numerically. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

2. SECAGEM DE SEMENTES DE SOJA EM SILO COM DISTRIBUIÇÃO RADIAL DO FLUXO DE AR: I. MONITORAMENTO FÍSICO DRYING OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN A RADIAL AIR FLOW DRYER: I. PHYSICAL MONITORING

LUIZ CARLOS MIRANDA

1999-11-01

3. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

Tse, Man-Chun

2004-01-01

In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

4. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase chemical kinetics under tropospheric conditions without wall effects

Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

A flow reactor for simulating the interaction in the troposphere is set forth. A first reactant mixed with a carrier gas is delivered from a pump and flows through a duct having louvers therein. The louvers straighten out the flow, reduce turbulence and provide laminar flow discharge from the duct. A second reactant delivered from a source through a pump is input into the flowing stream, the second reactant being diffused through a plurality of small diffusion tubes to avoid disturbing the laminar flow. The commingled first and second reactants in the carrier gas are then directed along an elongated duct where the walls are spaced away from the flow of reactants to avoid wall interference, disturbance or turbulence arising from the walls. A probe connected with a measuring device can be inserted through various sampling ports in the second duct to complete measurements of the first and second reactants and the product of their reaction at selected XYZ locations relative to the flowing system.

5. Operation of a catalytic reverse flow reactor for the purification of air contamined with volatile organic compounds

van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, L.; Westerterp, K.R.

1997-01-01

Catalytic oxidation in a reverse flow reactor is an attractive process for the decontamination of air polluted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper several aspects of operating this type of reactor for air purification under strongly varying conditions will be discussed. For a

6. Feasibility study of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor with porous membranes for the production of syngas

Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

2005-01-01

In this paper a novel reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) is proposed for the partial oxidation of CH4 to syngas. The feasibility of the RFCMR concept has been investigated for industrial conditions on basis of a simulation study employing a reactor model, which includes a detailed

7. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

2011-01-01

Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

8. Flow of ideal fluid through a central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly

Schmid, J.

1991-04-01

The results are given of calculations of the flow of an ideal fluid through the central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly. The computer code used is briefly described. (author). 10 figs., 4 refs

9. FLODIS: a computer model to determine the flow distribution and thermal response of the Fort St. Vrain reactor

Paul, D.D.

1976-06-01

FLODIS is a combined heat transfer and fluid flow analysis calculation written specifically for the core of the Fort St. Vrain reactor. It is a lumped-node representation of the 37 refueling regions in the active core. Heat conduction to the coolant and in the axial direction is represented; however, the effect of conduction between refueling regions is not included. The calculation uses the specified operating conditions for the reactor at power to determine appropriate loss coefficients for the variable orifices in each refueling region. Flow distributions following reactor trip and a reduction in coolant pressure and flow are determined assuming that the orifice coefficients remain constant. Iterative techniques are used to determine the distribution of coolant flow as a function of time during the transient. Results are presented for the evaluation of the transient for the Fort St. Vrain reactor following depressurization and cooling with two circulators operating at 8000 rpm.

10. FLODIS: a computer model to determine the flow distribution and thermal response of the Fort St. Vrain reactor

Paul, D.D.

1976-06-01

FLODIS is a combined heat transfer and fluid flow analysis calculation written specifically for the core of the Fort St. Vrain reactor. It is a lumped-node representation of the 37 refueling regions in the active core. Heat conduction to the coolant and in the axial direction is represented; however, the effect of conduction between refueling regions is not included. The calculation uses the specified operating conditions for the reactor at power to determine appropriate loss coefficients for the variable orifices in each refueling region. Flow distributions following reactor trip and a reduction in coolant pressure and flow are determined assuming that the orifice coefficients remain constant. Iterative techniques are used to determine the distribution of coolant flow as a function of time during the transient. Results are presented for the evaluation of the transient for the Fort St. Vrain reactor following depressurization and cooling with two circulators operating at 8000 rpm

11. Benchmark exercise for fluid flow simulations in a liquid metal fast reactor fuel assembly

Merzari, E., E-mail: emerzari@anl.gov [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Fischer, P. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Yuan, H. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Van Tichelen, K.; Keijers, S. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol (Belgium); De Ridder, J.; Degroote, J.; Vierendeels, J. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Doolaard, H.; Gopala, V.R.; Roelofs, F. [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

2016-03-15

Highlights: • A EUROTAM-US INERI consortium has performed a benchmark exercise related to fast reactor assembly simulations. • LES calculations for a wire-wrapped rod bundle are compared with RANS calculations. • Results show good agreement for velocity and cross flows. - Abstract: As part of a U.S. Department of Energy International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is collaborating with the Dutch Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN), and Ghent University (UGent) in Belgium to perform and compare a series of fuel-pin-bundle calculations representative of a fast reactor core. A wire-wrapped fuel bundle is a complex configuration for which little data is available for verification and validation of new simulation tools. UGent and NRG performed their simulations with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The high-fidelity Argonne large-eddy simulations were performed with Nek5000, used for CFD in the Simulation-based High-efficiency Advanced Reactor Prototyping (SHARP) suite. SHARP is a versatile tool that is being developed to model the core of a wide variety of reactor types under various scenarios. It is intended both to serve as a surrogate for physical experiments and to provide insight into experimental results. Comparison of the results obtained by the different participants with the reference Nek5000 results shows good agreement, especially for the cross-flow data. The comparison also helps highlight issues with current modeling approaches. The results of the study will be valuable in the design and licensing process of MYRRHA, a flexible fast research reactor under design at SCK·CEN that features wire-wrapped fuel bundles cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic.

12. Laboratory determination of normal operating flow rates with enlarged outlet fittings -- BDF reactors

Waters, E.D.

1960-02-02

Experiments have been conducted in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the request of IPD`s Mechanical Development-A Operation, to determine the energy losses of various enlarged outlet fitting combinations. These experiments were conducted an steady state runs and allow the determination of the normal operating point (flow rate) of a reactor process channel under selected conditions of front header pressure and fuel charge. No attempt is made to make a mechanical or economic evaluation of the particular fitting combinations, although observations were noted which might bear on this evaluation. It is very important for the reader to bear in mind that changing outlet fittings will definitely affect the reactor tube power limits and outlet vater temperature limits. The size of the outlet fittings largely determines the present outlet temperature limits of the old reactors. The flow characteristics of these present fittings cause some degree of pressurization to suppress boiling on the fuel charge and also cause dual Panellit trip protection for certain flow changes and for power surges. Enlargement of the outlet fittings may actually reduce the allowable outlet coolant temperature limits. Since these effects cannot be determined on the apparatus used in these experiments, a complete discussion of this point is not included in this report. However, the seriousness of these effects should be known and carefully analyzed before a final selection of enlarged outlet fittings in made. This report will be one of a series. New reports in the series will be issued as data are obtained for other such outlet fitting combinations or for new concepts of outlet fitting assemblies such as the new nozzle being developed by C. E. Trantz for use on F-reactor stuck gunbarrel tubes.

13. Kinetics Analysis of Synthesis Reaction of Struvite With Air-Flow Continous Vertical Reactors

Edahwati, L.; Sutiyono, S.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, dan A. P.

2018-01-01

Kinetics reaction is a knowledge about a rate of chemical reaction. The differential of the reaction rate can be determined from the reactant material or the formed material. The reaction mechanism of a reactor may include a stage of reaction occurring sequentially during the process of converting the reactants into products. In the determination of reaction kinetics, the order of reaction and the rate constant reaction must be recognized. This study was carried out using air as a stirrer as a medium in the vertical reactor for crystallization of struvite. Stirring is one of the important aspects in struvite crystallization process. Struvite crystals or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrates (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is commonly formed in reversible reactions and can be generated as an orthorhombic crystal. Air is selected as a stirrer on the existing flow pattern in the reactor determining the reaction kinetics of the crystal from the solution. The experimental study was conducted by mixing an equimolar solution of 0.03 M NH4OH, MgCl2 and H3PO4 with a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The crystallization process of the mixed solution was observed in an inside reactor at the flow rate ranges of 16-38 ml/min and the temperature of 30°C was selected in the study. The air inlet rate was kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. The pH solution was adjusted to be 8, 9 and 10 by dropping wisely of 1 N KOH solution. The crystallization kinetics was examined until the steady state of the reaction was reached. The precipitates were filtered and dried at a temperature for subsequent material characterization, including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray diffraction) method. The results show that higher flow rate leads to less mass of struvite.

14. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.

Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A

2015-01-01

Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

15. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1993-01-01

A dual passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactors is described, comprising the combination of: a reactor vessel for containing a pool of liquid metal coolant with a core of heat generating fissionable fuel substantially submerged therein, a side wall of the reactor vessel forming an innermost first partition; a containment vessel substantially surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a second partition; a first baffle cylinder substantially encircling the containment vessel in spaced apart relation having an encircling wall forming a third partition; a guard vessel substantially surrounding the containment vessel and first baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a forth partition; a sliding seal at the top of the guard vessel edge to isolate the dual cooling system air streams; a second baffle cylinder substantially encircling the guard vessel in spaced part relationship having an encircling wan forming a fifth partition; a concrete silo substantially surrounding the guard vessel and the second baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation providing a sixth partition; a first fluid coolant circulating flow course open to the ambient atmosphere for circulating air coolant comprising at lent one down comer duct having an opening to the atmosphere in an upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the guard vessel and the first baffle cylinder and at least one riser duct having an opening to the atmosphere in the upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the first baffle cylinder and the containment vessel whereby cooling fluid air can flow from the atmosphere down through the down comer duct and space between the forth and third partitions and up through the space between the third and second partition and the riser duct then out into the atmosphere; and a second fluid coolant circulating flow

16. Accidents and transients analyses of a super fast reactor with single flow pass core

Sutanto,; Oka, Yoshiaki

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Safety analysis of a Super FR with single flow pass core is conducted. • Loss of feed water flow leads to a direct effect on the loss of fuel channel flow. • The core pressure is sensitive to LOCA accidents due to the direct effect. • Small LOCA introduces a critical break. • The safety criteria for all selected events are satisfied. - Abstract: The supercritical water cooled fast reactor with single flow pass core has been designed to simplify refueling and the structures of upper and lower mixing plenums. To evaluate the safety performance, safety analysis has been conducted with regard to LOCA and non-LOCA accidents including transient events. Safety analysis results show that the safety criteria are satisfied for all selected events. The total loss of feed water flow is the most important accident which the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) is high due to a direct effect of the accident on the total loss of flow in all fuel assemblies. However, actuation of the ADS can mitigate the accident. Small LOCA also introduces a critical break at 7.8% break which results high MCST at BOC because the scram and ADS are not actuated. Early ADS actuation is effective to mitigate the accident. In large LOCA, 100% break LOCA results a high MCST of flooding phase at BOC due to high power peaking at the bottom part. Use of high injection flow rate by 2 LPCI units is effective to decrease the MCST

17. Flow instability tests for a particle bed reactor nuclear thermal rocket fuel element

Lawrence, Timothy J.

1993-05-01

Recent analyses have focused on the flow stability characteristics of a particle bed reactor (PBR). These laminar flow instabilities may exist in reactors with parallel paths and are caused by the heating of the gas at low Reynolds numbers. This phenomena can be described as follows: several parallel channels are connected at the plenum regions and are stabilized by some inlet temperature and pressure; a perturbation in one channel causes the temperature to rise and increases the gas viscosity and reduces the gas density; the pressure drop is fixed by the plenum regions, therefore, the mass flow rate in the channel would decrease; the decrease in flow reduces the ability to remove the energy added and the temperature increases; and finally, this process could continue until the fuel element fails. Several analyses based on different methods have derived similar curves to show that these instabilities may exist at low Reynolds numbers and high phi's ((Tfinal Tinitial)/Tinitial). These analyses need to be experimentally verified.

18. An estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty using UFM-based feedwater flow rate in nuclear power plants

Byung Ryul Jung; Ho Cheol Jang; Byung Jin Lee; Se Jin Baik; Woo Hyun Jang

2005-01-01

Most of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) utilize the venturi meters (VMs) to measure the feedwater (FW) flow rate to the steam generator in the calorimetric measurement, which is used in the reactor thermal power (RTP) estimation. However, measurement drifts have been experienced due to some anomalies on the venturi meter (generally called the venturi meter fouling). The VM's fouling tends to increase the measured pressure drop across the meter, which results in indication of increased feedwater flow rate. Finally, the reactor thermal power is overestimated and the actual reactor power is to be reduced to remain within the regulatory limits. To overcome this VM's fouling problem, the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM) has recently been gaining attention in the measurement of the feedwater flow rate. This paper presents the applicability of a UFM based feedwater flow rate in the estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty. The FW and RTP uncertainties are compared in terms of sensitivities between the VM- and UFM-based feedwater flow rates. Data from typical Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) plants are used to estimate the uncertainty. (authors)

19. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

Lee, C K; Whittemore, W L; Kim, B S; Lee, J B; Blevins, R D; Burton, T E [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); General Atomic Company, San Diego, CA (United States)

1976-07-01

The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

20. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

Lee, C.K.; Whittemore, W.L.; Kim, B.S.; Lee, J.B.; Blevins, R.D.; Burton, T.E.

1976-01-01

The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

1. Thermofluid experiments for Fusion Reactor Safety. Visualization of exchange flows through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA condition

Fujii, Sadao; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

1997-01-01

Exchange flow rates through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA (Loss of VAcuum event) conditions were measured quantitatively by using a preliminary LOVA apparatus and exchange flow patterns over the breach were visualized qualitatively by smoke. Velocity distributions in the exchange flows were predicted from the observed flow patterns by using the correlation method in the flow visualization procedures. Mean velocities calculated from the predicted velocity distributions at the outside of the breach were in good agreement with the LOVA experimental results when the exchange flow velocities were low. It was found that the present flow visualization and the image processing system might be an useful procedure to evaluate the exchange flow rates. (author)

2. Flow visualization study of two-phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe of a CANDU reactor

Savalaxs, S.-A.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R.

2005-01-01

In CANDU reactors, the feeder piping that is used to direct the high-temperature water coolant between the fuel channels and the steam generators is made of carbon steel. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeders. The first metre is particularity vulnerable because the piping there consists of single or double bends, which have relatively thin walls produced by the bending process. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow-accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream components was fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm diameter acrylic pipe with a 73 degree bend. This was connected to the upstream component with an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting. A test loop supplied room temperature water to the test section at flow rates up to 0.019 m3/s. Air could be injected into the water to give a mean volume fraction of up to 0.56. In this preliminary investigation, the size and velocity of air bubbles at different flow conditions and their distribution within the pipe bend were studied. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside of the bend, where a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code - Fluent 6.1-had failed to predict a liquid film in an earlier study. A high-speed digital video camera was used to determine the relation between bubble size and velocity. Such a relation should help to explain the discrepancy in the CFD modelling and provide the basis for accurate predictions of phase distribution in complex geometries at high flow rates. (authors)

3. Flow Reactors

The twelve principles of Green Chemistry presented by Anastas and Warner provide the philosophical basis and identify potential areas to increase the level of greenness in designing or implementing chemical reactions in the pharmaceutical industry. With these efforts in mind, the...

4. Numerical study on coolant flow distribution at the core inlet for an integral pressurized water reactor

Sun, Lin; Peng, Min Jun; Xia, Genglei; Lv, Xing; Li, Ren [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

2017-02-15

When an integral pressurized water reactor is operated under low power conditions, once-through steam generator group operation strategy is applied. However, group operation strategy will cause nonuniform coolant flow distribution at the core inlet and lower plenum. To help coolant flow mix more uniformly, a flow mixing chamber (FMC) has been designed. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to investigate the coolant distribution by the effect of FMC. Velocity and temperature characteristics under different low power conditions and optimized FMC configuration have been analyzed. The results illustrate that the FMC can help improve the nonuniform coolant temperature distribution at the core inlet effectively; at the same time, the FMC will induce more resistance in the downcomer and lower plenum.

5. Jet flow analysis of liquid poison injection in a CANDU reactor using source term

Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook

2001-01-01

For the performance analysis of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor shutdown system number 2 (SDS2), a computational fluid dynamics model of poison jet flow has been developed to estimate the flow field and poison concentration formed inside the CANDU reactor calandria. As the ratio of calandria shell radius over injection nozzle hole diameter is so large (1055), it is impractical to develop a full-size model encompassing the whole calandria shell. In order to reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of one-pitch length segment of the shell was modeled using symmetric nature of the jet; and the injected jet was treated as a source term to avoid the modeling difficulty caused by the big difference of the hole sizes. For the analysis of an actual CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection, the grid structure was determined based on the results of two-dimensional real- and source-jet simulations. The maximum injection velocity of the liquid poison is 27.8 m/s and the mass fraction of the poison is 8000 ppm (mg/kg). The simulation results have shown well-established jet flow field. In general, the jet develops narrowly at first but stretches rapidly. Then, the flow recirculates a little in r-x plane, while it recirculates largely in r-θ plane. As the time goes on, the adjacent jets contact each other and form a wavy front such that the whole jet develops in a plate form. his study has shown that the source term model can be effectively used for the analysis of the poison injection and the simulation result of the CANDU reactor is consistent with the model currently being used for the safety analysis. In the future, it is strongly recommended to analyze the transient (from helium tank to injection nozzle hole) of the poison injection by applying Bernoulli equation with real boundary conditions

6. Characteristics of a novel nanosecond DBD microplasma reactor for flow applications

Elkholy, A.; Nijdam, S.; van Veldhuizen, E.; Dam, N.; van Oijen, J.; Ebert, U.; de Goey, L. Philip H.

2018-05-01

We present a novel microplasma flow reactor using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by repetitive nanosecond high-voltage pulses. Our DBD-based geometry can generate a non-thermal plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure and below in a regular pattern of micro-channels. This reactor can work continuously up to about 100 min in air, depending on the pulse repetition rate and operating pressure. We here present the geometry and main characteristics of the reactor. Pulse energies of 1.46 and 1.3 μJ per channel at atmospheric pressure and 50 mbar, respectively, have been determined by time-resolved measurements of current and voltage. Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements have been performed to calculate the relative species concentrations and temperatures (vibrational and rotational) of the discharge. The effects of the operating pressure and flow velocity on the discharge intensity have been investigated. In addition, the effective reduced electric field strength {(E/N)}eff} has been obtained from the intensity ratio of vibronic emission bands of molecular nitrogen at different operating pressures and different locations. The derived {(E/N)}eff} increases gradually from about 550 to 4600 Td when decreasing the pressure from 1 bar to 100 mbar. Below 100 mbar, further pressure reduction results in a significant increase in {(E/N)}eff} up to about 10000 Td at 50 mbar.

7. Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor

Ahlberg, Erik; Falk, John; Eriksson, Axel; Holst, Thomas; Brune, William H.; Kristensson, Adam; Roldin, Pontus; Svenningsson, Birgitta

2017-07-01

The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared to a partitioning model constructed from single VOC experiments. The single VOC SOA mass yields with no wall-loss correction applied are comparable to previous experiments. In the mixtures containing myrcene a higher yield than expected was produced. We attribute this to an increased condensation sink, arising from myrcene producing a significantly higher number of nucleation particles compared to the other precursors. Isoprene did not produce much mass in single VOC experiments but contributed to the mass of the mixtures. The effect of high concentrations of isoprene on the OH exposure was found to be small, even at OH reactivities that previously have been reported to significantly suppress OH exposures in oxidation flow reactors. Furthermore, isoprene shifted the particle size distribution of mixtures towards larger sizes, which could be due to a change in oxidant dynamics inside the reactor.

8. Calculation of gas-flow in plasma reactor for carbon partial oxidation

Bespala, Evgeny; Myshkin, Vyacheslav; Novoselov, Ivan; Pavliuk, Alexander; Makarevich, Semen; Bespala, Yuliya

2018-03-01

The paper discusses isotopic effects at carbon oxidation in low temperature non-equilibrium plasma at constant magnetic field. There is described routine of experiment and defined optimal parameters ensuring maximum enrichment factor at given electrophysical, gas-dynamic, and thermodymanical parameters. It has been demonstrated that at high-frequency generator capacity of 4 kW, supply frequency of 27 MHz and field density of 44 mT the concentration of paramagnetic heavy nuclei 13C in gaseous phase increases up to 1.78 % compared to 1.11 % for natural concentration. Authors explain isotopic effect decrease during plasmachemical separation induced by mixing gas flows enriched in different isotopes at the lack of product quench. With the help of modeling the motion of gas flows inside the plasma-chemical reactor based on numerical calculation of Navier-Stokes equation authors determine zones of gas mixing and cooling speed. To increase isotopic effects and proportion of 13C in gaseous phase it has been proposed to use quench in the form of Laval nozzle of refractory steel. The article represents results on calculation of optimal Laval Nozzle parameters for plasma-chemical reactor of chosen geometry of. There are also given dependences of quench time of products on pressure at the diffuser output and on critical section diameter. Authors determine the location of quench inside the plasma-chemical reactor in the paper.

9. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

Josef Schachtner

2016-08-01

Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

10. Partial nitrification using aerobic granules in continuous-flow reactor: rapid startup.

Wan, Chunli; Sun, Supu; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Li; Yang, Xue; Pan, Xiangliang

2013-08-01

This study applied a novel strategy to rapid startup of partial nitrification in continuous-flow reactor using aerobic granules. Mature aerobic granules were first cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor at high chemical oxygen demand in 16 days. The strains including the Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain were enriched in cultivated granules to enhance their structural stability. Then the cultivated granules were incubated in a continuous-flow reactor with influent chemical oxygen deamnad being stepped decreased from 1,500 ± 100 (0-19 days) to 750 ± 50 (20-30 days), and then to 350 ± 50 mg l(-1) (31-50 days); while in the final stage 350 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was also supplied. Using this strategy the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was enriched in the incubated granules to achieve partial nitrification efficiency of 85-90% since 36 days and onwards. The partial nitrification granules were successfully harvested after 52 days, a period much shorter than those reported in literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. Finite element analysis of turbulent flow in fast reactor fuel subassembly elementary flow cell

Muehlbauer, P.

1987-03-01

The method is described of calculating fully developed longitudinal steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid through an infinite bundle of parallel smooth rods, based on the finite element method and one-equation turbulence model. Theoretical calculation results are compared with experimental results. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

12. Phenylboronic acid immunoaffinity reactor coupled with flow injection chemiluminescence for determination of {alpha}-fetoprotein

Wu Yafeng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Biomaterials and Biodevices, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhuang Yafeng [Department of Chemistry, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou 213022 (China); Liu Songqin [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Biomaterials and Biodevices, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: liusq@seu.edu.cn; He Lin [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8204 (United States)

2008-12-23

A reusable and sensitive immunoassay based on phenylboronic acid immunoaffinity reactor in combination with flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) for determination of glycoprotein was described. The reactor was fabricated by immobilizing 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) on glass microbeads with {gamma}-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS) as linkage. The {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) could be easily immobilized on the APBA coated beads through sugar-boronic interaction. After an off-line incubation, the mixture of the analyte AFP with horseradish peroxidase-labeled AFP antibody (HRP-anti-AFP) was injected into the reactor. This led the trapping of free HRP-anti-AFP by the surface coated AFP on glass beads. The trapped HRP-anti-AFP was detected by chemiluminescence due to its sensitizing effect on the reaction of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. Under optimal conditions, the chemiluminescent signal was proportional to AFP concentration in the range of 10-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The whole assay process including regeneration of the reactor could be completed within 31 min. The proposed system showed acceptable detection and fabrication reproducibility, and the results obtained with the present method were in acceptable agreement with those from parallel single-analyte test of practical clinical sera. The described method enabled a low-cost, time saving and was potential to detect the serum AFP level in clinical diagnosis.

13. Two-component HLMC-gas flow instability and inhomogeneity phenomena in open-pool reactor

Sergey I Shcherbakov

2005-01-01

Full text of publication follows: Consideration is being given to two-component gas-liquid flows with inhomogeneous gas content. The inhomogeneity of gas content over flow space can be caused by local mixing of gas and liquid, gas injection, gas-containing liquid jet penetration into the bulk of liquid without gas. The paper presents the computational results obtained using the direct non-stationary calculation with the TURBO-FLOW computer code. The results refer to flows near the liquid level, flows in downcomer gaps, collectors, elements with varying geometry (jet outlet into space, flow turn) for the pool-type reactors and experimental models. The following processes have been shown and discussed: formation of new liquid levels, entrainment of gas from the level, change in density composition of gas, flow stratification, effect of gas emergence rate and density convection on flow pattern. At gas phase transfer by liquid, two phenomena governing this transfer proceed: gas slip in liquid and density convection of non-uniformly aerated liquid. In horizontal flows, a vertical stratification of gas content always occurs. If the flow changes its direction to an upward one (collector at core inlet), the gas content maximum would be observed in channels nearest to the inlet. At the liquid level, the processes of gas separation from liquid and gas entrainment take place. The separation is a self-sustained process due to circulations arising near the level. The rate of gas entrainment is proportional to the rate of overflow and inversely proportional to the height of liquid level. At the downcomer region in case of its expansion, there occurs the instability of flow resulting in formation of liquid level and falling jet. The level is lower the more the gas content at inlet. The accumulation of gas occurs at sharp turns, encumbered regions (tube bundle), at all regions with upper (ceiling) constraints of flow. The flow instability being often observed in gas-liquid flows

14. Evaluation method for core thermohydraulics during natural circulation in fast reactors numerical predictions of inter-wrapper flow

Kamide, H.; Kimura, N.; Miyakoshi, H.; Nagasawa, K.

2001-01-01

Decay heat removal using natural circulation is one of the important functions for the safety of fast reactors. As a decay heat removal system, direct reactor auxiliary cooling system has been selected in current designs of fast reactors. In this design, dumped heat exchanger provides cold sodium and it covers the reactor core outlet. The cold sodium can penetrate into the gap region between the subassemblies. This gap flow is referred as inter-wrapper flow (IWF). A numerical estimation method for such natural circulation phenomena in a reactor core has been developed, which models each subassembly as a rectangular duct with gap region between the subassemblies and also the upper plenum in a reactor vessel. This numerical simulation method was verified based on experimental data of a sodium test using 7- subassembly core model and also a water test which simulates IWF using the 1/12 sector model of a reactor core. We applied the estimation method to the natural circulation in a 600 MW class fast reactor. The temperature in the core strongly depended on IWF, flow redistribution in the core, and inter-subassembly heat transfer. It is desired for prediction methods on the natural circulation to simulate these phenomena. (author)

15. Development of an ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement system for pressurized water reactors

James, R.W.; Lubnow, T.; Baumgart, G.; Ravetti, D.

1996-01-01

In U.S. nuclear plants, primary coolant flow and reactor thermal power are calculated from a measurement of feedwater flow to the steam generator combined with knowledge of steam generator heat transfer characteristics nd measurement of hot leg temperature by resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The calculation of plant thermal output is complicated by an indirect measurement of primary coolant mass flow rate and thermal streaming in the region where hot leg temperature is typically measured. Uncertainty in the thermal output calculation results from uncertainties in steam generator characteristics, in the hot leg temperature due to thermal streaming, and in fouling of venturi nozzles used for feedwater flow measurement. This in turn leads to operation of power plants ar lower levels of efficiency. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has on ongoing project to develop a prototype system to directly measure primary coolant flow rate and bulk average temperature using ultrasonic transducers externally mounted on the pipe. The topic of this paper is a summary of the project experience in developing this system. The technology being developed in this project is based in part upon previously existing ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement technology developed by MPR Associates and Caldon, Inc EPRI is a non-profit company performing research for U.S. and international electric power utilities. (authors)

16. Nitrite accumulation in continuous-flow partial autotrophic denitrification reactor using sulfide as electron donor.

Liu, Chunshuang; Li, Wenfei; Li, Xuechen; Zhao, Dongfeng; Ma, Bin; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Fang; Lee, Duu-Jong

2017-11-01

The nitrite accumulation in handling nitrate and sulfide-laden wastewater in a continuous-flow upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. At sulfide/nitrate-nitrogen ratio of 1:0.76 and loading rates of 1.2kg-Sm -3 d -1 and 0.4kg-Nm -3 d -1 , the elemental sulfur and nitrite accumulation rates peaked at 90% and 70%, respectively, with Acrobacter, Azoarcus and Thauera presenting the functional strains in the studied reactor. The accumulated nitrite was proposed a promising feedstock for anaerobic ammonia oxidation process. An integrated partial autotrophic denitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation-aeration process for handling the ammonia and sulfide-laden wastewaters is proposed for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Direct In Situ Quantification of HO2 from a Flow Reactor.

Brumfield, Brian; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang; Wysocki, Gerard

2013-03-21

The first direct in situ measurements of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) at atmospheric pressure from the exit of a laminar flow reactor have been carried out using mid-infrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy. HO2 was generated by oxidation of dimethyl ether, a potential renewable biofuel with a simple molecular structure but rich low-temperature oxidation chemistry. On the basis of the results of nonlinear fitting of the experimental data to a theoretical spectroscopic model, the technique offers an estimated sensitivity of reactor exit temperature range of 398-673 K. Accurate in situ measurement of this species will aid in quantitative modeling of low-temperature and high-pressure combustion kinetics.

18. Nonequilibrium chemical instabilities in continuous flow stirred tank reactors: The effect of stirring

Horsthemke, W.; Hannon, L.

1984-01-01

We present a stochastic model for stirred chemical reactors. In the limiting case of practical interest, i.e., fast stirring, we solve for the characteristic function in steady state and derive expressions for the stationary moments through a perturbation expansion. Moments are explicitly calculated for a generic model of bistable behavior. We find that stirring decreases the area of the bistable region essentially by changing the point of transition from the high reaction rate state to the low reaction rate state. This is in remarkable agreement with the experimental findings of Roux, et al. Our results indicate that stirring should not be considered simply as an ''enhanced diffusion'' process and that nucleation plays only a minor role in transitions between multiple steady states in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

19. Hydrodynamic modelling of flow patterns in a vortex reactor - Application to the mixing study

Zoppe, B.; Lebaigue, O.; Ducros, F.; Bertrand, M.

2008-01-01

In the fuel reprocessing industry, an un-baffled magnetic rod-stirred multiphase reactor was developed for a precipitation operation. The flow generated in such a reactor is complex and the rotating agitator at the bottom of tank creates a vortex on the liquid surface. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is developed based on a Large Eddy Scale (LES) approach for turbulence effect simulation. The numerical simulations are performed in 3-dimensions using the Trio-U code developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Cea). The vortex study is based on an interface tracking method and the rotating magnetic rod is taken into account through a free IBC immersed boundary. The hydrodynamic modelling is in good agreement with Nagata's theory and will be validated from experimental data obtained by laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements. (authors)

20. Package Flow Model and its fuzzy implementation for simulating nuclear reactor system dynamics

Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Misako.

1996-01-01

A simple intuitive simulation model, which we call 'Package Flow Model', has been developed to evaluate physical processes in nuclear reactor system from a macroscopic point of view. In the previous paper, we showed the physical process of each energy generation and transfer stage in a PWR could be modeled by PFM, and its dynamics could be approximately simulated by fuzzy implementation. In this paper, a PFMs network approach for a total PWR system simulation is proposed and some transients of nuclear ship 'MUTSU' reactor system are evaluated. The simulated results are consistent with those from Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System developed by JAERI. Furthermore, a visual representation method is proposed to intuitively capture the profile of fuel safety transient. Using the PFMs network, we can handily calculate the transient phenomena of the system even by a notebook-type personal computer. In addition, we can easily interpret the results of calculation surveying a small number of parameters. (author)

1. Reactor

Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

1978-01-01

Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

2. Reactor

Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

1979-01-01

Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

3. Bioremoval of trivalent chromium using Bacillus biofilms through continuous flow reactor

Sundar, K.; Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

2011-01-01

Highlights: ► Effective bioremoval of Cr(III) using bacterial biofilms. ► Simplified bioreactor was fabricated for the biofilm development and Cr(III) removal. ► Economically feasible substrate like coarse sand and pebbles were used. - Abstract: Present study deals with the applicability of bacterial biofilms for the bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A continuous flow reactor was designed for the development of biofilms on different substrates like glass beads, pebbles and coarse sand. The parameters for the continuous flow reactor were 20 ml/min flow rate at 30 °C, pH4. Biofilm biomass on the substrates was in the following sequence: coarse sand > pebbles > glass beads (4.8 × 10 7 , 4.5 × 10 7 and 3.5 × 10 5 CFU/cm 2 ), which was confirmed by CLSM. Biofilms developed using consortium of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on coarse sand had more surface area and was able to remove 98% of Cr(III), SEM-EDX proved 92.60% Cr(III) adsorption on biofilms supported by coarse sand. Utilization of Bacillus biofilms for effective bioremoval of Cr(III) from chrome tanning effluent could be a better option for tannery industry, especially during post chrome tanning operation.

4. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

2018-01-01

Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

5. Analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer inside calandria vessel of CANDU-6 reactor using CFD

Yu, Seon Oh; Kim, Man Woong; Kim, Hho Jung

2005-01-01

In a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor, fuel channel integrity depends on the coolability of the moderator as an ultimate heat sink under transient conditions such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with coincident Loss Of Emergency Core Cooling (LOECC). as well as normal operating conditions. This study presents assessments of moderator thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the normal operating conditions and one transient condition for CANDU-6 reactors, using a general purpose three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code. First, an optimized calculation scheme is obtained by many-sided comparisons of the predicted results with the related experimental data, and by evaluating the fluid flow and temperature distributions. Then, using the optimized scheme, analyses of real CANDU-6 in normal operating conditions and the transition condition have been performed. The present model successfully predicted the experimental results and also reasonably assessed the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a real CANDU-6 with 380 fuel channels. A flow regime map with major parameters representing the flow pattern inside a calandria vessel has also proposed to be used as operational and/or regulatory guidelines

6. Bioremoval of trivalent chromium using Bacillus biofilms through continuous flow reactor

Sundar, K.; Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Mukherjee, Amitava [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India); Chandrasekaran, N., E-mail: nchandrasekaran@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India)

2011-11-30

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective bioremoval of Cr(III) using bacterial biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simplified bioreactor was fabricated for the biofilm development and Cr(III) removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economically feasible substrate like coarse sand and pebbles were used. - Abstract: Present study deals with the applicability of bacterial biofilms for the bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A continuous flow reactor was designed for the development of biofilms on different substrates like glass beads, pebbles and coarse sand. The parameters for the continuous flow reactor were 20 ml/min flow rate at 30 Degree-Sign C, pH4. Biofilm biomass on the substrates was in the following sequence: coarse sand > pebbles > glass beads (4.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}, 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} and 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} CFU/cm{sup 2}), which was confirmed by CLSM. Biofilms developed using consortium of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on coarse sand had more surface area and was able to remove 98% of Cr(III), SEM-EDX proved 92.60% Cr(III) adsorption on biofilms supported by coarse sand. Utilization of Bacillus biofilms for effective bioremoval of Cr(III) from chrome tanning effluent could be a better option for tannery industry, especially during post chrome tanning operation.

7. UV reactor flow visualization and mixing quantification using three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence.

Gandhi, Varun; Roberts, Philip J W; Stoesser, Thorsten; Wright, Harold; Kim, Jae-Hong

2011-07-01

Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF) was applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze mixing in a lab-scale UV reactor consisting of one lamp sleeve placed perpendicular to flow. The recirculation zone and the von Karman vortex shedding that commonly occur in flows around bluff bodies were successfully visualized. Multiple flow paths were analyzed by injecting the dye at various heights with respect to the lamp sleeve. A major difference in these pathways was the amount of dye that traveled close to the sleeve, i.e., a zone of higher residence time and higher UV exposure. Paths away from the center height had higher velocities and hence minimal influence by the presence of sleeve. Approach length was also characterized in order to increase the probability of microbes entering the region around the UV lamp. The 3DLIF technique developed in this study is expected to provide new insight on UV dose delivery useful for the design and optimization of UV reactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

8. On natural circulation in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors and pebble bed reactors for different flow regimes and various coolant gases

Melesed'Hospital, G.

1983-01-01

The use of CO 2 or N 2 (heavy gas) instead of helium during natural circulation leads to improved performance in both High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and in Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). For instance, the coolant temperature rise corresponding to a coolant pressure level and a rate of afterheat removal could be only 18% with CO 2 as compared to He, for laminar flow in HTGR; this value would be 40% in PBR. There is less difference between HTGR and PBR for turbulent flows; CO 2 is found to be always better than N 2 . These types of results derived from relationships between coolant properties, coolant flow, temperature rise, pressure, afterheat levels and core geometry, are obtained for HTGR and PBR for various flow regimes, both within the core and in the primary loop

9. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing

Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes

2010-01-01

A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm 2 , matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ∼5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s −1 (15.3 s cycle −1 ) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s −1 (46.2 s cycle −1 ) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

11. Effect of coolant flow rate on the power at onset of nucleate boiling in a swimming pool type research reactor

1998-01-01

The effect of flow rate of coolant on power of Onset Nucleate Boiling (ONB) in a reference core of a swimming pool type research reactor has been studied using a as standard computer code PARET. It has been found that the decrease in the coolant flow rate results in a corresponding decrease in power at ONB. (author)

12. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of...

2010-02-24

... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0047] Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of Accidental Radionuclide Releases; Solicitation of Public... ground water flow and transport of accidental radionuclide releases necessary to demonstrate compliance...

13. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

2013-05-17

Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

14. Computational and Experimental Investigations of the Coolant Flow in the Cassette Fissile Core of a KLT-40S Reactor

Dmitriev, S. M.; Varentsov, A. V.; Dobrov, A. A.; Doronkov, D. V.; Pronin, A. N.; Sorokin, V. D.; Khrobostov, A. E.

2017-07-01

Results of experimental investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of a coolant flowing through the cells in the characteristic zones of a fuel assembly of a KLT-40S reactor plant downstream of a plate-type spacer grid by the method of diffusion of a gas tracer in the coolant flow with measurement of its velocity by a five-channel pneumometric probe are presented. An analysis of the concentration distribution of the tracer in the coolant flow downstream of a plate-type spacer grid in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant and its velocity field made it possible to obtain a detailed pattern of this flow and to determine its main mechanisms and features. Results of measurement of the hydraulic-resistance coefficient of a plate-type spacer grid depending on the Reynolds number are presented. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, recommendations for improvement of the method of calculating the flow rate of a coolant in the cells of the fissile core of a KLT-40S reactor were developed. The results of investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of the coolant flow in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant were accepted for estimating the thermal and technical reliability of the fissile cores of KLT-40S reactors and were included in the database for verification of computational hydrodynamics programs (CFD codes).

15. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

2015-02-17

reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

16. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

Kawaji, Masahiro [City College of New York, NY (United States); Valentin, Francisco I. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Artoun, Narbeh [City College of New York, NY (United States); Banerjee, Sanjoy [City College of New York, NY (United States); Sohal, Manohar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McEligot, Donald M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2015-12-21

The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

17. Ultrasonic density detector for vessel and reactor core two-phase flow measurements

Arave, A.E.

1979-01-01

A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia

18. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

Kawaji, Masahiro; Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Sohal, Manohar; Schultz, Richard; McEligot, Donald M.

2015-01-01

The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

2002-02-01

This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

20. Flow patterns in a slurry-bubble-column reactor under reaction conditions

Toselane, B.A.; Brown, D.M.; Zou, B.S.; Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

The gas and liquid radioactive tracer response curves obtained in an industrial bubble column reactor of height to diameter ratio of 10 are analyzed and the suitability of the axial dispersion model for interpretation of the results is discussed. The relationship between the tracer concentration distribution and measured detector response of the soluble gas tracer (Ar-41) is possibly dominated by the dissolved gas. The one dimensional axial dispersion model cannot match all the experimental observations well and the flow pattern of the undissolved gas cannot be determined with certainty.